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Sample records for acute histologic chorioamnionitis

  1. Acute Histologic Chorioamnionitis Is a Risk Factor for Adverse Neonatal Outcome in Late Preterm Birth after Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. Methodology/Principal Findings The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005) than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. Conclusions/Significance The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM. PMID:24324586

  2. Term histologic chorioamnionitis: a heterogeneous condition.

    PubMed

    Conti, Nathalie; Torricelli, Michela; Voltolini, Chiara; Vannuccini, Silvia; Clifton, Vicky L; Bloise, Enrico; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-05-01

    A histologic response of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is defined as an intrauterine inflammatory condition characterized by acute granulocyte infiltration into the fetal-maternal or the fetal tissues. Prevalence of HCA is inversely correlated with gestational age, occurring in 50% of preterm birth and in up to 20% of deliveries at term. Regardless of these standard definitions, understanding HCA is challenging as it reflects a heterogeneous condition. A histologic response of HCA from term placentas often does not correspond to a clinical presentation; in this context, the present review aims to analyze main characteristics of this condition, in particular focusing on mechanisms and birth outcomes. PMID:25770845

  3. Histologic chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Holzman, Claudia; Lin, Ximin; Senagore, Patricia; Chung, Hwan

    2007-10-01

    Inconsistent findings linking placental histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) and preterm delivery may result from variations in HCA definition, population studied, and exclusion criteria. This analysis from the 1998-2004 Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (five Michigan communities) includes the first 1,053 subcohort women (239 preterm, 814 term) with completed placental assessments. Multiple HCA definitions were constructed by 1) varying polymorphonuclear leukocytes/high-powered field thresholds and placenta components included and 2) using polymorphonuclear leukocyte characteristics to assign low/high maternal, fetal inflammation stage and grade. In African Americans, HCA was associated with preterm delivery before 35 weeks. The effect size was modest for polymorphonuclear leukocytes/high-powered field thresholds of greater than 10 and greater than 30 (odds ratios (ORs) = 0.8 and 2.0); larger for greater than 100 (OR = 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 7.1); strengthened after excluding medically indicated preterm deliveries (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 2.0, 11.8); and strongest for high maternal/high fetal HCA (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1). These latter HCA criteria also produced the largest effect size in Whites/others (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.3, 26.9). Among preterm deliveries before 35 weeks excluding those medically indicated, 12% of Whites/others and 55% of African Americans had high maternal HCA. The authors conclude that HCA definition, exclusion criteria, and race/ethnicity influence the HCA-preterm delivery association and that HCA contributes to preterm delivery-related ethnic disparity. PMID:17625222

  4. Acute Chorioamnionitis and Funisitis: Definition, Pathologic Features, and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-01-01

    Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis, and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intra-amniotic infection has been generally considered to be the cause of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that “sterile” intra-amniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms but can be induced by “danger signals”, is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intra-amniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient favoring the migration of neutrophils from maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and is present in 3-5% of placentas delivered at term, but in 94% of placentas delivered between 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks for the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in fetal plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multi-organ fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults

  5. Polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes and the risk of histologic chorioamnionitis in Caucasoid women: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Annells, Margaret F; Hart, Prue H; Mullighan, Charles G; Heatley, Susan L; Robinson, Jeffrey S; McDonald, Helen M

    2005-01-01

    Background Chorioamnionitis is a common underlying cause of preterm birth (PTB). It is hypothesised that polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes influence the host response to infection and subsequent preterm birth. The relationship between histologic chorioamnionitis and 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 immunoregulatory genes was examined in a case-control study. Methods Placentas of 181 Caucasoid women with spontaneous PTB prior to 35 weeks were examined for histologic chorioamnionitis. Polymorphisms in genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL4, IL6, IL10, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), Fas (TNFRSF6), and mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific primers. Multivariable logistic regression including demographic and genetic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses of genotype frequencies and pregnancy outcome were performed. Results Sixty-nine (34%) women had histologic evidence of acute chorioamnionitis. Carriage of the IL10-1082A/-819T/592A (ATA) haplotype [Multivariable Odds ratio (MOR) 1.9, P = 0.05] and MBL2 codon 54Asp allele (MOR 2.0, P = 0.04), were positively associated with chorioamnionitis, while the TNFRSF6-1377A/-670G (AG) haplotype (MOR 0.4, P = 0.03) and homozygosity for TGFB1-800G/509T (GT) haplotype (MOR 0.2, P = 0.04) were negatively associated. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes IL10, MBL2, TNFRSF6 and TGFB1 may influence susceptibility to chorioamnionitis. PMID:15723707

  6. Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: definition, pathologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-10-01

    Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intraamniotic infection generally has been considered to be the cause of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms induced by "danger signals," is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intraamniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient that favors the migration of neutrophils from the maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals that are released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and present in 3-5% of term placentas and in 94% of placentas delivered at 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in the fetal plasma concentration of interleukin-6, and associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multiorgan fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults: a risk factor for short- and long

  7. Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: definition, pathologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-10-01

    Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intraamniotic infection generally has been considered to be the cause of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms induced by "danger signals," is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intraamniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient that favors the migration of neutrophils from the maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals that are released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and present in 3-5% of term placentas and in 94% of placentas delivered at 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in the fetal plasma concentration of interleukin-6, and associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multiorgan fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults: a risk factor for short- and long

  8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of microorganisms in acute chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, D; Kikhney, J; Masseck, J; Rojas Mencias, P D; Schulze, J; Petrich, A; Thomas, A; Henrich, W; Moter, A

    2014-09-01

    The relevance of microorganisms in preterm birth is still under discussion. Using a diagnostic fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel, we visualized Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mitis group in two cases of acute chorioamnionitis. This technique provides spatial resolution and quantity of bacteria, clarifying the epidemiology and pathogenic pathways of acute chorioamnionitis.

  9. AMNIOTIC FLUID HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 CONCENTRATION IN HISTOLOGIC CHORIOAMNIONITIS, TERM AND PRETERM PARTURITION

    PubMed Central

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mittal, Pooja; Kim, Yeon Mee; Camacho, Natalia; Edwin, Samuel; Gomez, Ricardo; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Objective Heat shock protein (HSP) 70, a conserved member of the stress protein family, is produced in almost all cell types in response to a wide range of stressful stimuli and their production has a survival value. Evidence suggests that extra-cellular HSP70 is involved in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune response. Furthermore, increased mRNA expression of HSP 70 was observed in human fetal membranes following endotoxin stimulation. This study was conducted to determine the changes in amniotic fluid HSP70 concentrations during pregnancy, term and preterm parturition, intra-amniotic infection (IAI), and histologic chorioamnionitis. Study design A cross-sectional study was conducted in 376 pregnant women in the following groups: 1) women with a normal pregnancy that were classified in the following categories: a) women in the mid-trimester (14–18 weeks) who underwent amniocentesis for genetic indications and delivered normal infants at term (n=72); b) women at term not in labor (n=23); and c) those at term in labor (n=48); 2) women with spontaneous preterm labor and intact membranes that were subdivided into the following categories: a) preterm labor who delivered at term without IAI (n=42), b) preterm labor who delivered preterm without IAI (n=57), and c) preterm labor and delivery with IAI (n=30); and 3) women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) with (n=50) and without (n=54) IAI. Among patients with preterm labor with intact membranes and preterm PROM who delivered within 72 hours of amniocentesis, placenta, umbilical cord and chorioamniotic membranes were collected and assessed for the presence or absence of acute inflammatory lesions in the extra-placental membranes (histologic chorioamnionitis) and/or umbilical cords (funisitis). HSP70 concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined using a sensitive and specific immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically

  10. Protective Ventilation of Preterm Lambs Exposed to Acute Chorioamnionitis Does Not Reduce Ventilation-Induced Lung or Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Samantha K.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Crossley, Kelly J.; Gill, Andrew W.; Kluckow, Martin; Zahra, Valerie; Wong, Flora Y.; Pichler, Gerhard; Galinsky, Robert; Miller, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response. Methods Pregnant ewes (n = 18) received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6), or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5) or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7) for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury. Results LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02) and cell death (p<0.05) in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups. Conclusions Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor

  11. Amniotic fluid sludge as a marker of intra-amniotic infection and histological chorioamnionitis in cervical insufficiency: a report of four cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Paules, Cristina; Moreno, Esther; Gonzales, Ariel; Fabre, Ernesto; González de Agüero, Rafael; Oros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid sludge (AFS) is defined as the presence of particulate matter in the amniotic fluid in close proximity to the cervix. Although its prevalence is known to correlate with the risk of preterm delivery, initial reports describe a strong association between AFS and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis. However, AFS is also present in uncomplicated pregnancies, and its prevalence appears to increase with gestational age. Recent evidence debates the usefulness of AFS as a marker of early preterm delivery risk. We present four cases with AFS diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at admission for cervical insufficiency between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation, with confirmed lower genital tract and intra-amniotic infections by amniocentesis and histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Our findings reinforce the presence of AFS as a useful marker of MIAC, chorioamnionitis and funisitis that increase the likelihood of preterm delivery at an extreme gestational age.

  12. Relationship between histologic chorioamnionitis and early inflammatory variables in blood, tracheal aspirates, and endotracheal colonization in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    De Dooy, Jozef; Colpaert, Cecile; Schuerwegh, Annemie; Bridts, Chris; Van Der Planken, Marc; Ieven, Margaretha; De Clerck, Luc; Stevens, Wim; Mahieu, Ludo

    2003-07-01

    Histologic results of the placenta are usually not available within the first days of life. We identified inflammatory variables in tracheal aspirates and blood that were associated with histologic chorioamnionitis (HC). A derivation cohort consisted of 62 neonates and a validation cohort of 57 neonates with a gestational age < 31 wk and ventilated on d 1. Tracheal aspirates were taken on d 1 and on d 3, if the patient was still ventilated. HC was diagnosed by light microscopy. Logistic regression was used to identify independent factors in the derivation cohort associated with HC at d 1, 2, and 3. Model performance was studied using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Independent factors associated with HC were, at d 1, tracheal aspirate IL-8 >or= 917 pg/mL (odds ratio, 60.7; 95% confidence interval, 11-328); at d 2, blood C-reactive protein >or= 14 mg/L (odds ratio, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 2-38), blood white blood cell count >or= 10400/mm3 (odds ratio, 7.4; 95% confidence interval, 2-28); and at d 3, blood neutrophil count >or= 4968/mm3 (odds ratio, 14; 95% confidence interval, 3-57). The association with HC was less at d 3 (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.77) when compared with the d 1 model (area under the curve, 0.88; p = 0.09). The models performed equally well in the validation cohort (goodness-of-fit test, p > 0.05). We conclude that the d 1 and d 2 models can be used as diagnostic factors for HC. Tracheal aspirate IL-8 taken immediately after birth was equally accurate in the diagnosis of HC as systemic inflammatory response at d 2 and better than on d 3.

  13. Effects of Chorioamnionitis on the Fetal Lung

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Alan

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Very preterm infants are commonly exposed to a chronic, often asymptomatic chorioamnionitis that is diagnosed only after delivery by histologic evaluation of the placenta. The reported effects of these exposures on fetal lungs are inconsistent because exposure to different organisms, durations of exposure, and fetal/maternal responses impact outcomes. In experimental models, chorioamnionitis can both injure and mature the fetal lung and cause immune nodulation. Postnatal care strategies also change how chorioamnionitis relates to clinical outcomes such as BPD. PMID:22954262

  14. Preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes have a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute histologoic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis: Patho-physiologic implication related to different clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether histo-topographic findings about the involved compartments (i.e., choriodecidua, amnion, chorionic-plate) of acute-histologic chorioamnionitis (acute-HCA) and/or funisitis according to the presence or absence of intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) are different between preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). The involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis were examined in 161 singleton preterm-births (<34 weeks) due to PTL (n = 88) and preterm-PROM (n = 73). The study-population was divided into IAI(-)/FIRS(-), IAI(+)/FIRS(-), and IAI(+)/FIRS(+) groups according to the presence or absence of IAI (amniotic-fluid MMP-8 ≥ 23 ng/ml) and/or FIRS (umbilical-cord plasma CRP ≥ 200 ng/ml). Histological inflammation was not detected in any-compartment except choriodecidua in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with PTL while inflammation appeared in all-compartment0s (choriodeciduitis-46.2 %; amnionitis-23.1 %; funisitis-30.8 %; chorionic-plate inflammation-7.7 %) in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with preterm-PROM. IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group had a significantly higher frequency of inflammation in each-compartment than IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group in PTL (each-for P < 0.01), but not preterm-PROM (each-for P > 0.1). However, IAI(+)/FIRS(+) group had a significantly higher rate of inflammation in each compartment than IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group in both PTL and preterm-PROM (each-for P < 0.05). We first demonstrated that PTL and preterm-PROM had a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis in the IAI(-)/FIRS(--) group and in the change of involved compartments from IAI(-)/FIRS(-) to IAI(+)/FIRS(-).

  15. Chorioamnionitis and Early Childhood Outcomes among Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Athina; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Laptook, Abbott R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Das, Abhik; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Chorioamnionitis is strongly linked to preterm birth and to neonatal infection. The association between histological and clinical chorioamnionitis and cognitive, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely preterm neonates is less clear. We evaluated the impact of chorioamnionitis on 18-22 month neurodevelopmental outcomes in a contemporary cohort of extremely preterm neonates. Objective To compare the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of three groups of extremely-low-gestational-age infants with increasing exposure to perinatal inflammation: no chorioamnionitis, histological chorioamnionitis alone, or histological plus clinical chorioamnionitis. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Participants 2390 extremely preterm infants born <27 weeks' gestational age between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 with placental histopathology and 18-22 months' corrected age follow-up data were eligible. Main exposure Chorioamnionitis Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, behavioral scores (according to the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment), cognitive and language scores (according to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd-Edition) and composite measures of death/neurodevelopmental impairment. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were developed to assess the association between chorioamnionitis and outcomes while controlling for important variables known at birth. Results Neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis had a lower gestational age (GA) and had higher rates of early-onset sepsis and severe periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage as compared with unexposed neonates. In multivariable models evaluating death and neurodevelopmental outcomes, inclusion of gestational age in the model diminished the association

  16. Association of Chorioamnionitis with Aberrant Neonatal Gut Colonization and Adverse Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Schibler, Kurt R.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the placenta and fetal membranes) and abnormal gastrointestinal colonization have been associated with an increased risk of sepsis and death in preterm infants, but whether chorioamnionitis causes abnormal pioneering gastrointestinal colonization in infants is not known. We determined the relationship between chorioamnionitis, altered infant fecal microbiome indicating abnormal gastrointestinal colonization, and adverse outcomes. Study Design Preterm infants ≤ 28 weeks at birth were enrolled from 3 level III NICUs in Cincinnati, Ohio and Birmingham, Alabama. Sequencing for 16S microbial gene was performed on stool samples in the first 3 weeks of life. Chorioamnionitis was diagnosed by placental histology. Late onset sepsis and death outcomes were analyzed in relation to fecal microbiota and chorioamnionitis with or without funisitis (inflammation of the umbilical cord). Results Of the 106 enrolled infants, 48 infants had no chorioamnionitis, 32 infants had chorioamnionitis but no funisitis (AC), and 26 infants had chorioamnionitis with funisitis (ACF). The fecal samples from ACF infants collected by day of life 7 had higher relative abundance of family Mycoplasmataceae (phylum Tenericutes), genus Prevotella (phylum Bacteroidetes) and genus Sneathia (phylum Fusobacteria). Further, AC and ACF infants had higher incidence of late-onset sepsis/death as a combined outcome. Presence of specific clades in fecal samples, specifically, order Fusobacteria, genus Sneathia or family Mycoplasmataceae, were significantly associated with higher risk of sepsis or death. Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that specific alterations in the pioneering infant gastrointestinal microbiota induced by chorioamnionitis predispose to neonatal sepsis or death. PMID:27658190

  17. Chorioamnionitis and Culture-Confirmed Early-onset Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wortham, Jonathan M.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Hale, Ellen; Van Meurs, Krisa; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Cantey, Joseph B.; Faix, Roger; Poindexter, Brenda; Goldberg, Ronald; Bizzarro, Matthew; Frantz, Ivan; Das, Abhik; Benitz, William E.; Shane, Andi L.; Higgins, Rosemary; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcal (GBS) disease recommend diagnostic evaluations and empiric antibiotic therapy for well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Some clinicians question these recommendations, citing the decline in early-onset GBS disease rates since widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) implementation and potential antibiotic risks. We aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns with culture-confirmed early-onset infections can be asymptomatic at birth. Methods Multicenter, prospective surveillance for early-onset neonatal infections was conducted 2006–2009. Early-onset infection was defined as isolation of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid collected ≤72 hours after birth. Maternal chorioamnionitis was defined by clinical diagnosis in the medical record or histologic diagnosis by placental pathology. Hospital records of newborns with early-onset infections born to mothers with chorioamnionitis were reviewed retrospectively to determine symptom onset. Results Early-onset infections were diagnosed in 389 of 396,586 live births, including 232 (60%) chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Records for 229 were reviewed; 29 (13%) had no documented symptoms within 6 hours of birth, including 21 (9%) who remained asymptomatic at 72 hours. IAP exposure did not differ significantly between asymptomatic and symptomatic infants (76% vs. 69%, p=0.52). Assuming complete guideline implementation, we estimated 60 to 1400 newborns would receive diagnostic evaluations and antibiotics for each infected, asymptomatic newborn, depending on chorioamnionitis prevalence. Conclusions Some infants born to mothers with chorioamnionitis may have no signs of sepsis at birth despite having culture-confirmed infections. Implementation of current clinical guidelines may result in early diagnosis, but large numbers of uninfected asymptomatic infants would be treated. PMID:26719293

  18. Chorioamnionitis and Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Won; Choi, Yong-Sung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Chorioamnionitis has recently been reported as a risk factor for various neonatal diseases, including cerebral palsy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, but its effect on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of chorioamnionitis on PDA. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases using the terms: “intrauterine infection” or “maternal infection” or “antenatal infection” or “chorioamnionitis” or “placenta inflammation” or “placenta pathology” or “neonatal outcome” or “neonatal morbidity” or “PDA or patent ductus arteriosus” or “ductus arteriosus,” and “prematurity” or “very low birth weight infant.” Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, or cohort studies that included information relating to chorioamnionitis and PDA. Results Among 1,571 studies, a total of 23 studies (17,708 cases) were included in the meta-analysis to analyze the relationship between chorioamnionitis and PDA, except one study that only included PDA requiring surgical ligation. The association between chorioamnionitis and PDA was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19, 1.72; P < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, clinical chorioamnionitis was not associated with PDA (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00, 1.64, 1.790; P = 0.05), whereas histologic chorioamnionitis (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.10, 2.15; P = 0.01) and chorioamnionitis diagnosed from both clinical and histologic findings (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.07, 2.86; P = 0.03) showed significant associations with PDA. Chorioamnionitis did not increase the risk of PDA requiring surgical ligation (OR 1.23; 95% CI 0.69, 2.17; P = 0.48), and antenatal steroid use reduced the risk of PDA (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) after chorioamnionitis. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support

  19. Chorioamnionitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus with intact membranes in a term pregnancy: A case of maternal and fetal septic shock.

    PubMed

    Sorano, Sumire; Goto, Maki; Matsuoka, Sakiko; Tohyama, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Nakamura, Sumie; Fukami, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Ryoei; Tsujioka, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Fuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Chorioamnionitis is usually caused by migration of cervicovaginal flora through the cervical canal in women with ruptured membranes. Common causative pathogens are genital mycoplasmas, anaerobes, enteric gram-negative bacilli, and group B streptococcus. There have been only seven previous reports of chorioamnionitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical courses are characterized by rapid disease progression and poor prognosis. This case report describes a case of acute chorioamnionitis due to S. aureus, which was successfully managed with immediate cesarean section and postoperative intensive care. A 22-year-old woman presented at 39 weeks' gestation with a fever and acute lower abdominal pain. Fetal heart monitoring showed fetal distress. Immediate cesarean delivery was performed under general anesthesia. A male infant weighing 2450 g was born. He had Apgar scores of 3 and 7 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. He was immediately intubated and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Maternal blood culture, vaginal culture, neonatal nares, and blood and gastric fluid culture all showed methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Histopathology of the placenta demonstrated focal acute funisitis and acute chorioamnionitis. Interestingly, most of the patients in the previous reports developed chorioamnionitis due to S. aureus despite the presence of intact membranes, as in our case. Bacterial spread in the absence of membrane rupture and the presence of bacteremia suggests hematogenous, rather than ascending, etiology of S. aureus chorioamnionitis. PMID:26705749

  20. The frequency, clinical significance, and pathological features of chronic chorioamnionitis: a lesion associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Yoo, Wonsuk; Dong, Zhong; Topping, Vanessa; Gotsch, Francesca; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Chi, Je Geun; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2010-07-01

    Acute chorioamnionitis is a well-established lesion of the placenta in cases with intra-amniotic infection. In contrast, the clinicopathological significance of chronic chorioamnionitis is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and severity of chronic chorioamnionitis in normal pregnancy and in various pregnancy complications. Placentas from the following patient groups were studied: (1) term not in labor (n=100), (2) term in labor (n=100), (3) preterm labor (n=100), (4) preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (n=100), (5) preeclampsia at term (n=100), (6) preterm preeclampsia (n=100), and (7) small-for-gestational-age at term (n=100). Amniotic fluid CXCL10 concentration was measured in 64 patients. CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 mRNA expressions in the chorioamniotic membranes were assessed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The frequency of chronic chorioamnionitis in the preterm labor group and the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes group was 34 and 39%, respectively, which was higher than that of normal-term placentas (term not in labor, 19%; term in labor, 8%; P<0.05 each). The frequency of chronic chorioamnionitis in the preeclampsia at term group, preterm preeclampsia group, and small-for-gestational-age group was 23, 16, and 13%, respectively. Concomitant villitis of unknown etiology was found in 38 and 36% of preterm labor cases and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes cases with chronic chorioamnionitis, respectively. Interestingly, the median gestational age of preterm chronic chorioamnionitis cases was higher than that of acute chorioamnionitis cases (P<0.05). The median amniotic fluid CXCL10 concentration was higher in cases with chronic chorioamnionitis than in those without, in both the preterm labor group and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 mRNA expression in the chorioamniotic membranes was also higher in cases with chronic

  1. Leptotrichia Buccalis: A Novel Cause of Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela C.; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K.; Plongla, Rongpong; Boggess, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-amniotic Leptotrichia buccalis has not been previously associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. We report a case of chorioamnionitis and pregnancy loss associated with this primarily oral commensal. We review Leptotrichia buccalis and other oral commensals that have been identified in cases of intraamniotic infection. PMID:26294950

  2. Postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute respiratory failure - demographics, etiologic and pulmonary histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Capelozzi, Vera L; Serrano, Carlos V

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is present in 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and is responsible for 20% to 30% of the fatal post-acute myocardial infarction. The role of inflammation associated with pulmonary edema as a cause of acute respiratory failure post-acute myocardial infarction remains to be determined. We aimed to describe the demographics, etiologic data and histological pulmonary findings obtained through autopsies of patients who died during the period from 1990 to 2008 due to acute respiratory failure with no diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction during life. METHODS: This study considers 4,223 autopsies of patients who died of acute respiratory failure that was not preceded by any particular diagnosis while they were alive. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was given in 218 (4.63%) patients. The age, sex and major associated diseases were recorded for each patient. Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as follows: diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction associated with specific histopathology was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 147 men were included in the study. The mean age at the time of death was 64 years. Pulmonary histopathology revealed pulmonary edema as well as the presence of diffuse alveolar damage in 72.9% of patients. Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 11.9% of patients, systemic arterial hypertension in 10.1% and dilated cardiomyopathy in 6.9%. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between acute myocardial infarction with diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that in autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure as the cause of death, 5% were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Pulmonary histology revealed a significant inflammatory response, which has

  3. A serial histologic study of the development and progression of acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, S. S.; Watt, I. A.; Donaldson, L. A.; Crocket, A.; Joffe, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of a serial investigation of the development and progression of the light-microscopic changes of acute pancreatitis and histologic criteria for evaluating pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, similar to that found in man, was induced in rats with the use of a closed duodenal loop technique (n = 36). Control rats underwent a laparotomy with mobilization of the duodenum (n = 12). Animals were killed every 2 hours for 24 hours, and a detailed and independent histologic evaluation was made of each. Focal acinar necrosis proceeding to a vasculitis appeared within 2--4 hours before the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Thereafter, the extent of acinar necrosis closely reflected the vasculitis with the later development of the acute inflammation. By the sixteenth hour, these changes were graded as moderate pancreatitis, and by 24 hours the process represented severe hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Vascular changes and acinar necrosis preceded the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The pancreatitis has been quantitated into minimal, moderate, or severe by assessing the severity of edema, acute inflammatory infiltrate, and changes in the vessels, ducts, and acini. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7223862

  4. Histological alterations in gills of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; dos Santos, Jorge Abdala Dergam

    2012-11-01

    Increasing contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals has caused various morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and the gills of fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. In this context, the present work proposed to study the effects of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the histology of gills of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus) after acute exposure. Seventy-two adult males of A. aff. bimaculatus were used, the treatments were six concentrations of Zn: 0; 3; 5; 10; 15; and 20 mg/L of water, by 96 h, and gills, muscle and bone fragments were removed. Fragments of gills were fixed and included, sectioned in a rotary microtome and stained with toluidin blue. Fragments of bone, muscle and gills were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption of Zn. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) 96 h after Zn acute exposure was 10 mg/L of water. Noteworthy, Zn was highly toxic in acute exposure trials starting at the concentration 5 mg/L. The exposure of fish to the metal caused branchial histopathological changes correlated with increasing concentration, caused the death of fish at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg/L. The histological alterations observed in the gills were hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, aneurysm, destruction of the lamellar epithelium, rupture of membrane, deletion of secondary lamellar high, which presented more severity in treatments exposed to the highest concentrations. In conclusion, gills of A. aff. bimaculatus presented profound histological alterations as a result of Zn exposure, and hence, proved to be excellent indicators of environmental contamination.

  5. Biomechanics and histology of bovine claw suspensory tissue in early acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Danscher, A M; Toelboell, T H; Wattle, O

    2010-01-01

    Weakening of the suspensory tissue supporting the pedal bone is the central issue in the theory of acute bovine laminitis, but this aspect has never been tested. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of laminitis on the suspensory tissue. The hypothesis was that clinical and histological signs of acute laminitis are associated with decreased strength of the suspensory tissue of the bovine claw. Nonpregnant dairy heifers (n=10) received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg of body weight) and were killed 24 (n=4) and 72h (n=6) after overload. Control heifers (n=6) received tap water and were killed at 72 or 96h. Clinical, orthopedic, and histological examinations were carried out to confirm the occurrence of laminitis. After euthanasia, 2 adjacent tissue samples including the horn wall, lamellar layer, dermis, and pedal bone were cut from the dorso-abaxial aspect of each claw. Tissue samples were kept on ice until mounted on a mechanical testing frame, fixed by horn and bone, and loaded to failure. A stress displacement curve was generated and measurements of physiological support (force needed to displace 1mm beyond first resistance) and maximal support (force needed to break the tissue) were recorded. Heifers treated with oligofructose developed clinical signs consistent with ruminal and systemic acidosis after treatment as well as acute laminitis, characterized by weight shifting (35% of observations vs. 6% in controls), moderate lameness (100 vs. 17%, score of 3 out of 5 at 72h), and reaction to hoof testing (30 and 50% at 48 and 72h, respectively, vs. 0% in controls). Histological examination of claws from heifers killed 72h after overload showed changes consistent with acute laminitis, including stretched lamellae, wider basal cells with low chromatin density, and a thick, wavy, and blurry appearance of the basement membrane. Biomechanical results showed no effect of oligofructose overload on physiological support of the suspensory tissue

  6. Fungal granulomatous interstitial nephritis presenting as acute kidney injury diagnosed by renal histology including PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Makoto; Kagami, Shino; Nakao, Masatsugu; Kono, Midori; Kanetsuna, Yukiko; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe two cases of fungal granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) presenting as acute kidney injury (AKI). Increased serum creatinine was detected in Patient 1 after chemotherapy for pharyngeal cancer and in Patient 2 after steroid pulse therapy for bronchial asthma. Renal histology of both patients revealed GIN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of fungal DNA sequences from kidney tissue demonstrated Trichosporon laibachii and Candida albicans, respectively. When AKI occurs in an immunocompromised host, differential diagnosis of fungal interstitial nephritis should be considered. Furthermore, PCR-based detection of fungal DNA sequences from renal specimens can be useful for rapid diagnosis. PMID:23936627

  7. Fungal granulomatous interstitial nephritis presenting as acute kidney injury diagnosed by renal histology including PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Makoto; Kagami, Shino; Nakao, Masatsugu; Kono, Midori; Kanetsuna, Yukiko; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2012-10-01

    We describe two cases of fungal granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) presenting as acute kidney injury (AKI). Increased serum creatinine was detected in Patient 1 after chemotherapy for pharyngeal cancer and in Patient 2 after steroid pulse therapy for bronchial asthma. Renal histology of both patients revealed GIN. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of fungal DNA sequences from kidney tissue demonstrated Trichosporon laibachii and Candida albicans, respectively. When AKI occurs in an immunocompromised host, differential diagnosis of fungal interstitial nephritis should be considered. Furthermore, PCR-based detection of fungal DNA sequences from renal specimens can be useful for rapid diagnosis.

  8. A case of cholestatic hepatitis associated with histologic features of acute cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hajime; Kaneko, Toru; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Tahara, Kumiko; Motoori, Tadashi; Ohbu, Makoto; Oda, Masaya; Yokomori, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a case showing histologic features of acute cholangitis with an over-the-counter drug. A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with general malaise and progressive jaundice. A thorough review of her medical history revealed that the patient had taken an over-the-counter drug, Pabron Gold®, which she had used previously, that may have caused liver injury. Laboratory investigations revealed jaundice and liver dysfunction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography detected no extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation or stones. Liver biopsy indicated acute cholangitis involving neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy revealed fragmented nuclei, indicating that the degenerative bile duct-related epithelial cells were in an apoptotic process. PMID:22162934

  9. Chorioamnionitis and mid-trimester pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ugwumadu, Austin

    2010-01-01

    Mid-trimester pregnancy loss defined as miscarriage at 14-23 weeks' gestation and preterm birth between 24 and 28 weeks are in essence clinical manifestations of the same disease process. The pathogenic and socio-biologic risk factors are the same, but the timing of onset of uterine activity and cervical dilatation may be delayed in the case of preterm birth. The overwhelming majority of cases are associated with ascending infection from the lower genital tract. Women with a prior history of late miscarriage are at increased risk of preterm delivery and vice versa. The risk of preterm delivery in women with prior mid-trimester pregnancy loss approximates the same recurrence risk documented for women with a previous history of preterm delivery, suggesting that mid-trimester miscarriage represents the lower end of the spectrum of preterm birth. There are many causes of mid-trimester pregnancy loss including abnormal placentation, immunological interactions, thrombophilias, cervical insufficiency and upper genital tract anomalies to name a few. This paper, however, will focus on the role of chorioamnionitis in the pathogenesis of mid-trimester pregnancy loss and the value of current interventions to reduce recurrence.

  10. The first histological demonstration of pancreatic oxidative stress in human acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Telek, G; Regöly-Mérei, J; Kovács, G C; Simon, L; Nagy, Z; Hamar, J; Jakab, F

    2001-01-01

    Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is associated with an inflammatory explosion involving numerous pro-inflammatory mediator cascades and oxidative stress. Acinar oxygen free radical production aggravates pancreatic tissue damage, and promotes cellular adhesion molecule upregulation resulting in leukocyte adherence and activation. The cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry combined with reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the "in situ" histological demonstration of oxygen free radical formation in live tissues. Here we present a case report, where oxidative stress is demonstrated on a histological level for the first time in human acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old male patient suffering from acute exacerbation of his chronic pancreatitis developed a pancreato-pleural fistula with amylase-rich left pleural exudate causing respiratory compromise. Subsequent to an urgent thoracic decompression a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed with the closure of abdomino-thoracic fistula. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient pancreatico-cutaneous fistula, which healed after conservative treatment. To carry out cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry the resected pancreas specimen was readily perfused with cerium-chloride solution through the arteries on the resection surface. Frozen sections were cut, E-, P-selectin, ICAM and VCAM were labeled by immunofluorescence. The tumor-free margin of an identically treated pancreas carcinoma specimen served as a control. Intrapancreatic oxidative stress and cellular adhesion molecule expression were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Numerous pancreatic acini and neighboring capillaries showed oxygen free radical-derived cerium-perhy-droxide depositions corresponding to strong local oxidative stress. Acinar cytoplasmic reflectance signals suggested xanthine-oxidase as a source of oxygen free radicals. These areas presented considerably increased

  11. Acute leukemia of adults. Ultrastructural, cytochemical and histologic observations in 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Glick, A D; Paniker, K; Flexner, J M; Graber, S E; Collins, R D

    1980-04-01

    In order to establish guidelines for categorization of acute leukemia, marrow histology, special stains, and electron microscopy were performed in 100 adult leukemia cases. Differential counts for each stain were performed, and the results were combined with those obtained by electron microscopy for final classification. Myeloid (non-lymphoid) leukemia was most common (83 cases), and there were 13 lymphoid cases, two cases of erythroleukemia, and two undifferentiated leukemias. Histologic studies of marrow particles revealed significant admixtures of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and abnormal erythroid elements, particularly in acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Interpretations of cytochemical results were confirmed by ultrastructural studies in 90% of the cases. Clinically significant discrepancies between cytochemical and ultrastructural interpretations were rarely found. Only two myeloid and five lymphoid cases did not mark typically with any cytochemical stain. The single most reliable special stain was the periodic acid-Schiff stain, whereas the stain most difficult to interpret was the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase stain. Sudan black stain was particularly helpful in demonstrating Auer rods. Five of six cases unclassified by cytochemistry were categorized by electron microscopy. Although patterns of cytochemical staining were delineated for each type of leukemia, significant intragroup variation in cytochemical reactions was recognized. This study indicates that ultrastructural examination should be routinely used for categorization of cases with equivocal cytochemical findings and for analysis of unclassified cases.

  12. Microvascular inflammation and acute tubular necrosis are major histologic features of hantavirus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Verine, Jérôme; Vrigneaud, Laurence; Glowacki, François; Ratsimbazafy, Anderson; Copin, Marie-Christine; Dewilde, Anny; Buob, David

    2015-06-01

    Hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) is an uncommon etiology of acute renal failure due to hantavirus infection. Pathological features suggestive of HVN historically reported are medullary interstitial hemorrhages in a background of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). However, interstitial hemorrhages may be lacking because of medullary sampling error. This emphasizes that other pathological criteria may be of interest. We performed a retrospective clinicopathological study of 17 serologically proven HVN cases with renal biopsy from 2 nephrology centers in northern France. Histologic analysis was completed by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD3, anti-CD68, and anti-CD34 antibodies. Three control groups were not related to hantavirus infection: acute tubular necrosis (ATN) of ischemic or toxic etiology and AIN were used for comparison. Renal biopsy analysis showed that almost all HVN cases with medullary sampling (9/10) displayed interstitial hemorrhages, whereas focal hemorrhages were detected in 2 of the 7 "cortex-only" specimens. ATN was common, as it was present in 15 (88.2%) of 17 HVN cases. By contrast, interstitial inflammation was scarce with no inflammation or only slight inflammation, representing 15 (88.2%) of 17 cases. Moreover, HVN showed inflammation of renal microvessels with cortical peritubular capillaritis and medullary vasa recta inflammation; peritubular capillaritis was significantly higher in HVN after comparison with ischemic and toxic ATN controls (P = .0001 and P = .003, respectively), but not with AIN controls. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted the involvement of T cells and macrophages in renal microvascular inflammation related to HVN. Our study showed that microvascular inflammation, especially cortical peritubular capillaritis, and ATN are important histologic features of HVN. PMID:25791582

  13. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    PubMed

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    Despite advances in perinatal medicine in the past decade, the diagnosis and treatment of premature rupture of membranes remain controversial. Premature rupture occurs in 2.7-7.0% of pregnancies and most cases occur spontaneously without apparent cause. The disparity in reported rates of premature rupture is due to differences in the definition and diagnostic criteria for premature rupture and lack of comparability in the populations studied. Mexico's National Institute of Perinatology has adopted the definition of the American COllege of Gynecology and Obstetrics which views premature rupture as that occurring before regular uterine contractions that produce cervical dilation. 8.8% of its patients have premature rupture according to this definition. 20% of cases occur before the 36th week of pregnancy. Treatment of rupture occurring before 37 weeks must balance the threat of amniotic infection with the dangers of premature birth. Infections appear more common in low income patient populations. Chorioamnionitis is a serious complication of pregnancy and is the main argument against conservative treatment of premature rupture. The rate of maternal infection is directly related to the time elapsing between rupture of the membranes and birth. The rate increases after the 1st 24 hours and is at least 10 times higher after 72 hours. But recent studies suggest that there is no considerable increase in infection if vaginal explorations are avoided and careful techniques are used in treating the patient. Those who advise conservative treatment believe that prenatal outcomes are better because respiratory disease syndrome due to prematurity is avoided. Conservative management requires a white cell count at least every 24 hours and measurement of pulse, maternal temperature, and fetal heart rate ideally every 4 hours. Perinatal mortality rates due to premature rupture of membranes range from 2.5-50%. The principal causes are respiratory disease syndrome, infection, asphyxia

  14. Treatment Utility of Postpartum Antibiotics in Chorioamnionitis Study.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Anthony L; Mehra, Suwan; Gross, Gil; Colvin, Ryan; Harper, Lorie M; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2016-07-01

    Objective To determine if postpartum antibiotics are necessary for patients with chorioamnionitis after a cesarean delivery (CD). Study Design Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Laboring patients with singleton gestations and chorioamnionitis who underwent CD were eligible. Patients were treated with ampicillin and gentamicin per standard protocol, then given clindamycin prior to skin incision. Patients were randomized to either postpartum antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment following delivery. The primary outcome was the rate of endometritis. Assuming a 30% risk of endometritis in patients with chorioamnionitis who undergo CD, 119 patients per arm would be required to detect a 50% decrease in endometritis. Results The trial was stopped for futility following a planned interim analysis after 80 patients were randomized. There was no difference in the rate of the primary outcome between the two groups (9.8 vs. 7.7%, relative risk [RR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30, 5.31). A meta-analysis comparing post-CD antibiotics versus no treatment did not find a statistically significant difference between the groups (16.7 vs. 12.0%, pooled RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.72, 2.84). Conclusion Additional postpartum antibiotics do not decrease the rate of endometritis in patients with chorioamnionitis who undergo CD. The current preoperative antibiotic regimen including clindamycin should remain the standard of care in these patients. PMID:26890440

  15. Chorioamnionitis is associated with increased CD40L expression on cord blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Sitaru, Ana-Gabriela; Speer, Christian P; Holzhauer, Susanne; Obergfell, Achim; Walter, Ulrich; Grossmann, Ralf

    2005-12-01

    Chorioamnionitis (CA) is a severe infection responsible not only for premature birth but also for many severe neonatal diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of CD40L and P-selectin on platelets and the plasma levels of their soluble forms in the umbilical cord blood in infants with documented chorioamnionitis. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 10 healthy term newborns, 10 non-infected preterm infants, 10 preterm infants with premature rupture of membranes and 9 preterm infants with clinical and histological CA. The expression of CD40L and P-selectin on platelets was analyzed by flow cytometry. Soluble P-selectin (sCD62P), soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and interleukine-6 (IL-6) were measured in plasma by ELISA assays. Neonates with CA had significantly higher percentages of platelets expressing CD40L in basal conditions (5.3 +/- 2.9% vs. 1.6 +/- 0.7% and in non-infected preterm infants p < 0.05), while the percentages of P-selectin positive platelets were similar among all groups. In contrast, the level of sP-selectin was higher in infants with CA (222 +/- 128 ng/ml vs. 104 +/- 71 ng/ml in non-infected preterm infants, p < 0.05) but no differences were found in the levels of sCD40L. As expected, the levels of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine were significantly higher in samples obtained from preterm neonates whose mothers had also elevated inflammatory parameters. Our observations suggest that platelets are involved in the complex inflammatory pathogenesis of CA. Neither P-selectin expression on cord blood platelets nor plasma sP-selectin or sCD40L were suitable platelet markers in CA, whereas CD40L was significantly elevated in histologically proven CA.

  16. Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Sobala, G M; Crabtree, J E; Dixon, M F; Schorah, C J; Taylor, J D; Rathbone, B J; Heatley, R V; Axon, A T

    1991-01-01

    The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was detected by culture of antral biopsy specimens and was still present after 74 days. Five days after infection the histological findings showed acute neutrophilic gastritis; by day 74 changes of chronic gastritis were evident. The patient seroconverted by IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay by day 74, but a mucosal IgM and IgA response was evident as early as day 14. Infection was accompanied by a transient hypochlorhydria but a sustained fall in gastric juice ascorbic acid concentration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1752479

  17. Histologic and Molecular Correlation in Shelter Cats with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rachel E.; Wagner, Denae C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Pesavento, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study designed to correlate diagnostic real-time PCR results with histopathologic lesions in cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory infection (URI). The study occurred over a 9-month period in a single open-intake animal shelter. Cats that were selected for euthanasia by the shelter staff and additionally had URI were included in the study, for a total of 22 study cats. Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Necropsy was performed on all cats, and a complete set of respiratory tract tissues was examined by histopathology. Among 22 cats, 20 were qPCR positive for FHV-1, 7 for M. felis, 5 for FCV, 1 for C. felis, and 0 for B. bronchiseptica. Nine cats were positive for two or more pathogens. Histopathologic lesions were present in all cats, with consistent lesions in the nasal cavity, including acute necroulcerative rhinitis in 16 cats. Histologic or antigenic detection of FHV-1 was seen in 18 of 20 cats positive for FHV-1 by qPCR. No lesions that could be specifically attributed to FCV, M. felis, or C. felis were seen, although interpretation in this cohort could be confounded by coinfection with FHV-1. A significant agreement was found between the amount of FHV-1 DNA determined by qPCR and the presence of specific histopathologic lesions for FHV-1 but not for the other respiratory pathogens. PMID:21562109

  18. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  19. Monitoring of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts histological severity of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Kousuke; Noiri, Eisei; Doi, Kent; Maeda-Mamiya, Rui; Sugaya, Takeshi; Portilla, Didier; Fujita, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether levels of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) could be used to monitor histological injury in acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by cis-platinum (CP) injection and ischemia reperfusion (IR). Different degrees of AKI severity were induced by several renal insults (CP dose and ischemia time) in human L-FABP transgenic mice. Renal histological injury scores increased with both CP dose and ischemic time. In CP-induced AKI, urinary L-FABP levels increased exponentially even in the lowest dose group as early as 2 hours, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels increased at 48 hours. In IR-induced AKI, BUN levels increased only in the 30-minute ischemia group 24 hours after reperfusion; however, urinary L-FABP levels increased more than 100-fold, even in the 5-minute ischemia group after 1 hour. In both AKI models, urinary L-FABP levels showed a better correlation with final histological injury scores and glomerular filtration rates measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled inulin injection than with levels of BUN and urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, especially at earlier time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that urinary L-FABP was superior to other biomarkers for the detection of significant histological injuries and functional declines. In conclusion, urinary L-FABP levels are better suited to allow the accurate and earlier detection of both histological and functional insults in ischemic and nephrotoxin-induced AKI compared with conventional renal markers.

