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Sample records for acute histologic chorioamnionitis

  1. Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: definition, pathologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-10-01

    Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intraamniotic infection generally has been considered to be the cause of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms induced by "danger signals," is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intraamniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient that favors the migration of neutrophils from the maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals that are released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and present in 3-5% of term placentas and in 94% of placentas delivered at 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in the fetal plasma concentration of interleukin-6, and associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multiorgan fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults: a risk factor for short- and long

  2. Non-Invasive Prediction of Histologic Chorioamnionitis in Women with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Ah; Lee, Seung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a model based on non-invasive clinical and ultrasonographic parameters for predicting the likelihood of subsequent histologic chorioamnionitis in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to determine whether the inclusion of invasive test results improves the predictive value of the model. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 146 consecutive women presenting with PPROM (20–33 weeks). Transvaginal ultrasonographic assessment of cervical length was performed. Maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured after amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid (AF) obtained by amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and WBC counts were determined. The primary outcome measure was histologic chorioamnionitis. Results Risk scores based on serum CRP concentrations and gestational age (model 1) were calculated for each patient. The model was shown to have adequate goodness of fit and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.742. When including AF test results (e.g., AF IL-6 levels) in model 1, serum CRP concentrations were found to be insignificant, and thus, were excluded from model 2, comprising AF IL-6 levels and gestational age. No significant difference in AUC was found between models 1 and 2. Conclusion For women with PPROM, the newly developed model incorporating non-invasive parameters (serum CRP and gestational age) was moderately predictive of histologic chorioamnionitis. The inclusion of invasive test results added no predictive information to the model in this setting. PMID:26847301

  3. Protective Ventilation of Preterm Lambs Exposed to Acute Chorioamnionitis Does Not Reduce Ventilation-Induced Lung or Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Samantha K.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Crossley, Kelly J.; Gill, Andrew W.; Kluckow, Martin; Zahra, Valerie; Wong, Flora Y.; Pichler, Gerhard; Galinsky, Robert; Miller, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The onset of mechanical ventilation is a critical time for the initiation of cerebral white matter (WM) injury in preterm neonates, particularly if they are inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (VT) in the delivery room. Protective ventilation strategies at birth reduce ventilation-induced lung and brain inflammation and injury, however its efficacy in a compromised newborn is not known. Chorioamnionitis is a common antecedent of preterm birth, and increases the risk and severity of WM injury. We investigated the effects of high VT ventilation, after chorioamnionitis, on preterm lung and WM inflammation and injury, and whether a protective ventilation strategy could mitigate the response. Methods Pregnant ewes (n = 18) received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 days before delivery, instrumentation and ventilation at 127±1 days gestation. Lambs were either immediately euthanased and used as unventilated controls (LPSUVC; n = 6), or were ventilated using an injurious high VT strategy (LPSINJ; n = 5) or a protective ventilation strategy (LPSPROT; n = 7) for a total of 90 min. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation were measured continuously. Lungs and brains underwent molecular and histological assessment of inflammation and injury. Results LPSINJ lambs had poorer oxygenation than LPSPROT lambs. Ventilation requirements and cardiopulmonary and systemic haemodynamics were not different between ventilation strategies. Compared to unventilated lambs, LPSINJ and LPSPROT lambs had increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression within the lungs and brain, and increased astrogliosis (p<0.02) and cell death (p<0.05) in the WM, which were equivalent in magnitude between groups. Conclusions Ventilation after acute chorioamnionitis, irrespective of strategy used, increases haemodynamic instability and lung and cerebral inflammation and injury. Mechanical ventilation is a potential contributor

  4. Amniotic fluid sludge as a marker of intra-amniotic infection and histological chorioamnionitis in cervical insufficiency: a report of four cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Paules, Cristina; Moreno, Esther; Gonzales, Ariel; Fabre, Ernesto; González de Agüero, Rafael; Oros, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Amniotic fluid sludge (AFS) is defined as the presence of particulate matter in the amniotic fluid in close proximity to the cervix. Although its prevalence is known to correlate with the risk of preterm delivery, initial reports describe a strong association between AFS and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis. However, AFS is also present in uncomplicated pregnancies, and its prevalence appears to increase with gestational age. Recent evidence debates the usefulness of AFS as a marker of early preterm delivery risk. We present four cases with AFS diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at admission for cervical insufficiency between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation, with confirmed lower genital tract and intra-amniotic infections by amniocentesis and histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Our findings reinforce the presence of AFS as a useful marker of MIAC, chorioamnionitis and funisitis that increase the likelihood of preterm delivery at an extreme gestational age. PMID:26553434

  5. Inflammatory Signalling in Fetal Membranes: Increased Expression Levels of TLR 1 in the Presence of Preterm Histological Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Gareth J.; Robson, Stephen C.; Bulmer, Judith N.; Tyson-Capper, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an established marker of ascending infection, a major cause of preterm birth. No studies have characterised the global change in expression of genes involved in the toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathways in the presence of HCA in the setting of preterm birth (pHCA). Fetal membranes were collected immediately after delivery and underwent histological staging for inflammation to derive 3 groups; term spontaneous labour without HCA (n = 9), preterm birth <34 weeks gestation without HCA (n = 8) and pHCA <34 weeks (n = 12). Profiling arrays ran in triplicate for each group were used to determine the expression of 84 genes associated with TLR signalling and screen for genes of interest (fold change >2; p<0.1). Expression of identified genes was validated individually for all samples, relative to GAPDH, using RT-PCR. Expression of TLR 1, TLR 2, lymphocyte antigen 96, interleukin 8 and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 was increased in pHCA (p<0.05). Degree of expression was positively associated with histological staging of both maternal and fetal inflammation (p<0.05). The inflammatory expression profile at the maternal/fetal interface associated with pHCA, a reflection of ascending infection, is extremely heterogeneous suggesting polymicrobial involvement with activation of a common pathway. Antagonism of TLR 1 and TLR 2 signalling in this setting warrants further assessment. PMID:25965269

  6. Related Factors and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Women with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Complicated by Histologic Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ailan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Material/Methods We retrospectively enrolled 371 women diagnosed with PPROM at less than 34 weeks of gestation at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University between January 2008 and December 2012. HCA was diagnosed by placental histopathology in 70% of participants. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HCA and neonatal outcomes. Results Patient age, rate of parity, tocolysis, cesarean section, serum C reactive protein (CRP) level at admission, white blood cell count, and latency duration did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression revealed that oligohydramnios at admission, gestational age at PPROM, and serum CRP >8 mg/L before delivery were significantly associated with HCA. Gestational age at delivery and birth weight were significantly lower in HCA patients than control patients. The rate of 1-min Apgar score <7, abnormal neonatal intracranial ultrasound findings, neonatal pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, early-onset neonatal sepsis, and mortality were higher in HCA patients, but no significant difference was observed in the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, hyperbilirubinemia, or hypoglycemia. Conclusions Younger gestational age at time of PPROM, higher CRP level before delivery, and oligohydramnios at admission in women with PPROM are associated with HCA, and HCA is associated with some adverse neonatal outcomes. PMID:25644559