  20. Histological and ultrastructural evaluation of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy-induced acute renal lesions: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rigatti, P; Colombo, R; Centemero, A; Francesca, F; Di Girolamo, V; Montorsi, F; Trabucchi, E

    1989-01-01

    Biopsy material taken from kidneys of 14 patients with renal stones before performing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and an average of 15 days after was examined histologically and ultrastructurally. In the post-ESWL specimens, light microscopy revealed edema and extravasation of urine and blood into the interstitial spaces, blocking of cortical tubules by hemorrhagic streaks and widespread dilatation of the veins, with signs of endothelial destruction and partial organization of thrombi. By using the electron microscope, abnormalities of the endothelium and glomerular epithelium, hemosiderin accumulations in the tubular cells and small linear patches of fibrosis at the corticomedullary junction and in the cortical interstitial spaces were seen. This preliminary report indicates that renal damage can be shown soon after ESWL on histological and ultrastructural studies and that the lesions observed can be either reversible or permanent.

  1. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens.

  2. An animal model of prophylactic cranial irradiation: Histologic effects at acute, early and delayed stages

    SciTech Connect

    Mildenberger, M.; Beach, T.G.; McGeer, E.G.; Ludgate, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Wistar rats (body wt. 200 g) were subjected to a fractionated course of radiation similar to that used in prophylactic brain irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung (2000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days with {sup 60}Co). Effects of this regimen were assessed by histologic examination of brain sections at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months post-irradiation. With conventional stains there were no apparent differences between control and irradiated brains at any of the post-irradiation intervals. Immunohistochemistry for neurotransmitter synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, failed to uncover any changes in the irradiated animals. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also showed no differences in the irradiated groups. However, an antibody against a major histocompatibility complex, class II antigen (OX-6) revealed a microglial response in grey and white matter beginning at 1 month and increasing up to the 6 month post-irradiation interval. The neuroanatomical basis for this microglial response was suggested by the results of silver stains for nerve axons, which revealed axonal loss in striatal white matter bundles in a pattern implicating vascular insufficiency.

  3. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki: antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations.

    PubMed

    Nunes, B; Antunes, S C; Gomes, R; Campos, J C; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Correia, A T

    2015-02-01

    A large body of evidence was compiled in the recent decades showing a noteworthy increase in the detection of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems. Due to its ubiquitous presence, chemical nature, and practical purpose, this type of contaminant can exert toxic effects in nontarget organisms. Exposure to pharmaceutical drugs can result in adaptive alterations, such as changes in tissues, or in key homeostatic mechanisms, such as antioxidant mechanisms, biochemical/physiological pathways, and cellular damage. These alterations can be monitored to determine the impact of these compounds on exposed aquatic organisms. Among pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, antibiotics are particularly important because they include a variety of substances widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production, and aquaculture. This wide use constitutes a decisive factor contributing for their frequent detection in the aquatic environment. Tetracyclines are the individual antibiotic subclass with the second highest frequency of detection in environmental matrices. The characterization of the potential ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline is a much-required task; to attain this objective, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of tetracycline in the freshwater fish species Gambusia holbrooki by the determination of histological changes in the gills and liver, changes in antioxidant defense [glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and lipoperoxidative damage] as well as potential neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). The obtained results suggest the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the exposure to tetracycline and histological alterations (more specifically in gills) and enzymatic activity (particularly the enzyme CAT in liver and GST in gills) indicating that this compound can exert a pro-oxidative activity. PMID:25475590

  4. Effect of adopting a new histological grading system of acute rejection after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Balk, A.; Zondervan, P.; van der Meer, P.; van Gelder, T.; Mochtar, B.; Simoons, M.; Weimar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Background—Treatment policy of acute rejection after heart transplantation has been changed after adopting the ISHLT endomyocardial biopsy grading system in 1991.
Objective—To determine the effect of this policy change on clinical outcome after transplantation.
Methods—The outcome of 147 patients who had a transplant before (early group, median follow up 96 months) and 114 patients who had a transplant after (late group, median follow up 41 months) the introduction of the ISHLT biopsy grading system was studied retrospectively. Initially "moderate rejection" according to Billingham's conventional criteria was treated. From January 1991 grade 3A and higher was considered to require intensification of immunosuppression.
Results—There were some differences between the two groups: recipients (50 v 44 years) as well as donors (28 v 24 years) were older in the "late group" and more patients of this group received early anti-T cell prophylaxis (92% v 56%). Despite more extensive use of early prophylaxis more rejection episodes were diagnosed (2.4 v 1.4) and considerably more courses of rejection treatment were instituted in the late compared with the early group (3.2 v 1.5). There were no deaths because of rejection in the late group, however, more infections occurred within the first year (mean 1.8 v 1.4) and more non-skin malignancies within the first 41 months were diagnosed (8 of 57 v 6 of 147, 95% CIs of difference includes 0). The incidence of graft vascular disease in the late group has been comparable to the early group until now. 
Conclusion—The interpretation of the ISHLT grading system resulted in lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis of rejection thereby increasing the number of rejections and subsequently the immunosuppressive load and its complications.

 Keywords: transplantation;  biopsy grading system;  rejection PMID:9470880

  5. Taurine protects hamster bronchioles from acute NO2-induced alterations. A histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R E; Shaked, A A; Solano, D F

    1986-12-01

    In this study the authors describe the use of dietary taurine to protect hamster lung epithelium from acute nitrogen dioxide (NO2) injury. The conclusions were based on histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture analyses. Hamsters were pretreated for 14 days with 0.5% taurine in their drinking water. They were then exposed to either 7 or 30 ppm NO2 for 24 hours. The lungs from animals of these experimental groups were compared with those from hamsters treated with only NO2, and those given only taurine and with untreated controls. After treatment, hamsters were anesthetized and perfusion-fixed through the right side of the heart with a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde, 4% paraformaldehyde, and 0.2 M cacodylate. The trachea and lungs were removed en bloc and stored overnight in cacodylate buffer at 4 C. Terminal and respiratory bronchioles, including alveolar ducts and peribronchiolar alveoli, were dissected from each lobe and processed for embedding in Epon and freeze-fracture replication. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the typical inflammatory cell infiltrate in the bronchiolar and alveolar duct regions in the lungs of hamsters exposed to NO2. The bronchiolar epithelium appeared flattened because of loss and breakage of cilia on ciliated cells and apical protrusions of Clara cells. Clara-cell secretory granules were reduced or absent. Freeze-fracture replicas of tight junctions of bronchiolar epithelium analyzed by morphometric techniques demonstrated a reduction and fragmentation of fibrils. Only animals exposed to 30 ppm NO2 exhibited physiologic intercellular penetration of horseradish peroxidase. Hamsters pretreated with taurine and then exposed to NO2 showed none of these alterations. They exhibited the same morphologic features as the untreated controls and the hamsters treated only with taurine. On the basis of this evidence, it is suggested that prophylactic dietary taurine can prevent acute NO2-induced morphologic lung

  6. The Association between Early Artificial Amniotomy and Chorioamnionitis in Nulliparous Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Laura G.; Bastek, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether early artificial amniotomy (AROM) <4 cm in nulliparous women admitted for induction of labor was associated with an increased rate of chorioamnionitis and cesarean section or a decreased time to vaginal delivery. Study Design. A retrospective cohort study was performed on nulliparous women with a term, singleton gestation and intact membranes who presented for induction of labor (January 2008 to December 2011). Chorioamnionitis was defined using ICD9 codes. Results. 1,567 women were enrolled; 25.4% underwent early AROM. Overall, the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was 12.4%, the rate of cesarean section was 32.2%, and the time from 4 cm cervical dilation to vaginal delivery was 413 min. Compared to women without AROM < 4 cm, early AROM did not affect overall chorioamnionitis rates (10.2 versus 13.2%, P = 0.12) but was associated with an increased cesarean section rate (40.2 versus 29.5%, P < 0.001). However, among those who delivered vaginally, AROM < 4 cm decreased the rate of chorioamnionitis (8.4 versus 14.6%, P = 0.01), which persisted when controlling for potential confounders (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.92), and decreased the time from 4 cm dilation to vaginal delivery (329 versus 472 min, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our findings do not suggest that early AROM is associated with an increased rate of clinical chorioamnionitis. PMID:27379338

  7. Effects of diclofenac sodium on the hippocampus of rats with acute subdural hematoma: histological, stereological, and molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, A P; Kaplan, S; Aksoy, A; Altunkaynak, Bz; Yurt, Kk; Elibol, E; Çokluk, C; Onger, Me

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the potential effects of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and diclofenac sodium (DS) therapy following ASDH on the rat hippocampus. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups. 0.1 ml of non-heparinized autologous blood from the tail vein of the animals in the non-treatment group (NTG) and treatment group (TG) was injected into the subdural space. The TG received intramuscular diclofenac sodium at a 15 mg/kg dose daily from the postoperative second hour to the seventh day after the operation. The control group (CG) and sham group (SG) were used for control and sham operations, respectively. On the postoperative eighth day, all animals were sacrificed, and the hippocampi of all animals were stereologically and histologically evaluated. Also blood samples of the animals were biochemically analyzed. As a result of the study, the mean number of neurons in CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions of the hippocampus and the total number of neurons were decreased in the hippocampus samples of the NTG and especially the TG subjects. When comparing the second blood samples, there was no difference between the levels of adrenaline and serotonin among the groups. However, after the operation, noradrenalin levels in the treatment group were found to be higher than those of the sham and control groups (p < 0.05). In the NTG and TG, histopathological findings were observed such as Nissl condensation as well as completely dead and indistinguishable neurons with abnormally shaped, shrunken cytoplasm and nuclei. Also necrotic areas on the specimens of the TG were seen. In immunohistochemical sections, c-FOS positivity was decreased in the NTG and especially the TG. Otherwise, PGC-1 positive cells were increased in the NTG and especially the TG. In this study, it was shown for the first time by means of stereological techniques that using DS after ASDH caused a decrease in the number of hippocampal neurons (CA1, CA2, and CA3

  8. Metabolism of /sup 3/H-dopamine by human chorioamnion in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, M.; Niloff, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Previous investigation has demonstrated biologically significant concentrations of catecholamines in amniotic fluid, which increase with gestation. The half life, metabolic clearance rate, and metabolic fate of these hormones in the amniotic compartment are yet to be established. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of human chorioamnion to metabolize dopamine in vitro. Incubation experiments demonstrated that /sup 3/H-dopamine is rapidly metabolized to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol-all products of monoamine oxidase. No significant 3-methoxytyramine, a catechol-o-methyltransferase product, was observed. Incubation experiments with pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, resulted in significant reduction in /sup 3/H-dopamine metabolism. Catecholamines and their interaction with prostaglandin synthesis have been theorized to be a fetal signal for the initiation of parturition. The ability of chorioamnion to metabolize catecholamine could, therefore, provide another control mechanism by which fetal catecholamines are modulated.

  9. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Emma M.; Blue, Nathan R.; Lee, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  10. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Emma M; Blue, Nathan R; Lee, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and outcome in term neonates with chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C B; Jenkins, D D; Bentzley, J P; Lambert, D; Hope, K; Rollins, L G; Morgan, P S; Brown, T; Ramakrishnan, V; Mulvihill, D M; Katikaneni, L D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate brain metabolites, which reflect neuroinflammation, and relate to neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy term neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis. Study Design: Thirty-one healthy term neonates with documented fetal inflammatory response after maternal chorioamnionitis underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with voxels placed in basal ganglia (BG) and frontal white matter. Bayley III examinations were performed at 12 months of age. Result: Infants with below average outcomes did not show the same increase in NAA/Cho ratios postnatally as the group with normal outcomes. Decreased NAA/Cho and increased Lac/Cr in BG correlated with lower motor and cognitive composite scores, respectively, controlling for postnatal age. In males, increased lactate/NAA in BG were associated with lower motor scores. Funisitis severity was associated with decreased NAA/Cho and increased mI/NAA in males. Conclusion: In healthy term newborns with chorioamnionitis, MRS ratios shortly after birth may provide evidence of occult neuroinflammation, which may be associated with worse performance on 1-year neurodevelopmental tests. PMID:26426253

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates long-term changes in brain structure in children born preterm and exposed to chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Tamera; Wing, Deborah A.; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if children born preterm and exposed to chorioamnionitis have differences in brain structure measured at 6 to10 years of age using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Structural MRI was performed with11 preterm children (8.5 ± 1.7 yrs) with chorioamnionitis and 16 preterm children (8.7±1.4 yrs) without chorioamnionitis. Cortical surface reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with FreeSurfer image analysis software. Subcortical structures were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Results Widespread regional differences in cortical thickness were observed. With chorioamnionitis, the frontal and temporal lobes were primarily affected by decreased cortical thickness, and, the limbic, parietal and occipital lobes were primarily affected by increased cortical thickness when compared to the comparison group. Subcortical differences were observed in the hippocampus and lateral ventricle. Conclusion Using MRI, chorioamnionitis is associated with long term widespread regional effects on brain development in children born prematurely. Our study is limited by its small sample size. PMID:21987595

  13. Demographic, etiological, and histological pulmonary analysis of patients with acute respiratory failure: a study of 19 years of autopsies

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Parra, Edwin R; Farhat, Cecília; Capelozzi, Vera L

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917) of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure. PMID:21876973

  14. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  15. Effective ADAPT Thrombectomy in a Patient with Acute Stroke due to Cardiac Papillary Elastofibroma: Histological Thrombus Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Biraschi, Francesco; Diana, Francesco; Alesini, Francesco; Guidetti, Giulio; Peschillo, Simone

    2016-10-01

    A 75-year-old man with hypertension and atrial fibrillation was admitted to our emergency room with right-sided hemiplegia and complete aphasia (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score = 18). A noncontrast computed tomography scan showed a slight hypodensity in the left insular region and a bright hyperdense sign in the M1 tract of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). Angio-CT confirmed an occlusion of the M1 tract of the MCA. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging/perfusion-weighted imaging was obtained and revealed a mismatch in the left parietal cortical region. Complete revascularization was achieved by thromboaspiration with the A Direct ASPIRATION first PASS TECHNIQUE (ADAPT) technique. Histological examination of the embolic material revealed its nonthrombotic nature: cardiac embolic papillary elastofibroma (PEF). At discharge, good recovery of right-side hemiplegia was observed. This case report is the second in literature in which a histological confirmed cardiac embolic PEF is reported as a cause of embolic stroke. PEF is a rare but potentially treatable cause of embolic stroke. Understanding the nature of the embolic material would help in choosing the best revascularization approach. PMID:27539711

  16. Oral infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli triggers immune response and intestinal histological alterations in mice selected for their minimal acute inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Vulcano, Amanda Bardella; Tino-De-Franco, Milene; Amaral, José Araujo; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Cabrera, Wafa Hanna Koury; Bordenalli, Marcela Aparecida; Carbonare, Cristiane Barros; Álvares, Eliana Parisi; Carbonare, Solange Barros

    2014-06-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a leading cause of infant diarrhea, is an important public health problem in Brazil and other developing countries. In vitro assays of bacterial adhesion to cultured cells are important tools for studying bacterial pathogenicity but do not reproduce all the events that occur in natural infections. In this study, the effects of oral infection with EPEC on mice selected for their minimal acute inflammatory response (AIR min) were evaluated. Mice were orally infected with EPEC and variations in body weight, bacterial shedding and antibody production observed. The infected animals developed seric and secretory anti-EPEC antibodies; however, neither mortality nor diarrhea was observed. Light microscopy of their intestines demonstrated histological modifications that were not present in controls. However, electron microscopy did not show bacteria attached to the intestinal epithelia to form attaching and effacing lesions, characteristic of EPEC in humans. The bacteria were detected in Peyer's patches and intestinal contents up to 5 hr post-infection. When human anti-EPEC secretory immunoglobulin A or avian immunoglobulin Y antibodies were administered to infected animals, they developed minor histological alterations compared with non-treated animals. In summary, it was found that EPEC triggers immune responses and intestinal histological alterations but does not produce evidence of diarrheal disease in mice infected by the oral route. This study of EPEC experimental infection provides a better understanding of the effects of antibodies on bacterial infections and may provide a suitable model for the design and testing of immunobiological products for active or passive immunization. PMID:24750489

  17. Immuno-histological assessment of sub-clinical acute and borderline rejection in renal allograft recipients: Data from a transplant center in India.

    PubMed

    Badwal, Sonia; Kumar, Arun; Hooda, A K; Varma, P P

    2015-11-01

    This single-center study was carried out on living related and unrelated renal transplant recipients (RTRs) to evaluate the usefulness of surveillance biopsies in monitoring stable renal allografts using immuno-histological markers for immune-activation. This is a prospective, longitudinal study. Protocol biopsies of 60 RTRs with stable graft function were evaluated at three, six and 12 months post-transplant. Immuno-histological evaluation was carried out using immune-activation markers (perforins, granzyme and interleukin-2R), phenotypic markers (CD-3 and CD-20), viral markers and C4d. The demographic and clinical profile was recorded for each patient. All cases of acute sub-clinical rejection (SCR) were treated and borderline SCR cases were followed-up without treatment. SCR at three and six months post-transplant was evident in 16.7% and 3.7% of RTRs, respectively. Positive statistical association of SCR was seen with HLA-DR mismatches, whereas patients receiving induction therapy and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression exhibited a lower incidence of SCR. T cell phenotype with persistent expression of immune-activation markers exhibited positive statistical association with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy at 12-month follow-up biopsy. The mean creatinine levels were significantly lower in the protocol biopsy group than the non-protocol biopsy group. No significant difference was found between the mean creatinine levels of the SCR group after treatment and the non-SCR cases within the protocol biopsy group. Early treatment of sub-clinical acute rejection leads to better functional outcomes. However, persistent immune-activation is associated with chronicity and may have implications on long-term graft survival.

  18. The influence of etofenprox on narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823): Acute toxicity and sublethal effects on histology, hemolymph parameters, and total hemocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Benli, Aysel Caglan Karasu

    2015-07-01

    The acute and sublethal effects of etofenprox, a nonester pyrethroid, was determined in narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). Semistatic bioassay procedures were followed in both experiments, and the 24, 48, 72, and 96 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of technical etofenprox for crayfish were calculated as 0.68, 0.61, 0.45, and 0.41 µg/L, respectively based on Finney's probit analysis. Two concentrations of etofenprox (0.04 and 0.1 µg/L) were tested to determine sublethal effects due to 96 hours exposure. After exposure to sublethal etofenprox, hemolymph glucose, and lactate levels increased while total hemocyte counts and sodium levels decreased (p < 0.05). Hemolymph calcium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride concentrations did not change significantly. Histological alterations were evident in the gills and hepatopancreas after exposure to sublethal etofenprox concentrations. Lamellar hyperplasia and lining in the afferent and efferent branchial vessels were recorded in gills; whilst tubule necrosis was obvious in hepatopancreas. Etofenprox was found to be very highly toxic to crayfish, a nontarget organism. Exposure to sublethal concentrations for 96 h affected circulating hemocytes and hemolymph stress parameters via histological response, to compansate for the adverse effects of etofenprox. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 887-894, 2015.

  19. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use. PMID:26611721

  20. Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: ameliorative effect of α-ketoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Upadhyay, Preeti; Malla, Sandhya; Gujar, Niranjan Laxman; Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with α-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure.

  1. Cellular metabolic, stress, and histological response on exposure to acute toxicity of endosulfan in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Rupam; Tripathi, Gayatri; Kumar, Kundan; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Krishna, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Endosulfan is one of the most hazardous organochlorines pesticides responsible for environmental pollution, as it is very persistent and shows bio-magnification. This study evaluated the impact of acute endosulfan toxicity on metabolic enzymes, lysozyme activities, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression, and histopathology in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Among the indicators that were induced in dose dependent manner were the enzymes of amino acid metabolism (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), carbohydrate metabolism (serum lactate dehydrogenase), pentose phosphate pathway (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) as well as lysozyme and Hsp70 in liver and gill, while liver and gill Isocitrate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle enzyme) and marker of general energetics (Total adenosine triphosphatase) were inhibited. Histopathological alterations in gill were clubbing of secondary gill lamellae, marked hyperplasia, complete loss of secondary lamellae and atrophy of primary gill filaments. Whereas in liver, swollen hepatocyte, and degeneration with loss of cellular boundaries were distinctly noticed. Overall results clearly demonstrated the unbalanced metabolism and damage of the vital organs like liver and gill in Tilapia due to acute endosulfan exposure.

  2. [Anatomo-histological and histochemical study of acute lesions of the gastroduodenal mucosa, produced by ethanol, before and after truncal vagotomy plus pyloroplasty in rats].

    PubMed

    Bartolomucci, A C; da Silva, A L; Barbosa, A J; Nogueira, A M

    1990-01-01

    The anatomo-pathologic alterations determined by ethanol in the gastroduodenal mucosa of rats are studied, as well as its action about truncal vagotomy plus pyloroplasty (VT + P). We use albino rats submitted to the administration of ethanol, 33% --via orogastric catheter- and to truncal vagotomy plus pyloroplasty, as well the association of the 2 variants. The utilization of ethanol, according to the up to date methodology, can be confirmed by a simple experimental production method of acute ulcer in rats. The VT + P determined acute ulcers in the 24 hour observation group, besides acute inflammatory lesions and with the decrease of mucins, diffusively, in the gastroduodenal mucosa. The performance of VT + P, 2 hours after the administration of ethanol, period in which the lesions are entirely settled, determined and aggravation of the gastric lesions through the increase of the media ulcerous gastric area and its histological aspects. On the other hand, the performance of VT + P, followed by the administration of ethanol 2 hours after, also determined an aggravation of gastric lesions, according to the same former parameters. When it was the time to perform the VT + P, 10 days before the administration of ethanol, or the inverse, a small reduction at the ulcerous gastric area had accrued but it did not amount to much. There was not a characterization of preventive effects or curative of this surgical procedure considering the gastric lesions produced by ethanol, but there was characterization of aggravating effect. All the possible hypothesis to the aggravation of these lesions are also discussed with the utilization of VT + P, as well its clinical use on the human being.

  3. Liver histology and ultrastructure of the Italian newt (Lissotriton italicus): normal structure and modifications after acute exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Biasone, Patrizia; Macirella, Rachele; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    We examined, from a morphological and ultrastructural point of view, the liver of the Italian newt (Lissotriton italicus), under basal conditions and after exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). Nonylphenol ethoxylates are surfactants widely used in a variety of industrial and agricultural processes that may pose a significant risk to aquatic fauna. NPEs, and their degradation intermediates, are known to affect reproductive biology acting as endocrine disruptors; besides estrogenic effects, nonylphenolic compounds may induce organ toxicity, particularly in liver and gonads. We investigated the effects of a nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE10-ETO) on L. italicus liver using two low concentrations, consistent with the environmental concentrations. For this purpose, animals were exposed to nominal concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/L in a short-term experiment (96 h). A morpho-functional analysis was performed in order to investigate the amphibian responses to NPEs thus contributing to elucidate other potential mode of action of these compounds; indeed very little attention has been dedicated to amphibians though they are often exposed to such contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Pathological alterations on liver histology and ultrastructure were observed at both tested concentrations; the main effects recorded were: increase of intercellular spaces, accumulation of large lipid droplets, increase in melanin content, and a degeneration phenomenon. We also detected, through confocal analysis, the induction of caspase-3, a key mediator of apoptosis, and an up-regulation of cytochrome P450-1A. By using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to NPEs negatively affected the amphibian liver.

  4. Evaluation and Management of Women and Newborns With a Maternal Diagnosis of Chorioamnionitis: Summary of a Workshop.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Rosemary D; Saade, George; Polin, Richard A; Grobman, William A; Buhimschi, Irina A; Watterberg, Kristi; Silver, Robert M; Raju, Tonse N K

    2016-03-01

    In January 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development invited an expert panel to a workshop to address numerous knowledge gaps and to provide evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pregnant women with what had been commonly called chorioamnionitis and the neonates born to these women. The panel noted that the term chorioamnionitis has been used to label a heterogeneous array of conditions characterized by infection and inflammation or both with a consequent great variation in clinical practice for mothers and their newborns. Therefore, the panel proposed to replace the term chorioamnionitis with a more general, descriptive term: "intrauterine inflammation or infection or both," abbreviated as "Triple I." The panel proposed a classification for Triple I and recommended approaches to evaluation and management of pregnant women and their newborns with a diagnosis of Triple I. It is particularly important to recognize that an isolated maternal fever is not synonymous with chorioamnionitis. A research agenda was proposed to further refine the definition and management of this complex group of conditions. This article provides a summary of the workshop presentations and discussions.

  5. Evaluation and Management of Women and Newborns With a Maternal Diagnosis of Chorioamnionitis: Summary of a Workshop.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Rosemary D; Saade, George; Polin, Richard A; Grobman, William A; Buhimschi, Irina A; Watterberg, Kristi; Silver, Robert M; Raju, Tonse N K

    2016-03-01

    In January 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development invited an expert panel to a workshop to address numerous knowledge gaps and to provide evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pregnant women with what had been commonly called chorioamnionitis and the neonates born to these women. The panel noted that the term chorioamnionitis has been used to label a heterogeneous array of conditions characterized by infection and inflammation or both with a consequent great variation in clinical practice for mothers and their newborns. Therefore, the panel proposed to replace the term chorioamnionitis with a more general, descriptive term: "intrauterine inflammation or infection or both," abbreviated as "Triple I." The panel proposed a classification for Triple I and recommended approaches to evaluation and management of pregnant women and their newborns with a diagnosis of Triple I. It is particularly important to recognize that an isolated maternal fever is not synonymous with chorioamnionitis. A research agenda was proposed to further refine the definition and management of this complex group of conditions. This article provides a summary of the workshop presentations and discussions. PMID:26855098

  6. LPS-induced chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulate Shh signaling in the ovine fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer J P; Kuypers, Elke; Nitsos, Ilias; Jane Pillow, J; Polglase, Graeme R; Kemp, Matthew W; Newnham, John P; Cleutjens, Jack P; Frints, Suzanna G M; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Kramer, Boris W

    2012-11-01

    Chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids mature the fetal lung functionally but disrupt late-gestation lung development. Because Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a major pathway directing lung development, we hypothesized that chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulated Shh signaling, resulting in an altered fetal lung structure. Time-mated ewes with singleton ovine fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or maternal intramuscular betamethasone 7 and/or 14 days before delivery at 120 days gestational age (GA) (term = 150 days GA). Intra-amniotic LPS exposure decreased Shh mRNA levels and Gli1 protein expression, which was counteracted by both betamethasone pre- or posttreatment. mRNA and protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 10 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which are important mediators of lung development, increased 2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, 14 days after LPS exposure. Both 7-day and 14-day exposure to LPS changed the mRNA levels of elastin (ELN) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) and 2 (Col1A2), which resulted in fewer elastin foci and increased collagen type I deposition in the alveolar septa. Corticosteroid posttreatment prevented the decrease in ELN mRNA and increased elastin foci and decreased collagen type I deposition in the fetal lung. In conclusion, fetal lung exposure to LPS was accompanied by changes in key modulators of lung development resulting in abnormal lung structure. Betamethasone treatment partially prevented the changes in developmental processes and lung structure. This study provides new insights into clinically relevant prenatal exposures and fetal lung development. PMID:22962010

  7. Skin substitute-assisted repair shows reduced dermal fibrosis in acute human wounds validated simultaneously by histology and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Hodgkinson, Tom; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Skin substitutes are heterogeneous biomaterials designed to accelerate wound healing through provision of replacement extracellular matrix. Despite growing evidence for their use in chronic wounds, the role of skin substitutes in acute wound management and their influence on fibrogenesis remains unclear. Skin substitute characteristics including biocompatibility, porosity, and elasticity strongly influence cellular behavior during wound healing. Thus, we hypothesize that structural and biomechanical variation between biomaterials may induce differential scar formation after cutaneous injury. The following human prospective cohort study was designed to investigate this premise. Four 5-mm full thickness punch biopsies were harvested from 50 volunteers. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), and decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3 while tissue extracted from site 4 was replaced (autograft). Healing tissue was assessed weekly with optical coherence tomography (OCT), before being excised on days 7, 14, 21, or 28 depending on study group allocation for later histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Extracted RNA was used in microarray analysis and polymerase chain reaction of highlighted genes. Autograft treatment resulted in minimal fibrosis confirmed immunohistochemically and with OCT through significantly lower collagen I levels (p = 0.047 and 0.03) and reduced mean grayscale values (p = 0.038 and 0.015), respectively. DCD developed intermediate scar formation with partial rete ridge reformation and reduced fasiculonodular fibrosis. It was uniquely associated with late up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, oncostatin M, and interleukin-10 (p = 0.007, 0.04, 0.019, 0.019). Regenerated dermis was significantly thicker in DCD and autografts 28 days post-injury compared with control and CG samples (p = 0.003 and < 0.0001). In conclusion, variable fibrotic outcomes were

  8. Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

  9. Skin substitute-assisted repair shows reduced dermal fibrosis in acute human wounds validated simultaneously by histology and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Hodgkinson, Tom; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Skin substitutes are heterogeneous biomaterials designed to accelerate wound healing through provision of replacement extracellular matrix. Despite growing evidence for their use in chronic wounds, the role of skin substitutes in acute wound management and their influence on fibrogenesis remains unclear. Skin substitute characteristics including biocompatibility, porosity, and elasticity strongly influence cellular behavior during wound healing. Thus, we hypothesize that structural and biomechanical variation between biomaterials may induce differential scar formation after cutaneous injury. The following human prospective cohort study was designed to investigate this premise. Four 5-mm full thickness punch biopsies were harvested from 50 volunteers. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), and decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3 while tissue extracted from site 4 was replaced (autograft). Healing tissue was assessed weekly with optical coherence tomography (OCT), before being excised on days 7, 14, 21, or 28 depending on study group allocation for later histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Extracted RNA was used in microarray analysis and polymerase chain reaction of highlighted genes. Autograft treatment resulted in minimal fibrosis confirmed immunohistochemically and with OCT through significantly lower collagen I levels (p = 0.047 and 0.03) and reduced mean grayscale values (p = 0.038 and 0.015), respectively. DCD developed intermediate scar formation with partial rete ridge reformation and reduced fasiculonodular fibrosis. It was uniquely associated with late up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, oncostatin M, and interleukin-10 (p = 0.007, 0.04, 0.019, 0.019). Regenerated dermis was significantly thicker in DCD and autografts 28 days post-injury compared with control and CG samples (p = 0.003 and < 0.0001). In conclusion, variable fibrotic outcomes were

  10. Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

    2014-02-01

    Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections.

  11. Proteomic profiles of the embryonic chorioamnion and uterine caruncles in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with normal and retarded embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Vecchio, Domenico; Strazzullo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Servillo, Luigi; Zicarelli, Luigi; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the proteome profiles of the chorioamnion and corresponding caruncle for buffalo embryos that had either normal or retarded development on Day 25 after artificial insemination (AI). In experiment 1, embryos that were to subsequently undergo late embryonic mortality had a smaller width on Day 25 after AI than embryos associated with pregnancy on Day 45 after AI. In experiment 2, 25 Italian Mediterranean buffaloes underwent transrectal ultrasonography on Day 25 after AI, and pregnant animals were categorized as one of two groups based on embryonic width: normal embryos (embryonic width > 2.7 mm) and retarded embryos (embryonic width < 2.7 mm). Three buffaloes of each group were slaughtered on Day 27 after AI to collect chorioamnion and caruncle tissues for subsequent proteomic analyses. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometer analysis were used to ascertain the proteomic profiles. To confirm 2D-DIGE-results, three selected proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The proteomic profiles of the chorioamnion of retarded embryos and the corresponding caruncles showed differences in the expression of several proteins compared to normal embryos. In particular, a down-regulation was observed for proteins involved in protein folding (HSP 90-alpha, calreticulin), calcium binding (annexin A1, annexin A2), and coagulation (fibrinogen alpha-chain) (P < 0.05), whereas proteins involved in protease inhibition (alpha-1-antiproteinase, serpin H1, serpin A3-8), DNA and RNA binding (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 and K), chromosome segregation (serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), cytoskeletal organization (ezrin), cell redox homeostasis (amine oxidase-A), and hemoglobin binding (haptoglobin) were up-regulated (P < 0.05). PMID:23575152

  12. Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. )

    1991-05-01

    In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

  13. Acute placental infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae: report of a unique case.

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Salwa S; Amr, Samir S; Lage, Janice M

    2005-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman, gravida 9, with seven healthy children and a history of one abortion (p 7 + 1), presented at 18 weeks of gestation with fever and malodorous vaginal discharge. Ultrasound revealed a macerated fetus. The placenta showed acute chorioamnionitis and acute villitis with microabscess formation. Blood and vaginal cultures both grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. This is the first reported case in English literature of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing suppurative placentitis leading to fetal demise. PMID:16040328

  14. The Severity of Chorioamnionitis in Pregnant Sheep Is Associated with In Vivo Variation of the Surface-Exposed Multiple-Banded Antigen/Gene of Ureaplasma parvum1

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Christine L.; Dando, Samantha J.; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.; Payton, Diane; Moss, Timothy J.M.; Newnham, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the bacteria most frequently isolated from human amniotic fluid in asymptomatic pregnancies and placental infections. Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 and 6 are the most prevalent serovars isolated from men and women. We hypothesized that the effects on the fetus and chorioamnion of chronic ureaplasma infection in amniotic fluid are dependent on the serovar, dose, and variation of the ureaplasma multiple-banded antigen (MBA) and mba gene. We injected high- or low-dose U. parvum serovar 3, serovar 6, or vehicle intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at 55 days of gestation (term = 150 days) and examined the chorioamnion, amniotic fluid, and fetal lung tissue of animals delivered by cesarean section at 125 days of gestation. Variation of the multiple banded antigen/mba generated by serovar 3 and serovar 6 ureaplasmas in vivo were compared by PCR assay and Western blot. Ureaplasma inoculums demonstrated only one (serovar 3) or two (serovar 6) MBA variants in vitro, but numerous antigenic variants were generated in vivo: serovar 6 passage 1 amniotic fluid cultures contained more MBA size variants than serovar 3 (P = 0.005), and ureaplasma titers were inversely related to the number of variants (P = 0.025). The severity of chorioamnionitis varied between animals. Low numbers of mba size variants (five or fewer) within amniotic fluid were associated with severe inflammation, whereas the chorioamnion from animals with nine or more mba variants showed little or no inflammation. These differences in chorioamnion inflammation may explain why not all women with in utero Ureaplasma spp. experience adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:20519696

  15. The severity of chorioamnionitis in pregnant sheep is associated with in vivo variation of the surface-exposed multiple-banded antigen/gene of Ureaplasma parvum.

    PubMed

    Knox, Christine L; Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Payton, Diane; Moss, Timothy J M; Newnham, John P

    2010-09-01

    Ureaplasma species are the bacteria most frequently isolated from human amniotic fluid in asymptomatic pregnancies and placental infections. Ureaplasma parvum serovars 3 and 6 are the most prevalent serovars isolated from men and women. We hypothesized that the effects on the fetus and chorioamnion of chronic ureaplasma infection in amniotic fluid are dependent on the serovar, dose, and variation of the ureaplasma multiple-banded antigen (MBA) and mba gene. We injected high- or low-dose U. parvum serovar 3, serovar 6, or vehicle intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at 55 days of gestation (term = 150 days) and examined the chorioamnion, amniotic fluid, and fetal lung tissue of animals delivered by cesarean section at 125 days of gestation. Variation of the multiple banded antigen/mba generated by serovar 3 and serovar 6 ureaplasmas in vivo were compared by PCR assay and Western blot. Ureaplasma inoculums demonstrated only one (serovar 3) or two (serovar 6) MBA variants in vitro, but numerous antigenic variants were generated in vivo: serovar 6 passage 1 amniotic fluid cultures contained more MBA size variants than serovar 3 (P = 0.005), and ureaplasma titers were inversely related to the number of variants (P = 0.025). The severity of chorioamnionitis varied between animals. Low numbers of mba size variants (five or fewer) within amniotic fluid were associated with severe inflammation, whereas the chorioamnion from animals with nine or more mba variants showed little or no inflammation. These differences in chorioamnion inflammation may explain why not all women with in utero Ureaplasma spp. experience adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Biochemical and histological evaluation of kidney damage after sub-acute exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rats: involvement of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Trabelsi, Mounir; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of sub-acute exposure to different doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on rat kidney. Forty animals were divided into four equal groups and treated with different doses of 2,4-D: 0, 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight per day via oral gavage for 28 consecutive days. Renal function, histopathology, tissue malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. The results showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in uric acid level and an increase in plasma levels of urea and creatinine (p < 0.01) in rats administered 2,4-D at the three studied doses. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly affected for all treated rats, while glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased in rats exposed to 2,4-D at a dose of 150 mg/kg. Through sub-acute treatment, starting from the low to the high doses of 2,4-D, there were significant increase in kidney MDA as compared to controls. The histopathological study revealed tubular damages, glomerular alterations, vascular congestion and increased number of pyknotic nuclei in kidneys of all 2,4-D treated groups. The severity of these alterations increase in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings confirm that sub-acute exposure to 2,4-D induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. Therefore, at higher doses, 2,4-D may be implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney failure via lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

  17. Unreamed or RIA reamed nailing: an experimental sheep study using comparative histological assessment of affected bone tissue in an acute fracture model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Sprecher, Christoph; Rahn, Berton A; Green, James; Müller, Christof A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA), a reaming system designed to incorporate the advantages of irrigation and suction for every day clinical use. The evaluation process was focused on the displacement of the medullary content and its impact on cortical perfusion. The results of the RIA reamed nailing were compared to conventional non-reamed nailing (NRN). The tibia of the sheep was used as an acute fracture model. The fracture and nailing procedure was followed by intravital staining with Procion red. The effects on cortical perfusion (Procion red staining) were addressed in polymer embedded sections and cryosections. Sudan III stained cryosections were evaluated with respect to the cortical fat distribution. After irrigation and suction minute amounts of fat were observed in the cortex, whereas after non-reamed nailing the endosteal third of the cortical bone was penetrated with fat. Non-reamed nailing acutely showed better perfusion in the endosteal tenth and periosteal third of the cortical bone, after irrigation and suction reaming perfusion was preserved to a lesser degree. Irrigation and suction significantly reduces fat intravasation, and thus the danger of system-wide damage. Therefore, the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator is as efficient as its experimental predecessors. PMID:21144924

  18. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  19. Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Intramniotic Infection in a Guinea Pig Model of Chorioamnionitis Using PAMAM Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Navath, Raghavendra S.; Menjoge, Anupa R.; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Bellair, Robert; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2010-01-01

    Dendrimers have emerged as topical microbicides to treat vaginal infections. This study explores the in-vitro, in-vivo antimicrobial activity of PAMAM dendrimers, and the associated mechanism. Interestingly, topical cervical application of 500 µg of generation-4 neutral dendrimer (G4-PAMAM-OH) showed potential to treat the Escherichia coli induced ascending uterine infection in guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis. Amniotic fluid collected from different gestational sacs of infected guinea pigs post treatment showed absence of E. coli growth in the cultures plated with it. The cytokine level [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1β)] in placenta of the G4-PAMAM-OH treated animals were comparable to those in healthy animals while these were notably high in infected animals. Since, antibacterial activity of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers is known, the activity of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers was compared with it. Though the G4-PAMAM-NH2 shows superior antibacterial activity, it was found to be cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cell line above 10µg / mL, while the G4-PAMAM-OH was non cytotoxic upto 1mg / mL concentration. Cell integrity, outer (OM) and inner (IM) membrane permeabilization assays showed that G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimer efficiently changed the OM permeability, while G4-PAMAM-NH2 and G3.5-PAMAM-COOH damaged both OM and IM causing the bacterial lysis. The possible antibacterial mechanism are; G4-PAMAM-NH2 acts as polycation binding to the polyanionic lipopolysaccharide in E. coli, the G4-PAMAM-OH forms hydrogen bonds with the hydrophilic O-antigens in E. coli membrane and the G3.5-PAMAM-COOH acts as a polyanion, chelating the divalent ions in outer cell membrane of E. coli. This is the first study which shows that G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimer acts as an antibacterial agent. PMID:20580797

  20. Salaries in histology.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J

    2008-04-01

    An analysis of histology salaries from the last 4 national surveys conducted by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists is presented. The regional variations within and between years for histology salaries presented in the last 4 national surveys of medical laboratory specialties are not statistically significant. Local variations greater than the national variations reflect the preponderant effect of local supply and demand over regional characteristics. Salaries by hospitals are significantly different only between 2 size categories and the supervisors' salary. There is no correlation between the salary increase for any histology position in any one year and the vacancy level in the previous year. On the other hand, the correlation between histotechnicians' salaries and both the cost of living and the median income are significant, as well as between the latter and the supervisors' salary. The histotechnologists' salaries are significantly correlated with the consumer price index but not with the inflation rate. A survey of histology salaries in foreign countries was also undertaken and compared with salaries in the United States. National salaries rank close to the general average for 10 foreign countries when expressed as ratios with the personal gross domestic product or with the countries' minimum wage. For the midpoint salary ranges, the United States ranks fourth after Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia, the latter 3 countries with structured pay rates adjusted to local costs of living in contrast with United States' salary characteristics. Histology salaries rest on negotiations within each employer's salary structure and fluctuate according to license level, documented studies, special training(s), years of experience, references, and the ability to negotiate, where each side tries to take advantage of the other. The result is a heterogeneous and chaotic salary situation driven by personal and local needs, where the histology worker usually

  1. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  2. Gastritis: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice.

  3. Validation of histology image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaii, Rushin; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Yaffe, Martin; Martel, Anne L.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to validate an image registration pipeline used for histology image alignment. In this work a set of histology images are registered to their correspondent optical blockface images to make a histology volume. Then multi-modality fiducial markers are used to validate the alignment of histology images. The fiducial markers are catheters perfused with a mixture of cuttlefish ink and flour. Based on our previous investigations this fiducial marker is visible in medical images, optical blockface images and it can also be localized in histology images. The properties of this fiducial marker make it suitable for validation of the registration techniques used for histology image alignment. This paper reports on the accuracy of a histology image registration approach by calculation of target registration error using these fiducial markers.

  4. Histology without xylene.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J; Peshkov, Maxim V

    2009-08-01

    After the hazardous effects of xylene became indisputable in the 1970s, many potential substitutes became available, some with as many if not more hazards. This article discusses the inadequacy of 5 vegetable oils as substitutes, as well as the characteristics of 22 D-limonene-based substitutes, all less effective in their chemical role, some capable of inducing health problems, and costing more than twice as much as xylene. Some of the 35 alkane-based substitutes discussed are effective for tissue processing, less toxic, with a cost about the same as xylene, but are not very effective for dewaxing and other staining tasks. Isopropanol (2-propanol) alone or mixed with molten paraffin is a technically acceptable and cost-effective substitute for xylene for tissue processing, but in this study, we demonstrate that the best clearing agents from the sectioning quality and diagnostic value point of view, with automated or manual protocols, are mixtures of 5:1 and 2:1 isopropanol and mineral oil, followed by undiluted mineral oil, all at 50 degrees C, making them a safer and cheaper substitute than xylene. Using a 1.7% dishwasher soap aqueous solution at 90 degrees C to dewax before staining and oven drying the stained sections before coverslipping will eliminate xylene from the staining tasks. Tissue processors retorts and conduits can be dewaxed with a 2% solution of a strong glassware laboratory detergent. These 4 methodologies will make the histology laboratory xylene-free but, due to the natural resistance to change, many histotechs will be reluctant to adopt them if they think that their technical expertise could be jeopardized, and the only way these changes will succeed is if the pathologists, as stewards of the histology laboratory, commit to their implementation.