  7. Preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes have a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute histologoic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis: Patho-physiologic implication related to different clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether histo-topographic findings about the involved compartments (i.e., choriodecidua, amnion, chorionic-plate) of acute-histologic chorioamnionitis (acute-HCA) and/or funisitis according to the presence or absence of intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) are different between preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). The involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis were examined in 161 singleton preterm-births (<34 weeks) due to PTL (n = 88) and preterm-PROM (n = 73). The study-population was divided into IAI(-)/FIRS(-), IAI(+)/FIRS(-), and IAI(+)/FIRS(+) groups according to the presence or absence of IAI (amniotic-fluid MMP-8 ≥ 23 ng/ml) and/or FIRS (umbilical-cord plasma CRP ≥ 200 ng/ml). Histological inflammation was not detected in any-compartment except choriodecidua in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with PTL while inflammation appeared in all-compartment0s (choriodeciduitis-46.2 %; amnionitis-23.1 %; funisitis-30.8 %; chorionic-plate inflammation-7.7 %) in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with preterm-PROM. IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group had a significantly higher frequency of inflammation in each-compartment than IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group in PTL (each-for P < 0.01), but not preterm-PROM (each-for P > 0.1). However, IAI(+)/FIRS(+) group had a significantly higher rate of inflammation in each compartment than IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group in both PTL and preterm-PROM (each-for P < 0.05). We first demonstrated that PTL and preterm-PROM had a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis in the IAI(-)/FIRS(--) group and in the change of involved compartments from IAI(-)/FIRS(-) to IAI(+)/FIRS(-). PMID:27090052

  8. Modern Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Knuppel, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical chorioamnionitis continues to contribute to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years in understanding the pathophysiologic processes leading to chorioamnionitis. This review addresses the history, incidence, pathophysiology, host defenses, risk factors, diagnosis, and maternal and neonatal management of clinically evident chorioamnionitis. After a detailed review of the physiologic processes leading to clinical chorioamnionitis and sepsis, we present a modern management scheme designed to optimize perinatal outcome for both mother and fetus. PMID:18476034

  9. Chorioamnionitis and Early Childhood Outcomes among Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Athina; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Laptook, Abbott R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Das, Abhik; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Chorioamnionitis is strongly linked to preterm birth and to neonatal infection. The association between histological and clinical chorioamnionitis and cognitive, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely preterm neonates is less clear. We evaluated the impact of chorioamnionitis on 18-22 month neurodevelopmental outcomes in a contemporary cohort of extremely preterm neonates. Objective To compare the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of three groups of extremely-low-gestational-age infants with increasing exposure to perinatal inflammation: no chorioamnionitis, histological chorioamnionitis alone, or histological plus clinical chorioamnionitis. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Participants 2390 extremely preterm infants born <27 weeks' gestational age between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 with placental histopathology and 18-22 months' corrected age follow-up data were eligible. Main exposure Chorioamnionitis Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, behavioral scores (according to the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment), cognitive and language scores (according to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd-Edition) and composite measures of death/neurodevelopmental impairment. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were developed to assess the association between chorioamnionitis and outcomes while controlling for important variables known at birth. Results Neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis had a lower gestational age (GA) and had higher rates of early-onset sepsis and severe periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage as compared with unexposed neonates. In multivariable models evaluating death and neurodevelopmental outcomes, inclusion of gestational age in the model diminished the association

  10. Interleukin-1 in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Chorioamnionitis in the Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Clare A.; Nitsos, Ilias; Hillman, Noah H.; Pillow, J. Jane; Polglase, Graeme R.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that interleukin 1 (IL-1) mediates intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis in preterm fetal sheep. Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received IL-1α, LPS, or saline (control) by intra-amniotic injection 1 to 2 days before operative delivery at 124 ± 1 days gestational age (N = 5-9/group; term = 150 days). Recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) was given into the amniotic fluid 3 hours before intra-amniotic LPS or saline to block IL-1 signaling. Inflammation in the chorioamnion was determined by histology, cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA), protein expression, and by quantitation of activated inflammatory cells. Intra-amniotic IL-1 and LPS both induced chorioamnionitis. However, IL-1 blockade with IL-1ra did not decrease intra-amniotic LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, numbers of inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase, or monocyte chemotactic protein-1-expressing cells in the chorioamnion. We conclude that IL-1 and LPS both can cause chorioamnionitis, but IL-1 is not an important mediator of LPS-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep. PMID:21493953

  11. The placental microbiome is altered among subjects with spontaneous preterm birth with and without chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Alvarez, Manuel; Gisslen, Tate; Harris, R. Alan; Sweeney, Emma L.; Knox, Christine L.; Lambers, Donna S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Chougnet, Claire A.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and is not uncommonly associated with chorioamnionitis. We recently have demonstrated that the placenta harbors a unique microbiome with similar flora to the oral community. We also have shown an association of these placental microbiota with PTB, history of antenatal infection, and excess maternal weight gain. On the basis of these previous observations, we hypothesized that the placental membranes would retain a microbiome community that would vary in association with preterm birth and chorioamnionitis. OBJECTIVE In the current study, we aimed to examine the differences in the placental membrane microbiome in association with PTB in both the presence and absence of chorioamnionitis and/ or funisitis using state-of-the-science whole-genome shotgun metagenomics. STUDY DESIGN This was a cross-sectional analysis with 6 nested spontaneous birth cohorts (n = 9–15 subjects/cohort): Term gestations without chorioamnionitis, term with chorioamnionitis, preterm without chorioamnionitis, preterm with mild chorioamnionitis, preterm with severe chorioamnionitis, and preterm with chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Histologic analysis was performed with Redline's criteria, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in the cord blood. DNA from placental membranes was extracted from sterile swabs collected at delivery, and whole-genome shotgun sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Filtered microbial DNA sequences were annotated and analyzed with MG-RAST (ie, Metagenomic Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology) and R. RESULTS Subjects were assigned to cohorts on the basis of gestational age at delivery and independent scoring of histologic chorioamnionitis. We found that preterm subjects with severe chorioamnionitis and funisitis had increases in cord blood inflammatory cytokines. Of interest, although the placental membrane microbiome was altered in association with

  12. Chorioamnionitis and Culture-Confirmed Early-onset Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wortham, Jonathan M.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Hale, Ellen; Van Meurs, Krisa; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Cantey, Joseph B.; Faix, Roger; Poindexter, Brenda; Goldberg, Ronald; Bizzarro, Matthew; Frantz, Ivan; Das, Abhik; Benitz, William E.; Shane, Andi L.; Higgins, Rosemary; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcal (GBS) disease recommend diagnostic evaluations and empiric antibiotic therapy for well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Some clinicians question these recommendations, citing the decline in early-onset GBS disease rates since widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) implementation and potential antibiotic risks. We aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns with culture-confirmed early-onset infections can be asymptomatic at birth. Methods Multicenter, prospective surveillance for early-onset neonatal infections was conducted 2006–2009. Early-onset infection was defined as isolation of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid collected ≤72 hours after birth. Maternal chorioamnionitis was defined by clinical diagnosis in the medical record or histologic diagnosis by placental pathology. Hospital records of newborns with early-onset infections born to mothers with chorioamnionitis were reviewed retrospectively to determine symptom onset. Results Early-onset infections were diagnosed in 389 of 396,586 live births, including 232 (60%) chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Records for 229 were reviewed; 29 (13%) had no documented symptoms within 6 hours of birth, including 21 (9%) who remained asymptomatic at 72 hours. IAP exposure did not differ significantly between asymptomatic and symptomatic infants (76% vs. 69%, p=0.52). Assuming complete guideline implementation, we estimated 60 to 1400 newborns would receive diagnostic evaluations and antibiotics for each infected, asymptomatic newborn, depending on chorioamnionitis prevalence. Conclusions Some infants born to mothers with chorioamnionitis may have no signs of sepsis at birth despite having culture-confirmed infections. Implementation of current clinical guidelines may result in early diagnosis, but large numbers of uninfected asymptomatic infants would be treated. PMID:26719293

  13. Chorioamnionitis: from pathogenesis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Czikk, M J; McCarthy, F P; Murphy, K E

    2011-09-01

    Chorioamnionitis refers to inflammation of the amniochorionic membrane, and is a significant cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Chorioamnionitis most often occurs as a result of ascending infection, and is commonly associated with premature rupture of the membranes. Chorioamnionitis is generally the result of a polymicrobial infection, with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Gram-negative anaerobes being frequent causative organisms. The mainstay of treatment includes antimicrobial agents, antipyretics, expedition of delivery and supportive care. Further research is required to identify mechanistic pathways and early biomarkers that accurately predict women at higher risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and that can thus lead to the development of additional treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:21672080

  14. Chorioamnionitis and Patent Ductus Arteriosus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Won; Choi, Yong-Sung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Chorioamnionitis has recently been reported as a risk factor for various neonatal diseases, including cerebral palsy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis, but its effect on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of chorioamnionitis on PDA. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases using the terms: “intrauterine infection” or “maternal infection” or “antenatal infection” or “chorioamnionitis” or “placenta inflammation” or “placenta pathology” or “neonatal outcome” or “neonatal morbidity” or “PDA or patent ductus arteriosus” or “ductus arteriosus,” and “prematurity” or “very low birth weight infant.” Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, or cohort studies that included information relating to chorioamnionitis and PDA. Results Among 1,571 studies, a total of 23 studies (17,708 cases) were included in the meta-analysis to analyze the relationship between chorioamnionitis and PDA, except one study that only included PDA requiring surgical ligation. The association between chorioamnionitis and PDA was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19, 1.72; P < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, clinical chorioamnionitis was not associated with PDA (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00, 1.64, 1.790; P = 0.05), whereas histologic chorioamnionitis (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.10, 2.15; P = 0.01) and chorioamnionitis diagnosed from both clinical and histologic findings (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.07, 2.86; P = 0.03) showed significant associations with PDA. Chorioamnionitis did not increase the risk of PDA requiring surgical ligation (OR 1.23; 95% CI 0.69, 2.17; P = 0.48), and antenatal steroid use reduced the risk of PDA (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) after chorioamnionitis. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support

  15. Analysis of cell-cell junctions in human amnion and chorionic plate affected by chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Licini, Caterina; Tossetta, Giovanni; Avellini, Chiara; Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Lorenzi, Teresa; Toti, Paolo; Gesuita, Rosaria; Voltolini, Chiara; Petraglia, Felice; Castellucci, Mario; Marzioni, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammatory reaction associated with the premature rupture of the fetal membranes. It is caused mainly by invasion of bacteria from the vaginal tract that can penetrate the intact membranes and invade the amnion cavity and the decidua. Tight junctions (TJs) and adherent junctions (AJs) are intercellular junctions crucial for epithelia adhesion and permeability regulation in a wide variety of tissues and organs. Our aim is to investigate if TJ and AJ molecules are involved in human chorioamnionitis. We studied the protein expression (by immunohistochemistry and western blotting) and the mRNA levels (by RT-PCR) of some junction proteins such as Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, VE-cadherin and β-catenin in fetal membranes from women with chorioamnionitis compared to those membranes derived from idiopathic pregnancies. Western blotting and immunohistochemical data established that occludin expression was decreased in amnion with chorioamnionitis compared to amnion from idiopathic pregnancies. Samples tested for ZO-1, VE-cadherin and β-catenin (proteins and mRNAs) showed no differences between idiopathic and pathological membranes. One of the most relevant results is the decrease of occludin in membranes with chorioamnionitis. Since we have previously demonstrated that some cytokines, particularly elevated in the chorioamnionitis, cause the disruption of TJs in placental villi, we suggest that the decrease of occludin in amnion may be the first change that leads to the rupture of the amniotic membrane in this pathology. PMID:26739007

  16. Chorioamnionitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus with intact membranes in a term pregnancy: A case of maternal and fetal septic shock.

    PubMed

    Sorano, Sumire; Goto, Maki; Matsuoka, Sakiko; Tohyama, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Nakamura, Sumie; Fukami, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Ryoei; Tsujioka, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Fuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Chorioamnionitis is usually caused by migration of cervicovaginal flora through the cervical canal in women with ruptured membranes. Common causative pathogens are genital mycoplasmas, anaerobes, enteric gram-negative bacilli, and group B streptococcus. There have been only seven previous reports of chorioamnionitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical courses are characterized by rapid disease progression and poor prognosis. This case report describes a case of acute chorioamnionitis due to S. aureus, which was successfully managed with immediate cesarean section and postoperative intensive care. A 22-year-old woman presented at 39 weeks' gestation with a fever and acute lower abdominal pain. Fetal heart monitoring showed fetal distress. Immediate cesarean delivery was performed under general anesthesia. A male infant weighing 2450 g was born. He had Apgar scores of 3 and 7 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. He was immediately intubated and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Maternal blood culture, vaginal culture, neonatal nares, and blood and gastric fluid culture all showed methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Histopathology of the placenta demonstrated focal acute funisitis and acute chorioamnionitis. Interestingly, most of the patients in the previous reports developed chorioamnionitis due to S. aureus despite the presence of intact membranes, as in our case. Bacterial spread in the absence of membrane rupture and the presence of bacteremia suggests hematogenous, rather than ascending, etiology of S. aureus chorioamnionitis. PMID:26705749

  17. Liver histology of acute brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Young, Edward J; Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Shafae, Shariar; Genta, Robert M; Taylor, Shari L

    2014-10-01

    As a major organ of the mononuclear phagocytic system, the liver is probably involved in all cases of brucellosis. In this prospective study, liver slides prepared from percutaneous liver biopsy samples of 20 patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis were examined for the presence or absence of granulomas by pathologists in Iran and the United States. Nineteen men and one woman ranging in age from 14 to 62 years were studied. All patients had clinical signs and symptoms compatible with acute brucellosis, and all had significantly elevated titers of antibodies to Brucella in their serum. Liver function tests were mildly elevated in 11 (55%) cases, and C-reactive protein was positive in 15 (65%) patients. Thirteen (65%) patients had blood cultures positive for B melitensis. Iranian and American pathologists reported granulomas in 3 (15%) and in 4 (20%) cases, respectively. There was agreement between Iranian and American pathologists in 17 (85%) cases. The most prevalent findings were mild portal or lobular lymphocytic inflammation (16 cases). Two cases revealed noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, and 2 had microgranulomas. The results show that all patients had microscopic evidence of liver involvement. The predominant histologic finding was mild portal or lobular inflammation with lymphocytes. Granulomas were present in only 4 cases. PMID:25147098

  18. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep

    PubMed Central

    SNYDER, Candice C.; WOLFE, Katherine B.; GISSLEN, Tate; KNOX, Christine L.; KEMP, Matthew W.; KRAMER, Boris W.; NEWNHAM, John P.; JOBE, Alan H.; KALLAPUR, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid will modulate chorioamnionitis induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Sheep received intra-amniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live ureaplasma either 7 or 70d before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2d before delivery. To test for interactions, U. parvum exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2d later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125±1 day gestation. Results Both IA ureaplasmas and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while ureaplasmas alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7d but not 70d ureaplasma exposure significantly downregulated LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion. Conclusion Acute U. parvum exposure (7d) can suppress LPS induced chorioamnionitis. PMID:23410690

  19. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chorioamnionitis in Fetal Sheep by Maternal Betamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Katherine B.; Snyder, Candice C.; Gisslen, Tate; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the order of exposure to maternal betamethasone and intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will differentially modulate inflammation in the chorioamnion. Study Design: Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received saline alone, IA LPS alone, maternal betamethasone before LPS, or betamethasone after LPS. We assessed inflammatory markers in the chorioamnion and the amniotic fluid. Results: Inflammatory cell infiltration, expression of myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A3 (acute phase reactant) in the chorioamnion, and levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the amniotic fluid increased 7 days after LPS exposure. Betamethasone prior to LPS decreased infiltration of the inflammatory cells, CD3+ T cells, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in the amniotic fluid. Conclusions: Betamethasone 7 days prior to LPS exposure suppressed LPS-induced inflammation. The markers of inflammation largely had returned to the baseline 14 days after LPS exposure. PMID:23653388