  5. Mechanisms of leukocyte accumulation and activation in chorioamnionitis: interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha enhance colony stimulating factor 2 expression in term decidua.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Felice; Toti, Paolo; Buchwalder, Lynn; Casciaro, Alessandra; Cintorino, Marcella; Schatz, Frederick; Rybalov, Basya; Lockwood, Charles J

    2009-05-01

    Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of prematurity as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. The present study observed a marked increase in immunohistochemical staining for Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2; also known as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor), a potent neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractant and activator, in the decidua of patients with CAM compared with controls (n = 8; P = .001). To examine the regulation of this CSF2, cultured decidual cells primed with estradiol (E2) or E2 plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-1beta and secreted CSF2 measured by ELISA. Levels of CSF2 in E2 plus MPA-treated cultures increased 18- and 245-fold following treatment with TNF or IL1B (n = 7, P < .05). Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated parallel changes in mRNA levels. This study reveals that CSF2 is strongly expressed in decidua from patients with CAM and indicates TNF or IL1B as important regulators of CAM-related decidual leukocyte infiltration and activation.

  6. Histologic features of nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Anolik, Rachel B; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Minakawa, Satoko; Nguyen, Jennifer; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-06-01

    Nail cosmetics and adornments are widely used in today's society. However, their histologic features are not well characterized. Routine histologic examination and polarization of nail plate specimens in our academic dermatopathology practice at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania revealed 3 distinct histologic patterns of nail cosmetics: a hyperpigmented pattern with diffuse fine granular material, a layered pattern with a single linear band of polarizable material, and a hyperpigmented pattern with larger granules containing flecks of polarizable material. In our experience, submitting clinicians rarely indicate the patient's use of nail polish or other enhancements. Recognition of the histologic features of nail cosmetics is important to prevent confusion with dermatoses affecting the nail unit, and it will help dermatopathologists render more accurate diagnoses. PMID:22452953

  7. Colorectal tumors: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Giovanni; Messerini, Luca; Gafà, Roberta; Risio, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Epithelial colorectal tumors are common pathologic entities. Their histology report should be comprehensive of a series of pathologic parameters essential for the correct clinical management of the patients. Diagnostic histologic criteria of adenomatous, serrated, inflammatory, and hamartomatous polyps and of polyposis syndromes are discussed. In addition, the pathologic features of early and advanced colorectal cancer are described and a checklist is given. Finally, molecular prognostic and predictive factors currently employed in the treatment of colorectal cancer are discussed.

  8. [Exocrine function of the pancreas and pathological histology of the stomach in patients with stomach yin deficiency syndrome (SYDS) research on SYDS following abdominal operation or with severe acute abdominal diseases (Part 3)].

    PubMed

    Qi, Q H; Wu, X Z; Bai, J W

    1990-08-01

    Exocrine function of pancreas (BT-PABA test) in 13 patients with SYDS was examined and gastric membrane in 5 cases with SYDS other than gastric diseases was observed under light- and electro-microscopy. The results were as follows: urine rate of recovery of PABA in SYDS was 35. 42 +/- 14.33% and that in the control with same age was 64.70 +/- 10.55%. The rate in SYDS was decreased obviously (P less than 0.001). Under light microscopy gastric mucosa of patients with SYDS showed slight gland degenerative atrophy, smaller cytoplasm, eosinophilic decrease of parietal cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells in interstitial tissue. Under electro-microscopy, the main changes of the gastric mucosa with SYDS were severe mitochondria damage, inflating rough endoplasmic pools and large vacuole at which membrane major particles of ribosomes disappeared, degenerated secretory vessels and formation of myelin figure in parietal cells, decrease of secretory particles in main cells, degeneration in some degree and decrease of nervous secretory particles in G cells and damaged interstitial capillaries. The results in this study suggested that the exocrine function of pancreas in patients with SYDS after abdominal operation or with severe acute abdominal diseases was decreased and there were some damages in energy supply and protein manufacturing systems of the gastric mucosa and functional disturbances of main cells, parietal cells and G cells in patients with SYDS.

  9. [Histologic findings in kidney tumors].

    PubMed

    Hora, M; Ouda, Z; Schejbalová, E; Chudácek, Z; Mukensnabl, P

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a group of 304 adult patients (with the exception of one child with a Wilms tumour) from 1988-95 with the diagnosis of a primary renal tumour treated by surgery and subsequently subjected to histological examination. The tumours were in 83.9% clear renal cell tumours (Grawitz carcinoma), 4.3% were papillary carcinomas, 3.3% renal cortical adenomas, 3.9% oncocytomas and 2.0% non-differentiated carcinomas, 0.7% angiomyolipomas, 0.7% chromophobe cell renal carcinomas, 0.7% secondaries (carcinoma of the breast and testis), 0.7% multilocular cysts, one case each (0.3%) Wilms tumour, malignant lymphoma, necrotic histologically not classifiable tumour. The authors give a more detailed account of multilocular cystic RCC (which accounts for 5.9% Grawitz tumours), papillary tumours, chromophobe cell renal carcinoma, oncoytoma and angiomyolipoma. The authors correlate briefly the histological findings with preoperative graphic examinations. They are very sceptical as regards assessment of the histological type of tumour from preoperative graphic examination (with the exception of angiomyolipoma). Finally the authors suggest classification of renal expansions from the urologists aspect-in the first place from preoperative graphic examinations for non-neoplastic lesions (in particular cysts and hypertrophy of the columna Bertini), parenchymatous tumours and tumours of the renal pelvis and secondly (mainly in parenchymatous tumours) histological classification is taken into account.

  10. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets.

  11. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  12. Histologic Technician. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for histologic technician is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task…

  13. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  14. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  15. Skin and kidney histological changes in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Tadeja; Alessiani, Mario; Pleskovič, Alojz; Pleskovič, Aleš; Zorc-Pleskovič, Ruda; Milutinović, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    Kidney transplantation (Ktx) is generally performed during end stage renal disease due to a loss of the kidneys' ability to filter wastes from the circulatory system. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after Ktx is a life-threatening complication that progresses to organ failure, systemic complications, and death. The current study evaluated the significance of histologic findings of GVHD as obtained from skin biopsies following Ktx in swine. A swine model of Ktx with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression was used to assess possible correlations between acute-graft-cellular rejection and skin histological findings for prediction of GVHD. Animals were divided into a Ktx treatment group or a control group with no Ktx and skin and kidney biopsies were histologically assessed at postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60. Skin samples were analyzed and classified from grade 1 to 4 of skin GVHD and the major histopathological changes of kidney acute cellular rejection were described using Banff's score system. We observed a significant linear correlation between the histological grading values of skin biopsy changes and the histological grading values of kidney biopsies (Kendall's tau_b=0.993) in the Ktx experimental group. No histological changes were observed in controls. Our findings demonstrate the diagnostic value of staging skin GVHD after Ktx and suggest it's future utility for monitoring long term Ktx-induced changes.

  16. Microbiological and histological findings in the fallopian tubes of women using various contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    Collins, J A; Gillett, P G; Perlin, I A; Embil, J A; Zayid, I; Richards, G; Kirk, M E

    1984-11-01

    The oviducts of seventy-three women undergoing sterilization by partial salpingectomy were submitted for microbiological and histologic studies. Twenty women were intrauterine device users, twenty-five women were oral contraceptive pill users and twenty-eight women used natural or barrier methods of contraception. Among intrauterine device users, there was an excess of mild and severe acute inflammatory histologic changes involving both the lumen and the tubal mucosa. Five of the eight intrauterine device users with acute inflammatory change had sterile tubal cultures.

  17. Two neutrophilic dermatoses captured simultaneously on histology

    PubMed Central

    Wlodek, Christina; Bhatt, Nidhi; Kennedy, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    A number of neutrophilic dermatoses are associated with malignancies and their treatment. These rarely occur together in the same patient. A Caucasian 72-year-old male was treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with chemotherapy including daunorubicin and cytarabine. Within 48 hours of commencing treatment, he developed pyrexia and, two days later, disseminated non-tender pink plaques on the limbs and trunk. A skin biopsy showed a dermal interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytoid cells and predominantly neutrophils. This extended into the subcutis, where a neutrophilic lobular panniculitis was seen. These findings are consistent with Sweet’s syndrome. In addition, a neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate was also present around eccrine coils and lower ducts. The eccrine epithelium showed squamous metaplasia with dyskeratosis and sloughing into the lumen. These latter findings are consistent with neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH). These two histologically distinct entities form part of the neutrophilic dermatoses that have been described in oncology patients with reports of concurrent or sequential occurrence of various neutrophilic dermatoses in the same patient. Ours, however, is only the second reported case of simultaneously captured Sweet’s and NEH in the setting of AML. The most likely explanation is that of an epiphenomenon, whereby the neutrophilic infiltrate extended around the sweat glands in the context of the neutrophilic dermatosis. PMID:27648385

  18. Two neutrophilic dermatoses captured simultaneously on histology.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, Christina; Bhatt, Nidhi; Kennedy, Cameron

    2016-07-01

    A number of neutrophilic dermatoses are associated with malignancies and their treatment. These rarely occur together in the same patient. A Caucasian 72-year-old male was treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with chemotherapy including daunorubicin and cytarabine. Within 48 hours of commencing treatment, he developed pyrexia and, two days later, disseminated non-tender pink plaques on the limbs and trunk. A skin biopsy showed a dermal interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytoid cells and predominantly neutrophils. This extended into the subcutis, where a neutrophilic lobular panniculitis was seen. These findings are consistent with Sweet's syndrome. In addition, a neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate was also present around eccrine coils and lower ducts. The eccrine epithelium showed squamous metaplasia with dyskeratosis and sloughing into the lumen. These latter findings are consistent with neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH). These two histologically distinct entities form part of the neutrophilic dermatoses that have been described in oncology patients with reports of concurrent or sequential occurrence of various neutrophilic dermatoses in the same patient. Ours, however, is only the second reported case of simultaneously captured Sweet's and NEH in the setting of AML. The most likely explanation is that of an epiphenomenon, whereby the neutrophilic infiltrate extended around the sweat glands in the context of the neutrophilic dermatosis. PMID:27648385

  19. Coeliac disease: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Ceppa, Paola; Tavani, Enrico; Vindigni, Carla; Volta, Umberto

    2011-03-01

    To this day intestinal biopsy is justly considered the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD). The aim of the authors in setting up these guidelines was to assist pathologists in formulating a more precise morphological evaluation of a duodenal biopsy in the light of clinical and laboratory data, to prepare histological samples with correctly oriented biopsies and in the differential diagnosis with other pathological entities and complications of the disease. A further intention was to promote the conviction for the need of a close collaborative relationship between different specialists namely the concept of a "multidisciplinary team".

  20. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  1. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  2. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  3. Acute arsenical myopathy: morphological description.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Sola, J; Nogue, S; Grau, J M; Casademont, J; Munne, P

    1991-01-01

    We describe the histological findings of the muscle in a case of acute voluntary massive arsenic intoxication resulting in severe rhabdomyolysis. The main features on muscle biopsy were perifascicular hypercontracted fibers, myofibrillar disruption, mitochondrial abnormalities and abundant cytoplasmic vacuoles containing lipids.

  4. [Histological aspects of posttraumatic regeneration].

    PubMed

    Truupyl'd Aiu

    1976-02-01

    A number of histological aspects (regeneration capacity, origins of regeneration, means of reparation) are discussed on the example of the reparative regeneration of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex is found to possess high regeneration capacity after a traumatic injury of the organ. Realization of this capacity is dependent on general and local conditions, the character and the volume of the injury and the degree of involvment of cambial zones being of substantial significance. Among these zones are the glomerular zone and the external part of the bundle zone, whose proliferating cells are the source of the reparative regeneration of the cortical substance. The reparation of the functioning mass of the adrenal cortex is performed by the type of regenerative hypertrophy or the reparative regeneration depending on the character of the trauma. After the first type, the division of cells and their differentiation occur within the limits of the available structural elements, after the second type- of the newly formed ones. Both types are evolutionally conditioned and are definitely similar eather to postnatal growth and physiological regeneration (regenerative hypertrophy), or to the embryonic histogenesis of the definitive adrenal cortex (reparative regeneration).

  5. Diphenyl ditelluride intoxication triggers histological changes in liver, kidney, and lung of mice.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Daubermann, Melissa Falster; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Dos Santos, Matheus Mülling; Ramos, Angelica; Torres Salazar, Gerson; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe)2), an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg) or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days) exposed to (PhTe)2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe)2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe)2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe)2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe)2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe)2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung.

  6. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Daubermann, Melissa Falster; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; dos Santos, Matheus Mülling; Ramos, Angelica; Torres Salazar, Gerson; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe)2), an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg) or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days) exposed to (PhTe)2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe)2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe)2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe)2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe)2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe)2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung. PMID:26236579

  7. Comparative Histology of Plasma Treated Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Kyle

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric plasmas applied in surgical settings have unique characteristics found in histological results from animal tissue studies. This is evident in both ex vivo bench tissue tests and in vivo fresh tissue. Examples of these histological features are presented as results of a comparative study between plasma treated, common medical argon coagulation, and electrosurgery.

  8. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  9. Histological evaluation in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    DeRoche, Tom C; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Xiuli

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes diagnostic problems, challenges and advances in ulcerative colitis (UC). It emphasizes that, although histopathological examination plays a major role in the diagnosis and management of UC, it should always be interpreted in the context of clinical, endoscopic, and radiological findings. Accurate diagnosis requires knowledge of the classic morphological features of UC, as well as a number of atypical pathological presentations that may cause mis-classification of the disease process, either in resection or biopsy specimens. These atypical pathological presentations include rectal sparing and patchiness of disease at initial presentation of UC in pediatric patients or in the setting of medically treated UC, cecal or ascending colon inflammation in left-sided UC, and backwash ileitis in patients with severe ulcerative pancolitis. Loosely formed microgranulomas, with pale foamy histiocytes adjacent to a damaged crypt or eroded surface, should not be interpreted as evidence of Crohn's disease. Indeterminate colitis should only be used in colectomy specimens as a provisional pathological diagnosis. Patients with UC are at risk for the development of dysplasia and carcinoma; optimal outcomes in UC surveillance programs require familiarity with the diagnostic criteria and challenges relating to UC-associated dysplasia and malignancy. Colon biopsy from UC patients should always be evaluated for dysplasia based on cytological and architectural abnormalities. Accurate interpretation and classification of dysplasia in colon biopsy from UC patients as sporadic adenoma or UC-related dysplasia [flat, adenoma-like, or dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM)] requires clinical and endoscopic correlation. Isolated polypoid dysplastic lesions are considered to be sporadic adenoma if occurring outside areas of histologically proven colitis, or adenoma-like dysplasia if occurring in the diseased segment. Recent data suggest that such lesions may be treated

  10. Histologic features in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dienes, H P; Popper, H; MAnns, M; Baumann, W; Thoenes, W; Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1989-06-01

    In order to see if the term of "plasma cell hepatitis", dating back to the early sixties, is still valid as a morphological diagnosis for autoimmune chronic hepatitis (AICH), and to find out if the existence of several subgroups is reflected by histopathology, we investigated 26 patients with chronic hepatitis, who met the criteria of autoimmune hepatitis based on tests for antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) and on immunoassays for liver-kidney-microsomal (LKM) antigen, liver membrane antigen (LMA), and soluble liver antigen (SLA). In our material autoimmune hepatitis represent the entire spectrum of chronic hepatitis with variable inflammatory activity ranging from chronic persistent hepatitis to severe inflammatory lesions in chronic active hepatitis with transition to cirrhosis. When compared to viral chronic hepatitis A and non-A, non-B, however, characteristic features can be evaluated consisting in broad hypocellular areas of collapse and microacinar transformation of hepatocytes with hydropic swelling being the predominant type of cell lesion. Eosinophilic clumping and acidophilic necrosis were insignificant. Plasma cells were not a constituent feature of AICH. From this histopathologic pattern it may be concluded that the disease seems to run a sluggish course in most patients, however, in few cases a dramatic development may determine the disease with fatal acute episodes which are terminated by death or fade into slow progression. The different subgroups could not be distinguished by histopathology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Structure Function Estimated From Histological Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Han, Aiguo; O'Brien, William D

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic scattering is determined by not only the properties of individual scatterers but also the correlation among scatterer positions. The role of scatterer spatial correlation is significant for dense medium, but has not been fully understood. The effect of scatterer spatial correlation may be modeled by the structure function as a frequency-dependent factor in the backscatter coefficient (BSC) expression. The structure function has been previously estimated from the BSC data. The aim of this study is to estimate the structure function from histology to test if the acoustically estimated structure function is indeed caused by the scatterer spatial distribution. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections from dense cell pellet biophantoms were digitized. The scatterer positions were determined manually from the histological images. The structure function was calculated from the extracted scatterer positions. The structure function obtained from histology showed reasonable agreement in the shape but not in the amplitude, compared with the structure function previously estimated from the backscattered data. Fitting a polydisperse structure function model to the histologically estimated structure function yielded relatively accurate cell radius estimates ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, two types of mouse tumors that have similar cell size and shape but distinct cell spatial distributions were studied, where the backscattered data were shown to be related to the cell spatial distribution through the structure function estimated from histology. In conclusion, the agreement between acoustically estimated and histologically estimated structure functions suggests that the acoustically estimated structure function is related to the scatterer spatial distribution.

  12. Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) powders: ultrastructural and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, M S; Maccauro, G; Graci, C; Cittadini, A; Magnani, G; Sangiorgi, S; Del Bravo, V; Manicone, P F; Raffaelli, L; Muratori, F; Sgambato, A

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic materials, as Alumina and Zirconia, has made an improvement in the choice of new biomaterials for the load bearing application in dental and orthopaedic implants. These materials has shown mechanical resistance to high stress related to weight bearing and low debris in time. For this reason they are indicated on young patients implant, with high demanding activities and long life expectance. In literature however the risk of chronic inflammation due to chronic wear debris release and the possibility of carcinogenesis, is still to be definitively investigated. Another point to investigate is the acute reaction of the tissue in case of acute release of powders of these materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible local and systemic acute effects of ceramic precursors in form of powders of different size when released into articular joint. Powders of ZTA were implanted in the knee joint of twenty-four New Zealand white adult rabbits, that were sacrificed at 1,3,6, and 12 months. Radiographic, histological and immunoistochemestry analysis were conducted on periprosthetic tissue and peripheral organs, to verifying local host response and systemic toxic effects.

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  14. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology.

    PubMed

    de Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e., skeletonized or "dry bone") tissue samples. This review discusses these differences and describes how they affect the histological analysis of paleopathological specimens. First, we provide a summary of some general challenges related to the histological analysis of palaeopathological specimens. Second, the reader is introduced in bone tissue histology and bone tissue dynamics. The remainder of the paper is dedicated to the diagnostic value of dry bone histology. Its value and limitations are illustrated by comparing several well-studied paleopathological cases with similar contemporary, clinical cases. This review illustrates that due to post-mortem loss of soft tissue, a limited number of disorders display pathognomonic features during histological analysis of skeletonized human remains. In the remainder of cases, histology may help to narrow down the differential diagnosis or is diagnostically unspecific. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary diagnostic approach therefore remains essential. Clin. Anat. 29:831-843, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. GRAPHIE: graph based histology image explorer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Histology images comprise one of the important sources of knowledge for phenotyping studies in systems biology. However, the annotation and analyses of histological data have remained a manual, subjective and relatively low-throughput process. Results We introduce Graph based Histology Image Explorer (GRAPHIE)-a visual analytics tool to explore, annotate and discover potential relationships in histology image collections within a biologically relevant context. The design of GRAPHIE is guided by domain experts' requirements and well-known InfoVis mantras. By representing each image with informative features and then subsequently visualizing the image collection with a graph, GRAPHIE allows users to effectively explore the image collection. The features were designed to capture localized morphological properties in the given tissue specimen. More importantly, users can perform feature selection in an interactive way to improve the visualization of the image collection and the overall annotation process. Finally, the annotation allows for a better prospective examination of datasets as demonstrated in the users study. Thus, our design of GRAPHIE allows for the users to navigate and explore large collections of histology image datasets. Conclusions We demonstrated the usefulness of our visual analytics approach through two case studies. Both of the cases showed efficient annotation and analysis of histology image collection. PMID:26330277

  16. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  17. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.

  18. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat's pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described.

  19. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  20. Accurate Histological Techniques to Evaluate Critical Temperature Thresholds for Prostate In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv; Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Sugar, Linda

    2007-05-01

    Various histological techniques have been compared to evaluate the boundaries of thermal damage produced by ultrasound in vivo in a canine model. When all images are accurately co-registered, H&E stained micrographs provide the best assessment of acute cellular damage. Estimates of the boundaries of 100% and 0% cell killing correspond to maximum temperature thresholds of 54.6 ± 1.7°C and 51.5 ± 1.9°C, respectively.

  1. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information. PMID:24820052

  2. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information.

  3. Rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: LIP and PPFE and rare histologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias: AFOP and BPIP.

    PubMed

    Kokosi, Maria A; Nicholson, Andrew G; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2016-05-01

    In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium. Thin-walled cysts and diffuse ground glass are considered the typical radiologic features. The clinical course is highly variable with corticosteroid responsiveness evident in approximately half of cases. IPPFE is defined histologically by coexisting upper lobe pleural and intra-alveolar fibrosis with elastosis. Dense subpleural irregular fibrosis and consolidation are the cardinal radiologic features. A history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection is frequent. Responses to immunomodulation have not been reported and the rate of progression appears to be highly variable. AFOP is a rare histologic pattern lying within the spectrum of acute/subacute lung injury, characterized by organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition without hyaline membranes. BPIP is characterized histologically by fibrosis and/or inflammation confined to the alveolar interstitium around bronchovascular bundles, overlapping with peribronchial metaplasia and fibrosis in some series. Currently, AFOP and BPIP are both best viewed as histological entities rather than true clinical disorders, in the absence of characteristic associated imaging patterns and clinical features. PMID:26627191

  4. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, B; Córdoba, S; Nieto, S; Fernández-Herrera, J; García-Díez, A

    1999-12-01

    We report a woman with acute arsenic poisoning, who developed an erythroderma with vesicles and pustules after the ingestion of 8-16 g of sodium arsenite. Simultaneously, she presented a herpes simplex virus infection. Skin biopsies showed unique features which included multiple small pigment granules inside and outside the histiocytes. In our opinion, these findings are consistent with acute arsenic poisoning, and constitute the first histological description of this entity in skin.

  5. [Histological aspects of naso-ethmoidal tumors].

    PubMed

    Carnot, F

    1997-01-01

    Among malignant neoplasms of the sino-nasal tract, tumors of the nasal vault have special features: their higher incidence in woodworkers, their frequent local recurrence and invasiveness in the skull base. Histologically too, they are peculiar by the predominance of the glandular tumors, of colonic or enteric type especially. Microscopic examination allows histological grading of these adenocarcinoma. Squamous carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are less frequent than in other parts of the sinonasal tract. Rare other tumors, often undifferentiated, can be diagnosed by immuno-staining as esthesioneuroblastomas, malignant melanomas, neuro-endocrine carcinomas, malignant lymphomas or sarcomas. A retrospective study of 147 patients yielded similar data.

  6. Developing the eHistology Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Graham, Liz; Moss, Julie; Burton, Nick; Roochun, Yogmatee; Armit, Chris; Baldock, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The eMouseAtlas project has undertaken to generate a new resource providing access to high-resolution colour images of the slides used in the renowned textbook ‘The Atlas of Mouse Development’ by Matthew H. Kaufman. The original histology slides were digitized, and the associated anatomy annotations captured for display in the new resource. These annotations were assigned to objects in the standard reference anatomy ontology, allowing the eHistology resource to be linked to other data resources including the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Gene-Expression database (EMAGE) an the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) gene-expression database (GXD). The provision of the eHistology Atlas resource was assisted greatly by the expertise of the eMouseAtlas project in delivering large image datasets within a web environment, using IIP3D technology. This technology also permits future extensions to the resource through the addition of further layers of data and annotations to the resource. Database URL: www.emouseatlas.org/emap/eHistology/index.php PMID:26500249

  7. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  8. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  9. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  10. A histological study of cerebral aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Gordana; Nikolić, Valentina; Puskas, Laslo; Filipović, Branislav; Stojsić-Dzunja, Ljubica; Krivokuća, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral (sylvian) aqueduct is a narrow channel in the mesencephalon. It lies between the tectum and the tegmentum of the mesencephalon and is surrounded by the periaqueductal gray matter. The aim of this study was to determine the shape of the aqueduct of sylvius and the structure of its walls in a series of transverse histological sections. Serial transverse sections of the mesencephalon were examined in twenty adult brains of both sexes. Six sections were stained by the hematoxylin-eosin method. The rostral part of the the aqueduct has a triangular shape with dorsal concavity caused by retrocommissural fossae. In the middle, its shape is oval to irregular, the rostral part has a T shape due to isthmic recess on the floor. Walls of the aqueduct are coated with a layer of prismatic cells. Determination of the morphological and histological features of the mesencephalic aqueduct is important for differentiation between physiological and pathological processes in this region.

  11. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  12. Necrotizing sialometaplasia: frequency of histologic misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mesa, M L; Gertler, R S; Schneider, L C

    1984-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is said to mimic carcinoma, both clinically and histologically. A review of approximately 10,000 oral biopsy specimens revealed only three cases of necrotizing sialometaplasia, all of which had been misdiagnosed as other benign entities. While this suggests that necrotizing sialometaplasia represents only 0.03 percent of biopsied oral lesions, it does not deal with the frequency of cases of this condition which heal spontaneously without being biopsied.

  13. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644877

  14. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  15. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Limitations of the criteria used to diagnose histologic endometritis in epidemiologic pelvic inflammatory disease research

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Chivukula, Mamatha; Krishnamurti, Uma; Amortegui, Antonio J.; Kant, Jeffrey A.; Sweet, Richard L.; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Phillips, Jaclyn M.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary While endometrial neutrophils and plasma cells are criteria used to diagnose histologic endometritis in epidemiologic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) research, plasma cell misidentification and nonspecificity may limit the accuracy of these criteria. Herein, we examined: 1) the identification of endometrial plasma cells with conventional methyl green pyronin-based methodology versus plasma cell-specific (CD138) immunostaining; 2) the prevalence of endometrial plasma cells among women at low risk for PID; and 3) endometrial leukocyte subpopulations among women diagnosed with acute or chronic histologic endometritis by conventional criteria. We observed an absence of CD138+ cells in 25% of endometrial biopsies in which plasma cells had been identified by conventional methodology, while additional immunohistochemical analyses revealed indistinguishable inflammatory infiltrates among women diagnosed with acute or chronic endometritis by conventional criteria. Among women considered at lower risk for PID development, flow cytometric analyses detected plasma cells in 30% of endometrial biopsy specimens, suggesting that these cells, even when accurately identified, only nonspecifically identify upper genital tract inflammatory processes. Combined, our findings underscore the limitations of the criteria used to diagnose histologic endometritis in PID-related research and suggest that satisfactory understanding of PID pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention is hindered by continued use of these criteria. PMID:21996319

  17. Knowledge of renal histology alters patient management in over 40% of cases.

    PubMed

    Richards, N T; Darby, S; Howie, A J; Adu, D; Michael, J

    1994-01-01

    There is great debate as to whether the benefit gained from the knowledge of renal histology outweighs the risk to the patient from the biopsy procedure. We conducted a prospective study of 276 native renal biopsies performed on 266 patients from a single centre in 1991 to assess the effect of the knowledge of renal histology on patient management. Biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance using the Trucut biopsy needle. The indications for biopsy were: non-nephrotic proteinuria alone (25), haematuria and proteinuria (28), nephrotic range proteinuria (28), acute renal failure (31), haematuria alone (36), and chronic renal failure (128). Two hundred and sixty-three biopsies were successful. The mean number of glomeruli obtained was 23, range 0-115. Eight patients developed macroscopic haematuria of which two required blood transfusion. The result of the biopsy altered management in 24/28 (86%) of cases of nephrotic range proteinuria, 22/31 (71%) of cases of acute renal failure, 58/128 (45%) of cases of chronic renal failure, 9/28 (32%) of cases with haematuria and proteinuria, 3/25 (12%) of cases with non-nephrotic proteinuria alone, and 1/36 (3%) of cases with haematuria alone. management was altered in 42% of cases overall. These data suggest that knowledge of renal histology is essential in the management of patients with renal disease.

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis, one disease with many faces: Etiopathogenetic, clinico-laboratory and histological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Zachou, Kalliopi; Koukoulis, George K; Dalekos, George N

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an unresolving progressive liver disease of unknown etiology characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies detection and interface hepatitis. Due to the absence of specific diagnostic markers and the large heterogeneity of its clinical, laboratory and histological features, AIH diagnosis may be potentially difficult. Therefore, in this in-depth review we summarize the substantial progress on etiopathogenesis, clinical, serological and histological phenotypes of AIH. AIH has a global distribution affecting any age, both sexes and all ethnic groups. Clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic to severe or rarely fulminant hepatitis. Hypergammaglobulinemia with selective elevation of IgG is found in most cases. Autoimmune attack is perpetuated, possibly via molecular mimicry, and favored by the impaired control of T-regulatory cells. Histology (interface hepatitis, emperipolesis and hepatic rosette formation) and autoantibodies detection although not pathognomonic, are still the hallmark for a timely diagnosis. AIH remains a major diagnostic challenge. AIH should be considered in every case in the absence of viral, metabolic, genetic and toxic etiology of chronic or acute hepatitis. Laboratory personnel, hepato-pathologists and clinicians need to become more familiar with disease expressions and the interpretation of liver histology and autoimmune serology to derive maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:25574080

  19. Regional Variations in the Histology of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we present a compendium of the most relevant histological features of the skin in terms of their regional variations along with histological clues that facilitate the topographic identification of cutaneous biopsies.

  20. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact.

  1. Barrett's oesophagus diagnostic criteria: endoscopy and histology.

    PubMed

    Naini, Bita V; Chak, Amitabh; Ali, Meer Akbar; Odze, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    This review summarizes the endoscopic and histologic features of Barrett's oesophagus(BO) as well as some of the recent advancements and controversies. BO represents metaplastic conversion of normal squamous epithelium of tubular oesophagus to columnar epithelium. The diagnosis of BO requires a combination of endoscopic and histopathologic findings. There is worldwide controversy regarding the exact definition of BO, particularly with regard to the requirement to histologically identify goblet cells in biopsies. The presence and detectability of goblet cells might vary depending on a variety of factors and is subject to sampling error. Therefore, a systematic biopsy sampling with sufficient number of biopsies is currently recommended to limit the likelihood of a false negative result for detection of goblet cells. There are both endoscopic and pathologic challenges in evaluating gastro-oesophageal junction biopsies in patients with irregular Z lines to determine the exact location of the sample (i.e., oesophagus versus stomach). Recently, several novel endoscopic techniques have been developed to improve BO detection. However, none have been validated yet in clinical practice. The surveillance of patients with BO relies on histologic evaluation of dysplasia. However, there are significant pathologic limitations and diagnostic variability in evaluating the presence and grading of BO dysplasia, particularly with regard to the more recently recognized non-intestinal types of dysplasia. All BO dysplasia samples should be reviewed by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist to confirm the diagnosis. Finally, it is important to emphasize that close interaction between gastroenterologists and pathologists is essential to ensure proper evaluation of endoscopic biopsies in order to optimize the surveillance and clinical management of patients with BO.

  2. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection.

  3. Temporal Trends in the Histology of the Rabbit Kidney after Cavitational Tissue Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Timothy L.; Kieran, Kathleen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.

    2007-05-01

    Tissue can be mechanically ablated through inertial cavitation generated by high intensity pulsed ultrasound. The ablation appears acutely as a fine slurry with absent cellular structure. Long-term effects and the evolution of histologic changes in disrupted tissue remain poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the 0-60 day histology of cavitational ablation in a rabbit model. 29 New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized and exposed to high intensity pulses of ultrasound (60000 pulses, 20 usec duration, 750 kHz, 1 kHz PRF, 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure, lower pole, left kidney). Kidneys were harvested immediately from five rabbits. The others were recovered and the kidneys were harvested 1, 2, 7, 20, or 60 days after treatment. Grossly, kidneys from 0-2 days displayed subcapsular bruising near the exposure site and some hemorrhage in the adjacent perirenal fat; microscopically, a disrupted, acellular zone measuring 3-5 mm by 5-10 mm accompanied by local infiltration of neutrophils (acute inflammation) was seen. Kidneys harvested after 7 days displayed tubular dilatation adjacent to the targeted area and collagen deposition consistent with scar formation. Decreased collagen deposition, decreased size of the disrupted zone, and regeneration of the tubular basal cell layer of dilated tubules was evident by day 20. Kidneys harvested at 20 and 60 days had contour defects near the exposure site with an apparent volume loss. Cavitation causes orderly and predictable histologic changes. Local renal damage induced during histotripsy may be partially reversible. Further research is needed to identify the clinical correlates of the observed histologic findings.

  4. Histological and Histopathological Study of Incus

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Shubhpreet; Chaudhary, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic otits media is long standing infection of middle ear cleft which commonly involves bone erosion. Bone destruction seen in unsafe chronic otitis media mainly involves the ossicles, incus being frequently involved ossicle. So, an investigation of the histopathological changes in incus was carried out to report the various histopathological changes occurring in chronic otitis media. Aim Aim of the study is to report the structural changes occuring in incus bone in chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods Ten normal incuses and ten pathological incuses which were removed during the surgery for chronic otitis media (both with and without cholesteotoma) were studied histologically, after staining with haematoxylin and eosin. Results Normal incus showed compact bone pattern of concentric rings, like that of any long bone of body. Pathological incuses of chronic otitis media (both with and without cholestoetoma) showed similar changes, i.e., stratified squamous epithelium, with distorted concentric rings and increased osseous spaces. Conclusion The study was undertaken, so that the knowledge to histological changes may help the clinicians to take more rational decisions regarding their diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to prevent the changes occurring in the bone in chronic otitis media. PMID:27656423

  5. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  6. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context *

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  7. The role of mast cells in histologically "normal" appendices following emergency appendectomy in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongbo; Esebua, Magda; Layfield, Lester

    2016-10-01

    Fifteen percent to 25% of appendices resected for a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis have no neutrophilic infiltration, thus histologically "normal." The discrepancy between clinical presentation and the lack of definite morphologic changes is confounding. It has been indicated that mast cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of the appendicitis-like pain in patients with histologically negative appendices (HNAs). To investigate whether mast cell density (MCD) is increased in pediatric HNAs, we retrieved 50 appendectomy cases (30 HNA and 20 control, ages 2 days-18 years) in our institute in the last 10 years. All cases were stained with mast cell tryptase by immunohistochemistry, and MCD (count/high-power field) was measured in mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. Mast cells had the greatest density in the mucosa, followed by the submucosa, in all appendices. MCDs in all 4 layers were significantly higher in HNAs than in the normal controls (mucosa: 46±9 vs 26±11, P<.01; submucosa: 18±5 vs 11±5, P<.01; muscularis: 6±3 vs 4±2, P<.01; serosa: 6±2 vs 4±2, P<.01). This result suggests that mast cells play an important role in pathogenesis of HNA cases. In clinical practice, pathologists may order immunohistochemical stains for mast cells in cases with no classic histologic findings of acute appendicitis following emergency appendectomy. If increased MCD is noted, the case may be reported as "appendicitis with increased mast cells." This assures surgeons that the appendectomy is the correct treatment and it is not necessary to look for other causes of acute abdomen. This is especially important in children. PMID:27649944

  8. An animal model for chorioamnionitis at term

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Ovo, Valeria; Rosenzweig, Jason; Burd, Irina; Merabova, Nana; Darbinian, Nune; Goetzl, Laura

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to develop an animal model for intrapartum inflammation at term to investigate the interactions between maternal and fetal inflammatory responses and adverse neurologic outcome. STUDY DESIGN Lipopolysaccharide (160, 320, or 640 μg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to day 20 term-pregnant Sprague Dawley rat dams 2, 4, and 6 hours before sample collection. Maternal outcomes included dam core temperature and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6). Fetal outcomes included plasma IL-6, brain IL-6 messenger RNA expression, and brain IL-6 protein expression. Primary cortical cell cultures were prepared to examine neuronal morphologic condition. Neurite counts were obtained with the use of automated Sholl analysis. RESULTS Maternal plasma IL-6 levels peaked 2 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulus and rapidly resolved, except for an observed low level persistence at 6 hours with 640 μg/kg. Fetal plasma and placental IL-6 expression also peaked rapidly but only persisted in placental samples. Fetal brain IL-6 RNA and protein expression was significantly higher than control litters at 6 hours after the exposure to both 320 μg/kg (P ≤ .05) and 640 μg/kg (P ≤ .01). Cortical cells from fetuses that were exposed for 6 hours to maternal systemic inflammation showed reduced neurite number and neurite length (P < .001) with increasing lipopolysaccharide dose. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrate that fetal brain injury follows isolated systemic maternal inflammation and that fetal brain inflammation lags after maternal stimulus, which creates a potential 4-hour clinical window for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25979619

  9. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  10. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  11. Lipoid proteinosis: clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Muda, A O; Paradisi, M; Angelo, C; Mostaccioli, S; Atzori, F; Puddu, P; Faraggiana, T

    1995-10-01

    The case of a 12-year-old boy with lipoid proteinosis is reported. Physical examination revealed long-standing varicella-like scars and areas of hyperpigmentation on the face and upper limbs with no evidence of photosensitivity, hoarseness, small papules along the free margins of eyelids, tongue firmness with short frenulum, and widespread papular lesions of the oral cavity. Histologic and ultrastructural examination revealed the characteristic skin changes: pink, hyaline-like, strongly periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in the dermis, surrounding blood vessels, and sweat glands; thin (30 to 35 nm) collagen fibrils interspersed in abundant amorphous material; blood vessels surrounded by thickened, multilayered basement membranes, in which layers of typical, homogeneous basement membrane material were alternating with electronlucent areas filled by various amounts of thin, cross-striated fibrils, arranged perpendicularly. These findings are of great interest since they show a complex relationship between type IV and type III-like collagen components.

  12. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  13. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  14. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons.

    PubMed

    Trobisch, Per David; Bauman, Matthias; Weise, Kuno; Stuby, Fabian; Hak, David J

    2010-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the rupture-zone was obtained in 22 cases and histologic analysis was performed. Degenerative changes were present in only 14 (64%) of the 22 samples. We observed an increasing ratio of degenerative to nondegenerative tendons with increasing patient age. Our data suggests that quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in younger patients, can occur in the absence of pathologic tendon degeneration.

  15. The Histological Slides and Drawings of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Ramón y Cajal's studies in the field of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his original preparations are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain). In this article, we catalogue and analyse more than 4,500 of Cajal's histological preparations, the same preparations he used during his scientific career. Furthermore, we catalogued Cajal's original correspondence, both manuscripts and personal letters, drawings and plates. This is the first time anyone has compiled an account of Cajal's enormous scientific production, offering some curious insights into his work and his legacy. PMID:20339483

  16. Rheumatoid neuropathy: a histological and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Weller, R. O.; Bruckner, F. E.; Chamberlain, M. Anne

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerves in five patients with rheumatoid neuropathy were examined electrophysiologically and by sural nerve biopsy. There was close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease and the degree of nerve damage found histologically and by EMG. Group 1 patients with a mild distal sensory neuropathy showed varying degrees of axonal degeneration in the large myelinated fibres and some segmental demyelination. Group 2 patients with a severe, rapidly progressive sensori-motor neuropathy had extensive loss of myelinated fibres. In one case all the large fibres had degenerated. The second case had lost both large and small myelinated fibres together with many of the non-myelinated axons. The major nerve damage in both groups appeared to be axonal degeneration but some segmental demyelination was detected. Occlusive vascular disease in the vasa nervorum was considered to be the major cause of the nerve damage. Images PMID:4320255

  17. Retroperitoneal malignant fibrous histiocytoma without histological atypias.

    PubMed

    Laky, D; Penciu, M; Rădulescu, D

    1993-01-01

    A case of a 36-year-old woman suspected of hepatic hydatid cyst with dyseptic symptoms, hepatomegalia, profound pains in the right hypochondrium is presented. During the operation a 15/12/17 cm well-incapsulated tumour is extirpated. The tumour stretched from the upper right renal pole behind the right hepatic lobe as far as the diaphragm and while sectioning it was grey and orange. Histopathologically we found a fibrous histiocytoma with zones of storiform fascicular pattern alternating with areas of histocytic cells with vacuolar-foamy cytoplasm, rich in lipids and without atypias or mitoses. We report the frequency, histological aspects of the fibrous histiocytomas as well as some particularities of their retroperitoneal location.

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  19. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  20. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  1. Gastrointestinal Zygomycosis Masquerading as Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Tak; Chang, Tammy T.; Gill, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Zygomycosis is a rare invasive opportunistic fungal infection that occurs in the setting of hematologic malignancies, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and immunosuppressive therapies. We report the first case of disseminated appendiceal zygomycosis due to Absidia spp. in a neutropenic patient who initially presented as acute appendicitis. A 63-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia presented as acute appendicitis while receiving induction chemotherapy and ultimately succumbed to overwhelming disseminated zygomycosis. Initial symptoms included loose stools and right lower abdominal pain unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Clinical examination and cross-sectional imaging suggested acute appendicitis. The final diagnosis was established by histological evaluations of the ileocecectomy specimen, which showed angioinvasive fungal organisms within the necrotic appendiceal wall with characteristics typical of zygomycetes. Fungal cultures demonstrated Absidia spp. The patient was treated with amphotericin B but expired in the setting of fungal sepsis. A diagnosis of a fungal infection, including zygomycosis, should be considered in all chemotherapy-induced neutropenic patients who present with symptoms of acute appendicitis. A high index of clinical suspicion with prompt histologic and culture diagnosis of zygomycosis may reduce the high mortality and morbidity associated with zygomycosis of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27403107

  2. Elemental diet as prophylaxis against radiation injury. Histological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    McArdle, A H; Wittnich, C; Freeman, C R; Duguid, W P

    1985-09-01

    We investigated whether elemental diet feeding would protect the intestine from radiation injury. Five dogs were fed an elemental diet for three days before receiving pelvic irradiation (500 rad/day for four days) and were maintained on the diet during the days of irradiation. These dogs were compared with five dogs that were fed normal kennel ration, but were treated similarly otherwise. One day and five days following completion of the radiation treatment, the dogs were anesthetized and a biopsy specimen of terminal ileum was taken for histologic and electron microscopic studies. In the dogs fed the elemental diet, there was no significant damage to the intestine seen on histological examination, and electron microscopy disclosed elongated microvilli and no organelle damage. However, both histological and electron microscopic examination of the intestine from dogs maintained on normal kennel ration showed that severe damage had occurred from the irradiation procedure. It seems, therefore, that the feeding of an elemental diet to dogs as a prophylaxis can afford protection to the intestine from the acute phase of radiation injury.