  20. Leptotrichia Buccalis: A Novel Cause of Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela C.; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K.; Plongla, Rongpong; Boggess, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-amniotic Leptotrichia buccalis has not been previously associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. We report a case of chorioamnionitis and pregnancy loss associated with this primarily oral commensal. We review Leptotrichia buccalis and other oral commensals that have been identified in cases of intraamniotic infection. PMID:26294950

  1. Postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute respiratory failure - demographics, etiologic and pulmonary histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Capelozzi, Vera L; Serrano, Carlos V

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is present in 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and is responsible for 20% to 30% of the fatal post-acute myocardial infarction. The role of inflammation associated with pulmonary edema as a cause of acute respiratory failure post-acute myocardial infarction remains to be determined. We aimed to describe the demographics, etiologic data and histological pulmonary findings obtained through autopsies of patients who died during the period from 1990 to 2008 due to acute respiratory failure with no diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction during life. METHODS: This study considers 4,223 autopsies of patients who died of acute respiratory failure that was not preceded by any particular diagnosis while they were alive. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was given in 218 (4.63%) patients. The age, sex and major associated diseases were recorded for each patient. Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as follows: diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction associated with specific histopathology was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 147 men were included in the study. The mean age at the time of death was 64 years. Pulmonary histopathology revealed pulmonary edema as well as the presence of diffuse alveolar damage in 72.9% of patients. Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 11.9% of patients, systemic arterial hypertension in 10.1% and dilated cardiomyopathy in 6.9%. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between acute myocardial infarction with diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that in autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure as the cause of death, 5% were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Pulmonary histology revealed a significant inflammatory response, which has

  2. Chorioamnionitis and possible neonatal infection associated with Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, R P; Appelbaum, P C; Ward, R M; Botti, J J

    1982-01-01

    A patient is described with premature labor at 32 weeks of gestation complicated by chorioamnionitis associated with Lactobacillus species, subsequent premature delivery, and possible neonatal infection. Mother and infant did well with antibiotic therapy. The significance of chorioamnionitis and neonatal pneumonia due to this organism group is discussed. PMID:7130367

  3. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration.

    PubMed

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications. PMID:23257641

  4. Chorioamnionitis: Implications for the Neonate Jessica

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Jessica E; Laughon, Matthew M

    2014-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis (CA) is a perinatal condition characterized by inflammation of the fetal membranes. The incidence of CA increases with decreasing gestational age at birth. When CA is suspect based on clinical criteria, pathologic assessment of the placenta should be performed. While the mechanisms are not entirely clear, CA predisposes infants to premature birth, neonatal sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage. The role of CA in respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and neurodevelopmental impairment is mixed. Prevention and treatment of CA are not well defined. The use of antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes reduces the incidence of CA and increases the length of time to delivery. Antibiotics are recommended for infants exposed to CA while laboratory studies are being performed. PMID:25678002

  5. Gonococcal Chorioamnionitis with Antepartum Fetal Death In Utero

    PubMed Central

    Coutanceau, B.; Boujenah, J.; Poncelet, C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed gonococcal chorioamnionitis resulting in stillbirth at 28 + 4 weeks of pregancy. As this infection is rare and potentially serious, questions remain regarding occurrence and screening for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:26114001

  6. Microvascular inflammation and acute tubular necrosis are major histologic features of hantavirus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gnemmi, Viviane; Verine, Jérôme; Vrigneaud, Laurence; Glowacki, François; Ratsimbazafy, Anderson; Copin, Marie-Christine; Dewilde, Anny; Buob, David

    2015-06-01

    Hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) is an uncommon etiology of acute renal failure due to hantavirus infection. Pathological features suggestive of HVN historically reported are medullary interstitial hemorrhages in a background of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). However, interstitial hemorrhages may be lacking because of medullary sampling error. This emphasizes that other pathological criteria may be of interest. We performed a retrospective clinicopathological study of 17 serologically proven HVN cases with renal biopsy from 2 nephrology centers in northern France. Histologic analysis was completed by immunohistochemistry with anti-CD3, anti-CD68, and anti-CD34 antibodies. Three control groups were not related to hantavirus infection: acute tubular necrosis (ATN) of ischemic or toxic etiology and AIN were used for comparison. Renal biopsy analysis showed that almost all HVN cases with medullary sampling (9/10) displayed interstitial hemorrhages, whereas focal hemorrhages were detected in 2 of the 7 "cortex-only" specimens. ATN was common, as it was present in 15 (88.2%) of 17 HVN cases. By contrast, interstitial inflammation was scarce with no inflammation or only slight inflammation, representing 15 (88.2%) of 17 cases. Moreover, HVN showed inflammation of renal microvessels with cortical peritubular capillaritis and medullary vasa recta inflammation; peritubular capillaritis was significantly higher in HVN after comparison with ischemic and toxic ATN controls (P = .0001 and P = .003, respectively), but not with AIN controls. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted the involvement of T cells and macrophages in renal microvascular inflammation related to HVN. Our study showed that microvascular inflammation, especially cortical peritubular capillaritis, and ATN are important histologic features of HVN. PMID:25791582

  7. Virtual histology assessment of coronary atheroma influences treatment strategy in the young acute coronary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, Julian; Johnston, Tom; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman having significant risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography revealed a non-flow limiting lesion in her right coronary artery with the rest of her arteries unremarkable. Risk stratification of the culprit lesion in the right coronary artery through intravascular ultrasound virtual histology demonstrated that the rupture plaque had less than 5% necrotic core with low vulnerability indices. This important finding suggested that the re-rupture risk was low so aggressive pharmacological treatment that can influence the plaque characteristics was instigated in preference to mechanical plaque sealing with a coronary stent. At a year of follow-up the patient was well and had no further events. PMID:24477714

  8. Virtual histology assessment of coronary atheroma influences treatment strategy in the young acute coronary syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, Julian; Johnston, Tom; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman having significant risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography revealed a non-flow limiting lesion in her right coronary artery with the rest of her arteries unremarkable. Risk stratification of the culprit lesion in the right coronary artery through intravascular ultrasound virtual histology demonstrated that the rupture plaque had less than 5% necrotic core with low vulnerability indices. This important finding suggested that the re-rupture risk was low so aggressive pharmacological treatment that can influence the plaque characteristics was instigated in preference to mechanical plaque sealing with a coronary stent. At a year of follow-up the patient was well and had no further events. PMID:24477714

  9. Treatment Utility of Postpartum Antibiotics in Chorioamnionitis Study.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Anthony L; Mehra, Suwan; Gross, Gil; Colvin, Ryan; Harper, Lorie M; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2016-07-01

    Objective To determine if postpartum antibiotics are necessary for patients with chorioamnionitis after a cesarean delivery (CD). Study Design Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Laboring patients with singleton gestations and chorioamnionitis who underwent CD were eligible. Patients were treated with ampicillin and gentamicin per standard protocol, then given clindamycin prior to skin incision. Patients were randomized to either postpartum antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment following delivery. The primary outcome was the rate of endometritis. Assuming a 30% risk of endometritis in patients with chorioamnionitis who undergo CD, 119 patients per arm would be required to detect a 50% decrease in endometritis. Results The trial was stopped for futility following a planned interim analysis after 80 patients were randomized. There was no difference in the rate of the primary outcome between the two groups (9.8 vs. 7.7%, relative risk [RR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30, 5.31). A meta-analysis comparing post-CD antibiotics versus no treatment did not find a statistically significant difference between the groups (16.7 vs. 12.0%, pooled RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.72, 2.84). Conclusion Additional postpartum antibiotics do not decrease the rate of endometritis in patients with chorioamnionitis who undergo CD. The current preoperative antibiotic regimen including clindamycin should remain the standard of care in these patients. PMID:26890440

  10. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  11. Chorioamnionitis caused by Serratia marcescens in a non-immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, S; Kojima, H; Yoshida, C; Suzukawa, K; Mukai, H Y; Hasegawa, Y; Hitomi, S; Nagasawa, T