  3. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  4. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease.

  5. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  6. Histology of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this article is to assist pathologists inexperienced in examining central nervous system (CNS) sections to recognize normal and abnormal cell types as well as some common artifacts. Dark neurons are the most common histologic artifact but, with experience, can readily be distinguished from degenerating (eosinophilic) neurons. Neuron degeneration stains can be useful in lowering the threshold for detecting neuron degeneration as well as for revealing degeneration within populations of neurons that are too small to show the associated eosinophilic cytoplasmic alteration within H&E-stained sections. Neuron degeneration may also be identified by the presence of associated macroglial and microglial reactions. Knowledge of the distribution of astrocyte cytoplasmic processes is helpful in determining that certain patterns of treatment-related neuropil vacuolation (as well as some artifacts) represent swelling of these processes. On the other hand, vacuoles with different distribution patterns may represent alterations of the myelin sheath. Because brains are typically undersampled for microscopic evaluation, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the circumventricuar organs (CVOs) that represent normal brain structures but are often mistaken for lesions. Therefore, the six CVOs found in the brain are also illustrated in this article.

  7. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  8. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  9. Anatomy and Histology of an Epicanthal Fold.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the precise anatomical and histological detail of the epicanthal fold.Thirty-two hemifaces of 16 Korean adult cadavers were used in this study (30 hemifaces with an epicanthal fold, 2 without an epicanthal fold). In 2 patients who had an epicanthoplasty, the epicanthal folds were sampled.In a dissection, the periorbital skin and subcutaneous tissues were removed and the epicanthal fold was observed in relation to each part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Specimens including the epicanthal fold were embeddedin in paraffin, sectioned at 10 um, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The horizontal section in the level of the paplebral fissure was made and the prepared slides were observed under a light microscope.In the specimens without an epicanthal fold, no connection between the upper preseptal muscle and the lower preseptal muscle was found. In the specimens with an epicanthal fold, a connection of the upper preseptal muscle to the lower preseptal muscle was observed. It was present in all 15 hemifaces (100%). There was no connection between the pretarsal muscles. In a horizontal section, the epicanthal fold was composed of 3 compartments: an outer skin lining, a core structure, and an innerskin lining. The core structure was mainly composed of muscular fibers and fibrotic tissue and they were intermingled.Surgeons should be aware of the anatomical details of an epicanthal fold. In removing or reconstructing an epicanthal fold, the fibromuscular core band should also be removed or reconstructed.

  10. Histological assessment of tangentially excised burn eschars

    PubMed Central

    Gurfinkel, Reuven; Rosenberg, Lior; Cohen, Sarit; Cohen, Arnon; Barezovsky, Alex; Cagnano, Emanuela; Singer, Adam J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The burn eschar serves as a medium for bacterial growth and a source of local and systemic infection. To prevent or minimize these complications, it is important to debride the eschar as early as possible. OBJECTIVE: To identify the presence of viable skin within the excisions by examining tangentially excised burn eschars. METHODS: A total of 146 samples of burned human tissue were removed during 54 routine sharp tangential excision procedures (using dermatomes). The samples were histologically examined to identify the relative thickness of the dead, intermediate and viable layers. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) thickness of the excised samples was 1.7±1.1 mm. The sacrificed viable tissue (mean thickness 0.7±0.8 mm) occupied 41.2% of the entire thickness of the excision. In 32 biopsies (21.8%; 95% CI 16.0 to 29.3), the excision did not reach viable skin. Only eight biopsies (5.4%; 95% CI 2.8 to 10.1) contained all of the necrotic tissue without removing viable tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The thickness of a single tangentially excised layer of eschar is not much greater than the actual thickness of the entire skin and often contains viable tissue. Because surgical debridement is insufficiently selective, more selective means of debriding burn eschars should be explored. PMID:21886431

  11. Chronic viral hepatitis: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Guido, Maria; Mangia, Alessandra; Faa, Gavino

    2011-03-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis, the role of liver biopsy as a diagnostic test has seen a decline, paralleled by its increasing importance for prognostic purposes. Nowadays, the main indication for liver biopsy in chronic viral hepatitis is to assess the severity of the disease, in terms of both necro-inflammation (grade) and fibrosis (stage), which is important for prognosis and therapeutic management. Several scoring systems have been proposed for grading and staging chronic viral hepatitis and there is no a general consensus on the best system to be used in the daily practice. All scoring systems have their drawbacks and all may be affected by sampling and observer variability. Whatever the system used, a histological score is a reductive approach since damage in chronic viral hepatitis is a complex biological process. Thus, scoring systems are not intended to replace the detailed, descriptive, pathology report. In fact, lesions other than those scored for grading and staging may have clinical relevance and should be assessed and reported. This paper aims to provide a systematic approach to the interpretation of liver biopsies obtained in cases of chronic viral hepatitis, with the hope of helping general pathologists in their diagnostic practice.

  12. Histology of breast development in early life.

    PubMed Central

    McKiernan, J; Coyne, J; Cahalane, S

    1988-01-01

    Histological examination of the breasts of 26 infants and young children who died suddenly between the ages of 3 weeks and 2 years was performed. The glands were composed of well formed lobules surrounded by dense interlobular stroma, while within the lobules there was looser connective tissue. The lobules contained ducts, many of which were dilated and contained secretions. Foci of extramedullary haematopoiesis were found, and in the older infants, fat was prominent within the connective tissue of the breast. Myoepithelial cells were regularly present. No sex differences in breast development at this time were noted. Newborn breast development did not regress rapidly after birth and secretory activity continued for many months in both sexes. This study shows that the human mammary gland remains active for many months after birth and may continue to grow and secrete. The findings are not consistent with the current view that breast development in infancy results from stimulation from 'pregnancy hormones.' It is more likely that the infant's own gonadal secretions are responsible. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3348660

  13. Complex Retrieval of Embedded IVC Filters: Alternative Techniques and Histologic Tissue Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, William T.; Cupp, John S.; Louie, John D.; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Hovsepian, David M.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods to retrieve embedded optional and permanent filters in order to manage or reduce risk of long-term complications from implantation. Histologic tissue analysis was performed to elucidate the pathologic effects of chronic filter implantation. Methods: We studied the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods for removing embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in 10 consecutive patients over 12 months. Indications for retrieval were symptomatic chronic IVC occlusion, caval and aortic perforation, and/or acute PE (pulmonary embolism) from filter-related thrombus. Retrieval was also performed to reduce risk of complications from long-term filter implantation and to eliminate the need for lifelong anticoagulation. All retrieved specimens were sent for histologic analysis. Results: Retrieval was successful in all 10 patients. Filter types and implantation times were as follows: one Venatech (1,495 days), one Simon-Nitinol (1,485 days), one Optease (300 days), one G2 (416 days), five Guenther-Tulip (GTF; mean 606 days, range 154-1,010 days), and one Celect (124 days). There were no procedural complications or adverse events at a mean follow-up of 304 days after removal (range 196-529 days). Histology revealed scant native intima surrounded by a predominance of neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis in all specimens. Histologic evidence of photothermal tissue ablation was confirmed in three laser-treated specimens. Conclusion: Complex retrieval methods can now be used in select patients to safely remove embedded optional and permanent IVC filters previously considered irretrievable. Neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis are the major components that must be separated to achieve successful retrieval of chronic filter implants.

  14. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  15. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  16. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  17. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  18. Histology of Type 1 Diabetes Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Abby; Gillespie, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans play a critical role in glucose homeostasis. Islets are predominantly composed of insulin-secreting beta cells and glucagon-secreting alpha cells. In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells are destroyed by autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells resulting in hyperglycemia. This is a gradual process, taking from several months to decades. Much of the beta cell destruction takes place during a silent, asymptomatic phase. Type 1 diabetes becomes clinically evident upon destruction of approximately 70-80 % of beta cell mass. Studying the decline in beta cell mass and the cells which are responsible for their demise is difficult as pancreatic biopsies are not feasible in patients with type 1 diabetes. The relative size of islets and their dispersed location throughout the pancreas means in vivo imaging of human islets is currently not manageable. At present, there are no validated biomarkers which accurately track the decline in beta cell mass in individuals who are at risk of developing, or have already developed, type 1 diabetes. Therefore, studies of pancreatic tissue retrieved at autopsy from donors with type 1 diabetes, or donors with high risk markers of type 1 diabetes such as circulating islet-associated autoantibodies, is currently the best method for studying beta cells and the associated inflammatory milieu in situ. In recent years, concerted efforts have been made to source such tissues for histological studies, enabling great insights to be made into the relationship between islets and the inflammatory insult to which they are subjected. This article describes in detail, a robust immunohistochemical method which can be utilized to study both recent, and archival human pancreatic tissue, in order to examine islet endocrine cells and the surrounding immune cells. PMID:26801316

  19. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  20. Endometrial decidualization: a rare cause of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Skyle J.; Kaur, Anupinder; Wullschleger, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular endometriosis is a rare and poorly understood pathology that affects women in their reproductive years. In the gravid woman, ectopic endometrial tissue undergoes decidualization. This physiological process can result in acute appendicitis in exceptional cases. Here we describe a patient in her second trimester of pregnancy who presented with right iliac fossa pain and clinical, laboratory and imaging findings consistent with acute appendicitis. A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed with intraoperative findings suspicious for malignancy. Histological analysis made the surprising diagnosis of decidualized endometriosis causing luminal constriction resulting in acute appendicitis. We also detail the challenging diagnostic and management issues faced by clinicians in such cases. PMID:27106612

  1. [A case of acute disseminated Mucor encephalitis in a heifer].

    PubMed

    Schönmann, M; Thoma, R; Braun, U

    1997-01-01

    The case of a 2 1/2 year old Swiss Braunvieh heifer suffering from an acute disseminated mycotic encephalitis caused by a Mucorales spp. infection is presented. Clinical signs and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (increased protein concentration and pleocytosis) were typical for an acute encephalitis, probably due to a listeriosis. The histological examination of the brain revealed an acute disseminated thrombo-embolic encephalomyelitis due to a fungi infection, morphologically consistent with Mucorales spp. The occurrence of bovine cerebral mucormycosis is rare and therefore the veterinarian should become aware of a case which was clinically not distinguishable from a listeriosis.

  2. Soft Tissue Response to Titanium Abutments with Different Surface Treatment: Preliminary Histologic Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Canullo, Luigi; Dehner, Jan Friedrich; Penarrocha, David; Checchi, Vittorio; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary prospective RCT was to histologically evaluate peri-implant soft tissues around titanium abutments treated using different cleaning methods. Sixteen patients were randomized into three groups: laboratory customized abutments underwent Plasma of Argon treatment (Plasma Group), laboratory customized abutments underwent cleaning by steam (Steam Group), and abutments were used as they came from industry (Control Group). Seven days after the second surgery, soft tissues around abutments were harvested. Samples were histologically analyzed. Soft tissues surrounding Plasma Group abutments predominantly showed diffuse chronic infiltrate, almost no acute infiltrate, with presence of few polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, and a diffuse presence of collagenization bands. Similarly, in Steam Group, the histological analysis showed a high variability of inflammatory expression factors. Tissues harvested from Control Group showed presence of few neutrophil granulocytes, moderate presence of lymphocytes, and diffuse collagenization bands in some sections, while they showed absence of acute infiltrate in 40% of sections. However, no statistical difference was found among the tested groups for each parameter (p > 0.05). Within the limit of the present study, results showed no statistically significant difference concerning inflammation and healing tendency between test and control groups. PMID:27366741

  3. Soft Tissue Response to Titanium Abutments with Different Surface Treatment: Preliminary Histologic Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Canullo, Luigi; Dehner, Jan Friedrich; Penarrocha, David; Checchi, Vittorio; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary prospective RCT was to histologically evaluate peri-implant soft tissues around titanium abutments treated using different cleaning methods. Sixteen patients were randomized into three groups: laboratory customized abutments underwent Plasma of Argon treatment (Plasma Group), laboratory customized abutments underwent cleaning by steam (Steam Group), and abutments were used as they came from industry (Control Group). Seven days after the second surgery, soft tissues around abutments were harvested. Samples were histologically analyzed. Soft tissues surrounding Plasma Group abutments predominantly showed diffuse chronic infiltrate, almost no acute infiltrate, with presence of few polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, and a diffuse presence of collagenization bands. Similarly, in Steam Group, the histological analysis showed a high variability of inflammatory expression factors. Tissues harvested from Control Group showed presence of few neutrophil granulocytes, moderate presence of lymphocytes, and diffuse collagenization bands in some sections, while they showed absence of acute infiltrate in 40% of sections. However, no statistical difference was found among the tested groups for each parameter (p > 0.05). Within the limit of the present study, results showed no statistically significant difference concerning inflammation and healing tendency between test and control groups. PMID:27366741

  4. Dental students' evaluations of an interactive histology software.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Cristian; Rubí, Rafael; Donoso, Manuel; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed dental students' evaluations of a new Interactive Histology Software (IHS) developed by the authors and compared students' assessment of the extent to which this new software, as well as other histology teaching methods, supported their learning. The IHS is a computer-based tool for histology learning that presents high-resolution images of histology basics as well as specific oral histologies at different magnifications and with text labels. Survey data were collected from 204 first-year dental students at the Universidad Austral de Chile. The survey consisted of questions for the respondents to evaluate the characteristics of the IHS and the contribution of various teaching methods to their histology learning. The response rate was 85 percent. Student evaluations were positive for the design, usability, and theoretical-practical integration of the IHS, and the students reported they would recommend the method to future students. The students continued to value traditional teaching methods for histological lab work and did not think this new technology would replace traditional methods. With respect to the contribution of each teaching method to students' learning, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for an evaluation of IHS, light microscopy, and slide presentations. However, these student assessments were significantly more positive than the evaluations of other digital or printed materials. Overall, the students evaluated the IHS very positively in terms of method quality and contribution to their learning; they also evaluated use of light microscopy and teacher slide presentations positively.

  5. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  6. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  7. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  8. Age influence on periodontal tissues: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Claudia Florina; Mihai, Laurenţa Leila; Răescu, Mihaela; Tuculină, Mihaela Jana; Cumpătă, C N; Ghergic, Doina Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosa becomes thinner, smooth and looses stippling aspect with aging. From histological standpoint appears: narrowing and alteration of gingival epithelium, modification of epithelial-connective interface and decreasing of keratinization. However, it cannot be detected significant histological alterations in size, shape or arrangement of epithelial cells that could be endorsed to aging process. Histological studies indicate: decreasing of keratinization, regressive changes in epithelium and fibrosis in underlying connective tissue. Parakeratosis is frequent with aging because of microtraumas, in many cases is expression of permanent inflammation. PMID:24322032

  9. Acute and chronic acalculous cholecystitis associated with aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fuyuki F; Hara, Yoshiaki; Kamei, Masako; Tanaka, Michio; Yasuno, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    Acalculous cholecystitis is a rare but life-threatening disease, but its pathogenesis is not fully revealed yet. We experienced two acalculous cholecystitis cases associated with aortic dissection. In Case 1, acalculous cholecystitis occurred just after the exacerbation of the aortic dissection. Laparotomy showed necrotized cholecystitis with fresh thrombi formation. Case 2 developed acalculous cholecystitis on the 65th hospital day of aortic dissection. Laparotomy revealed the perforation of the gallbladder. Histological study revealed fibrosis and hemosiderosis in the subserosal layer. The histological findings of these two patients are quite different: Case 1 is acute ischemic and Case 2 is chronic ischemic. While a few cases of acute ischemic cholecystitis have been reported previously, chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) has not been documented. History of aortic dissection could be a risk factor of acute and CAC due to relatively decreased splanchnic blood flow. PMID:26232599

  10. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  11. Histological and microbiological findings in non-infected and infected revision arthroplasty tissues. The OSIRIS Collaborative Study Group. Oxford Skeletal Infection Research and Intervention Service.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R; Berendt, A R; Athanasou, N A

    2000-01-01

    An assessment of clinical and laboratory findings is generally required to distinguish between septic and aseptic loosening of a hip implant. In order to evaluate the diagnostic utility of histological and microbiological investigative techniques to differentiate between these two conditions, we analysed their results in 617 patients with hip implant loosening. Histology and microbiology study confirmed the clinical diagnosis of septic loosening in approximately 98% and 89%. respectively. The clinical diagnosis of aseptic loosening was confirmed by histology in 99% of cases. In all but 2 of 81 cases of septic loosening, in which an organism was isolated on microbiological culture, the histological diagnosis of septic loosening was made on the basis of the degree of the acute inflammatory infiltrate (i.e. the presence of 1 or more neutrophil polymorphs per high power field (x 400) on average after examination of at least 10 high power fields) in periprosthetic tissues. In 10 patients for whom there was a strong clinical suspicion of septic loosening but no organisms were isolated on microbiological culture, the histological findings, using the above criteria, were in keeping with the clinical diagnosis of septic loosening. As almost 11% of cases of septic loosening would not have been diagnosed by microbiological investigation alone, our findings indicate that histological examination of periprosthetic tissues should form part of the investigative protocol to distinguish between aseptic and septic loosening.

  12. The enlightenments from ITMIG Consensus on WHO histological classification of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: refined definitions, histological criteria, and reporting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Fang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification of the thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) has been criticized for poor interobserver reproducibility or inconsistencies in the routine pathological diagnosis. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) panel achieved an agreement to maintain the widely accepted WHO framework but to refine historic definitions and histological criteria, and further introduce some new terms with the aim to improve interobserver reproducibility. This review addresses the enlightenments we can get from the ITMIG consensus on the WHO histological classification of the thymoma and TC, which may be helpful for most pathologists. PMID:27114842

  13. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  14. Clinical implications of rhinoceros reproductive tract anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, N E; Foley, G L; Gill, S; Pope, C E

    2001-03-01

    Reproductive tracts or tissues from five male black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), two male white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum), two male one-horned Asian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), seven female black rhinoceroses, and six female white rhinoceroses from multiple institutions were examined to characterize their anatomy and histology. Some observations and measurements were obtained from in situ tracts of intact animals before or during necropsy. Formalin-fixed tissues were dissected and examined histologically. Retrospective reproductive data from each rhinoceros was obtained from the institutions of origin. Reproductive histology of these species was similar to that of other mammals. Male accessory gland structure varied among species, and the Asian rhinoceros epididymis was more loosely attached and had larger duct diameters than did the epididymides of the African species. Although histology was typically mammalian, rhinoceros reproductive morphology combined characteristics of several different mammals. Defining this unique morphology of rhinoceroses may help in understanding their reproductive physiology and will effect the development of appropriate reproductive techniques.

  15. [Genome Abnormality and Histological Findings in Breast Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moriya, Takuya; Suzuki, Soichiro; Kanomata, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancers contain variable histologies as well as biology. Gene expression profiling and cluster analyses have been performed since the beginning of the 21st century. The use of intrinsic subtype classification has replaced histological classification of breast carcinomas, as it frequently yields the same results. For examples, around 80% of triple negative (estrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cancers are of the basal-like subtype. In daily practice, adjuvant therapy is selected based on histological features, but the results of ordinal cluster analyses and histological intrinsic subtypes are not always the same for individual cases. With advanced genetic analysis, new concepts have been elucidated, ie, the molecular identification of claudin-low breast cancer. Proposals of a new classification system and a new therapeutic approach are expected in the future. PMID:27067844

  16. PREPARATION OF WHOLE SMALL FISH FOR HISTOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic pathology, which is primarily concerned with chemically-induced structural changes in cells or tissues, depends on the proper histological processing of test specimens. In fishes, histopathological examination is widely recognized as a reliable method for disease diag...

  17. In Vivo Inflammatory Effects of Ceria Nanoparticles on CD-1 Mouse: Evaluation by Hematological, Histological, and TEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Anna; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; de Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; De Marzi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The attention on CeO2-NPs environmental and in vivo effects is due to their presence in diesel exhaust and in diesel filters that release a more water-soluble form of ceria NPs, as well as to their use for medical applications. In this work, acute and subacute in vivo toxicity assays demonstrate no lethal effect of these NPs. Anyhow, performing in vivo evaluations on CD-1 mouse systems, we demonstrate that it is even not correct to assert that ceria NPs are harmless for living systems as they can induce status of inflammation, revealed by hematological-chemical-clinical assays as well as histological and TEM microscope observations. TEM analysis showed the presence of NPs in alveolar macrophages. Histological evaluation demonstrated the NPs presence in lungs tissues and this can be explained by assuming their ability to go into the blood stream and lately into the organs (generating inflammation). PMID:25032226

  18. Acute interstitial pneumonia: report of a series.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, A; Cancellieri, A; Chilosi, M; Trisolini, R; Boaron, M; Crimi, N; Poletti, V

    2003-01-01

    Four cases of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) are described with special emphasis on clinical background, lung imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage findings. A retrospective chart review of four patients with histologically-proven AIP, diagnosed between 1998 and 2000, was carried out. Clinical data, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and histological features were analysed. Three patients died and only one is in follow-up. HRCT showed areas of ground glass attenuation and alveolar consolidation in all patients. Histology, documented by open lung biopsy or autopsy specimens, was consistent with the organising form of diffuse alveolar damage pattern. BAL findings were characteristic, with a huge neutrophilia associated with scattered atypical type II pneumocytes collected in clusters with extracellular amorphous material (fragments of hyaline membranes) observed in two out of three cases. In this paper, four cases of acute interstitial pneumonia are reported in detail. The poor prognosis associated with this entity has been confirmed and the possible diagnostic role of the bronchoalveolar lavage is emphasised.

  19. Kniest dysplasia: MR correlation of histologic and radiographic peculiarities.

    PubMed

    Dwek, Jerry R

    2005-02-01

    Unossified epiphyses of Kniest dysplasia patients histologically reveal a bizarre pattern of chondrocytes lying amid a highly vacuolated matrix giving rise to the name "Swiss cheese" cartilage. The ossified epiphyses also are unusual in showing clouds of dense punctate calcifications randomly distributed throughout. Both unossified and ossified epiphyses reveal on MR imaging a similar pattern of lakes of bright T2 signal against a relatively normal background, which represents an interesting analogue to the histologic and radiographic features.

  20. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: A unique report with histological diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mutalik, Vimi S; Shreshtha, Ashish; Mutalik, Sunil S; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors are a group of heterogeneous lesions, features of which have been catalogued for several decades. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively rare and distinct odontogenic tumor that is exclusively odontogenic epithelium in origin. Although considerable number of reports is available with regard to the clinical and histological spectrum of AOT, very few have highlighted its varied histological presentations. Therefore, this article focuses on the assorted histoarchitectural patterns of AOT. PMID:22438651

  1. Histology of a Harris line in a human distal tibia.

    PubMed

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J

    2015-07-01

    Identification and diagnosis of Harris lines (HLs) is usually achieved using radiography. To date, histological methods have been mainly implemented in research exploring the underlying processes of HL deposition using longitudinal sections taken from animal bone. Here, a new insight into HL formation is provided following transverse histological sectioning in a human specimen. A distinct HL was identified macroscopically, and from a radiograph, in a left distal tibia taken from an adult human male. Transverse sections were taken through the HL, and also from trabeculae immediately superior and inferior to the HL. Thin sections were produced following standard histological procedures. Micrographs were captured using a digital microscope camera. Trabeculae immediately superior and inferior to the HL displayed no indication of abnormal growth, exhibiting abundant osteocyte lacunae and a lamellar structure. However, the micro-anatomy of the HL was characterised by the following three main features: (1) non-lamellar appearance, (2) a complete lack of osteocyte lacunae, and (3) presence of irregularly distributed tubular structures. These three histological features indicate a specific process of bone deposition, implying that trapping of osteoblasts may not take place during HL formation. Pictorial and descriptive records of HL histology are provided, aiding current understanding about the nature of HL, its identification from histology, and serving as a reference point for future comparative research. PMID:25762436

  2. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Valdair F; Prando, Adilson

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes.

  3. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    PubMed Central

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator. Material and methods: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50). Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks (p<0.05). Results: At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator. Conclusion: The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues. PMID:26504729

  4. Histologic models for optical tomography and spectroscopy of tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Davis, Brynmor J.

    2009-02-01

    Histologic information is often the ground truth against which imaging technology performance is measured. Typically, this information is limited, however, due to the need to excise tissue, stain it and have the tissue section manually reviewed. As a consequence, histologic models of actual tissues are difficult to acquire and are generally prohibitively expensive. Models and phantoms for imaging development, hence, have to be simple and reproducible for concordance between different groups developing the same imaging methods but may not reflect tissue structure. Here, we propose a route to histologic information that does not involve the use of human review nor does it require specialized dyes or stains. We combine mid-infrared Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with imaging to record data from tissue sections. Attendant numerical algorithms are used to convert the data to histologic information. Additionally, the biochemical nature of the recorded information can be used to generate contrast for other modalities. We propose that this histologic model and spectroscopic generation of contrast can serve as standard for testing and design aid for tomography and spectroscopy of tissues. We discuss here the biochemical and statistical issues involved in creating histologic models and demonstrate the use of the approach in generating optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of prostate tissue samples.

  5. STUDIES ON THE NASAL HISTOLOGY OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN THE FERRET

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Thomas; Stuart-Harris, C. H.

    1938-01-01

    A study has been made of the nasal histology in normal ferrets and in ferrets during and after infection with epidemic influenza virus. During the acute stage of infection the respiratory epithelium of the nasal mucous membrane undergoes necrosis with desquamation of the superficial cells and exudation into the air passages, and an inflammatory reaction occurs in the submucosa. Repair begins on the 4th day after infection, and from the 6th to the 14th day the respiratory area is covered successively by a transitional, a stratified squamous, and finally a stratified columnar epithelium. By the 21st day after infection the epithelium has been largely restored to normal but repair in the submucosa and cartilage is still in progress. The respiratory mucosa is substantially normal in structure 1 month after infection although minor abnormalities of cellular arrangement and type can still be distinguished. PMID:19870817

  6. The virtual histology intravascular ultrasound appearance of newly placed drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Mintz, Gary S; Hong, Young-Joon; Pakala, Rajbabu; Park, Kyung-Sook; Pichard, Augusto D; Satler, Lowell F; Kent, Kenneth M; Suddath, William O; Waksman, Ron; Weissman, Neil J

    2008-11-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is used before and after intervention and at follow-up to assess the quality of the acute result as well as the long-term effects of stent implantation. Virtual histology (VH) IVUS classifies tissue into fibrous and fibrofatty plaque, dense calcium, and necrotic core. Although most interventional procedures include stent implantation, VH IVUS classification of stent metal has not been validated. In this study, the VH IVUS appearance of acutely implanted stents was assessed in 27 patients (30 lesions). Most stent struts (80%) appeared white (misclassified as "calcium") surrounded by red (misclassified as "necrotic core"); 2% appeared just white, and 17% were not detectable (compared with grayscale IVUS because of the software-imposed gray medial stripe). The rate of "white surrounded by red" was similar over the lengths of the stents; however, undetectable struts were mostly at the distal edges (31%). Quantitatively, including the struts within the regions of interest increased the amount of "calcium" from 0.23 +/- 0.35 to 1.07 +/- 0.66 mm(2) (p <0.0001) and the amount of "necrotic core" from 0.59 +/- 0.65 to 1.31 +/- 0.87 mm(2) (p <0.0001). Most important, because this appearance occurs acutely, it is an artifact, and the red appearance should not be interpreted as peristrut inflammation or necrotic core when it is seen at follow-up. In conclusion, acutely implanted stents have an appearance that can be misclassified by VH IVUS as "calcium with or without necrotic core." It is important not to overinterpret VH IVUS studies of chronically implanted stents when this appearance is observed at follow-up. A separate classification for stent struts is necessary to avoid these misconceptions and misclassifications.

  7. A common blood gene assay predates clinical and histological rejection in kidney and heart allografts.

    PubMed

    Sarwal, Minnie; Sigdel, Tara

    2013-01-01

    We assayed our recently defined blood gene panel, diagnostic for kidney and cardiac acute rejection (AR), for its ability to predict biopsy-confirmed renal and cardiac AR prior to clinical or histological AR detection. We utilized a subset of 63 patients from our recent studies with biopsy-confirmed AR (n=40 kidney AR, n=23 cardiacAR) who had paired blood samples collected within 6 months before and after AR. Blood samples were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) for 10 genes, modeled across differing panels of 5 genes for kidney and heart AR to classify each sample with a quantitative prediction score for rejection. The performance accuracy of the 5-gene panels for AR were compared to the only commercially available QPCR blood assay (AlloMap). A blood gene-based molecular call for AR was made -3 months prior to the histological AR diagnosis in both kidney (92% predicted probability) and cardiac (80% predicted probability) transplant patients and outperformed the AlloMapTM blood test for accuracy and sensitivity [area under the curve (AUC)=0.917 for the kidney 5 genes and 0.915 for the cardiac 5 genes versus an AUC=0.72 for AlloMap]. Serial, posttransplant, targeted profiling of blood samples for a set of 10 genes provides a means to identify kidney and heart transplant recipients at high risk for graft dysfunction and, in the absence of immunosuppression customization, fated to advance to histological rejection and increased graft and patient morbidity.

  8. Endoscopic and histological features of mycophenolate mofetil colitis in patients after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Calmet, Fernando H.; Yarur, Andres J.; Pukazhendhi, Geetha; Ahmad, Jawad; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used after organ transplantation. Gastrointestinal side effects occur in approximately 45% of patients. The spectrum of histologic features associated with MMF colitis has been well described, but data on the endoscopic features is lacking. The aim of the study was to describe the endoscopic features of MMF colitis in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) as well as the frequency of histologic features and identify associated risk factors. Methods A retrospective review of all SOTRs taking MMF and who underwent colonoscopy between 2000 and 2010 was performed. 36 cases of MMF colitis were identified and 361 patients served as controls. Descriptive statistics and data analysis looking for associated risk factors were performed. Results Among SOTRs taking MMF who underwent colonoscopy, MMF colitis was diagnosed in 9%. Endoscopic findings ranged from erythema (33%) to erosions/ulcers (19%). 47% of patients had a normal colonoscopy and everyone had rectal sparing. Histological findings included acute colitis-like findings (50%), inflammatory bowel disease-like characteristics (36%), ischemia-like findings (5.6%), and graft-versus-host disease-like features (8.3%). Diarrhea occurred in 83%. Kidney transplantation was associated with a higher risk of MMF colitis (OR 5.8 [2.86-11.86], P<0.0001) whereas liver transplantation was associated with a lower risk (OR 0.06 [0.03-0.16], P<0.0001). Conclusion MMF colitis is fairly prevalent in SOTRs taking MMF who undergo colonoscopy. Diarrhea is the most common reason for colonoscopy referral (83%) and up to 47% of patients have normal colonoscopy, suggesting the need for routine biopsies to help confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26126799

  9. Lack of Chronic Histologic Lesions Supportive of Sublethal Spontaneous Seizures in FVB/N Mice.

    PubMed

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Schwahn, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    FVB/N mice with 'space cadet' syndrome are prone to audiogenic seizures and are considered excitotoxic 'sensitive' mice due to the neuronal damage that accompanies seizures. FVB/N mice found dead demonstrate acute neuronal cell death--attributed to a massive seizure episode--within the hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae. However, the behavioral features of FVB/N mice and numerous studies using excitotoxins to induce seizure activity indicate that this strain experiences multiple sublethal seizures. To assess whether FVB/N mice develop histologically detectable lesions, we evaluated the brains of 86 aged (154-847 d) FVB/N mice without a history of seizures. The hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae were evaluated histologically for neuronal atrophy and gliosis. Neuronal atrophy was quantified by counting neurons in the hippocampus (CA3 and dentate gyrus) and cerebral cortex. Gliosis was quantified by using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and glial counting in the cerebral cortex. In addition, ventricular area was calculated. Our study revealed no changes in brain weight with age, no neuronal loss or gliosis, no correlation between neuronal or glial cell profile densities and brain weight or age, and no differences in ventricular size between FVB/N and control mice. Neuronal densities in the cerebral cortex and granule cells of the dentate gyrus were lower in FVB/N mice than in control Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that although acute lesions of seizure activity are a previous feature of the FVB/N strain, chronic seizure activity in these mice either is negligible or does not cause morphologic or phenotypic changes.

  10. Lack of Chronic Histologic Lesions Supportive of Sublethal Spontaneous Seizures in FVB/N Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Schwahn, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    FVB/N mice with ‘space cadet’ syndrome are prone to audiogenic seizures and are considered excitotoxic ‘sensitive’ mice due to the neuronal damage that accompanies seizures. FVB/N mice found dead demonstrate acute neuronal cell death—attributed to a massive seizure episode—within the hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae. However, the behavioral features of FVB/N mice and numerous studies using excitotoxins to induce seizure activity indicate that this strain experiences multiple sublethal seizures. To assess whether FVB/N mice develop histologically detectable lesions, we evaluated the brains of 86 aged (154-847 d) FVB/N mice without a history of seizures. The hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae were evaluated histologically for neuronal atrophy and gliosis. Neuronal atrophy was quantified by counting neurons in the hippocampus (CA3 and dentate gyrus) and cerebral cortex. Gliosis was quantified by using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and glial counting in the cerebral cortex. In addition, ventricular area was calculated. Our study revealed no changes in brain weight with age, no neuronal loss or gliosis, no correlation between neuronal or glial cell profile densities and brain weight or age, and no differences in ventricular size between FVB/N and control mice. Neuronal densities in the cerebral cortex and granule cells of the dentate gyrus were lower in FVB/N mice than in control Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that although acute lesions of seizure activity are a previous feature of the FVB/N strain, chronic seizure activity in these mice either is negligible or does not cause morphologic or phenotypic changes. PMID:27053564

  11. Histologic comparison of needle, holmium:YAG, and erbium:YAG endoscopic goniotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui; Rivera, Brian K.; Hernandez, Eleut; Shetlar, Debra J.

    1995-05-01

    An endoscope allows visualization of the anterior chamber angle in porcine eyes despite the presence of cloudy corneas. The pectinate ligaments in the anterior chamber angle are a surgical model for primary infantile glaucoma. This study investigated the histologic results, one month after treating the anterior chamber angle with a goniotomy needle, the holmium:YAG laser, or the erbium:YAG laser coupled to a small endoscope. The anterior chambers were deepened with a viscoelastic material in one-month-old anesthetized pigs. An Olympus 0.8 mm diameter flexible endoscope was externally coupled to a 23 gauge needle or a 300 micron diameter fiber. The angle was treated for 120 degrees by one of the three methods, and the probe was removed. During the acute study, all three methods cut the pectinate ligaments. The histologic findings one month after healing demonstrated minimal surrounding tissue damage following goniotomy with a needle and the most surrounding tissue damage following treatment with the holmium:YAG laser.

  12. Effects of underwater sound exposure on neurological function and brain histology.

    PubMed

    Laurer, Helmut L; Ritting, Andrew N; Russ, Andrew B; Bareyre, Florence M; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Saatman, Kathryn E

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the safety of sonar exposure from a neurological perspective, the vulnerability of the central nervous system to underwater exposure with high-intensity, low-frequency sound (HI-LFS) was experimentally examined. Physiological, behavioral and histological parameters were measured in anesthetized, ventilated rats exposed to brief (5 min), underwater HI-LFS. Exposure to 180 dB sound pressure level (SPL) re 1 microPa at 150 Hz (n = 9) did not alter acute cardiovascular physiology (arterial blood pH, pO(2), pCO(2), heart rate, or mean arterial blood pressure) from that found in controls (n = 11). Rats exposed to either 180 dB SPL re 1 microPa at 150 Hz (n = 12) or 194 dB SPL re 1 microPa at 250 Hz (n = 12) exhibited normal cognitive function at 8 and 9 days after sound exposure. Evaluation of neurological motor function revealed a minor deficit 7 days after 180 dB SPL/150 Hz exposure that resolved by 14 days, and no deficits after 194 dB SPL/250 Hz exposure. No overt histological damage was detected in any group. These data suggest that underwater HI-LFS exposure may cause transient, mild motor dysfunction.

  13. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Catarina; Sanches, Inês; Ferreira, Catarina

    2012-03-20

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) was recently described as an unusual pattern of diffuse lung disease. Particular characteristics make the differential diagnosis with the well recognised clinical patterns of diffuse alveolar damage, cryptogenic organising pneumonia or eosinophilic pneumonia. The lack of hyaline membranes, the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin, absence of noticeable eosinophils and patchy distribution suggests that AFOP define a distinct histological pattern. The authors describe the case of a woman diagnosed with AFOP after surgical lung biopsy, in association with primary biliary cirrhosis. The patient presented dyspnoea, fatigue, dry cough and thoracic pain. The CT scan showed bilateral patchy infiltrates predominantly in the lower lobes. Flexible bronchoscopy and subsidiary techniques were inconclusive and biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery led to anatomopathological diagnosis of AFOP. The patient is having a good clinical response to prednisone.

  14. Histology-directed MALDI mass spectrometry for the diagnostic pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, In-Hoo

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of targeted agents, it has become clinically important to distinguish histologic types of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) using biopsy samples. We investigated whether direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis on lipid may classify histology of NSCLCs. Twentyone pairs of frozen, resected NSCLCs were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, two major histologic types of NSCLC, were found to have different lipid profiles. Discriminatory lipids correctly classified the histology of 80.4% of independent NSCLC surgical tissue samples (41 out of 51) in validation set, suggesting that lipid profiles can classify NSCLCs according to the histologic type. We also found that protein and lipid MALDI MS profiles can classify 30 breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtypes. Immunohistochemistry-defined, luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by cross validation P values < 0.01. Discriminatory proteins and lipids classified tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in 100 random test sets. Potential advantages of this label-free approach may include small tissue requirement, relatively rapid procedure, and low reagent cost. Day-today variation of this technology is also acceptable, with the Pearson correlation of 0.95. Taken together, these results suggest the possible clinical utility of histology-directed, lipid and protein MALDI MS.

  15. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  16. Histological changes and wound healing response following noncontact holmium: YAG laser thermal keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, D D

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate acute histological changes and the induced wound healing response in corneal tissue following noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK). METHODS: LTK using 10 pulses and a range of radiant energies was performed on 3 human corneas one day prior ro their removal at penetrating keratoplasty. Rabbit corneas were treated with 10-pulse and 5-pulse LTK and followed for up to 3 months. Tissues were studies with light and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The amount of acute tissue injury increased with increasing pulse radiant energy. In human corneas, changes in the irradiated zones included epithelial cell injury and death loss of fine filamentous structure in Bowman's layer, disruption of stromal lamallae, and keratocyte injury and death. In the rabbit corneas, similar acute changes were noted. By 3 weeks, epithelial hyperplasia and stromal contraction were present. Wound healing in the rabbit corneas included repair of the epithelial attachment complex, keratocyte activation, synthesis of type I collagen, partial restoration of stromal keratan sulfate and type VI collagen, and retrocorneal membrane formation. Compared to 10-pulse treatments, 5-pulse treatments produced less acute tissue injury and had more rapid restoration of normal stromal architecture. CONCLUSION: Noncontact LTK produces acute epithelial and stromal tissue changes and in rabbit corneas stimulates a brisk wound healing response. These changes could contribute to postoperative regression of induced refractive correction. Further work is required to determine if reductions in the magnitude of acute tissue injury and induced wound healing response will enhance the efficacy and stability of LTK. Images FIGURE 1A FIGURE 1B FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 4C FIGURE 4D FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 5D FIGURE 6A FIGURE 6B FIGURE 6C FIGURE 6D FIGURE 7A FIGURE 7B FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 8C FIGURE

  17. Acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: a clinical nightmare with forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Villani, Angelo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2006-09-10

    Authors present the case of the sudden death of a 30-year-old man, 3 h since his hospitalization by the onset of aspecific chest pain. ECG findings revealed the presence of localized ST segment elevation in precordial leads (V1-V4) and DII-DII, and aVF mimicking acute antero-inferior myocardial infarction. A diagnosis of acute antero-inferior myocardial infarction was advanced and the patient introduced to thrombolytic therapy. Suddenly, on ECG monitor, conduction abnormalities were early recorded (ventricular extrasystole) followed by ventricular tachycardia degenerating in fatal ventricular fibrillation. An alleged medical malpractice was sued against the cardiologist. A complete immunohistochemical study was performed. Histologically, the heart presented massive interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate and focal myocytes necrosis. The diagnosis of acute lymphocytic myocarditis was established as the cause of death.

  18. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  19. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  20. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  1. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  2. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  3. Mandibular histology and growth of the nonmammaliaform cynodont Tritylodon

    PubMed Central

    Jasinoski, Sandra C; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of bone microstructure of nonmammalian therapsids has revealed distinctive signals pertaining to their ontogenetic growth and biology. Until now, histological studies of the nonmammaliaform cynodonts have focused only on postcranial material. Through the examination of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans and serial thin sections, the current study provides a novel perspective on the structure and growth of the mandible of Tritylodon, a derived herbivorous cynodont from southern Africa. By tracking histological features across the serial thin sections, trends in relocation and modelling are documented for the growing Tritylodon mandible. For example, during growth, localized changes in the cross-sectional shape of the mandible occurred. Localized deposits of new lamellar and fibrolamellar bone on the lateral edge indicate widening of the mandible during different episodes of growth. The presence of radial channels indicates the deepening of the mandible at its anterior and posterior ends. The relocation of the paired mental foramina suggests that the mandibular body lengthened mainly in the posterior direction. The medial movement of a posterior postcanine tooth during growth and eruption is recorded in the histology. This histological assessment also documents the presence of Sharpey’s fibres in the cellular cementum of the first incisor, providing novel and unequivocal evidence that it was attached to the Tritylodon jaw by a periodontal ligament. This is the first comprehensive study that uses histological analysis to document the growth dynamics of the mandible of a nonmammalian therapsid, thus providing a unique perspective of localized mandibular growth in a fossil animal.

  4. Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.

    PubMed

    Beer, Trevor W; Drury, Paul; Heenan, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined. This area experiences high levels of solar radiation, and all assessable biopsies showed solar elastosis. Patients were aged between 41 and 97 years (median age 74), with 76% of tumors occurring in men (male to female ratio approximately 3 to 1). Most tumors were small, with a median diameter of 10 mm and a range of 4-35 mm. Only 5% exceeded 20 mm in diameter. Most AFX were well-circumscribed dermal lesions, with limited invasion of subcutis in a minority. Histological variants identified included keloidal (n = 8), clear cell (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3), plaque like (n = 4), and myxoid (n = 1). Bland cytological appearances (spindle cell nonpleomorphic AFX) were noted in 5 tumors, with osteoclast-like giant cells in 2. Features suggesting regression were present in 22 cases. Two cases recurred locally, none metastasized. No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers. Seventy-four percent of cases expressed smooth muscle actin, typically strongly and diffusely. No AFX stained with desmin. Only 1 of 50 cases was CD117 positive. In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis. Histological mimics, such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, must be carefully excluded. Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology. PMID:20526171

  5. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  6. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  7. Arsenic-induced Histological Alterations in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Dilruba, Sayada; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Lutfur; Khatun, Zohora; Riad, Wahiduzzaman; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Srikanta; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Rahman, Zillur; Hossain, Khaled; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of arsenic in mice through groundwater is well documented but little is known about the histological changes of organs by the metalloid. Present study was designed to evaluate arsenic-induced histological alterations in kidney, liver, thoracic artery and brain of mice which are not well documented yet. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 2 groups and treated as follows: Group 1: control, 2: arsenic (sodium arsenite at 10 mg/kg b.w. orally for 8 wks). Group 2 showed marked degenerative changes in kidney, liver, thoracic artery, and brain whereas Group 1 did not reveal any abnormalities on histopathology. We therefore concluded that arsenic induces histological alterations in the tested organs. PMID:26740907

  8. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  9. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  10. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour. PMID:26258698

  11. Microscopic esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca; Milione, Massimo; Parente, Paola; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease in industrialized countries (Europe and North America) and is associated with microscopic changes in the squamous epithelium. However, biopsy is not presently included in the routine diagnostic flow chart of GERD. In contrast, esophageal biopsy is mandatory when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus. High quality histology reports are necessary to provide information on diagnosis and can also be important for research and epidemiological studies. It has been evident for decades that pathology reports vary between institutions and even within a single institution. Standardization of reporting is the best way to ensure that information necessary for patient management is included in pathology reports. This paper details the histological criteria for diagnosing GERD-associated microscopic esophagitis, other forms of esophagitis with specific features and columnar metaplasia in the lower esophagus (Barrett's esophagus). It provides a detailed description of appropriate sampling criteria, individual lesions and how they contribute to the histology report.