    2003-11-01

    A 26 year old pregnant woman with antithrombin III deficiency developed recurrent septicaemia with Serratia marcescens. In spite of the administration of antibiotics, high grade fever persisted. She subsequently manifested lower abdominal pain, and spontaneous abortion occurred. After the abortion, she became completely afebrile. The amnion was turbid, and microscopic examination of the placenta showed haemorrhage and massive infiltration of neutrophils, suggestive of infectious chorioamnionitis. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that isolates from the blood, urine, and vaginal discharge were genetically identical. Intravenous pyelography revealed that she had a bilateral completed double ureter. It was thought that a urinary tract anomaly caused infection with S marcescens, and the pathogen spread to the chorioamnion via the bloodstream. This is the first report of chorioamnionitis caused by S marcescens in a non-immunocompromised host. In addition, these findings indicate that the chorioamnion can serve as a site for persistent infection in normal pregnancies. PMID:14600137

  12. VEGF and BFGF Expression and Histological Characteristics of the Bone-Tendon Junction during Acute Injury Healing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Gao, Weiwei; Xiong, Kaiyu; Hu, Kuan; Liu, Xincun; He, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Bone-tendon junction (BTJ) injuries are common and may be caused by acute trauma and delayed healing during exercise or work. To understand the nature of the healing process of BTJ injuries would help to prevent injuries and improve treatment. Thirty-three mature female rabbit hindlimbs were assigned to normal control (CON, n = 7) and injury groups (n = 26). The acute injury was established by administering one 7 plum-blossom needle puncture. Specimens were harvested post injury at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks (ND1W, n = 6; ND2W, n = 6; ND4W, n = 7; and ND8W, n = 7). The injury existed in all of the injury groups. Compared with the CON group, all of the animals in the injury group showed poor cell profiles, an unclear or undetectable tide mark, a proteoglycan area and profile changes; the BTJ cell density diminished significantly in the ND1W (p < 0.01), ND2W (p < 0.05), ND4W (p < 0.01), and ND8W groups (p < 0.01); the fibrocartilage zone thickness in all injury groups was significantly thicker than in the CON group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found among the injury groups (p>0.05). The basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression in the CON group was significantly less than in the ND1W group (p<0.01), but no significant difference was found when compared with the ND2W, ND4W, and ND8W groups. The bFGF expression in the ND1W group was higher than that of the ND4W (p < 0.05) and ND8W groups (p < 0.01). The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were not significantly different among the groups (p > 0.05). The bFGF and VEGF expression levels indicated that the healing process stopped at 8 weeks post injury or was not activated, although the injury had not healed by histological examination. A repeatable animal model of BTJ acute injury was established in this study, and the results described the BTJ acute injury healing difficult concerned with the repairing stop. Key Points This study described the bone-tendon junction acute injury nature

  13. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens.

  14. Stevens-Johnson syndrome-like exanthema secondary to methotrexate histologically simulating acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hani, N; Casper, C; Groth, W; Krieg, T; Hunzelmann, N

    2000-01-01

    A 61 year old male patient suffering from psoriasis vulgaris developed a severe skin reaction with toxic myelosuppression three days after administration of 20 mg methotrexate (MTX) p.o. per week and concomitant 100 mg acetylic salicylic acid (ASA) per day. The skin lesions simulated Stevens-Johnson syndrome with ulcerations of the oral mucosa and erythema multiforme-like target lesions. The histology of the epidermis resembled an acute graft-versus-host reaction. The increased toxic effect of MTX on keratinocytes in our patient was most likely caused by a lowered plasma binding capacity and reduced renal excretion of MTX due to concomitant administration of ASA. Thus in the treatment of severe forms of psoriasis with MTX, the combined administration of drugs aggravating MTX toxicity, particularly of ASA, should be carefully considered, due to the increased toxicity and risk of severe skin reactions. PMID:11056429

  15. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p < 0.001). Acute prepubertal immobilization stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group. PMID:26930799

  16. An animal model of prophylactic cranial irradiation: Histologic effects at acute, early and delayed stages

    SciTech Connect

    Mildenberger, M.; Beach, T.G.; McGeer, E.G.; Ludgate, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Wistar rats (body wt. 200 g) were subjected to a fractionated course of radiation similar to that used in prophylactic brain irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung (2000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days with {sup 60}Co). Effects of this regimen were assessed by histologic examination of brain sections at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months post-irradiation. With conventional stains there were no apparent differences between control and irradiated brains at any of the post-irradiation intervals. Immunohistochemistry for neurotransmitter synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, failed to uncover any changes in the irradiated animals. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, also showed no differences in the irradiated groups. However, an antibody against a major histocompatibility complex, class II antigen (OX-6) revealed a microglial response in grey and white matter beginning at 1 month and increasing up to the 6 month post-irradiation interval. The neuroanatomical basis for this microglial response was suggested by the results of silver stains for nerve axons, which revealed axonal loss in striatal white matter bundles in a pattern implicating vascular insufficiency.

  17. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki: antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations.

    PubMed

    Nunes, B; Antunes, S C; Gomes, R; Campos, J C; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Correia, A T

    2015-02-01

    A large body of evidence was compiled in the recent decades showing a noteworthy increase in the detection of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems. Due to its ubiquitous presence, chemical nature, and practical purpose, this type of contaminant can exert toxic effects in nontarget organisms. Exposure to pharmaceutical drugs can result in adaptive alterations, such as changes in tissues, or in key homeostatic mechanisms, such as antioxidant mechanisms, biochemical/physiological pathways, and cellular damage. These alterations can be monitored to determine the impact of these compounds on exposed aquatic organisms. Among pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, antibiotics are particularly important because they include a variety of substances widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production, and aquaculture. This wide use constitutes a decisive factor contributing for their frequent detection in the aquatic environment. Tetracyclines are the individual antibiotic subclass with the second highest frequency of detection in environmental matrices. The characterization of the potential ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline is a much-required task; to attain this objective, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of tetracycline in the freshwater fish species Gambusia holbrooki by the determination of histological changes in the gills and liver, changes in antioxidant defense [glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and lipoperoxidative damage] as well as potential neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). The obtained results suggest the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the exposure to tetracycline and histological alterations (more specifically in gills) and enzymatic activity (particularly the enzyme CAT in liver and GST in gills) indicating that this compound can exert a pro-oxidative activity. PMID:25475590

  18. Effect of adopting a new histological grading system of acute rejection after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Balk, A.; Zondervan, P.; van der Meer, P.; van Gelder, T.; Mochtar, B.; Simoons, M.; Weimar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Background—Treatment policy of acute rejection after heart transplantation has been changed after adopting the ISHLT endomyocardial biopsy grading system in 1991.
Objective—To determine the effect of this policy change on clinical outcome after transplantation.
Methods—The outcome of 147 patients who had a transplant before (early group, median follow up 96 months) and 114 patients who had a transplant after (late group, median follow up 41 months) the introduction of the ISHLT biopsy grading system was studied retrospectively. Initially "moderate rejection" according to Billingham's conventional criteria was treated. From January 1991 grade 3A and higher was considered to require intensification of immunosuppression.
Results—There were some differences between the two groups: recipients (50 v 44 years) as well as donors (28 v 24 years) were older in the "late group" and more patients of this group received early anti-T cell prophylaxis (92% v 56%). Despite more extensive use of early prophylaxis more rejection episodes were diagnosed (2.4 v 1.4) and considerably more courses of rejection treatment were instituted in the late compared with the early group (3.2 v 1.5). There were no deaths because of rejection in the late group, however, more infections occurred within the first year (mean 1.8 v 1.4) and more non-skin malignancies within the first 41 months were diagnosed (8 of 57 v 6 of 147, 95% CIs of difference includes 0). The incidence of graft vascular disease in the late group has been comparable to the early group until now. 
Conclusion—The interpretation of the ISHLT grading system resulted in lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis of rejection thereby increasing the number of rejections and subsequently the immunosuppressive load and its complications.

 Keywords: transplantation;  biopsy grading system;  rejection PMID:9470880

  19. Relation between Anemia and Vulnerable Coronary Plaque Components in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Song, Jin A; Kim, Dong Han; Lee, Ki Hong; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the plaque components and the predictors of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in anemic patients with acute coronary syndrome using virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Anemia was defined according to criteria of the World Health Organization, (i.e. , hemoglobin levels < 13 g/dL in men and < 12 g/dL in women) and we compared VH-IVUS findings between anemia group (171 patients, 260 lesions) and non-anemia group (569 patients, 881 lesions). Anemia group had greater % necrotic core (NC) volume (21% ± 9% vs 19% ± 9%, P = 0.001) compared with non-anemia group. Hemoglobin level correlated negatively with absolute NC volume (r = -0.235, P < 0.001) and %NC volume (r = -0.209, P < 0.001). Independent predictors of TCFA by multivariate analysis were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 2.213; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.403-3.612, P = 0.006), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR, 1.143; 95% CI, 1.058-1.304, P = 0.012), microalbuminuria (albumin levels of 30 to 300 mg/g of creatinine) (OR, 2.124; 95% CI, 1.041-3.214, P = 0.018), and anemia (OR: 2.112; 95% CI 1.022-3.208, P = 0.028). VH-IVUS analysis demonstrates that anemia at the time of clinical presentation is associated with vulnerable plaque component in patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:22468099

  20. Taurine protects hamster bronchioles from acute NO2-induced alterations. A histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, R. E.; Shaked, A. A.; Solano, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the authors describe the use of dietary taurine to protect hamster lung epithelium from acute nitrogen dioxide (NO2) injury. The conclusions were based on histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture analyses. Hamsters were pretreated for 14 days with 0.5% taurine in their drinking water. They were then exposed to either 7 or 30 ppm NO2 for 24 hours. The lungs from animals of these experimental groups were compared with those from hamsters treated with only NO2, and those given only taurine and with untreated controls. After treatment, hamsters were anesthetized and perfusion-fixed through the right side of the heart with a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde, 4% paraformaldehyde, and 0.2 M cacodylate. The trachea and lungs were removed en bloc and stored overnight in cacodylate buffer at 4 C. Terminal and respiratory bronchioles, including alveolar ducts and peribronchiolar alveoli, were dissected from each lobe and processed for embedding in Epon and freeze-fracture replication. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the typical inflammatory cell infiltrate in the bronchiolar and alveolar duct regions in the lungs of hamsters exposed to NO2. The bronchiolar epithelium appeared flattened because of loss and breakage of cilia on ciliated cells and apical protrusions of Clara cells. Clara-cell secretory granules were reduced or absent. Freeze-fracture replicas of tight junctions of bronchiolar epithelium analyzed by morphometric techniques demonstrated a reduction and fragmentation of fibrils. Only animals exposed to 30 ppm NO2 exhibited physiologic intercellular penetration of horseradish peroxidase. Hamsters pretreated with taurine and then exposed to NO2 showed none of these alterations. They exhibited the same morphologic features as the untreated controls and the hamsters treated only with taurine. On the basis of this evidence, it is suggested that prophylactic dietary taurine can prevent acute NO2-induced morphologic lung

  1. Effects of diclofenac sodium on the hippocampus of rats with acute subdural hematoma: histological, stereological, and molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, A P; Kaplan, S; Aksoy, A; Altunkaynak, Bz; Yurt, Kk; Elibol, E; Çokluk, C; Onger, Me

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the potential effects of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and diclofenac sodium (DS) therapy following ASDH on the rat hippocampus. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups. 0.1 ml of non-heparinized autologous blood from the tail vein of the animals in the non-treatment group (NTG) and treatment group (TG) was injected into the subdural space. The TG received intramuscular diclofenac sodium at a 15 mg/kg dose daily from the postoperative second hour to the seventh day after the operation. The control group (CG) and sham group (SG) were used for control and sham operations, respectively. On the postoperative eighth day, all animals were sacrificed, and the hippocampi of all animals were stereologically and histologically evaluated. Also blood samples of the animals were biochemically analyzed. As a result of the study, the mean number of neurons in CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions of the hippocampus and the total number of neurons were decreased in the hippocampus samples of the NTG and especially the TG subjects. When comparing the second blood samples, there was no difference between the levels of adrenaline and serotonin among the groups. However, after the operation, noradrenalin levels in the treatment group were found to be higher than those of the sham and control groups (p < 0.05). In the NTG and TG, histopathological findings were observed such as Nissl condensation as well as completely dead and indistinguishable neurons with abnormally shaped, shrunken cytoplasm and nuclei. Also necrotic areas on the specimens of the TG were seen. In immunohistochemical sections, c-FOS positivity was decreased in the NTG and especially the TG. Otherwise, PGC-1 positive cells were increased in the NTG and especially the TG. In this study, it was shown for the first time by means of stereological techniques that using DS after ASDH caused a decrease in the number of hippocampal neurons (CA1, CA2, and CA3

  2. Acute Placental Villitis as Evidence of Fetal Sepsis: An Autopsy Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Nara; Choi, Misun; Hwang, Soohyun; Hwang, Hyewon; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Acute placental villitis is very rare and believed to reflect overwhelming fetal sepsis in utero, commonly caused by Escherichia coli or group B streptococci. We present a case of intrauterine fetal death associated with acute placental villitis and acute necrotizing chorioamnionitis by early-onset group B streptococcal infection. A 36-year-old woman presented with decreased fetal movement and fever at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound demonstrated intrauterine fetal death. After delivery, the placenta revealed multifocal neutrophilic infiltration in chorionic villi, most prominently beneath the trophoblast basement membrane, which was also accompanied by acute necrotizing chorioamnionitis. Gram-positive microorganisms were detected in villous vessels as well as in the major organs of the fetus, which was consistent with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) cultured from maternal blood. Acute placental villitis should be recognized as evidence of fetal sepsis that often has lethal clinical outcome, as compared to intra-amniotic infection associated with acute chorioamnionitis alone. PMID:26457860

  3. Metabolism of /sup 3/H-dopamine by human chorioamnion in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, M.; Niloff, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Previous investigation has demonstrated biologically significant concentrations of catecholamines in amniotic fluid, which increase with gestation. The half life, metabolic clearance rate, and metabolic fate of these hormones in the amniotic compartment are yet to be established. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of human chorioamnion to metabolize dopamine in vitro. Incubation experiments demonstrated that /sup 3/H-dopamine is rapidly metabolized to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol-all products of monoamine oxidase. No significant 3-methoxytyramine, a catechol-o-methyltransferase product, was observed. Incubation experiments with pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, resulted in significant reduction in /sup 3/H-dopamine metabolism. Catecholamines and their interaction with prostaglandin synthesis have been theorized to be a fetal signal for the initiation of parturition. The ability of chorioamnion to metabolize catecholamine could, therefore, provide another control mechanism by which fetal catecholamines are modulated.