  12. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  13. Pediatric infratentorial ependymoma: prognostic significance of anaplastic histology.

    PubMed

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Kim, In-One; Park, Kyung Duk; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric infratentorial ependymomas are difficult to cure. Despite the availability of advanced therapeutic modalities for brain tumors, total surgical resection remains the most important prognostic factor. Recently, histological grade emerged as an independent prognostic factor for intracranial ependymoma. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment outcome of 33 pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated and relevant prognostic factors were analyzed. Fourteen patients (42%) were under the age of 3 at diagnosis. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (49%). Anaplastic histology was found in 13 patients (39%). Adjuvant therapies were delayed until progression in 12 patients (36%). Actuarial PFS rates were 64% in the first year and 29% in the fifth year. Actuarial OS rates were 91% in the first year and 71% in the fifth year. On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion (P = 0.047), anaplastic histology (P = 0.004), higher mitotic count (P = 0.001), and higher Ki-67 index (P = 0.004) were significantly related to a shorter PFS. Gross total resection (P = 0.029) and a greater age at diagnosis (P = 0.033) were significantly related to a longer PFS. On multivariate analysis, anaplastic histology alone was significantly related to a shorter PFS (P = 0.023). Gross total resection (P = 0.039) was significantly related to a longer overall survival (OS) on multivariate analysis. Anaplastic histology and gross total resection were the most important clinical factors affecting PFS and OS, respectively. Anaplastic histology, mitotic count, and Ki-67 index can be used as universal and easily available prognostic parameters in infratentorial ependymomas.

  14. The relationship between premedical coursework in gross anatomy and histology and medical school performance in gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Forester, Joseph P; McWhorter, David L; Cole, Maria S

    2002-03-01

    Many premedical students enroll in courses whose content will be encountered again during their medical education. Presumably, students believe this practice will lead to improved academic performance in corresponding medical school courses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether a premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course resulted in increased performance in corresponding medical school courses. A second aim of the study was to examine whether the type of premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course differentially affected medical school performance. A survey that assessed premedical gross anatomy and histology coursework was administered to 440 first-year medical students. The results from this survey showed that students with premedical gross anatomy (n = 236) and/or histology (n = 109) earned significantly more points in the corresponding medical school course than students without the premedical coursework (P < 0.05). Analysis of premedical course types revealed that students who took a gross anatomy course with prosected specimens (n = 35) earned significantly more points that those students without premedical gross anatomy coursework (P < 0.05). The results from this study suggest: 1) premedical gross anatomy and/or histology coursework improves academic performance in corresponding medical school courses, and 2) a premedical gross anatomy course with prosected specimens, a specific type of undergraduate course, significantly improves academic performance in medical gross anatomy.

  15. [A histologic study of brain in fatal cerebral malaria].

    PubMed

    Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Effa'a, Christian; Alunni, Véronique; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Haudebourg, Juliette; Michiels, Jean-François

    2008-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection is an emergency because of the risk of cerebral malaria, that is the most severe complication. Malaria diagnosis is usually made on blood samples of feverish patients coming from endemic area. The pathologist is rarely confronted with malaria lesions. If the occasion arises, the diagnosis of malaria is often already known or suspected and the pathologist has to confirm it. Rarely, malaria is unknown before histological examination and the diagnosis is based on the identification of specific histological features. We report a case of sudden death due to cerebral malaria diagnosed on autopsy findings. PMID:19084718

  16. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Histology showed that the muscle tissue divided by the POEM procedure was completely replaced by fibrosis. These findings may indirectly show the permanence of the POEM procedure. PMID:26752956

  17. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  18. [Clinical and histological studies of adenoid cystic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Semba, O; Sato, T; Miyahara, H; Yoshino, K; Umatani, K; Ishiguro, S

    1983-04-01

    Forty-four salivary gland tumors were seen at The Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka, between 1979 and 1981; 30 were benign and 14 malignant. Of the latter, 7 (50%) were adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Six of 7 ACC were reviewed with special attention to their histologic pattern, atypism, connective tissue around the cell nest, tumor cell nest, tumor cell invasion into lymphatics(ly) and blood vessels(v), and mitosis. ACC was divided into 3 histological groups. Patients with ly and/or v develop cervical and/or distant metastases at the early stage or during the follow-up period. Ly and v were closely correlated with metastasis.

  19. Exposure to a commercial glyphosate formulation (Roundup®) alters normal gill and liver histology and affects male sexual activity of Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Hued, Andrea Cecilia; Oberhofer, Sabrina; de los Ángeles Bistoni, María

    2012-01-01

    Roundup is the most popular commercial glyphosate formulation applied in the cultivation of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological lesions of the neotropical native fish, Jenynsia multidentata, in response to acute and subchronic exposure to Roundup and to determine if subchronic exposure to the herbicide causes changes in male sexual activity of individuals exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.5 mg/l) for 7 and 28 days. The estimated 96-h LC50 was 19.02 mg/l for both male and female fish. Gill and liver histological lesions were evaluated through histopathological indices allowing quantification of the histological damages in fish exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide. Roundup induced different histological alterations in a concentration-dependent manner. In subchronic-exposure tests, Roundup also altered normal histology of the studied organs and caused a significant decrease in the number of copulations and mating success in male fish exposed to the herbicide. It is expected that in natural environments contaminated with Roundup, both general health condition and reproductive success of J. multidenatata could be seriously affected.

  20. Role of Histologic Inflammation in the Natural History of Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Deepa T; Moss, Alan C; Odze, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    The goals of therapy for ulcerative colitis have moved from symptom improvement to mucosal healing, and finally histologic resolution. The natural history of histologic inflammation in ulcerative colitis progresses from initial cellular infiltration to architectural disruption and recovery on medical therapy. Many studies have linked histologic changes to clinical outcomes, providing prognostic value to histologic abnormalities. This review covers all these components. PMID:27633592

  1. Myocarditis confirmed by biopsy presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo-Nordin, M R; O'Connell, J B; Subramanian, R; Robinson, J A; Scanlon, P J

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of acute myocardial infarction occurred in association with myocarditis, which was confirmed by biopsy. The first patient suffered an anteroseptal and the second patient an inferior wall myocardial infarction shortly after an acute viral illness. In both patients, coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries, and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy confirmed myocarditis. Histological abnormalities attributable to ischaemic heart disease were absent. The first patient's condition became stable after immunosuppressive treatment. Myocarditis resolved spontaneously within three months in the second patient. Coronary artery spasm and myocardial involvement with a systemic disease were unlikely. Endomyocardial biopsy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries may be useful in identifying myocarditis associated with myocardial necrosis. Myocarditis in acute myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary artery obstruction has not previously been documented during life. Images PMID:3966948

  2. Stacked Predictive Sparse Decomposition for Classification of Histology Sections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yin; Borowsky, Alexander; Barner, Kenneth; Spellman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Image-based classification of histology sections, in terms of distinct components (e.g., tumor, stroma, normal), provides a series of indices for histology composition (e.g., the percentage of each distinct components in histology sections), and enables the study of nuclear properties within each component. Furthermore, the study of these indices, constructed from each whole slide image in a large cohort, has the potential to provide predictive models of clinical outcome. For example, correlations can be established between the constructed indices and the patients’ survival information at cohort level, which is a fundamental step towards personalized medicine. However, performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., variations of color/textures in tissue images due to non-standard experimental protocols) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. We propose a system that automatically learns a series of dictionary elements for representing the underlying spatial distribution using stacked predictive sparse decomposition. The learned representation is then fed into the spatial pyramid matching framework with a linear support vector machine classifier. The system has been evaluated for classification of distinct histological components for two cohorts of tumor types. Throughput has been increased by using of graphical processing unit (GPU), and evaluation indicates a superior performance results, compared with previous research.

  3. Measuring infiltration during paraffin wax processing for histology.

    PubMed

    Allison, R T; Lloyd, D

    1996-09-01

    A method is described to allow monitoring of the penetration of processing fluids into tissue during histological processing. The method is established by evaluating the effect of incorporating dimethyl sulphoxide into paraffin wax and comparing processing times with those for pure paraffin wax.

  4. Early Renal Histological Changes in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Nasiri, Ebrahim; Shafi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease. Most investigators have focused on glomerular changes in diabetic kidney and non-glomerular alterations have been less attended. The present study has been conducted to find early non-glomerular histological changes in diabetic renal tissue. Twenty male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were used for the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single injection of Alloxan. After 8 weeks, paraffin embedded blocks of kidneys were prepared for evaluating the histological changes due to diabetes. Histological study showed the deposit of eosinophilic materials in the intermediate substantial of medulla and thickening of renal arterial wall in the kidney of 70% of diabetic rats. The average weight of kidneys increased when compared to non diabetic animals. Furthermore, the amount of blood flow in arteries of all diabetic kidneys has been enhanced. The present study demonstrates some early renal histological changes in diabetes mellitus which were earlier compared to those reported previously. Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive disease and renal care design can help better prognosis achievement. PMID:24551816

  5. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  6. Evaluation of Virtual Microscopy in Medical Histology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication…

  7. [Graves' disease: ultrasonographic, color Doppler and histological aspects].

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Viceconti, N; Trinti, B

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between thyroid low echogenicity, the thyroid blood flow by color-Doppler (CD) and histological features in patients with Graves' disease (GD). Thyroid ultrasonography and CD was performed on 28 patients with GD. In 5 patients has been compared CD with histology. The thyroid volume was higher in 100% of patients with GD at the onset rather than in euthyroidism. Diffuse hypoechogenicity of the thyroid was discovered in 100% of patients with GD at the onset and it persisted in 57.1% of patients that became euthyroid after therapy. Qualitative CD resulted in different patterns that were classified as follow: pattern A ("thyroid inferno") in 17 patients (60.7%); pattern B (mildly increased of parenchymal blood flow) in 11 patients (39.3%). In the 5 histological proven cases, in the pattern A (3 cases) there was a diffuse microfollicular hyperplasia with functional activation notes. There was lymphocytic infiltration. While in the pattern B (two cases) there were a non-follicular hypercellular nodule with pseudocapsule and rare colloid. We conclude that there are two different histological types with different CD patterns in GD.

  8. Sonographic evaluation of fetal cerebral structures correlated with histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Comănescu, Alexandru Cristian; Cernea, Nicolae; Tica, Oana Sorina; Comănescu, Maria Victoria; Niculescu, Elena Carmen; Florou, Charoula; Grosu, Florin

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal development of the human brain from undifferentiated neuroepithelium, crosses numerous steps towards primordial organization and subsequent cytoarchitectural layering, ascending and progressive from the lower cortical layers to the superior ones. Our study represents a systematic, comparative assessment of imaging studies and the histological evaluation of the prenatal development of the human brain. We evaluated 232 cases using 3D ultrasound. Histological study was performed on 17 cases aged between 8 and 32 weeks pregnancy and compared with imaging results. For the ultrasound study, we chose five anatomical landmarks: the choroid plexus, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and island (Sylvian fissure). The histological study was performed on dissected brain specimens preserved in formaldehyde and was followed by immunohistochemical determination in order to complete the picture of the morphological evolution of the structures evaluated. We analyzed the accuracy of the description of marker elements (choroid plexus, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and Sylvian fissure) in three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation. This showed a good correlation with the morphological evaluation as well as with the dimensional descriptions from the literature. Histological and immunohistochemical assessment helped complete the picture of the central nervous system development. Highlighting fetal cerebral structures by three-dimensional ultrasound, together with morphological examination helped us create a dynamic array of the central nervous system development.

  9. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  10. Intravascular Ultrasound and Virtual Histology of Basilar Artery Atherosclerotic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    López-Rueda, A.; González García, A.; Aguilar Pérez, M.; Gutiérrez Jarrín, R.K.; Mayol Deyá, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary To our knowledge, this paper presents the first intravascular ultrasound and virtual histology (IVUS-VH) study in the basilar artery. IVUS-VH serves to characterize and determine the extension of the plaque and we also to check stent placement. PMID:22192552

  11. MELAS syndrome presenting as an acute surgical abdomen.

    PubMed

    Dindyal, S; Mistry, K; Angamuthu, N; Smith, G; Hilton, D; Arumugam, P; Mathew, J

    2014-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial cytopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a syndrome in which signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are uncommon if not rare. We describe the case of a young woman who presented as an acute surgical emergency, diagnosed as toxic megacolon necessitating an emergency total colectomy. MELAS syndrome was suspected postoperatively owing to persistent lactic acidosis and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was later confirmed with histological and genetic studies. This case highlights the difficulties in diagnosing MELAS because of its unpredictable presentation and clinical course. We therefore recommend a high index of suspicion in cases of an acute surgical abdomen with additional neurological features or raised lactate.

  12. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. PMID:24598271

  13. Histological and histometrical evidences for phenol immunotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Louei Monfared, Ali; Jaafari, Afsaneh; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Phenol is a common industrial and ubiquitous environmental chemical which is used to synthesize resins and plastics. Due to its anesthetic and disinfectant properties, phenol is also widely used in pharmaceutical products. Since there were no adequate data about phenol immunotoxicity, the purpose of the present study is to investigate its toxic effects on the histological structures of the lymphoid organs in the mice. A total of 80 mice were randomly distributed into one control group and three experimental groups. The control group received only distilled water, whereas experimental groups were orally administered phenol at the concentrations of 80, 180, and 320 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 28 consecutive days, tissue samples were taken and histological changes of the spleens, thymuses, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes were examined using optical microscopy. The results showed that in the phenol treated animals; splenic megakaryocyte counts increased, the diameter of the splenic follicles decreased, the thymocyte population in both cortex and medulla reduced, the thickness of the reticular layers of adrenal gland increased and lymphatic cells populations in the lymph node were reduced, significantly (P < 0.01). Also, remarkable histological changes were noted in the various lymphatic organs of the treated mice. Overall, present findings give some histological evidences that selected qualitative and quantitative parameters of the lymphatic organs were significantly altered by phenol administration. In conclusion, the significant decreases of the immune cell populations together with histological alterations in the immunocompetent organs of the mice exposed to phenol indicate the immunosuppressive and immunotoxic properties of this chemical material. PMID:24829551

  14. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James W; Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John; Polglase, Graeme R; Kallapur, Suhas G; Pillow, J Jane; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H; Payton, Diane; Knox, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA), a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic) and short term (acute) durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7) colony-forming-units (CFU) of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up) or media controls (C) were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4); day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2); and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2) of gestation (term = 145-150d). At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i) snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii) fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up) or very few MBA variants (7d Up) were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion), during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  15. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  16. Selective Exposure of the Fetal Lung and Skin/Amnion (but Not Gastro-Intestinal Tract) to LPS Elicits Acute Systemic Inflammation in Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Cox, Tom; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis. PMID:23691033

  17. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication.

  18. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  19. A reproducible grading scale for histological assessment of inflammation in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Geboes, K; Riddell, R; Ost, A; Jensfelt, B; Persson, T; Lofberg, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Evaluation of histological activity in ulcerative colitis needs to be reproducible but has rarely been tested. This could be useful both clinically and in clinical trials.
AIM—To develop reproducible criteria which are valid in the assessment of acute inflammation (activity) and chronicity, and to evaluate these features in an interobserver variability study.
METHODS—A six grade classification system for inflammation was developed which could also be fine tuned within each grade. The grades were: 0, structural change only; 1, chronic inflammation; 2, lamina propria neutrophils; 3, neutrophils in epithelium; 4, crypt destruction; and 5, erosions or ulcers. Ninety nine haematoxylin-eosin sections from endoscopically inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa from patients with distal ulcerative colitis were assessed in two separate readings by three pathologists independently and without knowledge of the clinical status. Interobserver agreement was compared pairwise using kappa statistics.
RESULTS—Initially, kappa values between the observers were 0.20, 0.42, and 0.26, which are too low to be of value. Following development of a semiquantitative pictorial scale for each criterion, kappa values improved to 0.62, 0.70, and 0.59. For activity defined by neutrophils between epithelial cells, kappa values were 0.903, 1.000, and 0.907. Complete agreement was reached in 64% of samples of endoscopically normal and in 66% of endoscopically inflamed tissue. Neutrophils in epithelium correlated with the presence of crypt destruction and ulceration.
CONCLUSION—A histological activity system was developed for ulcerative colitis that showed good reproducibility and modest agreement with the endoscopic grading system which it complemented. It has potential value both clinically and in clinical trials.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; biopsy; inflammation; scoring system PMID:10940279

  20. Histological and Morphometric Analyses for Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tulis, David Anthony

    2010-01-01

    i. Summary Experiments aimed at analyzing the response of blood vessels to mechanical injury and ensuing remodeling responses often employ the highly characterized carotid artery balloon injury model in laboratory rats. This approach utilizes luminal insertion of a balloon embolectomy catheter into the common carotid artery with inflation and withdrawal resulting in an injury characterized by vascular endothelial cell (EC) denudation and medial wall distension. The adaptive response to this injury is typified by robust vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) replication and migration, SMC apoptosis and necrosis, enhanced synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, partial vascular EC regeneration from the border zones, luminal narrowing and establishment of a neointima in time-dependent fashion. Evaluation of these adaptive responses to blood vessel injury can include acute and longer-term qualitative and quantitative measures including expression analyses, activity assays, immunostaining for a plethora of factors and signals, and morphometry of neointima formation and gross mural remodeling. This chapter presents a logical continuation of Chapter    in this series that offers details for performing the rat carotid artery balloon injury model in a standard laboratory setting by providing commonly used protocols for performing histological and morphometric analyses in such studies. Moreover, procedures, caveats, and considerations included in this chapter are highly relevant for alternative animal vascular physiology/pathophysiology studies and in particular those related to mechanisms of vascular injury and repair. Included in this chapter are specifics for in situ perfusion-fixation, tissue harvesting and processing for both snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded protocols, specimen embedding and sectioning, slide preparation, several standard histological staining steps, and routine morphological assessment. Included in Notes are important caveats

  1. Primed Mycobacterial Uveitis (PMU): Histologic and Cytokine Characterization of a Model of Uveitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pepple, Kathryn L.; Rotkis, Lauren; Van Grol, Jennifer; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Lam, Deborah L.; Carlson, Eric; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic features and cytokine profiles of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and a primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU) model in rats. Methods In Lewis rats, EAU was induced by immunization with interphotoreceptor binding protein peptide, and PMU was induced by immunization with a killed mycobacterial extract followed by intravitreal injection of the same extract. Clinical course, histology, and the cytokine profiles of the aqueous and vitreous were compared using multiplex bead fluorescence immunoassays. Results Primed mycobacterial uveitis generates inflammation 2 days after intravitreal injection and resolves spontaneously 14 days later. CD68+ lymphocytes are the predominant infiltrating cells and are found in the anterior chamber, surrounding the ciliary body and in the vitreous. In contrast to EAU, no choroidal infiltration or retinal destruction is noted. At the day of peak inflammation, C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10), IL-1β, IL-18, and leptin were induced in the aqueous of both models. Interleukin-6 was induced 2-fold in the aqueous of PMU but not EAU. Cytokines elevated in the aqueous of EAU exclusively include regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemokine (GRO/KC), VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and IL-17A. In the vitreous, CXCL10, GRO/KC, RANTES, and MIP-1α were elevated in both models. Interleukin-17A and IL-18 were elevated exclusively in EAU. Conclusions Primed mycobacterial uveitis generates an acute anterior and intermediate uveitis without retinal involvement. Primed mycobacterial uveitis has a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile compared with EAU, suggesting PMU is a good complementary model for study of immune-mediated uveitis. CXCL10, a proinflammatory cytokine, was increased in the aqueous and

  2. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  3. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  4. A histological study of macroscopically normal equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Webbon, P M

    1978-10-01

    The normal appearance of the superficial (SFT) and deep (DFT) digital flexor tendons was described and the difference between their histological structures was emphasised. Further differences were recognised between different sites from the same tendon and between tendons in the fore and hind limbs of the same animal. Both of the tendons underwent changes with age but although a number of alterations in the histological appearance were described, a particular change, involving a patchy loss of stainable nuclei, was found at the common site of SFT injuries. While this appearance has been seen in injured tendons and described as tendon necrosis, the author warns that no cause and effect relationship has been established between the acellularity and the clinical lesions. Neither is it certain that the loss of tendon cells results in mechanical weakness of the tendon.

  5. Developmental palaeontology of Reptilia as revealed by histological studies.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P Martin

    2010-06-01

    Among the fossilized ontogenetic series known for tetrapods, only more basal groups like temnospondyl amphibians have been used extensively in developmental studies, whereas reptilian and synapsid data have been largely neglected so far. However, before such ontogenetic series can be subject to study, the relative age and affiliation of putative specimens within a series has to be verified. Bone histology has a long-standing tradition as being a source of palaeobiological and growth history data in fossil amniotes and indeed, the analysis of bone microstructures still remains the most important and most reliable tool for determining the absolute ontogenetic age of fossil vertebrates. It is also the only direct way to reconstruct life histories and growth strategies for extinct animals. Herein the record of bone histology among Reptilia and its application to elucidate and expand fossilized ontogenies as a source of developmental data are reviewed.

  6. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs.

  7. Chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Matteo; Leutner, Monica; Mescoli, Claudia; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo; Gullotta, Renzo

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is growing in western countries, making their histological diagnosis an everyday task for all pathologists. Reviews from the literature strongly suggest that such diagnosis cannot be performed on the histological ground alone but requires a clinical-pathological approach. Moreover, bewildering variations can be observed in the terminology employed to report either individual lesions or diagnostic categories. The aim of the present paper is to suggest a practical diagnostic algorithm summarizing the main data from the literature. Particular emphasis has been placed on minimum clinical information required and the accurate definition of individual lesions. Diagnostic categories to employ and to avoid in daily practice have furthermore been stressed.

  8. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, M.; Mahankali, R. K.; Ismal, K.; Vali, P. S.; Sahay, R. K.; Swarnalata, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m2. Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  9. Robust alignment of prostate histology slices with quantified accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Cecilia; Rouviere, Olivier; Mege Lechevallier, Florence; Souchon, Rémi; Prost, Rémy

    2012-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men yet no current imaging technique is capable of detecting the tumours with precision. To evaluate each technique, the histology data must be precisely mapped to the imaged data. As it cannot be assumed that the histology slices are cut along the same plane as the imaged data is acquired, the registration is a 3D problem. This requires the prior accurate alignment of the histology slices. We propose a protocol to create in a rapid and standardised manner internal fiducial markers in fresh prostate specimens and an algorithm by which these markers can then be automatically detected and classified enabling the automatic rigid alignment of each slice. The protocol and algorithm were tested on 10 prostate specimens, with 19.2 histology slices on average per specimen. On average 90.9% of the fiducial markers created were visible in the slices, of which 96.1% were automatically correctly detected and classified. The average accuracy of the alignment was 0.19 +/- 0.15 mm at the fiducial markers. The algorithm took 5.46 min on average per specimen. The proposed protocol and algorithm were also tested using simulated images and a beef liver sample. The simulated images showed that the algorithm has no associated residual error and justified the choice of a rigid registration. In the beef liver images, the average accuracy of the alignment was 0.11 +/- 0.09 mm at the fiducial markers and 0.63 +/- 0.47 mm at a validation marker approximately 20 mm from the fiducial markers.

  10. Dyes and stains: from molecular structure to histological application.

    PubMed

    Veuthey, Tania; Herrera, Georgina; Dodero, Veronica I

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the chemistry of dyes as well as the interaction mechanisms between tissue and dye has been detailed, and also some of the key factors affecting the selectivity of dyes by certain cellular structures have been mentioned. Moreover, due to the relevance that histological stains have acquired in biomedical research, some of the most common stains have been described, pointing out previous and current applications in basic and applied research.

  11. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  12. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Gontiya, Gauri; Galgali, Sushama R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL®) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm). Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4th, 6th, and 12th week. At 4th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4th, 6th, and 12th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6th and 12th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4th, 6th, and 12th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant. PMID:23055583

  13. Evaluation of Histologic Cutpoints for Treatment Response in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Cotton, Cary C.; Green, Daniel J.; Hughes, Julia T.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim No consensus exists on the definition of successful treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal histologic cutpoint to define successful treatment of EoE by assessing rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing the University of North Carolina EoE Clinicopathologic Database between 2006 and 2013. Rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were determined, as were post-treatment eosinophil counts. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for symptomatic and endoscopic response at several possible eosinophil count cutpoints (eos/hpf). Predictors of response were also assessed. Results Of 224 treatments in 199 patients, 76% were associated with symptomatic improvement, 68% with endoscopic improvement, and 60% with both. Of treatments that resulted in a post-treatment count of <15 eos/hpf, 90% were associated with an endoscopic response, 88% with a symptomatic response, and 81% with both symptomatic and endoscopic responses. Using a <15 eos/hpf threshold, the area under the curves (AUCs) were 0.70, 0.78, and 0.75 for symptomatic, endoscopic, and symptomatic/endoscopic responses, respectively. Lower histologic cut-points did not result in a substantial gain in response, but decreased the AUC. Conclusion In this large cohort of EoE patients, rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were generally associated with histologic improvement. A histologic cutoff for treatment response of <15 eos/hpf may balance clinical outcomes and test performance. PMID:27110513

  14. Histological identification of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of staining methods

    PubMed Central

    Rotimi, O; Cairns, A; Gray, S; Moayyedi, P; Dixon, M

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To determine whether two recently described staining methods (the modified McMullen's and the Helicobacter pylori silver stain HpSS methods) used for the histological identification of H pylori organisms are superior to two established techniques (the modified Giemsa and anti-H pylori antibody immunostain) in terms of availability, reproducibility, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost. Methods—Histological sections from 63 paired gastric biopsies from adult patients previously investigated for dyspepsia were stained with the four methods and these were assessed blindly and independently by two observers. Of the 63 patients, 30 were originally negative in all tests for H pylori infection, 30 were positive, and the remaining three cases had discordant results using a combination of five tests (rapid biopsy urease test, urea breath test, culture, serology, and histology). Results—Interobserver agreement was best with the antibody method (98%), followed by the McMullen's (90%), Giemsa (87%), and HpSS (85%). Of the 60 "gold standard" positive and negative cases, 30 were positive by the modified Giemsa stain, 29 by the McMullen's method, 29 by HpSS, and 30 by the antibody stain. However, there were two false positives with the HpSS method. The modified Giemsa is the cheapest and easiest to perform technically. Conclusions—When H pylori are present, careful examination will almost always reveal them, whichever of these stains is used. However, the modified Giemsa stain is the method of choice because it is sensitive, cheap, easy to perform, and reproducible. Key Words: Helicobacter organisms • histological identification • staining methods PMID:11064668

  15. Histologic and temperature alterations induced by skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Dzubow, L M

    1985-05-01

    The histologic alterations induced by spray refrigerants independent of and in combination with dermabrasion were studied with the use of the domestic pig as a model. Tissue injury was found to be a function of spray duration and freeze intensity. Both preabrasion freezing and postabrasion refreezing could produce damage additive to that of mechanical planing. Skin surface and intradermal temperature variations during refrigeration were recorded. The possible implications of these findings as they pertain to clinical dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:4008684

  16. Remote histology learning from static versus dynamic microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized. Digitized microscopy images can be presented in either a static or dynamic format. This study of remote histology education identifies whether dynamic pictures are superior to static images for the acquisition of histological knowledge. Test results of two cohorts of second-year Bachelor in Medicine students at Ghent University were analyzed in two consecutive academic years: Cohort 1 (n = 190) and Cohort 2 (n = 174). Students in Cohort 1 worked with static images whereas students in Cohort 2 were presented with dynamic images. ANCOVA was applied to study differences in microscopy performance scores between the two cohorts, taking into account any possible initial differences in prior knowledge. The results show that practical histology scores are significantly higher with dynamic images as compared to static images (F (1,361) = 15.14, P < 0.01), regardless of student's gender and performance level. Several reasons for this finding can be explained in accordance with cognitivist learning theory. Since the findings suggest that knowledge construction with dynamic pictures is stronger as compared to static images, dynamic images should be introduced in a remote setting for microscopy education. Further implementation within a larger electronic learning management system needs to be explored in future research. Anat Sci Educ 9: 222-230. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction.

  18. Uterine Receptivity to Human Embryonic Implantation: Histology, Biomarkers, and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanova, L; Hamilton, AE; Giudice, LC

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic implantation is a dynamic process of paracrine interactions between the maternal compartment and the conceptus and involves a receptive endometrium and a developmentally competent blastocyst. Herein, we review histology, clinical approaches, and the promise of transcriptomics in elucidating mechanisms underlying implantation and development of biomarkers of uterine receptivity - with an eye to diagnose and treat implantation-based disorders of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and infertility. PMID:18035563

  19. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  20. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  1. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  2. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  3. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  4. Histologic Lesions Induced by Murine Norovirus Infection in Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C C; Piotrowski, S L; Meeker, S M; Smith, K D; Maggio-Price, L; Treuting, P M

    2016-07-01

    Murine noroviruses (MNVs) are highly prevalent in laboratory mice, can cause persistent infections, and have been shown to infect macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. To address the potential impact of MNV infection on research outcomes, numerous studies have been conducted with various mouse models of human disease and have generated mixed results, ranging from no impact to significant disease. Many of these studies included histologic evaluations after MNV infection, and these results have similarly been variable in terms of whether MNV induces lesions, despite the fact that localization of MNV by viral culture and molecular techniques have demonstrated systemic distribution regardless of mouse immune status. The aim of this review is to summarize the histologic findings that have been reported with MNV infection in several mouse models. The studies demonstrate that experimental infection of MNV in wild-type mice results in minimal to no histologic changes. In contrast, immunodeficient mice consistently have detectable MNV-induced lesions that are typically inflammatory and, in the most severe cases, accompanied by necrosis. In these, the liver is commonly affected, with more variable lesions reported in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, mesenteric lymph nodes, brain, and spleen. In specific disease models including atherosclerosis, MNV infection had a variable impact that was dependent on the mouse model, viral strain, timing of infection, or other experimental variables. It is important to recognize the reported MNV lesions to help discern the possible influence of MNV infection on data generated in mouse models. PMID:26792844

  5. Histology of the cricothyroid membrane: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Felicia, Christilda

    2014-01-01

    Puncture of the cricothyroid membrane is a component of several clinical procedures. Among the several complications are the immediate risk of bleeding, long-term risk of subglottic stenosis and hoarseness of voice. Presence of blood vessels in the cricothyroid membrane has also been implicated in the extra-laryngeal spread of laryngeal cancers. Though various authors have described the attachments of the cricothyroid membrane, very few have studied its histology. We studied the histology of the cricothyroid membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome and Verhoeff's special stain. The cricothyroid membrane was found to be continuous on its deeper aspect with the mucosa of the subglottic larynx and lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The membrane was observed to be fibroelastic, containing equal proportions of collagen and elastic fibers and numerous fibroblast nuclei. Numerous blood vessels are seen traversing through the membrane, which probably connect intralaryngeal with other extralaryngeal vessels. These histological findings help to further understand the complications of cricothyroidotomy and spread of laryngeal cancer. PMID:24533406

  6. The biomechanical and histological sequelae of common skin banking methods.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph M B; Soldin, Mark; Shaw, Tanya J; Szarko, Matthew

    2014-03-21

    Human skin allografts are used worldwide as an adjunct for the healing of burns when autograft skin is not available or not indicated. Allograft skin comes from human cadaveric donors, and so must be preserved until use. This study forms the first investigation to compare the mechanical and histological integrity of human split-thickness skin grafts preserved by either glycerolisation or cryopreservation (with or without the cryoprotectant DMSO). Stress relaxation was used to assess mechanical properties, whilst histological analysis allowed for evaluation of structural integrity. Preservation of tissue, whether by freezing or glycerolisation, altered the relaxation behaviours of skin. Young's modulus upon initial loading significantly decreased for skin frozen without cryoprotectant, but remained unchanged for skin frozen with cryoprotectant and skin preserved with glycerol. After 1.5h of stress relaxation, both fresh skin and skin frozen without DMSO displayed similar relaxation rates. Samples frozen with DMSO or preserved with glycerol had increased relaxation rate and had not reached load equilibrium within this time. To understand the structural basis for the biomechanical changes, samples were histologically assessed. All preservation protocols resulted in a similar degree of visible damage, but cryopreservation appeared particularly damaging to the extracellular matrix, whereas glycerolisation caused dramatic separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis. The mechanical property alterations reveal that preservation results in laxity, which clinically could hinder contact dependent healing properties, but alternatively may increase capacity for coverage. The structural changes confirm that preservation techniques do not conserve grafts in an in vivo state.

  7. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  8. Histology of the cricothyroid membrane: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Felicia, Christilda

    2014-01-01

    Puncture of the cricothyroid membrane is a component of several clinical procedures. Among the several complications are the immediate risk of bleeding, long-term risk of subglottic stenosis and hoarseness of voice. Presence of blood vessels in the cricothyroid membrane has also been implicated in the extra-laryngeal spread of laryngeal cancers. Though various authors have described the attachments of the cricothyroid membrane, very few have studied its histology. We studied the histology of the cricothyroid membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome and Verhoeff's special stain. The cricothyroid membrane was found to be continuous on its deeper aspect with the mucosa of the subglottic larynx and lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The membrane was observed to be fibroelastic, containing equal proportions of collagen and elastic fibers and numerous fibroblast nuclei. Numerous blood vessels are seen traversing through the membrane, which probably connect intralaryngeal with other extralaryngeal vessels. These histological findings help to further understand the complications of cricothyroidotomy and spread of laryngeal cancer.

  9. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  10. Radiological, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of periapical inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Berar, Antonela Marcela; Bondor, Cosmina Ioana; Matroş, LuminiŢa; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-01-01

    The loss of teeth is largely caused by supporting tissue damage, because of bacterial invasion from the infected root canals. Sixty patients with periapical lesions (PLs) of endodontic origin were included in the study. Clinical and radiological examination was performed. Periapical radiographs were analyzed by two independent observers to determine the size and severity of PLs, using Periapical Index (PAI) scores. The tissue samples collected by periapical curettage during apicoectomy or after dental extractions by alveolar curettage were histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The PLs were histologically diagnosed as: periapical granulomas (PGs), granulomas with cystic potential and radicular cysts (RCs) with various degrees of inflammation. Capillary density was evaluated using the angiogenic index after immunohistochemical staining with CD34 monoclonal antibody. A statistically significant correlation was observed between PAI scores and the size of the lesions. 68.33% of cases were PGs, 18.33% PGs with cystic potential and 18.33% RCs with different degrees of inflammation. Seventy-five percent PLs had an angiogenic index 1 and 25% had an angiogenic index 2. Statistically significant differences were obtained between the angiogenic index and lesion size (p<0.05). Capillary density within PLs did not influence the severity scores of lesions detected on radiographs. The angiogenic index appeared not to be associated with the histological lesion type and the intensity of inflammation, but was more likely correlated with the degree of granulation tissue maturation and the size of PLs. PMID:27516014

  11. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  13. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  14. Anatomy, histologic features, and vascularity of the adult acetabular labrum.

    PubMed

    Seldes, R M; Tan, V; Hunt, J; Katz, M; Winiarsky, R; Fitzgerald, R H

    2001-01-01

    Acetabular labrum tears have been implicated as a cause of hip pain in adult patients. Few studies describe the anatomy, histologic features, and microvasculature of the acetabular labrum and labral tears. Fifty-five embalmed and 12 fresh-frozen adult hips with a mean age of 78 years (range, 61-98 years) were studied. Of these, 96 % (53 of 55) of the hips had labral tears, with 74% of the tears located in the anterosuperior quadrant. Histologically, the fibrocartilaginous labrum was contiguous with the acetabular articular cartilage through a 1- to 2-mm zone of transition. A consistent projection of bone extends from the bony acetabulum into the substance of the labrum that is attached via a zone of calcified cartilage with a well-defined tidemark. Two distinct types of tears of the labrum were identified histologically. The first consisted of a detachment of the fibrocartilaginous labrum from the articular hyaline cartilage at the transition zone. The second consisted of one or more cleavage planes of variable depth within the substance of the labrum. Both types of labral tears were associated with increased microvessel formation seen within the tear. The acetabular labrum tear appears to be an acquired condition that is highly prevalent in aging adult hips. Labral tears occur early in the arthritic process of the hip and may be one of the causes of degenerative hip disease.

  15. The human sunburn reaction: histologic and biochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Soter, N.A.; Stoff, J.S.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet-induced erythema reaction was investigated histologically and biochemically in four subjects, utilizing suction blister aspirates, analyzed for histamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and Epon-embedded 1-mu skin biopsy sections from control skin and from irradiated skin at intervals for 72 hours after exposure to a Hanovia lamp. Major histologic alterations in the epidermis included dyskeratotic and vacuolated keratinocytes (sunburn cells), and disappearance of Langerhans cells. In the dermis the major changes were vascular, involving both the superficial and deep venular plexuses. Endothelial cell enlargement was first apparent within 30 minutes of irradiation, peaked at 24 hours, and persisted throughout the 72-hour study period. Mast cell degranulation and associated perivenular edema were first apparent at 1 hour and striking at the onset of erythema, 3 to 4 hours postirradiation; edema was absent and mast cells were again normal in number and granule content at 24 hours. Histamine levels rose approximately fourfold above control values immediately after the onset of erythema and returned to baseline within 24 hours. PGE2 levels were statistically elevated even before the onset of erythema and reached approximately 150% of the control value at 24 hours. These data provide the first evidence that histamine may mediate the early phase of the human sunburn reaction and increase our understanding of its complex histologic and biochemical sequelae.

  16. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Junn, Jacqueline C.; Sciubba, James J.; Bishop, Justin A.; Zinreich, Eva; Tang, Mei; Levine, Marshall A.; Palermo, Robert A.; Fakhry, Carole; Blanco, Ray G.; Saunders, John R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years) exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P = 0.006). The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation. PMID:22844290

  17. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos.

    PubMed

    Payne, Samantha L; Holliday, Casey M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2011-03-01

    Cranial kinesis is a widespread feature of gekkotan lizards. Previous studies of kinesis in lizards often described the relevant, mobile joints as synovial, thus characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity lined with articular cartilage. To date however, detailed investigations of cranial joint histology are lacking. We examined eight cranial joints (quadrate-articular, quadrate-pterygoid, quadrate-otooccipital, quadrate-squamosal, epipterygoid-prootic, epipterygoid-pterygoid, basisphenoid-pterygoid, and frontal-parietal) in five gekkotan species (Oedura lesueuerii, Eublepharis macularius, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, Tarentola annularis, and Chondrodactylous bibronii) using microcomputed tomography and serial histology. Particular focus was given to the relationship between the bony and soft-tissue components of the joint. Our results demonstrate that only three of these joints are synovial: the quadrate-articular, epipterygoid-pterygoid, and basisphenoid-pterygoid joints. The frontal-parietal and quadrate-pterygoid joints are syndesmosis (fibrous), the epipterygoid-prootic and quadrate-otooccipital joints are synchondroses (cartilaginous without a synovial cavity) and the quadrate-squamosal joint was not present. Based on previous descriptions, we determine that the structure of some cranial joints is variable among lizard taxa. We caution that osteology does not necessarily predict cranial joint histology. Although the functional implications of these findings remain to be explored we note that the development of synovial joints appears to be associated with a neural crest origin for the elements involved.

  18. Retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Dobey, Carrie L; Grunenwald, Caroline; Newman, Shelley J; Muller, Lisa; Gerhold, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing P. tenuis infection. Additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) using Parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how PCR results corresponded with histological findings. Histological changes in brain and spinal cord consisted of linear tracks of hemorrhage; tracks or perivascular accumulations of hemosiderin-laden macrophages; acute foci of axonal degeneration and/or linear glial scars; and perivascular, parenchymal, or meningeal accumulations of eosinophils and/or lymphocytes and plasma cells. Of the 43 samples with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans, 19 were PCR positive; however, only 8 were confirmed Parelaphostrongylus by DNA sequencing. Additionally, 1 goat was identified with a protostrongylid that had a 97% identity to both Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and a protostrongylid nematode from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) from Argentina. None of the histologic lesions individually or in combination correlated statistically to positive molecular tests for the nematode. The results indicate that it is possible to extract Parelaphostrongylus DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, but extended fixation presumably can cause DNA crosslinking. Nested PCR provides another diagnostic tool to identify the cause of neurologic disease in camelids and elk with histologic lesions consistent with neural larval migrans. Furthermore, potential novel protostrongylid DNA was detected from a goat with lesions consistent with P. tenuis infection, suggesting that other neurotropic Parelaphostrongylus species may occur locally.

  19. Placental and other perinatal risk factors for chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Redline, Raymond W; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2002-11-01

    To clarify the relationship between chorioamnionitis and chronic lung disease (CLD) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, we performed a retrospective cohort study of all inborn patients between 1995-1997 with gestational age (GA) less than 32 wk, birth weight less than 1.5 kg, survival to 36 wk adjusted GA, and placentas submitted to pathology (n = 371). Racial distribution as defined by the mother was 40% white/60% nonwhite. Prevalence of CLD, defined as O(2) dependence at 36 wk adjusted GA, was 30%. In a preliminary analysis GA and birth weight for GA (standard deviations from the mean, Z-score), considered together, were inversely related to CLD. After adjustment for GA and Z-score, other risk factors for CLD were white race, acute respiratory distress, pulmonary air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, and septicemia. Two placental lesions were inversely related to CLD: histologic chorioamnionitis and acute atherosis (a placental indicator of preeclampsia). Following multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for CLD were GA (OR, 0.6; 95% CI = 0.5, 0.7), birthweight for GA (OR, 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3, 0.6), white race (OR, 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0, 3.3), patent ductus arteriosus (OR, 2.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 3.5), and pulmonary air leak (OR, 3.0; 95% CI = 1.3, 7.1). Acute atherosis was inversely related to CLD (OR, 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1, 0.8). Chorioamnionitis was stratified by subtype and again no association with CLD was seen in the population as a whole. Finally, chorioamnionitis of all subtypes tended to be increased in white infants and decreased in black infants with CLD. This dichotomy was not explained by differences in death rates, acute respiratory distress, intubation on d 2 of life, or total duration of assisted ventilation. We conclude that while chorioamnionitis was not a risk factor for CLD in our total population, racial differences in its relationship to CLD are worthy of further study.

  20. Indium 111-granulocyte scanning in the assessment of disease extent and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. A comparison with colonoscopy, histology, and fecal indium 111-granulocyte excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Camilleri, M.; Rees, H.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-05-01

    Indium 111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a new method for imaging inflammatory bowel disease. The technique has recently been made more specific for acute inflammation by labeling a pure granulocyte fraction rather than the conventional mixed leukocyte preparation. We now report a prospective study comparing 111In-granulocyte scanning with endoscopy, histology, and fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion for the assessment of disease extent and severity in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. In 52 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, disease extent and severity were assessed macroscopically, histologically, or by scanning using a numerical grading system. Excellent correlations were found between both endoscopy and histology and 111In scans (r = 0.90 (endoscopy) and r = 0.90 (histology) for extent; r = 0.86 and r = 0.91 for disease activity). Severity graded by scanning also showed a close correlation with fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion (r = 0.90). Indium 111-granulocyte scans are a rapid, accurate, noninvasive means of assessing both disease extent and severity of colonic involvement in inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  2. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  3. Emperipolesis is a potential histological hallmark associated with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Jiang, L; Zhou, G; Liu, S; Liu, Y; Zhang, X; Zhao, S; Wu, L; Yang, M; Ma, L; Wang, X; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    Although emperipolesis exists in infectious liver diseases, the diagnostic value of emperipolesis in chronic hepatitis B is not exactly known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological characteristics and laboratory parameters of emperipolesis in chronic hepatitis B. Totally 402 patients with hepatitis B and other liver diseases were processed in a retrospective assessment. Inflammatory severity of hepatitis B was evaluated with Ishak Scoring System. Immunofluorescent staining was performed for CD8 (T cells), CD20 (B cells), CD56 (NK cells), CD68 (macrophages) and MPO (neutrophils). Emperipolesis was observed in 74.0% of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 82.8% of patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB). In emperipolesis, CD8(+) T cell was the main cell type. Patients with emperipolesis in CHB got high scores of inflammatory activity. Among patients with CHB, emperipolesis was present with higher serum ALT, AST and GGT levels. HBV DNA Load in patients with emperipolesis was as 10 times high as those without emperipolesis. HBeAb was significantly correlated with the evidence of emperipolesis. In chronic hepatitis B, emperipolesis was associated with severity of liver injury. The presence of emperipolesis was an indicator of active liver inflammation. PMID:26511703

  4. [Value and sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound in preoperative histologic diagnosis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Trebing, G; Meyer, L; Scheele, J

    1998-01-01

    In a retrospective study we compared the findings of our abdominal ultra-sound diagnostic of the gallbladder and the common bile duct with the results ot preoperative ERCP, intraoperative findings and the histological results. The test parameters were the size of the gallbladder, the number and the size of biliary calculi, the thickness and the constitution of the wall of the gallbladder and the consecutive grade of inflammation, the wideness of the common bile duct and the suspicion of a choledocholithiasis, respectively. In acute cholecystitis we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours, in symtomatic cholecystolithiasis without cholecystitis an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. If there was suspicion of a choledocholithiasis we performed a preoperative ERCP. Altogether we had correct findings of the common bile duct in our ultrasound diagnostic in 133 of 136 cases (97.8%), only in 3 of 136 cases (2.2%) we had false negative ultrasound findings. With a generous indication to ERCP caused by anamnestic and/or laboratory findings the obstruction of the bile duct could be diagnosted and eliminated in 2 of these 3 cases preoperatively. In all cases of bile duct dilatation (7 mm and more) we found an obstruction of the common bile duct. Our results demonstrate that abdominal ultrasound is a high-efficiency method in the preoperative diagnostic of gallbladder and common bile duct stones.

  5. Ischemic Postconditioning and Subanesthetic S(+)-Ketamine Infusion: Effects on Renal Function and Histology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Resende, Marco A. C.; Pantoja, Alberto V.; Barcellos, Bruno M.; Reis, Eduardo P.; Consolo, Thays D.; Módolo, Renata P.; Domingues, Maria A. C.; Assad, Alexandra R.; Cavalcanti, Ismar L.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Módolo, Norma S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic postconditioning (IP) in renal Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) models improves renal function after IRI. Ketamine affords significant benefits against IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study investigated the effects of IP and IP associated with subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Methods. Forty-one Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: CG (10), control; KG (10), S(+)-ketamine infusion; IPG (10), IP; and KIPG (11), S(+)-ketamine infusion + IP. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. IRI and IP were induced only in IPG and KIPG by left kidney arterial occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Complete reperfusion was preceded by three cycles of 2 min of reocclusion followed by 2 min of reperfusion. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Tubular damage was evaluated by renal histology. Results. Creatinine and BUN were significantly increased. Severe tubular injury was only observed in the groups with IRI (IPG and KIPG), whereas no injury was observed in CG or KG. No significant differences were detected between IPG and KIPG. Conclusions. No synergic effect of the use of subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine and IP on AKI was observed in this rat model. PMID:26413552

  6. Survival after intestinal mucormycosis in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Parra, R; Arnau, E; Julia, A; Lopez, A; Nadal, A; Allende, E

    1986-12-15

    A young woman with acute myelocytic leukemia developed acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding immediately after a first remission induction of her leukemia. After the site of bleeding was located in the descending colon, a necrotic bleeding ulcer was resected. Histologic examination of the ulcer established the diagnosis of gastrointestinal mucormycosis. Treatment with amphotericin B was administered because of the high risk of dissemination. The patient has been followed for 9 months with no evidence of relapse of infection. Survival after gastrointestinal mucormycosis in acute leukemia has not previously been reported in the English language literature. Success in managing mucormycosis depends on the adherence to the recommended principles of early aggressive diagnostic measures, excisional surgery, amphotericin B therapy, and control of the underlying predisposing condition.

  7. Acute liver failure associated with occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chuan; Zhao, Cai-Yan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Ya-Dong; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is a chlorinated solvent that is primarily used in dry cleaning and degreasing operations. Although the hepatotoxicity caused by tetrachloroethylene has been well documented in literature, it is rarely considered as a cause of acute liver failure. We report a case of a 39-yr-old man who was admitted to our hospital for acute liver failure due to tetrachloroethylene exposure. Histological examination of the liver revealed massive hepatic necrosis, prominently, in zone 3 of the hepatic lobules. The patient underwent supportive treatment along with 3 sessions of plasmapheresis, and consequently, he presented a favorable outcome. Repeat liver biopsy performed 6 months after the patient's discharge showed architectural distortion with postnecrotic cirrhosis. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of acute liver failure induced by tetrachloroethylene. Early plasmapheresis can be effective for individuals with sufficient capacity for hepatocyte regeneration.

  8. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  9. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    PubMed

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.

  10. 76 FR 82306 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker... ``Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies.'' This guidance is intended to assist sponsors that conduct biomarker qualification studies for which histology is a reference standard. This...

  11. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology.

  12. A prognostic score in histological node negative breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, B.; Mosseri, V.; Dauce, J. P.; Bastit, P.; Julien, J. P.; Asselain, B.

    1990-01-01

    Between October 1977 and December 1983, 379 consecutive patients have been treated for unilateral, non-metastatic breast cancer, either with conservative (n = 205) or radical surgery (n = 174), with axillary dissection in all the cases. None of them had histologically proved lymph node involvement. Oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels were measured on each tumour. Levels greater than 5 fmol mg-1 cytosolic protein were considered as positive for both ER and PR. At 5 years, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) are respectively 88% and 78%. Unifactorial analysis using Kaplan and Meier estimates and the log rank test revealed that OS was significantly related to age (P less than 0.05), tumour size (P less than 0.001), histological grading (SBR) (P less than 0.01), ER (P less than 0.001) and PR (P less than 0.001). DFS was significantly related to the same factors. Menopausal status, number of breast tumour foci and previous familial history of breast cancer were not significant. Multifactorial analysis revealed that DFS was significantly related to age (bad prognosis (b.p.) less than or equal to 37 years old), tumour size and histological grading (b.p. SBR = 3), and that OS was significantly related to tumour size and PR (b.p. PR less than or equal to 5 fmol mg-1 protein). A prognostic score has been constructed for both DFS and OS. These scores divide our patients into three significantly different (P less than 0.0001) groups with good, intermediate and bad prognosis. PMID:2328212

  13. Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M.; Willis, Joseph; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. We have recently developed a system for endoscopic OCT (EOCT) to examine the gastrointestinal tract of humans in vivo. Compared to endoscopic ultrasonic devices it offers a higher resolution and does not require coupling gels or fluids. EOCT may lead to a versatile tool for biopsy site selection or optical biopsy itself. The EOCT unit is comprised of an interferometer unit with a high speed scanning reference arm and an endoscopically compatible radially scanning probe as the sample arm. Fast data acquisition allows real-time display. Temporal averaging for speckle reduction and a transformation to correct nonlinear scanning were included in the EOCT control software, both in real-time. During in vivo clinical trials, we have observe the structure of the mucosa and submucosa in several gastrointestinal organs as well as glands, blood vessels, pits, villi and crypts. The purpose of this study was to correlate images acquired in vitro with EOCT to corresponding histological sections. EOCT images were obtained on fresh specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens of stomach, ileum, colon and rectum. It was shown that he thickness of the mucosa correlates well with the first bright layer in EOCT. The R2-value was determined to be 0.69. The submucosa and the muscularis propria could be identified. Furthermore, we were able to show the effect of pressure on the tissue on the visible details in the EOCT images.

  14. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary.

  15. Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ρ = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of

  16. Histological and histochemical studies on the chicken lingual glands.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, A M; Lorvik, S; Ceccarelli, P; Pedini, V

    1991-09-01

    1. Morphological and histochemical observations were done on the chicken anterior and posterior lingual glands. Histology, ultrastructure and glycoconjugate histochemistry were investigated by means of light and electron microscopy using staining specific for complex carbohydrates. 2. In the anterior lingual glands there are lateral and medial zones showing different morphological and tinctorial features. The secretory cells are typical mucous cells. 3. Histochemical reactions revealed the presence of acidic glycoconjugates with terminal sialic acid residues, and glycoconjugates vicinal diol and sulphate groupings in the secretory granules. 4. It is suggested that the main functions of lingual glands are the lubrication of boli and protection from micro-organisms.

  17. Histological study on the left common iliac vein spur.

    PubMed

    Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Ohta, Takashi; Hayashi, Shogo; Yokoi, Toyoharu; Arima, Takahiro; Asamoto, Ken; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The spur occasionally seen in a left common iliac vein was investigated by anatomical and histological examination of cadavers so the occurrence mechanism could be discussed. Spurs were found in six cases of the 28 cadavers (21.4%) and they were classified into few different kinds of composition of endosporia, tunica media and adventitia. It is considered that there may be different formation mechanisms and stages even in cases of similar anatomical finding. (English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 43-47).

  18. Histology of vermiform appendix-like organ in slow loris.

    PubMed

    Kakuni, Masakazu; Makita, Takashi; Wijayanto, Hery; Hondo, Eiichi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The vermiform appendix-like organ (VALO) of the slow loris was investigated for its histology and immunohistochemical characteristics. The VALO has a much thinner wall with flat folded mucosa and shallower crypts than the cecal mucosa, while cellular components and population of the mucosa were similar to those of the cecum. No coalescent lymph nodules were seen in the submucosa. Immunohistochemically 5-HT-positive cells in the crypts and CD3- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in the lymph nodules were shown in the VALO as well as in the cecum. These findings suggest that the VALO is a low-differentiated vermiform appendix of the slow loris.

  19. Image-processing pipelines: applications in magnetic resonance histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Anderson, Robert J.; Cook, James J.; Long, Christopher; Badea, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Image processing has become ubiquitous in imaging research—so ubiquitous that it is easy to loose track of how diverse this processing has become. The Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy has pioneered the development of Magnetic Resonance Histology (MRH), which generates large multidimensional data sets that can easily reach into the tens of gigabytes. A series of dedicated image-processing workstations and associated software have been assembled to optimize each step of acquisition, reconstruction, post-processing, registration, visualization, and dissemination. This talk will describe the image-processing pipelines from acquisition to dissemination that have become critical to our everyday work.

  20. Pigmented ameloblastic fibro-odontoma: clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Martínez Martínez, Marisol; Romero, Celeste Sánchez; Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Palma Guzmán, José Mario; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-02-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a slow-growing, expansive, benign odontogenic tumor, composed of ameloblastic epithelium embedded in an ectomesenchymal stroma resembling dental papilla, containing hard dental tissue in variable degrees of maturation, including enamel, dentin, and sometimes cementum. AFO typically affects the posterior mandible, causing bony expansion. We report a case of pigmented AFO in a 5-year-old boy, comprising clinical and histological features illustrated by immunohistochemistry using a large panel of antibodies, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. [Histological studies of normal and pathological furcations in the rat].

    PubMed

    Mattout, P; Rachlin, G

    1978-06-01

    In order to study the histological structure of healthy and pathological furcations in the rat, two groups of animals were submitted to two different diets: one normal and one rich in sucrose. In the first group, certain particularities were demonstrated in the periodontal ligament in the interradicular region: the fibrous network was very loose in this zone and the fibrous insertions were essentially cemento-cemental and not cemento-osseous. In the rats submitted to the high sucrose diet, a disequilibrium was noted between the apposition zones and the zones in bone and cementum resorption.

  2. Bacillary angiomatosis. Clinical and histologic features, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cotell, S L; Noskin, G A

    1994-03-14

    Bacillary angiomatosis is a relatively new infection affecting primarily patients with human immunodeficiency virus or others with impaired host defenses. It presents most commonly with multiple red skin lesions, but visceral involvement may also occur, including involvement of the liver and spleen. Because of the dermatologic manifestations, bacillary angiomatosis may be mistaken for Kaposi's sarcoma. The diagnosis is made by identification of the characteristic histologic findings or genetic amplification by means of polymerase chain reaction. The causative agent was recently identified as Rochalimaea henselae, although Rochalimaea quintana may also play a role. Therapy with erythromycin or doxycycline is usually effective.

  3. Histological evaluation of mandibular third molar roots retrieved after coronectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinod; Sproat, Chris; Kwok, Jerry; Beneng, Kiran; Thavaraj, Selvam; McGurk, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in coronectomy for the management of mandibular third molars because it has a low risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve. However, there is concern that the root that is left in place will eventually become a source of infection. We describe the histological evaluation of 26 consecutive symptomatic coronectomy roots in 21 patients. All roots had vital tissue in the pulp chamber and there was no evidence of periradicular inflammation. Persistent postoperative symptoms related predominantly to inflammation of the soft tissue, which was caused by partially erupted roots or failure of the socket to heal. PMID:24684971

  4. Beyond histology: translating tumor genotypes into clinically effective targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Meador, Catherine B; Micheel, Christine M; Levy, Mia A; Lovly, Christine M; Horn, Leora; Warner, Jeremy L; Johnson, Douglas B; Zhao, Zhongming; Anderson, Ingrid A; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy L; Dahlman, Kimberly B; Pao, William

    2014-05-01

    Increased understanding of intertumoral heterogeneity at the genomic level has led to significant advancements in the treatment of solid tumors. Functional genomic alterations conferring sensitivity to targeted therapies can take many forms, and appropriate methods and tools are needed to detect these alterations. This review provides an update on genetic variability among solid tumors of similar histologic classification, using non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma as examples. We also discuss relevant technological platforms for discovery and diagnosis of clinically actionable variants and highlight the implications of specific genomic alterations for response to targeted therapy.

  5. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  6. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  7. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  8. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  9. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment.

  10. Behavioural and histological effects of atrazine on freshwater molluscs (Physa acuta Drap. and Ancylus fluviatilis Müll. Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Rosés, N; Poquet, M; Muñoz, I

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the direct and indirect effects of atrazine on two grazer species--Physa acuta and Ancylus fluviatilis--as assessed by changes in mortality rates, biomass, searching behaviour and histological properties. No direct effects were observed in the acute toxicity test (48 h) with 0.02, 0.2, 2, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) of atrazine. A chronic toxicity test (18 days) performed in six experimental channels with 15 microg l(-1) of atrazine showed significant changes in grazer behaviour, increased searching velocity and different movement patterns in animals exposed to herbicide. No significant effects were observed in rates of mortality and biomass. Kidney cells of Physa acuta displayed an important cell lysis when animals were exposed to 0.1 mg l(-1) of atrazine for 10 days, and this effect was not reversed after a decontamination process. These results provide evidence of behavioural and structural changes in freshwater molluscs due to a subacute atrazine concentration.

  11. [A case of left occipital lobe hemorrhage in a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis: evaluation of cerebral angiography and histology].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, H; Kubo, Y; Otawara, Y; Kudo, A; Tomitsuka, N; Yoshida, K; Ogawa, A; Kurose, K; Suzuki, M; Chiba, S

    2000-11-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system is uncommon in progressive systemic sclerosis, with only 2 reported cases associated with intracerebral hemorrhage detected by neuroimaging. A 55-year-old woman with a 10-year history of scleroderma presented with left occipital lobe hemorrhage manifesting as headache and vomiting. She had no signs of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. CT and MRI, on admission, showed left occipital lobe hemorrhage with ventricular rupture and acute left subdural hematoma. Serial cerebral angiography was performed on day 0, day 7 and day 14, and found no evidence of aneurysm, arteriovenous multiformation or tumor stain in the left occipital lobe. However, the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries showed increasing segmental narrowing suggestive of vasculitis. Histological examination of a section from the brain cortex adjacent to the hemorrhage revealed no evidence of vasculitis, fibrinoid degeneration or amyloid deposition. Focal vasculitis may have occurred secondary to the homorrhagic lesion.

  12. Glutathione peroxidase 1 expression, malondialdehyde levels and histological alterations in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus exposed to cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Di; Sheng, Zhang; Wang, You-Fa; Han, Ying-Li; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-03-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is known as a widespread pollutant in aquatic environment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is attributed to Cd exposure, which may affect the growth, development and physiological metabolism of aquatic organisms. In response to these unfavorable damages, antioxidant systems have been developed to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of glutathione peroxidase 1 genes (GPx-1a and GPx-1b) in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus after Cd administration. Total RNA extraction, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed in order to clone the A. fasciatus GPx-1a and GPx-1b full-length cDNA sequences and partial fragment of β-actin cDNA from the liver for the first time. Tissue-specific expression analysis proved that GPx-1 genes were widely expressed in the liver, kidney, gill, testis, muscle, spleen, heart and brain. The changes of GPx-1 mRNA and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver treated with Cd were measured. In addition, the acute toxic effects of Cd on the microstructure of the liver were studied using light microscopy. These results suggest that GPx-1, MDA and liver histology which represent molecular, biochemical and histological levels, can be used as potential biomarkers to monitor Cd pollution. The overall findings also highlight the potential use of those three bio-indicators combined together as a multi-level tool (molecular, biochemical and histological levels) when monitoring Cd contamination and other possible exogenetic pollutants in aquatic environment. PMID:26707212

  13. Glutathione peroxidase 1 expression, malondialdehyde levels and histological alterations in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus exposed to cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Di; Sheng, Zhang; Wang, You-Fa; Han, Ying-Li; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-03-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is known as a widespread pollutant in aquatic environment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is attributed to Cd exposure, which may affect the growth, development and physiological metabolism of aquatic organisms. In response to these unfavorable damages, antioxidant systems have been developed to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of glutathione peroxidase 1 genes (GPx-1a and GPx-1b) in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus after Cd administration. Total RNA extraction, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed in order to clone the A. fasciatus GPx-1a and GPx-1b full-length cDNA sequences and partial fragment of β-actin cDNA from the liver for the first time. Tissue-specific expression analysis proved that GPx-1 genes were widely expressed in the liver, kidney, gill, testis, muscle, spleen, heart and brain. The changes of GPx-1 mRNA and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver treated with Cd were measured. In addition, the acute toxic effects of Cd on the microstructure of the liver were studied using light microscopy. These results suggest that GPx-1, MDA and liver histology which represent molecular, biochemical and histological levels, can be used as potential biomarkers to monitor Cd pollution. The overall findings also highlight the potential use of those three bio-indicators combined together as a multi-level tool (molecular, biochemical and histological levels) when monitoring Cd contamination and other possible exogenetic pollutants in aquatic environment.

  14. Histological and immunohistochemical study of Wischnewsky spots in fatal hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard; Rie, Manfred; Sperhake, Jan P

    2006-03-01

    Wischnewsky spots in the gastric mucosa are considered an important finding for the diagnosis of hypothermia-related deaths. In the present prospective histological and immunohistochemical investigation, 14 cases of fatal hypothermia presenting Wischnewsky spots at autopsy were studied. Macromorphologically, the lesions, varying in diameter from 0.1 to 0.4 cm, had a blackish-brownish color and appeared partly lofty, especially on the apex of gastric folds. Histologically, no erosions or ulcers were observed in the gastric mucosa. In some cases, hemorrhages in conjunction with infarctions of the mucosa were observed in the mucosal glands. Those regions, however, did not represent the lesions visible as Wischnewsky spots at the macroscopical level. Immunohistochemical stains were done with a specific antibody against hemoglobin (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark). Wischnewsky spots expressed immunopositivity with antihemoglobin. Concerning the pathogenesis and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms contributing to the development of Wischnewsky spots, we hypothesize that cooling of the body in the setting of cold ambient temperatures primarily leads to circumscribed hemorrhages of the gastric glands in vivo or in the agonal period, respectively. Subsequently, due to autolysis, erythrocytes are destroyed and hemoglobin is released. Following exposure to gastric acid, hemoglobin is hematinized, leading to the typical blackish-brownish appearance of Wischnewsky spots seen at gross examination. Wischnewsky spots are not equivalent to erosions in terms of histopathological diagnosis but rather represent epiphenomena generated in vivo or in the agonal period of fatal hypothermia. PMID:16501354

  15. Bone welding--a histological evaluation in the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Pilling, Eckart; Jung, Roland; Leonhardt, Henry; Proff, Peter; Stadlinger, Bernd; Pradel, Winnie; Eckelt, Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in clinical application correlates well to the progress in development of new materials as to the improvement of application methods. One of those new application methods is the ultrasound-aided insertion of Resorb-X pins. The aim of this study was the histological evaluation of possible thermal damage to bone due to the ultrasound insertion. For this purpose, condylar neck fractures in 12 sheep were produced, repositioned and fixed by Resorb-X plates and pins. The animals were sacrificed in two groups, one after 2 weeks and one after 9 weeks. The bone-pin interlinkage and the structure of the bone were histologically evaluated. After 2 weeks a tight bone-polymer interlinkage was seen. Neither a pronounced foreign body reaction nor an interposition of fibrous tissue at the interface or a thermally induced necrosis was observed. The late phase of wound healing after 9 weeks showed pathomorphological characteristics within the normal range of bone healing. The bone seemed to be free of any alteration caused by process engineering. We conclude that thermal stress caused by ultrasound-aided pin insertion does not lead to cellular reaction in the bone. The fast and easy application of this improved biodegradable osteosynthesis system will bring a clear advantage in clinical use. PMID:17695991

  16. The Impact of Histologic Variants on FSGS Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meliambro, Kristin; Campbell, Kirk N.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course is highly variable with disparate responses to therapeutic intervention and rates of progression. Histologic variant subtype has been commonly used as a prognostic and therapeutic guide in the clinical management of FSGS. The tip lesion is widely considered to portend the most favorable prognosis and to be the most responsive to steroid therapy. Conversely, the collapsing lesion, more prevalent in patients of African descent, is associated with steroid resistance and higher risk of disease progression. In the 10 years since the Columbia classification system for FSGS was published, some retrospective and one prospective study explored the impact of histologic variants at the time of biopsy on FSGS outcomes. The results largely validate its clinical predictive value with respect to treatment response, though its utility in cases recurring after kidney transplantation is still unknown. Sampling and interpretation errors are additional sources of caution. More research is needed to fully define reproducible prognostic and therapeutic markers for this polymorphic disorder. PMID:27437509

  17. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  18. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  19. Clinical, biomechanical and histological study on oophorectomy induced menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bordinhon, Maristela; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical implications as well as biomechanical and histological changes and in bone tissue induced by ovariectomy in 64 rats. Methods: The rats were divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy or placebo, and subdivided into four subgroups, according to time postoperatively: three, six, nine and 12 months. The weight of the animals at the time of sacrifice was taken into consideration. The biomechanical study was performed on the right tibia, to the maximum load and stiffness coefficient. For the histological study we calculated the trabecular bone of the left tibia. Statistical analysis of body weight and mechanical properties was performed by variance analysis, complemented with Tukey's multiple comparison tests; and trabecular area, the non-parametric variance analysis. Results: Ovariectomy-induced menopause caused an increase in body weight, reduction of diaphyseal bone resistance at six months of hormone deprivation, but this effect is equalized over time by aging; bone stiffness was smaller in the ovariectomized group and reduction of bone mass occurred. Conclusion: The removal of the ovaries produced systemic alterations, characterized by metabolic changes that caused weight gain and changes in bone tissue, associated with alteration of the mechanical profile and reduced bone mass. Level of Evidence I, Clinical Study. PMID:25328434

  20. Histological evidence for a supraspinous ligament in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Ignacio A.; Casal, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Rubén D.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.

    2015-01-01

    Supraspinous ossified rods have been reported in the sacra of some derived sauropod dinosaurs. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this structure, histological evidence has never been provided to support or reject any of them. In order to establish its origin, we analyse and characterize the microstructure of the supraspinous rod of two sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. The supraspinous ossified rod is almost entirely formed by dense Haversian bone. Remains of primary bone consist entirely of an avascular tissue composed of two types of fibre-like structures, which are coarse and longitudinally (parallel to the main axis of the element) oriented. These structures are differentiated on the basis of their optical properties under polarized light. Very thin fibrous strands are also observed in some regions. These small fibres are all oriented parallel to one another but perpendicular to the element main axis. Histological features of the primary bone tissue indicate that the sacral supraspinous rod corresponds to an ossified supraspinous ligament. The formation of this structure appears to have been a non-pathological metaplastic ossification, possibly induced by the continuous tensile forces applied to the element. PMID:26587248

  1. Nucleus segmentation in histology images with hierarchical multilevel thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmady Phoulady, Hady; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mouton, Peter R.

    2016-03-01

    Automatic segmentation of histological images is an important step for increasing throughput while maintaining high accuracy, avoiding variation from subjective bias, and reducing the costs for diagnosing human illnesses such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we present a novel method for unsupervised segmentation of cell nuclei in stained histology tissue. Following an initial preprocessing step involving color deconvolution and image reconstruction, the segmentation step consists of multilevel thresholding and a series of morphological operations. The only parameter required for the method is the minimum region size, which is set according to the resolution of the image. Hence, the proposed method requires no training sets or parameter learning. Because the algorithm requires no assumptions or a priori information with regard to cell morphology, the automatic approach is generalizable across a wide range of tissues. Evaluation across a dataset consisting of diverse tissues, including breast, liver, gastric mucosa and bone marrow, shows superior performance over four other recent methods on the same dataset in terms of F-measure with precision and recall of 0.929 and 0.886, respectively.

  2. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.

    PubMed

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator.

  3. Classification of Histological Images Based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. Z.; Neves, L.; Duarte, S. C.; Duarte, Y. A. S.; Ramos Batista, V.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are of many distinct types, and different classification systems make it difficult to diagnose them correctly. Many of these systems classify lymphomas only based on what they look like under a microscope. In 2008 the World Health Organisation (WHO) introduced the most recent system, which also considers the chromosome features of the lymphoma cells and the presence of certain proteins on their surface. The WHO system is the one that we apply in this work. Herewith we present an automatic method to classify histological images of three types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Our method is based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), and it consists of three steps: 1) extracting sub-bands from the histological image through SWT, 2) applying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to clean noise and select the most relevant information, 3) classifying it by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The kernel types Linear, RBF and Polynomial were evaluated with our method applied to 210 images of lymphoma from the National Institute on Aging. We concluded that the following combination led to the most relevant results: detail sub-band, ANOVA and SVM with Linear and RBF kernels.

  4. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. PMID:25439143

  5. Histology of the ovary of Chinchilla lanigera in captivity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Torres-Luque, A; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Bühler, M I

    2014-08-01

    Chinchilla, the lanigera variety in particular, is one of the most valuable rodents in the fur industry. The chinchilla ovary is morphologically similar to that of other South American hystricognath rodents, especially as regards its anatomy and, to a lesser degree, its histology. The presence of numerous primary follicles throughout the annual cycle suggests that a few of them are recruited to initiate growth and differentiation during folliculogenesis. Primary follicles with two or more oocytes are common; this is not the case with follicles at more advanced stages, suggesting that they do not develop. Only one or two large corpora lutea (CL) and three to five small or accessories CL were observed but no corpora albicans. The presence of accessory CL may reflect the importance of continuous hormonal production to support prolonged gestation. Atretic CL were also present, showing signs of degeneration in luteal cells. The interstitial cells distributed throughout the cortex were the main histological feature shared with other species, as stated in previous reports. Antral atresia was observed in all sizes of antral follicles while basal atresia was confined exclusively to smaller follicles.

  6. [Histological study on aging changes in the human tongue].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, M

    1991-04-01

    Dryness of the mouth, taste disturbance or misswallowing may appear due to physiological changes of tongue especially in old aged person. The purpose of this study is to investigate histological changes related to aging in the human tongue, qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples were collected from 100 autopsy-cases without any pathological changes consisting of 50 males and 50 females aged between 5 and 82. Five specimens (I-V) were obtained from each tongue by frontal section. Specimen I (anterior part of tongue), III (central part), V (posterior part) were studied. Each specimen with thickness of 4 microns were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Alucian-Blue. Tongue mucosa, glands such as Blandin-Nuhn gland, von Ebner gland and those glands distributed in the root of tongue, and M. longitudinalis superior were observed histologically. The study was done quantitatively by I-BAS one picture analyzer manufactured by Zeiss Co. The results of this study are as following: 1) The epithelium of lingual mucosa The thickness of epithelium decreased with aging, rather prominent on dorsal part than the lateral. 2) lingual glands Acinar atrophy increased with aging, especially quickly in females. The atrophy of the acinus started from 40 years old in Blandin-nuhn gland and 30 in von Ebner gland. However, tongue root glandular atrophy was milder in comparison with the other two glands. 3) Lingual muscles Decrease in muscle fiber diameter with aging is also observed.

  7. Condylar hyperplasia: correlation of histological and scintigraphic features.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Horner, K; Testa, H J; Lloyd, J J; Sloan, P

    1994-05-01

    Scintigaphy using 99mTc-MDP is widely advocated as a method of diagnosis and presurgical assessment of patients with condylar hyperplasia. A previous study has demonstrated that hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle is characterized histologically by the presence of an uninterrupted layer of undiffentiated germinative mesenchyme cells, a layer of hypertrophic cartilage and the presence of islands of chondrocytes in the subchondral trabecular bone. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was any association between the degree of 99mTc-MDP uptake and the histological features of condylar hyperplasia. The parameters examined were trabecular bone volume, depth of cartilage islands and the presence of forming and resorbing surfaces. The images were analyzed by three experienced observers, who ranked the images according to degree of asymmetry between sides and the degree of uptake on the affected side. There was a significant correlation between the proportions of resorbing and osteoid covered bone surfaces and scintigraphic appearances. The rank correlations were rs = 0.55 (P = 0.3) between the resorptive surfaces and degree of symmetry and rs = 0.53 (P = 0.04) between the osteoid surfaces and absolute uptake. The correlation was higher for both methods (rs = 0.64 in each case) when the osteoid surface and resorptive surface measurements were combined. The results indicate that visual examination of radioisotope bone scans by experienced observers is a valid form of assessment of bone activity in condylar hyperplasia. PMID:7835500

  8. Bone welding--a histological evaluation in the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Pilling, Eckart; Jung, Roland; Leonhardt, Henry; Proff, Peter; Stadlinger, Bernd; Pradel, Winnie; Eckelt, Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in clinical application correlates well to the progress in development of new materials as to the improvement of application methods. One of those new application methods is the ultrasound-aided insertion of Resorb-X pins. The aim of this study was the histological evaluation of possible thermal damage to bone due to the ultrasound insertion. For this purpose, condylar neck fractures in 12 sheep were produced, repositioned and fixed by Resorb-X plates and pins. The animals were sacrificed in two groups, one after 2 weeks and one after 9 weeks. The bone-pin interlinkage and the structure of the bone were histologically evaluated. After 2 weeks a tight bone-polymer interlinkage was seen. Neither a pronounced foreign body reaction nor an interposition of fibrous tissue at the interface or a thermally induced necrosis was observed. The late phase of wound healing after 9 weeks showed pathomorphological characteristics within the normal range of bone healing. The bone seemed to be free of any alteration caused by process engineering. We conclude that thermal stress caused by ultrasound-aided pin insertion does not lead to cellular reaction in the bone. The fast and easy application of this improved biodegradable osteosynthesis system will bring a clear advantage in clinical use.

  9. Local cause of gingival overgrowth. Clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, Emma Cristina; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; MercuŢ, Veronica; Scrieciu, Monica; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Diaconu, Oana Andreea; Oprea, Bogdan; Pascu, Roxana Maria; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The overgrowth, depending on its extension, has multiple effects on the stomatognathic apparatus: functional disorders (impaired speech), difficulty in chewing and aesthetic problems but can cause significant psychological problems. We proposed this study, motivated by the relative increased frequency of the gum outgrowth, its multifactorial etiopathogeny, but especially from the point of view of the specialist practitioner, by the problems that this pathology raises not only for the functionality of the stomatognathic apparatus but also for the facial esthetics, and especially for future therapeutic attitudes needed to solve the existing pathology at this level. We conducted a clinical study and a histological one. For the clinical study, we selected 74 patients who experienced different degrees of gingival outgrowing associated with fillings, dental caries, fixed prostheses, mobile prostheses, orthodontic apparatus. Thirty gingival fragments from patients with gingival outgrowing were processed by paraffin-embedding histological technique and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The morphological results obtained provide the necessary support for understanding the possibility of developing a therapeutic strategy to prevent or minimize the gum outgrowth by administering antibiotic and anti-inflammatory medications associated with medications, which shall cause the apoptosis of the fibroblasts. PMID:27516015

  10. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories.

  11. Histological comparison of partial hydatidiform mole and trisomy gestation specimens.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Yancey; Bharat, Chrianna; Crook, Maxine L; Kee, Ai Rene; Peverall, Joanne; Ruba, Sukeerat; Stewart, Colin J R

    2016-10-01

    The distinction between partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and trisomy gestation is not always straightforward histologically and it is unclear which morphological features, alone or in combination, provide the greatest diagnostic accuracy. We performed a comparative review of 89 products of conception (POC) specimens including 54 PHMs and 35 trisomy gestations, assessing the following in each case: trophoblastic atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, villous enlargement, large trophoblast inclusions, scalloped villous shape, stromal apoptosis, small round villous inclusions, and fibrillary stromal collagen. There was a significant difference in the presence of trophoblast atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, large trophoblastic inclusions, small round villous inclusions, fibrillary collagen (all p<0.01), and apoptosis (p=0.028), between PHM and trisomy cases. Fibrillary collagen was more common in trisomy specimens whereas the other features were more common in PHMs. There was no significant difference in villous enlargement or scalloped villous shape between the two groups. The combination of cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation and large trophoblast inclusions correctly classified 83 (93.3%) of cases where the presence of at least two features was considered diagnostic of PHM. While cytogenetic analysis is arguably the gold standard for diagnosis, this study demonstrates that histological assessment permits accurate distinction of PHM and trisomic gestations in the great majority of cases. PMID:27575970

  12. A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.

    PubMed

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information. PMID:23983318

  13. [Alfred Kohn, professor of histology at German University in Prague].

    PubMed

    Nanka, O; Grim, M

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Kohn (1867-1959) was the head of the Institute of Histology at the Medical Faculty of German University in Prague for 26 years. In 2007 we commemorated his 140th birthday, and 2009 we will remember the 50th anniversary of his death. He entered the history of medicine by discovery of nature and origin of parathyroid glands and by pioneer research into chromaffin cells and sympathetic paraganglia. Kohn's papers on the pituitary, interstitial cells of testes, and ovaries are also related to endocrinology. All his studies are based on descriptive and comparative histological and embryological observations. Kohn was twice the dean of German Medical Faculty, and a member or honorary member of many important scientific societies. He was repeatedly nominated for Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine. For his Jewish origin he was expelled from Deutsche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und Künste für die Tschechoslowakische Republik in 1939 and transported to Terezin ghetto in 1943. After the war he lived in Prague. On the occasion of his 90th birthday he was elected honorary president of Anatomische Gesellschaft and awarded by the Czechoslovak Order of Labour. Alfred Kohn died in 1959. He was one of the outstanding personalities that Prague gave to the world of science.

  14. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder.

  15. Renal histology and pregnancy performance in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Devoe, L D; Loy, G L; Spargo, B H

    1983-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancies complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may be strongly influenced by the presence of renal disease. As the relationship between renal histology and clinical function in SLE is not consistent, prospective data on the outcomes of such pregnancies would aid patient counselling. Fifteen women with SLE had 18 pregnancies subsequent to renal biopsies, performed from 3 months to 8 years prior to conception. Their renal function was evaluated before, during and after pregnancy. Fourteen of 15 patients had evidence of renal involvement, based on by light and electron microscopic sections: 7 had mesangial involvement (WHO Class II); 5 had active focal or diffuse glomerulonephritis (Classes III and IV); two had membranous involvement (Class V); 1, no evident disease. Perinatal outcome was similar whether lesions were milder (8 continuing pregnancies, 4 term deliveries) or more severe (6 continuing pregnancies, 3 term deliveries). Clinical renal function was normal in all but 3 cases at the beginning of pregnancy; 2 additional patients experienced moderate deteriorations in renal function during pregnancy but recovered normal function in the puerperium. Fetal outcome was abnormal (3 premature deliveries, 1 neonatal death, 1 spontaneous abortion) in all cases where renal function was decreased, while 10 of 13 pregnancies in patients with normal renal function ended in term deliveries. The data suggest that currently preconceptual renal histology provides a less accurate basis for perinatal counselling than does the assessment of clinical renal function.

  16. Renal function and histology in children after small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Olivia; Noto, Cristian; De Serre, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Dechaux, Michèle; Goulet, Olivier; Niaudet, Patrick; Lacaille, Florence

    2013-02-01

    CKD is a frequent long-term complication after SBTx. CNIs are a well-known factor, but probably not the only cause. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and severity of CKD in 27 children with SBTx (15 combined liver/SBTx) and prednisone/TAC-based maintenance immunosuppression. Median follow-up was seven yr (3-21). A renal biopsy was performed in 14 patients, 1-18 yr post-SBTx. A reduced GFR was observed in 17 children (63%) during the follow-up with none requiring dialysis. CNI toxicity was observed in 11/14 biopsies, as early as two yr post-transplant, and could occur with a normal mGFR. The dose of TAC was reduced by 50% in 13 patients with CKD and/or significant kidney histological lesions, and six were also given MMF. This led to a significant improvement in renal function: mGFR normalized in eight patients and improved or stabilized in five. No rejection occurred. At last follow-up, 37% had CKD stage 2 and 15% had CKD stage 3. In conclusion, CKD is frequent in children after SBTx and probably multifactorial. Less nephrotoxic immunosuppressive protocols may improve mGFR and should be further considered. The kidney histology helps in designing personalized immunosuppression strategies for patients.

  17. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

  18. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats. PMID:27606142

  19. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats.

  20. Innervation of amphibian reproductive system. Histological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Iruzubieta Villagra, Lucrecia; Fernández, Silvia N; Ramos, Inés

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we describe for the first time in anuran amphibians the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of innervation in the female reproductive organs. The observations in Rhinella arenarum revealed the presence of nerve fibers located predominantly in the ovarian hilium and in the oviduct wall. In both organs the nerves fibers are placed near blood vessels and smooth muscles fibers. In the present study the histological observations were confirmed using antibodies against peripherin and neurofilament 200 proteins. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that the innervation of the reproductive organs is constituted by unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cells. Axon terminals contain a population of small, clear, translucent vesicles that coexist with a few dense cored vesicles. The ultrastructural characteristics together with the immunopositive reaction to tyrosine hydroxylase of the nerve fibers and the type of synaptic vesicles present in the axon terminal would indicate that the reproductive organs of R. arenarum females are innervated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  2. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhi-Qiang; Luan, Guo-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Zhai, Feng; Guan, Yu-Guang; Bao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection. However, the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known. We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled, and divided into three groups according to the date of admission. The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF), electrocorticography, the depth of cortex damage, and acute histological changes (H and E staining, neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF) staining) were analyzed before and after the operation. The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation. Results: The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation. For the temporal cortex, the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2–9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.09, 0.98 ± 0.08, 1.10 ± 0.11, 1.11 ± 0.09, and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm, respectively. Coagulation with output power of 4–5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer, external granular layer, and external pyramidal layer. Conclusions: The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein, but also reduced the rCBF. We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges, and partially destroy the epileptic focus. PMID:25591564

  3. Histological characteristics of the myometrium in the postpartum hemorrhage of unknown etiology: a possible involvement of local immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Farhana, Mustari; Tamura, Naoaki; Mukai, Mari; Ikuma, Kotomi; Koumura, Yukiko; Furuta, Naomi; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological characteristics of the myometrium obtained in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) of unknown etiology secondary to uterine atony. These characteristics were selected from among registered cases of clinically suspected amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) and classified as PPH of unknown etiology because of no obvious cause of PPH at Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, a registration center for clinical AFE in Japan. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on myometrium using anti-mast cell tryptase, anti-neutrophil elastase, anti-CD68, anti-CD88, anti-CD3, and anti-ZnCP-1 antibodies. Massive infiltrations of inflammatory cells with mast cell degranulation within the myometrium secondary to complement activation were observed in PPH of unknown etiology (n=34), but not in control pregnant women (n=15) or after delivery in women without PPH (n=18). The concomitant immunohistochemical detection of meconium in myometrium suggests that amniotic fluids or fetal materials are one of the candidates for inducing maternal local immune activation in the PPH of unknown etiology. Postpartum acute myometritis in the absence of an infective etiology may be a histological characteristic of PPH of unknown etiology. PMID:26048052

  4. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  5. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  6. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  7. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  8. Optical Histology: High-Resolution Visualization of Tissue Microvasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin Jing-Ming

    Mammalian tissue requires the delivery of nutrients, growth factors, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases to maintain normal function. These elements are delivered by the blood, which travels through the connected network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system. The vascular system consists of large feeder blood vessels (arteries and veins) that are connected to the small blood vessels (arterioles and venules), which in turn are connected to the capillaries that are directly connected to the tissue and facilitate gas exchange and nutrient delivery. These small blood vessels and capillaries make up an intricate but organized network of blood vessels that exist in all mammalian tissues known as the microvasculature and are very important in maintaining the health and proper function of mammalian tissue. Due to the importance of the microvasculature in tissue survival, disruption of the microvasculature typically leads to tissue dysfunction and tissue death. The most prevalent method to study the microvasculature is visualization. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the gold-standard method to visualize tissue microvasculature. IHC is very well-suited for highly detailed interrogation of the tissue microvasculature at the cellular level but is unwieldy and impractical for wide-field visualization of the tissue microvasculature. The objective my dissertation research was to develop a method to enable wide-field visualization of the microvasculature, while still retaining the high-resolution afforded by optical microscopy. My efforts led to the development of a technique dubbed "optical histology" that combines chemical and optical methods to enable high-resolution visualization of the microvasculature. The development of the technique first involved preliminary studies to quantify optical property changes in optically cleared tissues, followed by development and demonstration of the methodology. Using optical histology, I successfully obtained high

  9. An unusual case showing fatal rupture of a gastric ulcer or gastromalacia? The importance/role of histology for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Spagnolo, Antonio G; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Arena, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastromalacia is the acute autolytic erosion of the gastric wall. It generally occurs postmortem, and it appears as a slimy brownish black region of the wall which occurs principally in the gastric fundus. A 59-year-old woman died in the Emergency Department following a 2-day period of mild abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. A forensic autopsy was performed which revealed a rupture of the gastric fundus that had caused leakage of gastric content into the abdominal cavity. There was no macroscopic evidence of peritonitis, and the stomach wall adjacent to the rupture site showed marked thinning. The gross appearance was typical of gastromalacia. In contrast, histological observations revealed the presence of an ulcer at the site of perforation and a severe acute inflammatory reaction indicating a robust reaction with an antemortem rupture.