  4. Candida glabrata sepsis associated with chorioamnionitis in an IVF twin pregnancy: Should we deliver?

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu Qi; Ng, Oon Tek; Khong, Chit Chong

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-acquired Candida glabrata chorioamnionitis successfully treated through systemic maternal antifungal treatment prior to delivery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind in the literature. C. glabrata chorioamnionitis in pregnancy is rare, but the current literature suggests a very high fetal fatality in such cases. It is known to have an association with cervical stitch, amniocentesis, chorionic villous sampling, and assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF. Given the increasing global use of artificial reproductive techniques, it is important to raise awareness of this condition and highlight its potential complications. Early recognition of possible fetal infection could enable early initiation of systemic antifungal treatment. It would be prudent to consider early delivery once fetal maturity is achieved despite normal fetal monitoring. PMID:25510957

  5. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Emma M; Blue, Nathan R; Lee, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  6. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Emma M.; Blue, Nathan R.; Lee, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  7. Demographic, etiological, and histological pulmonary analysis of patients with acute respiratory failure: a study of 19 years of autopsies

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Parra, Edwin R; Farhat, Cecília; Capelozzi, Vera L

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the demographic data, etiology, and pulmonary histopathological findings of different diseases in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure. METHOD: Autopsies of 4,710 patients with acute respiratory failure from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed, and the following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases. The pulmonary histopathology was categorized as diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of the concordance between the major associated diseases and specific autopsy findings was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 33.9% of the cases and cancer in 28.1%. The pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 40.7% (1,917) of the cases. A multivariate analysis showed a significant and powerful association between diffuse alveolar damage and bronchopneumonia, HIV/AIDS, sepsis, and septic shock, between liver cirrhosis and pulmonary embolism, between pulmonary edema and acute myocardial infarction, between dilated cardiomyopathy and cancer, between alveolar hemorrhage and bronchopneumonia and pulmonary embolism, and between lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia and HIV/AIDS and liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopneumonia was the most common diagnosis in these cases. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which was associated with different inflammatory conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complete pathophysiological mechanisms involved with each disease and the development of acute respiratory failure. PMID:21876973

  8. Biochemical and histological evaluations of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant p-chloro-selenosteroid actions in acute murine models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; Souza, Ana Cristina Guerra; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Chagas, Pietro Maria; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Rodrigues, Oscar Endrigo Dorneles; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the potential p-chloro-selenosteroid (PCS) anti-inflammatory effect in different animal models of acute inflammation. In order to determine a time- and a dose-curve response of action, female adult Swiss mice (25-35g) were divided in different groups and pretreated by the intragastric route (i.g.) with PCS (5-10mg/kg) and after the specific times (5, 30 and 60min) the ear inflammation was induced with croton oil (2.5%, 20μl). The ear edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological analyses were performed. In a second experiment, the pleurisy model was used to determine the PCS protective effect (10mg/kg, i.g., 30min before induction) in the inflammatory and oxidative alterations induced by an intrapleural injection of a 1% carrageenan solution (0.1ml) in exudate and lung samples. Dexamethasone (1mg/kg, i.g.) was used as positive control for both models. Statistical analysis was performed through a One-Way ANOVA test followed by the Newman-Keuls' test. Pretreatment of 30min with PCS, only at a dose of 10mg/kg, decreased ear edema and the MPO activity as well as the histological alterations induced by croton oil. In the pleurisy model, PCS (10mg/kg, i.g.; 30min) reduced the leukocyte counts, histological alterations, MPO and adenosine deaminase activities, oxidative damage and the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense imbalance. PCS had a similar anti-inflammatory profile to dexamethasone; however, it showed a better antioxidant effect. PCS had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions in two well established inflammation models in mice. PMID:27102337

  9. Immuno-histological assessment of sub-clinical acute and borderline rejection in renal allograft recipients: Data from a transplant center in India.

    PubMed

    Badwal, Sonia; Kumar, Arun; Hooda, A K; Varma, P P

    2015-11-01

    This single-center study was carried out on living related and unrelated renal transplant recipients (RTRs) to evaluate the usefulness of surveillance biopsies in monitoring stable renal allografts using immuno-histological markers for immune-activation. This is a prospective, longitudinal study. Protocol biopsies of 60 RTRs with stable graft function were evaluated at three, six and 12 months post-transplant. Immuno-histological evaluation was carried out using immune-activation markers (perforins, granzyme and interleukin-2R), phenotypic markers (CD-3 and CD-20), viral markers and C4d. The demographic and clinical profile was recorded for each patient. All cases of acute sub-clinical rejection (SCR) were treated and borderline SCR cases were followed-up without treatment. SCR at three and six months post-transplant was evident in 16.7% and 3.7% of RTRs, respectively. Positive statistical association of SCR was seen with HLA-DR mismatches, whereas patients receiving induction therapy and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression exhibited a lower incidence of SCR. T cell phenotype with persistent expression of immune-activation markers exhibited positive statistical association with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy at 12-month follow-up biopsy. The mean creatinine levels were significantly lower in the protocol biopsy group than the non-protocol biopsy group. No significant difference was found between the mean creatinine levels of the SCR group after treatment and the non-SCR cases within the protocol biopsy group. Early treatment of sub-clinical acute rejection leads to better functional outcomes. However, persistent immune-activation is associated with chronicity and may have implications on long-term graft survival. PMID:26586064

  10. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use. PMID:26611721

  11. Effect of acetaminophen on fetal acid-base balance in chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Kirshon, B; Moise, K J; Wasserstrum, N

    1989-12-01

    The effect of antipyretic treatment with acetaminophen on fetal status was examined in eight laboring women febrile with chorioamnionitis. After a fetal heart rate tracing and scalp blood gas level were obtained near maximum maternal fever, a 650-mg acetaminophen suppository was administered. If the temperature remained greater than 101 degrees F, the dose was repeated in one to two hours. The fetal heart rate tracing was analyzed again after the mother's fever was reduced by acetaminophen. All patients delivered within four hours of the first dose. Umbilical artery blood gases were obtained at delivery. Significant improvements in the bicarbonate concentration and base deficit were noted at the time of delivery as compared to the scalp gas at the height of the maternal fever. The fetal heart rate tracings at the height of the maternal fever, characterized by tachycardia, poor variability and late decelerations, changed to a normal heart rate pattern without decelerations when the mother's fever was reduced. Hence, in the laboring gravida with chorioamnionitis, reducing maternal fever with acetaminophen improves fetal status and thereby may reduce the probability of cesarean section for fetal distress. PMID:2621737

  12. Effect of chorioamnionitis on regulatory T cells in moderate/late preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Cesar M; Wells, Casey B; Gisslen, Tate; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Chougnet, Claire A

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Treg) have a protective role for the control of immune activation and tissue damage. The effects of chorioamnionitis (chorio) on Treg in moderate/late preterm newborns are not known. We hypothesized that infants exposed to chorio would have decreased Treg frequency and/or function. We isolated mononuclear cells from adult peripheral blood and cord blood from term and moderate/late preterm infants who were classified for severity of chorio exposure. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for Treg frequency and phenotype. Treg suppression of activation of conventional T-cells (Tcon) was also quantified. Treg frequencies were similar in all groups of neonates, but lower than that found in adults. Newborn Treg had a naïve phenotype, with decreased levels of CD45RO, HLA-DR, CD39 and TIGIT compared to adult Treg and chorio did not affect the phenotype. Treg from preterm newborns exposed to severe chorio had higher expression of Ki67 compared to the other groups. Treg from preterm newborns were less suppressive than Treg from adults or term, and the level of suppression was reduced with severe chorio. Relative to term, Treg frequency and phenotype were not affected by prematurity and chorio but their functionality was decreased. Lower Treg activity may contribute to inflammation in newborns that is often associated with chorioamnionitis. PMID:25451985

  13. Aerococcus christensenii as Part of Severe Polymicrobial Chorioamnionitis in a Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Carlstein, Catrine; Marie Søes, Lillian; Jørgen Christensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is a potentially life threatening infection of the fetal membranes, commonly caused by ascending bacteria from the vagina and cervix. In our case, a healthy nullipara with a term pregnancy presented clinical signs of infection after induced labour with an intracervical balloon. Thick green and foul smelling amniotic fluid was observed and culture showed massive growth of Aerococcus christensenii, a facultative anaerob species found in the human vagina, previously only rarely alleged to cause invasive infection. Additional testing with 16S rRNA gene analysis also identified the presence of Gemella asaccharolytica, Snethia sanguinegens, Parvimonas micra and Streptobacillus moniliformis. The patient was treated with cefuroxime and metronidazole and recovered quickly. The newborn showed no signs of infection. This case points at the possible role of these pathogens in female genital tract infections. The case also underlines the importance of the combination of culture and culture independent diagnostic approaches to reveal possible polymicrobial natures of selected infections, in this case chorioamnionitis. PMID:27014376