  10. Coblation of the canine vocal fold: a histologic study.

    PubMed

    Divi, Venu; Benninger, Michael; Kiupel, Matti; Dobbie, Allison

    2012-11-01

    Controlled ablation (coblation) is a radiofrequency bipolar method of tissue ablation, which destroys tissue at very low temperatures. It has been used in a variety of clinical settings and is most frequently used by the otolaryngologist for tonsillectomy. In this study, we have examined the effect of coblation on the canine larynx by applying coblation to the vocal fold and harvesting the larynx on postoperative days (PODs) 0, 4, and 7. Histologic examination was performed with a variety of stains to examine the healing process. Coblation injury demonstrated complete epithelialization by POD 7. No injury to the underlying vocalis muscle was seen. The inflammatory response demonstrates less inflammation than previously reported with CO(2) laser injury. Coblation is a viable method for removal of tissue from the vocal fold resulting in minimal scar formation and a controlled depth of injury. Further studies should be performed to determine clinical utility in the removal of lesions such as respiratory papillomatosis.

  11. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps. PMID:27319048

  12. Virtual histology of the human heart using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Moazami, Nader; Rollins, Andrew M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2009-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for the visualization of micron-scale structures within nontransparent biological tissues. For the first time, we demonstrate the use of OCT in identifying components of the cardiac conduction system and other structures in the explanted human heart. Reconstructions of cardiac structures up to 2 mm below the tissue surface were achieved and validated with Masson Trichrome histology in atrial, ventricular, sinoatrial nodal, and atrioventricular nodal preparations. The high spatial resolution of OCT provides visualization of cardiac fibers within the myocardium, as well as elements of the cardiac conduction system; however, a limiting factor remains its depth penetration, demonstrated to be ~2 mm in cardiac tissues. Despite its currently limited imaging depth, the use of OCT to identify the structural determinants of both normal and abnormal function in the intact human heart is critical in its development as a potential aid to intracardiac arrhythmia diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Franz von Leydig (1821-1908), pioneer of comparative histology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marlon R

    2012-05-01

    Franz von Leydig, a German histologist and zoologist, is known to every student of human or animal anatomy because of the testicular testosterone-producing cells carrying his name. However, he made many contributions to our knowledge of the fine structure of animal tissues, including more than 200 scientific articles and several books. His most important work, the book Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Thiere, established him as a pioneer if not the founder of comparative histology. Leydig taught at three different universities (Würzburg, Tübingen and Bonn) and received many honours from scientific organizations worldwide, including the Royal Society. He died in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the town of his birth, aged 86 years.

  14. Liver Biopsy for Histological Assessment: The Case in Favor

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khalid A.; Mumtaz, Khalid; Jafri, Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Liver biopsy (LB) is the gold standard method for assessment of liver histology. It provides valuable, otherwise unobtainable information, regarding the degree of fibrosis, parenchymal integrity, degree and pattern of inflammation, bile duct status and deposition of materials and minerals in the liver. This information provides immense help in the diagnosis and prognostication of a variety of liver diseases. With careful selection of patients, and performance of the procedure appropriately, the complications become exceptionally rare in current clinical practice. Furthermore, the limitations of sampling error and inter-/ intra-observer variability may be avoided by obtaining adequate tissue specimen and having it reviewed by an experienced liver pathologist. Current noninvasive tools are unqualified to replace LB in clinical practice in the face of specific limitations for each tool, compounded by a poorer performance towards the assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis, particularly for intermediate stages. PMID:20339188

  15. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps.

  16. Serological and histological diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Goudie, R. B.; Macsween, R. N. M.; Goldberg, D. M.

    1966-01-01

    A simple immunofluorescence test for antibody to a mitochondrial antigen present in many tissues is a reliable method of distinguishing most cases of primary biliary cirrhosis from jaundice due to extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction. Of 30 cases diagnosed as primary biliary cirrhosis, 26 had antimitochondrial antibody whereas none of 77 cases with jaundice due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction showed this serological abnormality. The antibody was also found in the serum of three of 42 patients who had other forms of cirrhosis and in two of 266 patients with no evidence of liver disease. Clinical, biochemical, and serological findings favour the view that primary biliary cirrhosis is a real entity which, in our present state of knowledge, cannot be defined clearly by any single method of investigation. In particular, the liver may show a variety of histological appearances which, interpreted without regard to the other features of the case, may lead to errors in diagnosis. Images PMID:5333256

  17. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones.

  18. [Qualitative histological diagnostics of the remoteness of traumatic subdural hematomas].

    PubMed

    Nedugov, G V

    2011-01-01

    The present histological study was based on the examination of dura mater, capsules, and contents of 200 subdural hematomas (SDH) obtained from the corpses of subjects with a non-penetrating craniocerebral injury within a period from 1 hour to 2.5 years after the trauma. A total of 14 well-reproducible qualitative morphological criteria have been identified for diagnostics of the prescription of subdural hematomas; the probability and the exact earliest and latest times of their manifestation at different dates of the posttraumatic period were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and prognostic value of the proposed qualitative morphological criteria for the prescription of traumatic subdural hematomas were evaluated. The results of the study can be used in the practical work of forensic medical experts.

  19. Vitiligo in two water buffaloes: histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, R; De Caprariis, D; Esposito, L; Maiolino, P; Restucci, B; Roperto, F

    1993-02-01

    Vitiligo, a skin disease, characterized by the spontaneous loss of melanin, has been described in several animals as well as in humans. Most of the reports of large domestic animals have dealt with clinical investigations without morphological data. In this report, the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of two cases of vitiligo in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are presented. Interestingly, many of the ultrastructural observations for vitiliginous buffaloes resemble those previously described for other species, e.g., humans, mouse, and chicken. These data suggest that one or more forms of human vitiligo may have a similar etiopathogenesis to that of the buffalo. Therefore, it is proposed that vitiliginous buffalo may prove to be a useful animal model for the human disease.

  20. Submandibular gland tumors. Adverse histologic factors and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Weber, R S; Byers, R M; Petit, B; Wolf, P; Ang, K; Luna, M

    1990-09-01

    We reviewed our 41-year experience with tumors of the submandibular gland to determine what factors influence outcome and their implications for treatment. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (21), while among malignant tumors the adenoid cystic variety (37) predominated. For the 86 patients who had malignant tumors, the 2- and 5-year survivals by the life table method were 82% and 69%, respectively. For patients with malignant tumors, histology, size, perineural invasion, and prior treatment did not affect overall survival. Factors adversely affecting outcome were extraglandular soft-tissue extension and lymph node metastasis. Local-regional control was enhanced in patients with soft-tissue extension if they were treated by surgery followed by radiotherapy rather than by surgery alone.

  1. Distribution fitting-based pixel labeling for histology image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a new pixel labeling algorithm for complex histology image segmentation. For each image pixel, a Gaussian mixture model is applied to estimate its neighborhood intensity distributions. With this local distribution fitting, a set of pixels having a full set of source classes (e.g. nuclei, stroma, connective tissue, and background) in their neighborhoods are identified as the seeds for pixel labeling. A seed pixel is labeled by measuring its intensity distance to each of its neighborhood distributions, and the one with the shortest distance is selected to label the seed. For non-seed pixels, we propose two different labeling schemes: global voting and local clustering. In global voting each seed classifies a non-seed pixel into one of the seed's local distributions, i.e., it casts one vote; the final label for the non-seed pixel is the class which gets the most votes, across all the seeds. In local clustering, each non-seed pixel is labeled by one of its own neighborhood distributions. Because the local distributions in a non-seed pixel neighborhood do not necessarily correspond to distinct source classes (i.e., two or more local distributions may be produced by the same source class), we first identify the "true" source class of each local distribution by using the source classes of the seed pixels and a minimum distance criterion to determine the closest source class. The pixel can then be labeled as belonging to this class. With both labeling schemes, experiments on a set of uterine cervix histology images show encouraging performance of our algorithm when compared with traditional multithresholding and K-means clustering, as well as state-of-the-art mean shift clustering, multiphase active contours, and Markov random field-based algorithms.

  2. Histology aging workforce and what to do about it.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J

    2009-06-01

    There are 28,400 histotechs now working in human surgical and forensic pathology, half of whom will reach retirement age within the next 4 years, and to compensate for those retiring and to increase their number to the 31,200 needed in 2015, a 3-pronged solution is required. Firstly, each individual medical laboratory has to implement a uniform salary scale for all its members with equivalent professional level that will probably delay the retirement plans of some histotechs and will allow the flow of personnel between its different areas. Secondly, a new certification of "qualification in histology" should be created so medical technologists can cover for retiring histotechs and also could find new working positions in laboratories that may be contemplating staff reductions because of more productive instruments and workflow schemes. Finally, given the historical examination passing rates, it is necessary to enroll at least 4,965 students in accredited histology programs (709 annually), and for this to happen, either the present number of 33 programs has to be increased by 17 (to a total of 50) with a similar capacity each to those now in operation or 2 to 3 distance learning programs with a capacity of 85 to 125 each have to be created after the example of some already existing. This solution will also require that local students soon to enter junior colleges are informed about these programs and work opportunities. To assure the success of any of the 3 approaches, it is imperative that the pathologists get involved, individually for the first one, and collectively for the other two; the pathologists should bring these solutions to their respective societies and college boards and meetings and sound the alarm on this problem that will adversely impact their work and their overall patient care. The pathologists have to be aware of this very grave situation-that the histotechs' retirement clocks are ticking and that the time to act is now!

  3. Chronic histological effects of the flat interface nerve electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventhal, Daniel K.; Cohen, Mark; Durand, Dominique M.

    2006-06-01

    The flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) is designed to reshape peripheral nerves into favorable geometries for selective stimulation. Compared to cylindrical geometries, the ovoid geometries created by the FINE allow more space for contact placement. Furthermore, the amount of electrically excitable tissue between stimulating contacts and target axons is reduced. In this study, the nerve response to the presence of the FINE is examined histologically. Three different FINEs were designed to reshape peripheral nerves to different opening heights designated as 'wide' (1.3 mm), 'medium' (0.5 mm) and 'narrow' (0.1 mm) cuffs. Twelve adult cats were implanted with one cuff each (four in total of each design) on their right sciatic nerves. At least 3 months later, the animals were sacrificed and their sciatic nerves were harvested for histological evaluation. Cross-sectional areas and eccentricities (defined as the major axis divided by the minor axis of the closest fit ellipse to a region) of the nerves were measured to assess the degree of reshaping. The wide and medium cuff designs significantly reshaped the nerves compared to control nerves, though there was no significant difference in eccentricity between nerves implanted with wide and medium cuffs. There was extensive deposition of connective tissue in the epineurium of all nerves implanted with cuffs. No significant difference in fiber counts was measured in any of the groups studied. Only nerves implanted with narrow cuffs showed evidence of axonal injury and/or demyelination. These results, coupled with stimulation selectivity measurements made on the same animals, suggest that safe, selective electrodes can be designed with ovoid geometries. Moderate reshaping caused no damage, while extreme reshaping generated mild-to-moderate nerve damage. It might be possible, however, to redesign the cuffs to slowly reshape the nerves.

  4. Examining brain microstructure using structure tensor analysis of histological sections.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Frank, Joseph A

    2012-10-15

    The mammalian central nervous system has a tremendous structural complexity, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is unique in its ability to extract microstructural tissue properties at a macroscopic scale. However, despite its widespread use and applications in clinical and research settings, accurate validation of DTI has notoriously lagged the advances in image acquisition and analysis. In this report, we demonstrate an approach to visualize and quantify the microscopic features of histological sections on multiple length scales using techniques derived from image texture analysis. Structure tensor (ST) analysis was applied to fluorescence microscopy images of rat brain sections to visualize and quantify tissue microstructure. Images were digitally color-coded based on the local orientation in the pixelwise ST implementation, which allowed direct visualization of white matter complexity at the microscopic level. A piecewise ST algorithm was also employed to quantify anisotropy and orientation at a resolution comparable to that typically acquired with DTI. Anisotropy measured with ST analysis of stained histological sections was highly correlated with anisotropy measured by ex vivo DTI of the same brains (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, angular histograms, or Fiber Orientation Distributions (FODs), were computed to mimic similar measures derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods. The FODs for each pixel were fit to a mixture of von Mises distributions to identify putative regions of multiple fiber populations (i.e. crossing fibers). Despite its current application to two-dimensional microscopy, the ST analysis is a novel approach to visualize and quantify microstructure in the central nervous system in both health and disease, and advances the available set of tools for validating DTI and other diffusion MRI techniques. PMID:22759994

  5. Natural enamel caries: a comparative histological study on biochemical volumes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa de Sousa, F; Dias Soares, J; Sampaio Vianna, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that organic volume is the main variable for explaining the optical properties and predictive degree of diffusion of enamel histological points at zones of natural enamel caries (NEC; surface layer, SL, n = 30, and body of the lesion, BL, n = 58) and normal enamel (NE, n = 131). Molars with either NEC or NE were quantitatively analyzed regarding the mineral, organic and water volumes (considered as effective pore volume), opacity (predicted in 94% of cases by water volume in NEC), and water volume more easily available for diffusion, αd (squared water volume divided by the nonmineral volume; related to permeability). NEC presented lower mineral volumes and higher organic volumes, effective pore volume and opacity than NE. External origin of organic volume in NEC was evidenced by an organic gradient decreasing from the surface inward (R2 = -0.7), which was not detected in teeth with NE only; αd values of the SL and NE were similar and both were lower (p < 0.0001) than that of the BL. Comparing the SL from both NEC and artificial enamel caries (AEC; published data; n = 71), with similar mineral volumes, against developing enamel (published data), AEC showed more effective pore volume (3 times higher), higher αd and opacity than NEC mainly due to differences in organic volumes. Our results reasonably matched widely known features of NEC histological zones, and confirmed the organic volume as the main variable for explaining optical properties and αd (related to permeability).

  6. New criteria for histologic grading of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hideki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Shinto, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Maekawa, Kazunari; Katsurada, Yuka; Nakamura, Takahiro; Mochizuki, Hidetaka; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Conventional tumor grading systems based on the degree of tumor differentiation may not always be optimal because of difficulty in objective assessment and insufficient prognostic value for decision making in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. This study aimed to determine the importance of assessing the number of poorly differentiated clusters as the primary criterion for histologic grading of CRC. Five hundred consecutive patients with curatively resected stage II and III CRCs (2000 to 2005) were pathologically reviewed. Cancer clusters of ≥5 cancer cells and lacking a gland-like structure were counted under a ×20 objective lens in a field containing the highest number of clusters. Tumors with <5, 5 to 9, and ≥10 clusters were classified as grade (G)1, G2, and G3, respectively (n=156, 198, and 146 tumors, respectively). Five-year disease-free survival rates were 96%, 85%, and 59% for G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P<0.0001). Poorly differentiated clusters affected survival outcome independent of T and N stages and could help in more effective stratification of patients by survival outcome compared with tumor staging (Akaike information criterion, 1086.7 vs. 1117.0; Harrell concordance index, 0.73 vs. 0.67). The poorly differentiated cluster-based grading system showed a higher weighted κ coefficient for interobserver variability (5 observers) compared with conventional grading systems (mean, 0.66 vs. 0.52; range, 0.55 to 0.73 vs. 0.39 to 0.68). Our novel histologic grading system is expected to be less subjective and more informative for prognostic prediction compared with conventional tumor grading systems and TNM staging. It could be valuable in determining individualized postoperative CRC treatment.

  7. Detection of preneoplasia in histologically normal prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Slater, M D; Delprado, W J; Murphy, C R; Barden, J A

    2001-01-01

    P2X immunolabeling of prostate detected preneoplastic changes in apparently normal tissue. Labeling occurred in two well-defined stages before the diagnostic histological markers of cancer were visible. As cancer progressed, the location of P2X expression changed from confinement within individual nuclei in the acini (stage 1) to a cytoplasmic punctate label in the acinal epithelium, with an associated removal of nuclear stain (stage 2). Finally, in advanced cases, where clear morphological evidence of cancer was apparent, the P2X label condensed exclusively on the apical epithelium (stage 3). BPH/normal tissue was entirely devoid of P2X label. Biopsy samples (77) were tested in three categories. One group (35) were diagnosed as normal benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on the basis of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, although underlying disease was suspected. Of these, 14 (40%) were clearly normal and appeared entirely devoid of label, 13 (37%) exhibited the first stage of P2X receptor labeling and the remaining eight (23%) exhibited second stage labeling. The accompanying H&E-stained sections of all these cases had a normal appearance. Low grade cancer biopsy samples with Gleason scores G4-7 (25) all revealed widespread second stage receptor labeling in areas of both normal and cancerous morphology, while 17 high grade cancer biopsy samples (Gleason G8-10) all showed third stage labeling along with some residual second stage labeling. The features of each P2X labeling stage occupied the entire histological area affected, offering more opportunity to diagnose the tissue than was supplied by the more-localised diagnostic features identified by H&E-stain. Besides detecting cases of preneoplasia in biopsies with a normal H&E appearance, this technique was also able to rule out the presence of neoplasia in purely hyperplasic prostates by the absence of any P2X labeling.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2001) 4, 92-96 PMID:12497044

  8. Clinical outcomes of acute myocarditis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K; McCrindle, B; Bohn, D; Wilson, G; Taylor, G; Freedom, R; Smallhorn, J; Benson, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe clinical outcomes of a paediatric population with histologically confirmed lymphocytic myocarditis.
DESIGN—A retrospective review between November 1984 and February 1998.
SETTING—A major paediatric tertiary care hospital.
PATIENTS—36 patients with histologically confirmed lymphocytic myocarditis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Survival, cardiac transplantation, recovery of ventricular function, and persistence of dysrhythmias.
RESULTS—Freedom from death or cardiac transplantation was 86% at one month and 79% after two years. Five deaths occurred within 72 hours of admission, and one late death at 1.9 years. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was used in four patients, and three patients underwent heart replacement. 34 patients were treated with intravenous corticosteroids. In the survivor/non-cardiac transplantation group (n = 29), the median follow up was 19 months (range 1.2-131.6 months), and the median period for recovery of a left ventricular ejection fraction to > 55% was 2.8 months (range 0-28 months). The mean (SD) final left ventricular ejection and shortening fractions were 66 (9)% and 34 (8)%, respectively. Two patients had residual ventricular dysfunction. No patient required antiarrhythmic treatment. All survivors reported no cardiac symptoms or restrictions in physical activity.
CONCLUSIONS—Our experience documents good outcomes in paediatric patients presenting with acute heart failure secondary to acute lymphocytic myocarditis treated with immunosuppression. Excellent survival and recovery of ventricular function, with the absence of significant arrhythmias, continued cardiac medications, or restrictions in physical activity were the normal outcomes.


Keywords: myocarditis; paediatric cardiology; immunosuppression PMID:10409542

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress: from syndrome to disease.

    PubMed

    Cardinal-Fernández, P; Correger, E; Villanueva, J; Rios, F

    2016-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently one of the most important critical entities given its high incidence, rate of mortality, long-term sequelae and non-specific pharmacological treatment. The histological hallmark of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Approximately 50% of ARDS patients present DAD, the rest is made up of a heterogeneous group of histological patterns, many of which correspond to a well-recognized disease. For that reason, if these patterns could be diagnosed, patients could benefit from a treatment. Recently, the effect of DAD in clinical and analytical evolution of ARDS has been demonstrated, so the classical approach to ARDS as an entity defined solely by clinical, radiological and gasometrical variables should be reconsidered. This narrative review aims to examine the need to evolve from the concept of ARDS as a syndrome to ARDS as a specific disease. So we have raised 4 critical questions: a) What is a disease?; b) what is DAD?; c) how is DAD considered according to ARDS definition?, and d) what is the relationship between ARDS and DAD?

  10. The presence of two local myocardial sheet populations confirmed by diffusion tensor MRI and histological validation

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Geoff; Nguyen, Tom C.; Itoh, Aki; Skare, Stefan; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To establish the correspondence between the two histologically observable and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) measurements of myolaminae orientation for the first time and show that single myolaminar orientations observed in local histology may result from histological artifact. Materials and Methods DTMRI was performed on six sheep left ventricles (LV), then corresponding direct histological transmural measurements were made within the antero-basal and lateral-equatorial LV. Secondary and tertiary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor were compared to each of the two locally observable sheet orientations from histology. Diffusion tensor invariants were calculated to compare differences in microstructural diffusive properties between histological locations with one observable sheet population and two observable sheet populations. Results Mean difference ± one standard deviation between DTMRI and histology measured sheet angles was 8° ± 27°. Diffusion tensor invariants showed no significant differences between histological locations with one observable sheet population and locations with two observable sheet populations. Conclusion DTMRI measurements of myolaminae orientations derived from the secondary and tertiary eigenvectors correspond to each of the two local myolaminae orientations observed in histology. Two local sheet populations may exist throughout LV myocardium and one local sheet population observed in histology may be a result of preparation artifact. PMID:21932362

  11. Acute interstitial pneumonia in siblings: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung Yeon; Kim, Jong Min; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Myung Joon; Cho, Sang-Ho

    2008-06-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a rapidly progressive condition of unknown cause that occurs in a previously healthy individual and produces the histologic findings of diffuse alveolar damage. Since the term AIP was first introduced in 1986, there have been very few case reports of AIP in children. Here we present a case of AIP in a 3-yr-old girl whose other two siblings showed similar radiologic findings. The patient was confirmed to have AIP from autopsy showing histological findings of diffuse alveolar damage and proliferation of fibroblasts. Her 3-yr-old brother was also clinically and radiologically highly suspected as having AIP, and the other asymptomatic 8-yr-old sister was radiologically suspected as having AIP.

  12. Pathology of breast cancer in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis. [X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretsky, P.M.; Woodard, E.; Bonfiglio, T.A.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Morse, I.P.

    1980-11-15

    The gross and microscopic pathology of breast cancers in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis was compared to the breast cancers found in the sisters of the irradiated women. In considering the lesions in the two populations, the size, location, histologic type, histologic grade, inflammatory response, lymphatic and blood vascular invasion, nipple involvement, axillary lymph node metastases, and menopausal status at the time of diagnosis were statistically indistinguishable. The only parameter that was different in the two populations was the desmoplastic response to the malignant lesion. The control population had more marked fibrosis within the cancers compared with the irradiated women.

  13. Effect of Dextran 40 and aprotinin on experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Crocket, K V; Reising, J R; Wirman, J A; Gau, N; Joffe, S N

    1984-03-01

    This study examines and compares the prophylactic role of aprotinin and Dextran 40 in acute pancreatitis. Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced in 70 male Wistar rats using the closed-duodenal-loop technique. The rats were randomly divided into four groups; sham operation, untreated acute pancreatitis, and therapy with aprotinin or Dextran 40. Samples of blood and urine were collected at the beginning and at the end of the 24-hr period for measurement of amylase and creatinine which allowed calculation of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). Mortality in the aprotinin group was the same as the untreated rats (20%). Dextran 40 therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate (6.7%). Light microscopic examination confirmed that the histologic changes of acute pancreatitis were less severe in both the aprotinin- and Dextran 40-treated rats. The ACCR was elevated after Dextran 40 therapy, which was due mainly to high urinary amylase levels. These results suggest that Dextran 40 may have a prophylactic role in acute experimental pancreatitis but again emphasizes the high false-positive rate of the ACCR determination. PMID:6199589

  14. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-01

    Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

  15. Renal histology of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, J R; Greenberg, L; Kapur, S

    1988-01-01

    Renal involvement is well described in patients with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MCLNS), or Kawasaki disease and is manifested by mild azotemia, hematuria, pyuria or cylinduria, and more often, proteinuria. Renal morphology during the acute stages of the illness has never been reported. In this paper we describe the renal histopathologic changes in a child with MCLNS. The glomerular histopathologic findings suggest immune complex damage to the kidney as a possible mechanism of nephrotoxicity in MCLNS. Presence of kidney lesions, which speak in favor of the injurious role of immune complexes in MLCNS may be relevant to the understanding of the pathogenesis of the vascular lesions that are characteristic of this disease.

  16. Pigmented guinea pig skin irradiated with Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Morphologic and histologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, J.S.; Margolis, R.J.; Polla, L.L.; Watanabe, S.; Hruza, G.J.; Parrish, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Q-switched ruby laser pulses cause selective damage to cutaneous pigmented cells. Repair of this selective damage has not been well described. Therefore, using epilated pigmented and albino guinea pig skin, we studied the acute injury and tissue repair caused by 40-ns, Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Gross observation and light and electron microscopy were performed. No specific changes were evident in the albino guinea pigs. In pigmented animals, with radiant exposures of 0.4 J/cm2 or greater, white spots confined to the 2.5-mm exposure sites developed immediately and faded over 20 minutes. Delayed depigmentation occurred at seven to ten days, followed by full repigmentation by four to eight weeks. Regrowing hairs in sites irradiated at and above 0.4 J/cm2 remained white for at least four months. Histologically, vacuolation of pigment-laden cells was seen immediately in the epidermis and the follicular epithelium at exposures of 0.3 J/cm2 and greater. Melanosomal disruption was seen immediately by electron microscopy at and above 0.3 J/cm2. Over the next seven days, epidermal necrosis was followed by regeneration of a depigmented epidermis. By four months, melanosomes and melanin pigmentation had returned; however, hair follicles remained depigmented and devoid of melanocytes. This study demonstrates that selective melanosomal disruption caused by Q-switched ruby laser pulses leads to transient cutaneous depigmentation and persistent follicular depigmentation. Potential exists for selective treatment of pigmented epidermal and dermal lesions with this modality.

  17. Histological Evaluation of 3D MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Therapy in the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Siddharth; Boyes, Aaron; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that transurethral ultrasound therapy, with a single ultrasound transducer guided by temperature feedback from a single MRI plane (slice), can be used to treat a targeted region accurately in the prostate gland. We have extended this approach to a larger, 3D, targeted volume within the prostate, using a multi-element transducer controlled concurrently by temperature feedback from multiple imaging planes. Animals were placed supine in a 1.5 T clinical MRI, and the transurethral heating device was positioned with image guidance. A four-element transducer (each element was 5 mm long, operating at ˜8 MHz) was rotated to treat a targeted volume around the device. Temperature maps transverse to each element were acquired during heating and used to control the acoustic power of each element and the rate of rotation of the device. T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced (CE) MR images were obtained pre- and post-heating. Following the treatment, prostates were removed and fixed, axially sliced, stained with H&E, and digitally imaged at high-resolution to outline boundaries of cell death. Slice alignment and image registration techniques were developed to enable quantitative comparison of the axial MRI images and matching histological sections. Prostate sections showed clear regions of coagulative necrosis, extending ˜20 mm along the urethra, which correlated well with CE MRI data and transducer length. After registration, the outer border of coagulative necrosis on H&E conformed well to the target isotherm, similar to results from our previous (single element) acute studies. These results confirm that our previous analysis techniques for a single transducer can be extended to multiple elements, and that a large volumetric ablation of the prostate gland is feasible with a high degree of accuracy.

  18. Regeneration of oxytalan fibres in different types of periodontal defects: a histological study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sculean, A; Donos, N; Reich, E; Karring, T; Brecx, M

    1998-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in monkeys the regrowth of oxytalan fibres in different types of acute and chronic periodontal defects following regenerative periodontal treatment. One-wall intrabony and mandibular furcation III-defects were produced surgically in 3 monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). After a 6-wk dental plaque accumulation period the defects were exposed using a full thickness flap procedure. The granulation tissue was removed and the root surfaces were scaled and planed. Additionally, fenestration-type defects were produced at the vestibular surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular canines by surgically removing the vestibular bone plates and the root cementum. Subsequently, the defects were treated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR), enamel matrix proteins (EMP), combination of EMP and GTR or with coronally repositioned flaps. The postoperative care included tooth cleaning once a week during the experiment. After 5 months the animals were sacrificed and and the block sections were embedded in paraffin. Eight microns histological sections were cut and stained with the oxone-aldehyde-fuchsin-Halmi method. The results revealed that in all specimens where a regenerated periodontal ligament could be observed newly formed oxytalan fibers were present. They had a mainly apico-occlusal orientation and were localized closer to the cementum than to the alveolar bone. The regenerated oxytalan fibers had a similar morphological appearance than those observed in the original periodontal ligament regardless of the treatment modality by which regeneration was accomplished. Their presence was related to that of newly formed cementum suggesting a strong relationship between these 2 tissues. The neoformation of oxytalan fibres can thus be observed in some types of periodontal defects where the cementum and the periodontal ligament have been regenerated.

  19. Histological evaluation of sodium percarbonate exposure on the gills of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Forwood, James M; Harris, James O; Landos, Matt; Deveney, Marty R

    2015-06-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a recurring problem in Australian rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farms and requires strategically timed, repeat treatments for effective management. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is permitted for use in Australia, with host safety margins based on the toxicity of acute exposures to hydrogen peroxide (HP), the active product released when SPC is added to water. The effects of exposure to HP released by SPC, of repeated doses and of doses exceeding 100 mg l-1 on rainbow trout are unknown. We exposed juvenile rainbow trout (mean weight: 30.5 ± 9 g) to repeated doses of 50, 150 and 250 mg l-1 SPC for 1 h on Days 1, 2, 7 and 8 of a treatment regime. The effect of SPC was assessed by histological evaluation of structural changes in gill tissue. Survival was 100% in all groups, but some fish exposed to 250 mg l-1 SPC displayed impaired swimming performance, and on Day 9 after the final treatment, oedema was present in 9.8% of lamella, which was significantly higher than the mean occurrence of 1.7, 4.2 and 1.3% in fish treated with 0, 50 and 150 mg l-1 SPC, respectively. These changes resolved within 24 h of the cessation of treatment. We conclude that SPC is safe to use on rainbow trout in doses of ≤150 mg l-1 at 17°C, however caution is advised at doses approaching 250 mg l-1. Water temperature, fish age, fish size and maturity, intensity of parasite infection and stocking density could alter the sensitivity of rainbow trout to SPC treatments.

  20. Histotripsy Effects on the Bladder Trigone: Functional and Histologic Consequences in the Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Christopher L.; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Cheng, Xu; Ives, Kimberly A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Roberts, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Histotripsy is an extracorporeal therapeutic ultrasound (US) technology, where high-amplitude acoustic energy is applied to targeted tissue. Previous research has demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of histotripsy tissue homogenization and debulking of the prostate in the canine model. Before translating this technology for human use, it is prudent to examine the susceptibility of critical periprostatic structures to cavitation injury in the event of histotripsy mistargeting. In this study, we sought to characterize the tissue effects and biologic response of directly treating the bladder trigone with histotripsy. Materials and Methods In eight anesthetized canines, 750,000 histotripsy pulses were applied uniformly across a 2×1.5-cm area encompassing the bladder trigone and ureteral orifices. Prostate and bladder trigone were harvested immediately after treatment (2 subjects) or at 14 days (6 subjects). Flexible cystourethroscopy, US imaging, and creatinine levels were obtained at intervals until harvest, 14 days after treatment. In one control subject, harvested at 2 days, the same treatment algorithm was applied to the prostate. Results Transrectal US imaging revealed a cavitation bubble cloud on the surface of the bladder trigone and progressive development of tissue edema during treatment. Flexible cystourethroscopy immediately after treatment confirmed edema and erythema of the trigone. In the six subjects survived 2 weeks after treatment, one incidence of transient, self-limited ureteral obstruction was noted based on hydronephrosis and creatinine levels. At harvest, ureteral orifices were confirmed patent by passage of a guide wire. Histologic evaluation revealed hemorrhage acutely with mild localized fibrosis at 14 days. Conclusions In this study, designed along the lines of a worst-case, destructive testing scenario, direct targeting of the bladder trigone with supratherapeutic histotripsy failed to induce

  1. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  2. Safety aspects of chronic low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation based on localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histology of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liebetanz, David; Fauser, Susanne; Michaelis, Thomas; Czéh, Boldizsár; Watanabe, Takashi; Paulus, Walter; Frahm, Jens; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Because repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is capable of inducing lasting alterations of cortical excitability, it represents a promising therapeutic tool in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, rTMS, especially when applied chronically, may cause harmful effects in the stimulated tissue. To study the safety of chronic rTMS we used a novel small stimulation coil, which was specially designed to treat rats, and investigated brain tissue using in vivo localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and post mortem histological analysis. Histology was based on a modified stereology method in combination with immunohistochemistry applying antibodies against OX-6, OX-42, ED, and GFAP to detect any microglial and/or astrocytic activation 48 h after the last TMS session. Conscious rats were treated with a daily suprathreshold rTMS regimen of 1000 stimuli applied on 5 consecutive days at a frequency of 1 Hz. In comparison with control animals receiving magnetic stimulation over the lumbar spine, quantitative evaluations of cerebral metabolite concentrations by proton MRS revealed no significant alterations of N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol, glucose and lactate after chronic rTMS. Similarly to the in vivo results, post mortem histology revealed no changes in microglial and astrocytic activation after rTMS. In conclusion, these data provide support for the safety of chronic rTMS. However, they do not exclude acute changes on neurotransmitters systems or other physiologic responses during or directly after the rTMS treatment. PMID:12765850

  3. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  4. Bone marrow and splenic histology in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Mendes, Larissa Sena Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia is a rare chronic neoplastic B-cell lymphoproliferation that characteristically involves blood, bone marrow and spleen with liver, lymph node and skin less commonly involved. Histologically, the cells have a characteristic appearance with pale/clear cytoplasm and round or reniform nuclei. In the spleen, the infiltrate involves the red pulp and is frequently associated with areas of haemorrhage (blood lakes). The cells stain for B-cell related antigens as well as with antibodies against tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, DBA44 (CD72), CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123, cyclin D1 and annexin A1. Mutation of BRAF -V600E is present and antibody to the mutant protein can be used as a specific marker. Bone marrow biopsy is essential in the initial assessment of disease as the bone marrow may be inaspirable or unrepresentative of degree of marrow infiltration as a result of the tumour associated fibrosis preventing aspiration of the tumour cell component. Bone marrow biopsy is important in the assessment of therapy response but in this context staining for CD11c and Annexin A1 is not helpful as they are also markers of myeloid lineage and identification of low level infiltration may be obscured. In this context staining for CD20 may be used in conjunction with morphological assessment and staining of serial sections for cyclin D1 and DBA44 to identify subtle residual infiltration. Staining for CD79a and CD19 is not recommended as these antibodies will identify plasma cells and can lead to over-estimation of disease. Staining for CD20 should not be used in patients following with anti-CD20 based treatments. Down regulation of cyclin D1 and CD25 has been reported in patients following BRAF inhibitor therapy and assessment of these antigens should not be used in this context. Histologically, hairy cell leukaemia needs to be distinguished from other B-cell lymphoproliferations associated with splenomegaly including splenic marginal zone lymphoma, splenic

  5. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  6. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  7. [Do histologic changes of the upper renal pole in double ectopic ureterocele justify a conservative approach?].

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, P A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper pole segment in patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele to verify if a less aggressive surgery is justified in the prenatally diagnosed patients. We reviewed the histology of the upper pole segment of 15 consecutive patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele treated between 1991 and 1999 at the Paediatric Surgery Unit of University Hospital of Messina. The diagnosis of duplex system ectopic ureterocele was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Paediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory and obstructive changes. All 15 patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele were surgically treated with heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine of the 15 patients were prenatally diagnosed. The histology of the upper pole segment of the 9 prenatally diagnosed showed in all patients segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands and an inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in 6 patients (66.6%) and in 2 (22.2%) nephroblastomatosis. The histology of six the postnatal postnatally diagnosed patients showed in all patients segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper pole histology of the patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele diagnosed prenatally did not show any evidence of reversible histological change. Considering the histology and the good outcome of patients treated with upper pole nephroureterectomy a less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  8. [The importance of histological verification in the conservative surgery of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Marinova, L; Todorov, I; Terziev, I

    1996-01-01

    The place and significance of the histological verification in the team method of approach in case of conservative breast cancer treatment are discussed. An accent is made on the histological risk factors increasing the recurrence appearance probability that gathers such patients in a high risk group. On the basis of our own material representing breast cancer patients treated in the period 1987-1993 the significance of the histological verification in the treatment approach is estimated. Requirements for comprehensive histological verification being much needed for breast cancer patients are risen for the pathohistologists.

  9. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  10. Apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Aten, J; Rentenaar, R J; Hack, C E; Koopman, G; Weening, J J; ten Berge, I J

    1998-01-01

    Tubular cells are important targets during acute renal allograft rejection and induction of apoptosis might be a mechanism of tubular cell destruction. Susceptibility to induction of apoptosis is regulated by the homologous Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax is regulated by p53, which down-regulates expression of Bcl-2, while simultaneously up-regulating expression of Bax. We studied apoptotic tubular cell death in 10 renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with acute rejection by in situ end-labelling and the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide. Tubular expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax was studies by immunohistochemistry. Five renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with uncomplicated clinical course and histologically normal renal tissue present in nephrectomy specimens from 4 patients with renal adenocarcinoma served as control specimens. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies were detected in tubular epithelia and tubular lumina in 9 out of 10 acute rejection biopsies. In control renal tissue, apoptotic cells were detected in 1 biopsy only. Compared to control renal tissue, acute renal allograft rejection was, furthermore, associated with a shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax in tubular epithelia and increased expression of p53 in tubular nuclei. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis contributes in part to tubular cell destruction during acute renal allograft rejection. In accordance, the shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax indicates increased susceptibility of tubular epithelia to induction of apoptosis. The expression of p53 in tubular nuclei during acute renal allograft rejection indicates the presence of damaged DNA, which can be important in initiation of part of the observed apoptosis. These findings elucidate part of the mechanisms controlling apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

  11. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip.

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Silva, A F; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2007-06-01

    Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) belongs to the Tayassuidae family that is characterized by a dorsal scent gland located in the middle of the hump. It can be found from south-west United States to Argentina. It is a very well-adapted animal that can survive different environments, having a varied diet. Very little morphological information of the animal is available, except that concerning the reproductive tract. This study describes the histological organization of the collared peccary lip. The lip marks the junction between the integument and digestive system. It is lined by skin on the outer surface and mucosa on the inner surface. Skin appendages such as hair follicles and glands are usually found on the outer surface. The collared peccary's lip shows, on the outer surface, simple and sinus hair follicles as well as sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands. No salivary gland is found on the inner surface, and deep in the connective tissue pacinian corpuscles can be found. The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system.

  12. Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2013-10-01

    Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5 μm in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. PMID:23769456

  13. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Cancers with Uncommon Histology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwang Ha

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables en bloc curative resection of early gastric cancers (EGCs) with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Although ESD for EGCs with absolute and expanded indications is safe, the results differ between EGCs with specialized and common histologies. EGC with papillary adenocarcinoma is a differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. At present, it is treated with ESD according to the same criteria as other differentiated-type adenocarcinomas. The LNM rate under the current indication criteria is high, and over half of the patients who undergo ESD as a primary treatment for EGC with papillary adenocarcinoma achieve an out-of-ESD result. Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma in EGC has a low LNM rate and a favorable outcome, despite deep submucosal invasion. Patients with this gastric cancer subtype may be good candidates for ESD, even with deep submucosal invasion. Large-scale prospective multi-center studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to set proper ESD criteria for these tumors. Clinicians should be aware of these disease entities and ESD should be more carefully considered for EGCs with papillary adenocarcinoma and gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma. PMID:27744663

  14. Microscopic morphology and histology of the human meninges.

    PubMed

    Weller, R O

    2005-03-01

    The meninges comprise the dura mater and the leptomeninges (arachnoid and pia mater). Dura forms an outer endosteal layer related to the bones of the skull and spine and an inner layer closely applied to the arachnoid mater. Leptomeninges have multiple functions and anatomical relationships. The outer parietal layer of arachnoid is impermeable to CSF due to tight intercellular junctions; elsewhere leptomeningeal cells form demosomes and gap junctions. Trabeculae of leptomeninges compartmentalize the subarachnoid space and join the pia to arachnoid mater. In bacterial meningitis leptomeningeal cells secrete cytokines. Pia mater is reflected from the surface of the brain and spinal cord onto arteries and veins, thus separating the subarachnoid space from the brain and cord. A sheath of leptomeninges accompanies arteries into the brain and is related to the pathways for the drainage of interstitial fluid that play a role in inflammatory responses in the brain and appear to be blocked by amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease. Specialised leptomeningeal cells in the stroma of the choroid plexus form collagen whorls that become calcified with age. Leptomeningeal cells also form channels in the core and apical cap of arachnoid granulations for the drainage of CSF into venous sinuses. In the spine, leptomeninges form highly perforated intermediate sheets of arachnoid and delicate ligaments that compartmentalize the subarachnoid space; dentate ligaments anchor subpial collagen to the dura mater and stabilize the spinal cord. Despite the multiple anatomical arrangements and physiological functions, leptomeningeal cells retain many histological features that are similar from site to site.

  15. IVUS-based histology of atherosclerotic plaques: improving longitudinal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Arash; Pauly, Olivier; Setarehdan, S. Kamaledin; Unal, Gozde; Navab, Nassir

    2010-03-01

    Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque characterization in IVUS images, it suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to ECG-gating. In this paper, we propose an image-based approach to overcome this limitation. Since each tissue have different echogenic characteristics, they show in IVUS images different local frequency components. By using Redundant Wavelet Packet Transform (RWPT), IVUS images are decomposed in multiple sub-band images. To encode the textural statistics of each resulting image, run-length features are extracted from the neighborhood centered on each pixel. To provide the best discrimination power according to these features, relevant sub-bands are selected by using Local Discriminant Bases (LDB) algorithm in combination with Fisher's criterion. A structure of weighted multi-class SVM permits the classification of the extracted feature vectors into three tissue classes, namely fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcified tissues. Results shows the superiority of our approach with an overall accuracy of 72% in comparison to methods based on Local Binary Pattern and Co-occurrence, which respectively give accuracy rates of 70% and 71%.

  16. Review of Arthroscopic and Histological Findings Following Knee Inlay Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Gregory G; Kambour, Michael T; Uribe, John W

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of cartilage rim loading in defects exceeding the threshold diameter of 10 mm is well documented. Contoured defect fill off-loads the perimeter and counteracts further delamination and progression of defects. When biological procedures have failed, inlay arthroplasty follows these concepts. The human biological response to contoured metallic surface implants has not been described. Four patients underwent non-implant-related, second-look arthroscopy following inlay arthroplasty for bi- (n=3) and tricompartmental (n=1) knee arthrosis without subchondral bone collapse. Arthroscopic probing of the implant-cartilage interface of nine prosthetic components did not show signs of implant-cartilage gap formation, loosening, or subsidence. The implant periphery was consistently covered by cartilage confluence leading to a reduction of the original defect size diameter. Femoral condyle cartilage flow appeared to have more hyaline characteristics. Trochlear cartilage flow showed greater histological variability and less organization with fibrocartilage and synovialized scar tissue. This review reconfirmed previous basic science results and demonstrated effective defect fill and rim off-loading with inlay arthroplasty.

  17. Review of Arthroscopic and Histological Findings Following Knee Inlay Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Gregory G; Kambour, Michael T; Uribe, John W

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of cartilage rim loading in defects exceeding the threshold diameter of 10 mm is well documented. Contoured defect fill off-loads the perimeter and counteracts further delamination and progression of defects. When biological procedures have failed, inlay arthroplasty follows these concepts. The human biological response to contoured metallic surface implants has not been described. Four patients underwent non-implant-related, second-look arthroscopy following inlay arthroplasty for bi- (n=3) and tricompartmental (n=1) knee arthrosis without subchondral bone collapse. Arthroscopic probing of the implant-cartilage interface of nine prosthetic components did not show signs of implant-cartilage gap formation, loosening, or subsidence. The implant periphery was consistently covered by cartilage confluence leading to a reduction of the original defect size diameter. Femoral condyle cartilage flow appeared to have more hyaline characteristics. Trochlear cartilage flow showed greater histological variability and less organization with fibrocartilage and synovialized scar tissue. This review reconfirmed previous basic science results and demonstrated effective defect fill and rim off-loading with inlay arthroplasty. PMID:27082884

  18. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  19. Effective topical delivery systems for corticosteroids: dermatological and histological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, İpek; Azizoğlu, Erkan; Özyazıcı, Mine; Nenni, Merve; Gürer Orhan, Hande; Özbal, Seda; Tekmen, Işıl; Ertam, İlgen; Ünal, İdil; Özer, Özgen

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disease with severe eczematous lesions. Long-term topical corticosteroid treatment can induce skin atrophy, hypopigmentation and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increase. A new treatment approach was needed to reduce the risk by dermal targeting. For this purpose, Betamethasone valerate (BMV)/Diflucortolone valerate (DFV)-loaded liposomes (220-350 nm) were prepared and incorporated into chitosan gel to obtain adequate viscosity (∼13 000 cps). Drugs were localized in stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin in ex-vivo permeation studies. The toxicity was assessed on human fibroblast cells. In point of in-vivo studies, pharmacodynamic responses, treatment efficacy and skin irritation were evaluated and compared with previously prepared nanoparticles. Liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations produced higher paw edema inhibition in rats with respect to the commercial cream. Similar skin blanching effect with commercial creams was obtained via liposome in gels although they contain 10 times less drug. Dermatological scoring results, prognostic histological parameters and suppression of mast cell numbers showed higher treatment efficiency of liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations in AD-induced rats. TEWL and erythema measurements confirmed these results. Overview of obtained results showed that liposomes might be an effective and safe carrier for corticosteroids in skin disease treatment. PMID:25259424

  20. A Histologically Diagnosed Case with Infantile Osteopetrosis Complicated by Hypopituitarism

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Gulden; Olukman, Ozgur; Calkavur, Sebnem; Buyukinan, Muammer; Altay, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a rarely seen severe disorder which appears early in life with general sclerosis of the skeleton. It is caused by functionally defective osteoclasts which fail to resorb bone. Affected infants can exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including impaired hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly, visual impairment, and hypocalcemia. With the exception of secondary hyperparathyroidism, involvement of the endocrine system seems to be quite rare. Hypopituitarism is defined as underproduction of the growth hormone in combination with deficiencies of other pituitary hormones. Any lesion that damages hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, or anterior pituitary can cause secondary hypopituitarism. In this report, we presented a rare combination of malignant infantile osteopetrosis and secondary hypopituitarism in a newborn who presented predominantly with endocrinological symptoms. This is the first case report of malignant infantile osteopetrosis accompanied by hypopituitarism secondary to sclerosis of the sella turcica. On the other hand, this is a very interesting case which was diagnosed based on histological examination of bone marrow biopsy specimens despite lack of any clinical suspicion. PMID:26576309

  1. Relationship of ultrasonographic findings to histology in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Sakamoto, N

    1994-01-01

    We compared ultrasonic findings and histology in 25 patients with prostate cancer. Ultrasonically guided transperineal biopsy of focal prostatic lesions was performed in 19 patients, in whom prostate cancer was suspected. Six of them had two different echogenic areas in the same focal lesion, so a total of 25 echogenic areas were assessed. Fourteen of these 25 areas were hypoechoic. The Gleason score varied, but residual prostatic glands and cancer glands with slightly enlarged lumen did not exist. Six of the areas were slightly more echogenic than the above 14 areas, and cribriform cancer with slightly enlarged glands occupied the greater part of these specimens. Four of the areas were isoechoic, and they contained residual prostatic glands showing a normal distribution, regardless of the Gleason score or grade of tumor infiltration. The only hyperechoic lesion contained numerous tiny areas of calcification. In the 6 patients without focal lesions, the peripheral and transition zones showed a normal echogenicity. Two of these patients had cancer in the transition zone, and biopsy showed tumor glands with slightly enlarged lumens. In the 4 patients, various-sized tumors were seen, but there was a normal distribution of residual prostatic glands and stroma. These results indicated that prostatic echogenicity is determined by the presence of tumor glands with enlarged lumina as well as residual prostatic glands and stroma.

  2. Mycological and histological investigations in humans with middle ear infections.

    PubMed

    Vennewald, I; Schönlebe, J; Klemm, E

    2003-02-01

    The aim of our investigations was to characterize fungal colonization of the ear in immunocompetent patients. From 1993 to 2000, 128 patients supposed to suffer from otomycosis were included. Mycological examination conducted by direct microscopy and fungal cultures was performed on 139 specimens. Among these, 115 patients suffered from chronic otitis media with persisting tympanum perforation and otorrhea. A further 13 patients had clinical signs of an otitis externa only. Out of 139 samples, fungi were identified in the auditory canal (n = 54), on the tympanic membrane (n = 5), and in the middle ear (n = 5). Two-thirds were as moulds and one-third yeasts. The dominating species were Aspergillus niger and Candida parapsilosis. Samples from 15 patients supposed to have mastoiditis or cholesteatoma were examined histologically. Fungal hyphae were observed in the middle ear cavity and/or between horny lamellae of cholesteatoma in four patients. In the middle ear of immunocompetent patients chronic-hyperplastic (polypoid) inflammation was detected with increased production of mucus, which probably promotes colonization by pathogenic fungi in the middle ear as well as in the auditory canal. Invasive fungal growth into the subepithelial connective tissue was not observed.

  3. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  4. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  5. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  6. [Diverse histological lesions in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Ermanno; Luciani, Remo; Di Palma, Annamaria; Aversano, Arturo; Stellato, Davide; Liuzzi, Marco; Iele, Emilio; Martignetti, Vinicio; Spagnuolo, Enrico; Morrone, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It can be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or occur in the absence of autoimmune disease. The hallmark of this so-called primary APS is the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Renal involvement in primary APS is caused by thrombosis within the renal vasculature. Recently, nonthrombotic glomerulonephritic renal lesions have been described in primary APS as a new histological entity. We here report a patient with primary APS in whom both lesion types were present. A 58-year-old Caucasian man with no significant past medical history presented to our nephrology unit with diffuse edema. Urinalysis showed proteinuria exceeding 400 mg/dL. The autoantibody panel (p-ANCA, c- ANCA, anti-nucleus, anti-DS-DNA) was negative except for anticardiolipin antibodies, which tested positive in two different samples. The diagnostic workup included a kidney biopsy that revealed thrombotic lesions compatible with primary APS and a typical pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The kidney is a major target in APS but the exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of APS nephropathy has been poorly recognized. The use of kidney biopsy is a fundamental diagnostic tool in this setting, with possible implications also from a prognostic and therapeutic viewpoint.

  7. Kidney histology and clinical correlates in malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kadiri, S; Thomas, J O

    1993-02-01

    In this clinico-pathologic study, post-mortem kidney material from 30 cases with malignant hypertension (MHT) defined as severe hypertension with bilateral retinal haemorrhages and exudates (grade III retinopathy) with (grade IV retinopathy) or without papilloedema, were studied. Mucoid intimal proliferation (MIP) in interlobular artery and ischaemic collapse of the glomerular tufts occurred in all cases, whereas fibrinoid necrosis (FN) was seen in only 24 (80%) of the cases. FN was not correlated nor associated with sex, age, blood pressure, retinopathy or serum creatinine. Tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis occurred in 24 (80%) and correlated best (rS = 0.8, p < 0.05) with serum creatinine in comparison to glomerular sclerosis (rS = 0.6, p = n.s), fibrinoid necrosis (rS = 0.49, p = n.s) and epithelial crescents (rS = 0.43, p = n.s). This study provides histologic evidence of lack of difference between grades III and IV retinopathy, shows MIP as the more characteristic vascular lesion in MHT and also, good correlation between renal function and tubulointerstitial involvement.

  8. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of tissue engineered odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki J; Sumita, Yoshinori; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    The successful regeneration of complex tooth structures based on tissue-engineering principles was recently reported. The process of this regeneration, however, remains poorly characterized. In this study, we have used histochemistry to examine the regeneration process of tissue engineered teeth in order to determine the cell types that give rise to these engineered tooth structures. Porcine third molar tooth buds were dissociated into single-cell suspensions and seeded onto a biodegradable polyglycolic acid polymer scaffold. Following varying periods of growth in rat hosts, the specimens were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. Aggregates of epithelial cells were first observed 4-6 weeks after implantation. These aggregates assumed three different shapes: a natural tooth germ-like shape, a circular shape, or a bilayer-bundle. Based on the structure of the stellate reticulum in the dental epithelium, the circular and bilayer-bundle aggregates could be clearly classified into two types: one with extensively developed stellate reticulum, and the other with negligible stellate reticulum. The epithelial cells in the circular aggregates differentiated into ameloblasts. The continuous bilayer bundles eventually formed the epithelial sheath, and dentin tissue was evident at the apex of these bundles. Finally, enamel-covered dentin and cementum-covered dentin formed, a process most likely mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. These results suggest that the development of these engineered teeth closely parallels that of natural odontogenesis derived from the immature epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

  9. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  10. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  11. Histologic grade and karyotype of immature teratoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Ihara, T; Ohama, K; Satoh, H; Fujii, T; Nomura, K; Fujiwara, A

    1984-12-15

    Seven cases of ovarian "pure" immature teratoma were encountered in patients 10 to 38 years of age, six cases being in Stage Ia and one case in Stage IIc. The primary tumors and recurrent growth observed in one case were histologically graded from 0 to 3 according to the criteria of Norris et al. Karyotypes of the tumors and the patients were determined using culture and banding techniques. The only nonsurviving case was in Stage IIc. Four primary tumors belonging to grades 0, 1, and 2 showed a normal 46,XX female karyotype and the patients are alive and healthy. Three grade 3 tumors showed various types of karyotype abnormalities (48,XX,+14,+21; 47,XX,+20; 47,XXX). One patient died, one is alive after experiencing a recurrent tumor, and one has only been followed for 22 months. All seven patients had a normal 46,XX female chromosome constitution. Evidence to date indicates that karyotype of ovarian immature teratoma is either normal female 46,XX or a slight deviation from normal. It is postulated that in ovarian immature teratoma normal 46,XX karyotype is an indicator of favorable prognosis, whereas deviations in karyotype suggest a possibility of poor prognosis. PMID:6498772

  12. Rare synchronous parotid tumors of different histologic types.

    PubMed

    Janecka, I P; Perzin, K H; Sternschein, M J

    1983-12-01

    A review of the approximately 2000 parotid salivary gland tumors studied at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York from 1918 to 1978 showed that separate, synchronous neoplasms of different histologic types were found in the parotid gland in only 7 patients. In 6 of these patients, there was a clinically solitary mass; in the other patient, two separate nodules were palpated. In each case, subtotal or total parotidectomy was performed. On examination of the resected tissue, two separate nodules were identified grossly in three patients; in one, a benign mixed tumor and a mucoepidermoid carcinoma; in the second, a benign mixed tumor and a Warthin's tumor; and in the third, a mucoepidermoid carcinoma and a Warthin's tumor. In the remaining 4 patients, only one grossly evident tumor was found, including benign mixed tumor in 3 patients and a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 1 patient. In each of these cases, the second tumor, discovered only microscopically, was a Warthin's tumor. Thus, in 6 of the 7 patients, the second neoplasm was a Warthin's tumor.

  13. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  14. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  15. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  16. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  17. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  18. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  19. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  20. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  1. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  2. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  3. Drug-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Golbin, Léonard; Dolley-Hitze, Thibault; Lorcy, Nolwenn; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Vigneau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a frequent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Drug hypersensitivity is the most common etiology and the list of drugs that can induce AIN is not exhaustive yet. Case Report. Here, we describe the case of a 43-year-old man who was treated with nifedipine (Adalate®) for Raynaud's syndrome. After nifedipine introduction, serum creatininemia progressively increased from 91 to 188 μmol/L in a few months and AKI was diagnosed. Laboratory work-up results indicated the presence of tubular proteinuria and nonspecific inflammatory syndrome. Histological analysis found granulomatous interstitial nephropathy without necrosis in 20% of the kidney biopsy without immunofluorescent deposit. Nifedipine was stopped and corticosteroid treatment was started with a rapid but incomplete reduction of serum creatininemia level to 106 μmol/L. Conclusion. This is the first case of AIN caused by nifedipine. PMID:26955492

  4. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  5. [A case of acute disseminated pneumomycosis in a cow].

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Ossent, P; Braun, U

    1996-01-01

    The case of a five year old Swiss Braunvieh cow suffering from an acute disseminated mycotic pneumonia caused by an Aspergillus fumigatus infection is presented. The animal had calved one month previously and was admitted to the clinic because of recurrent fever. Clinical findings included a reduced general condition, a rectal temperature of 40.6 degrees C, an increased respiratory rate, coughing and serous nasal discharge. On auscultation increased bronchovesicular sounds and moist rales could be heard. Radiographs of the thorax showed a diffuse interstitial nodular pattern throughout the lung. The cow had to be slaughtered in spite of intensive therapy. Necropsy showed multiple nodules measuring up to 4 mm in diameter covering the entire surface of the lungs. Histology revealed an acute disseminated necrotising bronchopneumonia containing numerous branched, septate fungal hyphae identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. A primary aerogenous infection caused by inhalation of spores originating from mouldy hay or soil was suspected.

  6. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  7. Effect of platelet-activating factor antagonists (BN-52021, WEB-2170, and BB-882) on bacterial translocation in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, L J; Sampietre, S N; Assis, R S; Knowles, C H; Leite, K R; Jancar, S; Monteiro Cunha, J E; Machado, M C

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial translocation is an important source of pancreas infection in acute pancreatitis. The effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been proved in various studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether potent PAF antagonists influence bacterial translocation in acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in 62 Wistar rats by injection of 2.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. The rats treated with PAF factor antagonists received intravenous injection of WEB-2170 (10 mg/kg), lexipafant (5 mg/kg), and BN-52021 (5 mg/kg) 30 minutes before induction of acute pancreatitis. Six hours after induction of acute pancreatitis, bacteriologic cultures and histologic scoring of tissues were performed. There was a statistically significant reduction in bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver but not to the pancreas of the rats treated with PAF antagonists. No significant increase in the intestinal bacterial population of any group was found. There were no statistical differences between the pancreatic histologic scores of the groups. PAF antagonists reduced bacterial translocation to distant sites other than the pancreas, preventing the bacterial dissemination that occurs in the early phase of acute pancreatitis and may have beneficial effects on the evolution of this disease.

  8. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); TalEr, George A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  9. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Taler, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health is discussed. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  10. [Theory and practice in developing a system of artificial intelligence for recognizing histologic specimens].

    PubMed

    Bereznaia, I Ia; Gurevich, E Ia; Matsko, D E; Mikhal'chenko, A I

    1993-01-01

    A system is described for an automatic analysis and recognition of a fresh and reference histologic material. The system includes a microscope, TV camera and personal computer. The system proved applicable in identification of two tumor types: astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. The system can be used in pathology, histology, embryology, cytology, histochemistry, clinical laboratory microscopy and in borderline fields.

  11. Prognostic impact of histological categorisation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, H; Shinto, E; Kajiwara, Y; Fukazawa, S; Shimazaki, H; Yamamoto, J; Hase, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The crosstalk between cancer cells and stroma is involved in the acquired capability for metastasis through the induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). We aimed to clarify the prognostic value of the histological category of EMT in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Tumour EMT was graded into one of three histological categories on the basis of integrated assessment of poorly differentiated clusters and pro-EMT desmoplasia at the leading edge of the primary tumour (HistologyEMT). Stage II and III CRC patients (cohort 1, N=500) and stage IV patients (cohort 2, N=196) were retrospectively analysed. Results: In cohort 1, patients were stratified into three groups with widely different disease-free survival rates (95%, 83% and 39%) on the basis of HistologyEMT (P<0.0001). In cohort 2, HistologyEMT significantly stratified overall survival of patients irrespective of metasectomy. Multivariate analyses indicated that HistologyEMT had a strong prognostic impact independent of staging factors. Statistically, HistologyEMT had a better prognostic stratification power than T and N stages; however, in cohort 2, the power of M substage was superior. Conclusions: A histological model to categorise EMT by integrated assessment of dedifferentiation and desmoplastic environment is a potent prognostic index independent of staging factors. PMID:25247323

  12. Computerized methodology for micro-CT and histological data inflation using an IVUS based translation map.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Lambros S; Rigas, George A; Sakellarios, Antonis I; Exarchos, Themis P; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Naka, Katerina K; Panetta, Daniele; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Vozzi, Federico; Michalis, Lampros K; Parodi, Oberdan; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-10-01

    A framework for the inflation of micro-CT and histology data using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images, is presented. The proposed methodology consists of three steps. In the first step the micro-CT/histological images are manually co-registered with IVUS by experts using fiducial points as landmarks. In the second step the lumen of both the micro-CT/histological images and IVUS images are automatically segmented. Finally, in the third step the micro-CT/histological images are inflated by applying a transformation method on each image. The transformation method is based on the IVUS and micro-CT/histological contour difference. In order to validate the proposed image inflation methodology, plaque areas in the inflated micro-CT and histological images are compared with the ones in the IVUS images. The proposed methodology for inflating micro-CT/histological images increases the sensitivity of plaque area matching between the inflated and the IVUS images (7% and 22% in histological and micro-CT images, respectively). PMID:25771781

  13. Determination of Stent Stenosis: An In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography with Histology

    SciTech Connect

    Schuermann, Karl; Vorwerk, Dierk; Uppenkamp, Robert; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Buecker, Arno; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To compare intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and angiography with histology in determining the degree of stent stenosis in an in vivo experiment. Methods: In 16 sheep, a total of 64 stents were implanted into the external iliac arteries. Two stents were inserted on either side. Patency was followed by angiography and IVUS. Four types of stent were used: two Dacron-covered (Cragg Endopro and heparinized Cragg Endopro) and two non-covered (Cragg and Memotherm stents). Eight animals were killed after 1 month, eight others after 6 months. Histological sections were prepared from the stented vessels. Measurements of the patent and total stent diameters determined by IVUS, angiography, and histology were compared. Results: Correlation between IVUS and angiography was 0.75, between IVUS and histology 0.77, and between angiography and histology 0.85. A mean stent stenosis of 17 {+-} 11% (range 0-51%) was found on angiography, of 10 {+-} 11% (0-46%) on IVUS, and of 20 {+-} 11% (4%-49%) on histology. In comparison with histology, IVUS underestimated the degree of stenosis by 10 {+-} 8%, and angiography underestimated it by 3 {+-} 6%. Resolution of IVUS was calculated to be about 0.35 mm and that of angiography to be about 0.15 mm. Conclusion: Under experimental conditions, IVUS was not superior to angiography in determining the degree of stent stenosis in long-segment stenoses of iliac artery stents, when measurements were correlated with histology. Angiography is sufficient for following the patency of iliac artery stents.

  14. The importance of histologic parameters of lacteal involvement in cases of canine lymphoplasmacytic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Giacomo; Cerquetella, Matteo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Pengo, Graziano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Spaterna, Andrea; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most frequent form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs is represented histologically, by lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE), a histological category, often associated with other morphologic alterations including lymphangiectasia (LE). However, literature data on this latter topic are quite scarce and have mostly been obtained in single reports or in small series. Aim: We evaluated some morphologic parameters of intestinal villi and lacteals in a large cohort of dogs, and correlated them with serum albumin and cholesterol values. Patients and methods: We investigated 136 dogs (94 with LPE, and 42 with gastrointestinal problems different from IBD) and analyzed their clinical, laboratory (albumin and cholesterol values), endoscopic, and histologic variables. Results: The LPE group showed significantly impaired clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histologic variables compared to controls. Affected dogs showed significant correlations between canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) scores and endoscopic and histologic variables. Moreover, the grade of hematologic changes were strongly related to the intestinal histologic variables, in particular those concerning villous and lacteals morphology. Conclusion: Dogs with LPE had intestinal histologic abnormalities (height, width, height/width ratio, calculated for both villi and lacteals), whose degree correlated with the severity of hypoalbuminemia and hypocholesterolemia. Evaluation of endoscopic and histologic variables in association to the clinical findings may reveal useful insights for the pathogenesis of LPE and, hopefully, might lead to more targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25584174

  15. Reconstruction of 3-dimensional histology volume and its application to study mouse mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Rushin; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Spyropoulos, Demetri; Raouf, Afshin; Martel, Anne; Seth, Arun

    2014-07-26

    Histology volume reconstruction facilitates the study of 3D shape and volume change of an organ at the level of macrostructures made up of cells. It can also be used to investigate and validate novel techniques and algorithms in volumetric medical imaging and therapies. Creating 3D high-resolution atlases of different organs(1,2,3) is another application of histology volume reconstruction. This provides a resource for investigating tissue structures and the spatial relationship between various cellular features. We present an image registration approach for histology volume reconstruction, which uses a set of optical blockface images. The reconstructed histology volume represents a reliable shape of the processed specimen with no propagated post-processing registration error. The Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained sections of two mouse mammary glands were registered to their corresponding blockface images using boundary points extracted from the edges of the specimen in histology and blockface images. The accuracy of the registration was visually evaluated. The alignment of the macrostructures of the mammary glands was also visually assessed at high resolution. This study delineates the different steps of this image registration pipeline, ranging from excision of the mammary gland through to 3D histology volume reconstruction. While 2D histology images reveal the structural differences between pairs of sections, 3D histology volume provides the ability to visualize the differences in shape and volume of the mammary glands.

  16. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  17. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  18. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  19. Clinical, histological, and biochemical predictors of postsurgical neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Valéria; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Ben Ammar, Skander; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Gaudot, Fabrice; Sommer, Claudia; Bouhassira, Didier; Fletcher, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    Surgical nerve injury sometimes leads to chronic postsurgical neuropathic pain (CPSNP). The risk factors for this condition are not well understood. We prospectively assessed 46 patients scheduled for iliac crest bone harvest, 2 days (D2) and 3 months (M3) after surgery, to determine the time course of nerve fiber degeneration and expression of the TNF-α and NGF genes in skin punch biopsies. Mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds were evaluated at D2 and M3, by quantitative sensory testing. Skin punch biopsies were also obtained from the thighs ipsilateral and contralateral to iliac crest bone harvest. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and cutaneous TNF-α and NGF gene expression were analyzed. Forty-five volunteers matched for age, sex, skin color were examined as controls. Chronic postsurgical neuropathic pain was defined as pain in an area of hypesthesia with a positive Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire score. Overall, 73% (N = 32) of patients developed hypesthesia and 40% (N = 13) of these patients had developed CPSNP at M3. Quantitative sensory testing results, IENFD, and skin TNF-α and NGF gene expression at D2 and M3 did not differ between patients with and without CPSNP. However, in patients with CPSNP, burning, compression, and pain provoked by brushing were correlated with IENFD at M3, suggesting a possible association between partial nerve lesions and more intense CPSNP, than with total nerve lesion. Furthermore, preoperative pain and opioid use were higher in patients who developed CPSNP than in those without CPSNP. These findings suggest that the predictors of CPSNP development are clinical rather than histological or biochemical.

  20. Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.

    PubMed

    McGavin, M D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components.

  1. 3D morphological measurement of whole slide histological vasculature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. G.; Nong, Zengxuan; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Properties of the microvasculature that contribute to tissue perfusion can be assessed using immunohistochemistry on 2D histology sections. However, the vasculature is inherently 3D and the ability to measure and visualize the vessel wall components in 3D will aid in detecting focal pathologies. Our objectives were (1) to develop a method for 3D measurement and visualization of microvasculature in 3D, (2) to compare the normal and regenerated post-ischemia mouse hind limb microvasculature, and (3) to compare the 2D and 3D vessel morphology measures. Vessels were stained for smooth muscle using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostain for both normal (n = 6 mice) and regenerated vasculature (n = 5 mice). 2D vessel segmentations were reconstructed into 3D using landmark based registration. No substantial bias was found in the 2D measurements relative to 3D, but larger differences were observed for individual vessels oriented non-orthogonally to the plane of sectioning. A larger value of area, perimeter, and vessel wall thickness was found in the normal vasculature as compared to the regenerated vasculature, for both the 2D and 3D measurements (p < 0.01). Aggregated 2D measurements are sufficient for identifying morphological differences between groups of mice; however, one must interpret individual 2D measurements with caution if the vessel centerline direction is unknown. Visualization of 3D measurements permits the detection of localized vessel morphology aberrations that are not revealed by 2D measurements. With vascular measure visualization methodologies in 3D, we are now capable of locating focal pathologies on a whole slide level.

  2. The normal uncinate process: histology and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gilead; Eviatar, Ephraim; Kogan, Tatiana; Landsberg, Roee

    2013-03-01

    In this three-center, prospective, non-randomized, controlled trial, we performed a qualitative and quantitative histological and morphometric assessment of the normal uncinate process (UP). The soft tissue and bony elements of the normal UP of 16 adults were investigated and compared with 28 age- and gender-matched archival reference-group samples of neighboring structures of the inferior and middle turbinates. A series of measurements were taken and included the thickness of the mucosal layers and bone, epithelial height, basement membrane thickness, number of lamina propria inflammatory cells, and the area fraction (AF) of the epithelium, connective tissue, glands, veins and arteries. The data showed that the medial and lateral mucosal layers are built of loose connective tissue and harbor various inflammatory cell population, abundant glands, and thin-walled small-caliber venules. In-between, there is a thin lamellar compact bone (≤ 80 μm) or a significantly thicker cancellous bone (110-400 μm; P < 0.001). Both mucosal layers are similar in thickness, epithelial height, basement membrane thickness, and AF of soft-tissue constituents. A comparison with the lateral aspect of the inferior and middle turbinates showed that the AF of the connective tissue, total submucosal glands, submucosal serous and mucous glands, and veins of the lateral mucosa are significantly different (all P < 0.001). This diversity may point to different physiological roles for the UP and the inferior and middle turbinates. The UP rich glandular network, which is probably responsible for drainage and ventilation of the maxillary sinus into the ethmoid infundibulum laterally and the frontal sinus into the middle meatus medially, supports the argument that it is preferable, particularly for the less complicated cases, to keep the normal physiology of the ethmoid infundibulum and use bone- and mucosa-sparing techniques for the management of refractory chronic sinus disease.

  3. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  4. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  5. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  6. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  7. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Acute stress cardiomyopathy and deaths associated with electronic weapons.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Cihan; Otahbachi, Mohammad; Miller, Elizabeth; Bagdure, Satish; Nugent, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    Deaths associated with the use of electronic weapons almost always occur in young men involved in either civil disturbances or criminal activity. These situations are associated with high levels of circulating catecholamines and frequently associated with drug intoxication. The mechanism for these deaths is unclear. Clinical studies indicate that these high voltage electrical pulses do not cause cardiac arrhythmia. Acute stress cardiomyopathy provides an alternative explanation for deaths associated with electronic weapons and may provide a better explanation for the usual time course associated with taser deaths. Patients with acute stress cardiomyopathy usually have had an emotional or physical stress, have high circulating levels of catecholamines, present with an acute coronary syndrome but have normal coronary vessels without significant thrombus formation. They have unusual left ventricular dysfunction with so-called apical ballooning. This presentation has been attributed to the direct effects of catecholamines on myocardial cell function. Alternative explanations include vasospasm in the coronary microcirculation and/or acute thrombosis followed by rapid thrombolysis. Similar events could occur during the high stress situations associated with the use of electronic weapons. These events also likely explain restraint-related deaths which occur in independent of any use of electronic weapons. Forensic pathologists have the opportunity to provide important details about the pathogenesis of these deaths through histological studies and careful evaluation of coronary vessels.

  9. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  10. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  11. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  12. Histology of the regeneration of Paulownia tomentosa (Paulowniaceae) by organogenesis.

    PubMed

    San José, Ma del Carmen; Cernadas, Ma José; Corredoira, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a fast-growing tree species with a considerable economic potential because of its value for wood as well as its high biomass production, and elevated stress tolerance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the development of adventitious buds in leaves obtained from four-week-old shoots of P. tomentosa, in order to identify the cells involved in in vitro adventitious bud development. Leaves (proximal halves with the petiole) from the first node were excised from four-week-old micropropagated shoots, and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 3% (w/v) sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) Sigma agar, 22.7 microM thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2.9 microM indole-3-acetic acid for two weeks, explants were then transferred to the same medium with 0.44 microM N6-benzyladenine for another four weeks. Five explants were collected daily during the two first weeks in TDZ treatment. A total of 140 samples were processed. Most of the buds developed indirectly from the callus formed in the petiole stub, and they became visible after eight-ten days of culture, although some buds were also observed in the area of the laminar cut at the level of the veins. The first histological changes could be observed after two-three days of culture, with the dedifferentiation of some subepidermal and inner parenchyma cells, which exhibited a large, prominent nucleus, densely-stained cytoplasm and a high nucleus-to-cell area ratio. Proliferation of these cells gives rise to meristemoid formation after seven-ten days of culture. Organized cell division in meristemoids allows the formation of bud primordia that emerged from the explants surface. The progressive structural differentiation of the apical meristem, leaf primordia, and procambium strands, led to formation of complete buds that were observed in the exterior of the explants after 10-15 days of culture. Direct development of buds from cells in the subepidermic and/or epidermic layers were observed on the

  13. Placental fetal stem segmentation in a sequence of histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athavale, Prashant; Vese, Luminita A.

    2012-02-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental fetal stems. Analysis of the fetal stems in a placenta could be useful in the study and diagnosis of some diseases like autism. To study the fetal stem structure effectively, we need to automatically and accurately track fetal stems through a sequence of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histology slides. There are many problems in successfully achieving this goal. A few of the problems are: large size of images, misalignment of the consecutive H&E slides, unpredictable inaccuracies of manual tracing, very complicated texture patterns of various tissue types without clear characteristics, just to name a few. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to achieve automatic tracing of the fetal stem in a sequence of H&E images, based on an inaccurate manual segmentation of a fetal stem in one of the images. This algorithm combines global affine registration, local non-affine registration and a novel 'dynamic' version of the active contours model without edges. We first use global affine image registration of all the images based on displacement, scaling and rotation. This gives us approximate location of the corresponding fetal stem in the image that needs to be traced. We then use the affine registration algorithm "locally" near this location. At this point, we use a fast non-affine registration based on L2-similarity measure and diffusion regularization to get a better location of the fetal stem. Finally, we have to take into account inaccuracies in the initial tracing. This is achieved through a novel dynamic version of the active contours model without edges where the coefficients of the fitting terms are computed iteratively to ensure that we obtain a unique stem in the segmentation. The segmentation thus obtained can then be used as an

  14. Histological characterisation and prognostic evaluation of 62 gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohui; Ye, Yuhong; Shi, Xi; Zhu, Kunshou; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Sheng; Ying, Mingang; Lin, Xuede

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the significance of expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67 and their association with clinicopathological parameters, and to find out the possible prognostic factors in gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (G-NEC). Material and methods We investigated the immunohistochemical features and prognosis of 62 G-NECs, and evaluated the association among expressions of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and Ki-67, clinicopathological variables, and outcome. Results Chromogranin A expression was found more commonly in small-cell NECs (9/9, 100%) than in large-cell NECs (27/53, 51%) (p = 0.008). No statistical significance was found in Ki-67 (p = 0.494) or synaptophysin (p > 0.1) expression between NEC cell types. Correlation analyses revealed that Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with mid-third disease of stomach (p = 0.005) and vascular involvement (p = 0.006), and had a trend of significant correlation with tumour relapse (p = 0.078). High expression of chromogranin A was significantly associated with histology of small-cell NECs (p = 0.008) and lesser tumour greatest dimension (p = 0.038). The prognostic significance was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests, and as a result, early TNM staging and postoperative chemotherapy were found to be correlated with longer overall survival (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis revealed associations between poor prognosis in NECs and several factors, including high TNM staging (p = 0.048), vascular involvement (p = 0.023), relapse (p = 0.004), and microscopic/macroscopic residual tumour (R1/2, p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, relapse was identified as the sole independent prognostic factor. Conclusions No significant correlation between survival and expression of synaptophysin, chromogranin A, or Ki-67 has been determined in G-NECs. Our study indicated that early diagnosis, no-residual-tumour resection, and postoperative chemotherapy were

  15. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  17. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  18. Can histologic changes of the upper pole justify a conservative approach in neonatal duplex ectopic ureterocele?

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper-pole segment in patients with duplex-system ectopic ureterocele (DEU) to determine if less aggressive surgery is justified in prenatally-diagnosed cases. The study included 15 consecutive patients with DEU treated between 1991 and 1999. The diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory, and obstructive changes. All 15 patients were surgically treated by heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine cases were diagnosed prenatally; the histology of the upper-pole segment in these patients showed segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands, and an inflammatory tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 6 (66.6%) and nephroblastomatosis in 2 (22.2%). The histology of the 6 postnatally-diagnosed patients showed segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy, and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper-pole histology of the prenatally-diagnosed patients did not show any evidence of reversible histologic changes. Considering this findings and the good outcome of patients treated with upper-pole nephroureterectomy, less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  19. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  20. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Massimo; Andorno, Silvano; Rossini, Angelo; Boldorini, Renzo; Bozzola, Cristina; Carmagnola, Stefania; Piano, Mario Del; Albano, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to, or unsuitable for, antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion (ferritin ≤ 70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy. Histological improvement, as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or, in case of unchanged stage, as at least two points reduction in the grading score (Knodell), was evaluated in two subsequent liver biopsies (before and at the end of phlebotomy, 48 ± 16 mo apart). RESULTS: Phlebotomy showed an excellent safety profile. Histological improvement occurred in 12/28 phlebotomized patients. Only males responded to phlebotomy. At univariate logistic analysis alcohol intake (P = 0.034), high histological grading (P = 0.01) and high hepatic iron concentration (HIC) (P = 0.04) before treatment were associated with histological improvement. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that in males high HIC was the only predictor of histological improvement following phlebotomy (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.031). Accordingly, 12 out of 17 (70%) patients with HIC ≥ 20 μmol/g showed histological improvements at the second biopsy. CONCLUSION: Male CHC Caucasian non-responders to antiviral therapy with low-grade iron overload can benefit from mild iron depletion by long-term phlebotomy. PMID:20128028

  1. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  2. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  3. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  4. Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    While rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon except where there are poor and crowded living conditions, sporadic acute attacks continue to occur in a family or pediatric medical practice. The physician's role in management of the sore throat in the diagnosis of suspected cases of rheumatic fever and in follow-up for continued prophylaxis is discussed. The frequency of admissions and presenting features of 159 patients with acute rheumatic fever is reviewed. Continued surveillance is required if we are to achieve a further reduction in attack rate and complications. PMID:4419123

  5. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  6. 3D reconstruction of prostate histology based on quantified tissue cutting and deformation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Eli; Gómez, José A.; Moussa, Madeleine; Crukley, Cathie; Bauman, Glenn; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2012-03-01

    Methods for 3D histology reconstruction from sparse 2D digital histology images depend on knowledge about the positions, orientations, and deformations of tissue slices due to the histology process. This work quantitatively evaluates typical assumptions about the position and orientation of whole-mount prostate histology sections within coarsely sliced tissue blocks and about the deformation of tissue during histological processing and sectioning. 3-5 midgland tissue blocks from each of 7 radical prostatectomy specimens were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging before histology processing. After standard whole-mount paraffin processing and sectioning, the resulting sections were digitised. Homologous anatomic landmarks were identified on 22 midgland histology and MR images. Orientations and depths of sections relative to the front faces of the tissue blocks were measured based on the best-fit plane through the landmarks on the MR images. The mean+/-std section orientation was 1.7+/-1.1° and the mean+/-std depth of the sections was 1.0+/-0.5 mm. Deformation was assessed by using four transformation models (rigid, rigid+scale, affine and thin-plate-spline (TPS)) to align landmarks from histology and MR images, and evaluating each by measuring the target registration error (TRE) using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The rigid transformation model had higher mean TRE (p<0.001) than the other models, and the rigid+scale and affine models had higher mean TRE than the TPS model (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). These results informed the design and development of a method for 3D prostate histology reconstruction based on extrinsic strand-shaped fiducial markers which yielded a 0.7+/-0.4 mm mean+/-std TRE.

  7. Fusion of rat brain histology and MRI using weighted multi-image mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Christoph; Penney, Graeme P.; Crum, William R.; Schnabel, Julia A.; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Hawkes, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Introduction - Fusion of histology and MRI is frequently demanded in biomedical research to study in vitro tissue properties in an in vivo reference space. Distortions and artifacts caused by cutting and staining of histological slices as well as differences in spatial resolution make even the rigid fusion a difficult task. State-of- the-art methods start with a mono-modal restacking yielding a histological pseudo-3D volume. The 3D information of the MRI reference is considered subsequently. However, consistency of the histology volume and consistency due to the corresponding MRI seem to be diametral goals. Therefore, we propose a novel fusion framework optimizing histology/histology and histology/MRI consistency at the same time finding a balance between both goals. Method - Direct slice-to-slice correspondence even in irregularly-spaced cutting sequences is achieved by registration-based interpolation of the MRI. Introducing a weighted multi-image mutual information metric (WI), adjacent histology and corresponding MRI are taken into account at the same time. Therefore, the reconstruction of the histological volume as well as the fusion with the MRI is done in a single step. Results - Based on two data sets with more than 110 single registrations in all, the results are evaluated quantitatively based on Tanimoto overlap measures and qualitatively showing the fused volumes. In comparison to other multi-image metrics, the reconstruction based on WI is significantly improved. We evaluated different parameter settings with emphasis on the weighting term steering the balance between intra- and inter-modality consistency.

  8. EX VIVO CORRELATION OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC SMALL INTESTINAL WALL LAYERING WITH HISTOLOGY IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Alexandre B; Granger, L Abbigail; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-09-01

    Canine ultrasonographic intestinal layers have been reported to correlate with histological layering. However, discrepancies have been reported in people, and additional layers visualized. The aim of this method comparison study was to describe ex vivo canine small intestinal layering and correlate it with histology. Small intestinal samples of 12 adult dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease were resected immediately following euthanasia, pinned on a Petri dish, and transverse ultrasonographic images acquired in a water bath, using a high-frequency linear transducer. Transverse histological sections were obtained at the same level. Measurements of the intestinal layers were performed on the ultrasonographic and histological images. No significant statistical differences were noted between the ultrasonographic and histological measurements and strong to very strong (r > 0.7) positive correlation was observed for all layers, except for the serosa, which had a low moderate positive correlation (r = 0.479). In addition to the five established layers, a dual mucosal echogenicity was consistently observed, with seven samples presenting an additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity. Histologically, this dual echogenicity was attributed to the intestinal villi (mildly echogenic) and lamina propria (hypoechoic). The additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity observed in seven samples was attributed to mild-to-moderate lacteal dilation histologically. In 4/12 ileal samples, an additional hyperechoic mucosal line was also observed parallel to the submucosa, corresponding histologically to prominent Peyer's patches. Finally, a hyperechoic line was observed within the muscularis of all samples, corresponding histologically to the interface between the muscularis longitudinal and circular layers. PMID:27377194

  9. Autoimmune pancreatitis with histologically proven lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis with granulocytic epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kusuda, Takeo; Kurishima, Akiko; Fukui, Yuri; Sumimoto, Kimi; Satoi, Sohei; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-01-01

    Recent histological and clinical studies have suggested the existence of 2 distinct types of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP): type 1 AIP related to IgG4, exhibiting lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP), and type 2 AIP related to granulocyte epithelial lesions (GELs), exhibiting idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (IDCP). We herein present a case of type 1 AIP with histologically proven LPSP with GELs. This patient had neither serum IgG4 elevation nor MPD narrowing. In this case, the clinically and histologically atypical findings for type 1 AIP are intriguing. PMID:22466829

  10. A combined histological and MRI brain atlas of the common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Newman, John D; Kenkel, William M; Aronoff, Emily C; Bock, Nicholas A; Zametkin, Molly R; Silva, Afonso C

    2009-12-11

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is of growing importance for research in neuroscience and related fields. In the present work, we describe a combined histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brains of two adult female marmosets. Histological sections were processed from Nissl staining and digitized to produce an atlas in a large format that facilitates visualization of structures with significant detail. Naming of identifiable brain structures was performed utilizing current terminology. The histological sections and a simplified schematic atlas are available online at http://udn.nichd.nih.gov/brainatlas_home.html.

  11. Histological observation of complete closure of anterior capsulotomy in 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sai-Ichi; Saika, Shizuya; Tamura, Manabu; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka

    2004-06-01

    We report the histological finding of complete closure of the anterior capsulotomy window in 2 cases. The cases were successfully treated with surgery after neodymium:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy failed. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the pathogenesis. Histology revealed the presence of elongated, fibroblast-like lens epithelial cells in association with extracellular matrix accumulation, which were positive for collagen types, fibronectin, and osteopontin. The cells were labeled with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody. The finding indicates that phenotypic modulation in lens epithelial cell to contractile cell type and accumulation of matrix are involved in closure of the anterior capsulotomy window.

  12. Dihydro-Resveratrol Ameliorates Lung Injury in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ze-Si; Ku, Chuen Fai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Shi, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Hong-Qi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process originated in the pancreas; however, it often leads to systemic complications that affect distant organs. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is indeed the predominant cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. In this study, we aimed to delineate the ameliorative effect of dihydro-resveratrol, a prominent analog of trans-resveratrol, against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury and the underlying molecular actions. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with repetitive injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg/h) and a shot of lipopolysaccharide (7.5 mg/kg). By means of histological examination and biochemical assays, the severity of lung injury was assessed in the aspects of tissue damages, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. When treated with dihydro-resveratrol, pulmonary architectural distortion, hemorrhage, interstitial edema, and alveolar thickening were significantly reduced in rats with acute pancreatitis. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activity of myeloperoxidase in pulmonary tissues were notably repressed. Importantly, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation was attenuated. This study is the first to report the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol ameliorated acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury via an inhibitory modulation of pro-inflammatory response, which was associated with a suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  13. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  14. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  15. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  16. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  17. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  18. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  19. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  20. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.