  14. Acute effects of surgery on emotion and personality of brain tumor patients: surgery impact, histological aspects, and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Ius, Tamara; Shallice, Tim; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive effects of brain surgery for the removal of intracranial tumors are still under investigation. For many basic sensory/motor or language-based functions, focal, albeit transient, cognitive deficits have been reported low-grade gliomas (LGGs); however, the effects of surgery on higher-level cognitive functions are still largely unknown. It has recently been shown that, following brain tumors, damage to different brain regions causes a variety of deficits at different levels in the perception and interpretation of emotions and intentions. However, the effects of different tumor histologies and, more importantly, the effects of surgery on these functions have not been examined. Methods The performance of 66 patients affected by high-grade glioma (HGG), LGG, and meningioma on 4 tasks tapping different levels of perception and interpretations of emotion and intentions was assessed before, immediately after, and (for LGG patients) 4 months following surgery. Results Results showed that HGG patients were generally already impaired in the more perceptual tasks before surgery and did not show surgery effects. Conversely, LGG patients, who were unimpaired before surgery, showed a significant deficit in perceptual tasks immediately after surgery that was recovered within few months. Meningioma patients were substantially unimpaired in all tasks. Conclusions These results show that surgery can be relatively safe for LGG patients with regard to the higher-level, more complex cognitive functions and can provide further useful information to the neurosurgeon and improve communication with both the patient and the relatives about possible changes that can occur immediately after surgery. PMID:25921022

  15. Selective IL-1α exposure to the fetal gut, lung, and chorioamnion/skin causes intestinal inflammatory and developmental changes in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Nikiforou, Maria; Kemp, Matthew W; van Gorp, Rick H; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Reynaert, Niki L; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis, caused by intra-amniotic exposure to bacteria and their toxic components, is associated with fetal gut inflammation and mucosal injury. In a translational ovine model, we have shown that these adverse intestinal outcomes to chorioamnionitis were the combined result of local gut and pulmonary-driven systemic immune responses. Chorioamnionitis-induced gut inflammation and injury was largely prevented by inhibiting interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling. Therefore, we investigated whether local (gut-derived) IL-1α signaling or systemic IL-1α-driven immune responses (lung or chorioamnion/skin-derived) were sufficient for intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in the course of chorioamnionitis. Fetal surgery was performed in sheep to isolate the lung, gastrointestinal tract, and chorioamnion/skin, and IL-1α or saline was given into the trachea, stomach, or amniotic cavity 1 or 6 days before preterm delivery. Selective IL-1α exposure to the lung, gut, or chorioamnion/skin increased the CD3+ cell numbers in the fetal gut. Direct IL-1α exposure to the gut impaired intestinal zonula occludens protein-1 expression, induced villus atrophy, changed the expression pattern of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein along the villus, and increased the CD68, IL-1, and TNF-α mRNA levels in the fetal ileum. With lung or chorioamnion/skin exposure to IL-1α, intestinal inflammation was associated with increased numbers of blood leukocytes without induction of intestinal injury or immaturity. We concluded that local IL-1α signaling was required for intestinal inflammation, disturbed gut maturation, and mucosal injury in the context of chorioamnionitis. PMID:26501868

  16. LPS-induced chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulate Shh signaling in the ovine fetal lung.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer J P; Kuypers, Elke; Nitsos, Ilias; Jane Pillow, J; Polglase, Graeme R; Kemp, Matthew W; Newnham, John P; Cleutjens, Jack P; Frints, Suzanna G M; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Kramer, Boris W

    2012-11-01

    Chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids mature the fetal lung functionally but disrupt late-gestation lung development. Because Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a major pathway directing lung development, we hypothesized that chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulated Shh signaling, resulting in an altered fetal lung structure. Time-mated ewes with singleton ovine fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or maternal intramuscular betamethasone 7 and/or 14 days before delivery at 120 days gestational age (GA) (term = 150 days GA). Intra-amniotic LPS exposure decreased Shh mRNA levels and Gli1 protein expression, which was counteracted by both betamethasone pre- or posttreatment. mRNA and protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 10 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which are important mediators of lung development, increased 2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, 14 days after LPS exposure. Both 7-day and 14-day exposure to LPS changed the mRNA levels of elastin (ELN) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) and 2 (Col1A2), which resulted in fewer elastin foci and increased collagen type I deposition in the alveolar septa. Corticosteroid posttreatment prevented the decrease in ELN mRNA and increased elastin foci and decreased collagen type I deposition in the fetal lung. In conclusion, fetal lung exposure to LPS was accompanied by changes in key modulators of lung development resulting in abnormal lung structure. Betamethasone treatment partially prevented the changes in developmental processes and lung structure. This study provides new insights into clinically relevant prenatal exposures and fetal lung development. PMID:22962010

  17. LPS-induced chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulate Shh signaling in the ovine fetal lung

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jennifer J. P.; Kuypers, Elke; Nitsos, Ilias; Jane Pillow, J.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Frints, Suzanna G. M.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids mature the fetal lung functionally but disrupt late-gestation lung development. Because Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a major pathway directing lung development, we hypothesized that chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulated Shh signaling, resulting in an altered fetal lung structure. Time-mated ewes with singleton ovine fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or maternal intramuscular betamethasone 7 and/or 14 days before delivery at 120 days gestational age (GA) (term = 150 days GA). Intra-amniotic LPS exposure decreased Shh mRNA levels and Gli1 protein expression, which was counteracted by both betamethasone pre- or posttreatment. mRNA and protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 10 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which are important mediators of lung development, increased 2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, 14 days after LPS exposure. Both 7-day and 14-day exposure to LPS changed the mRNA levels of elastin (ELN) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) and 2 (Col1A2), which resulted in fewer elastin foci and increased collagen type I deposition in the alveolar septa. Corticosteroid posttreatment prevented the decrease in ELN mRNA and increased elastin foci and decreased collagen type I deposition in the fetal lung. In conclusion, fetal lung exposure to LPS was accompanied by changes in key modulators of lung development resulting in abnormal lung structure. Betamethasone treatment partially prevented the changes in developmental processes and lung structure. This study provides new insights into clinically relevant prenatal exposures and fetal lung development. PMID:22962010

  18. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P < or = 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between sg and cg in meconium staining, retroplacental hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with

  19. Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

  20. Systemic interleukin-2 administration improves lung function and modulates chorioamnionitis-induced pulmonary inflammation in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Willems, Monique G M; Ophelders, Daan R M G; Nikiforou, Maria; Jellema, Reint K; Butz, Anke; Delhaas, Tammo; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis, an inflammatory reaction of the fetal membranes to microbes, is an important cause of preterm birth and associated with inflammation-driven lung injury. However, inflammation in utero overcomes immaturity of the premature lung by inducing surfactant lipids and lung gas volume. Previously, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis resulted in pulmonary inflammation with increased effector T cells and decreased regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers. Because Tregs are crucial for immune regulation, we assessed the effects of interleukin (IL)-2-driven selective Treg expansion on the fetal lung in an ovine chorioamnionitis model. Instrumented fetuses received systemic prophylactic IL-2 treatment [118 days gestational age (dGA)] with or without subsequent exposure to intra-amniotic LPS (122 dGA). Following delivery at 129 dGA (term 147 dGA), pulmonary and systemic inflammation, morphological changes, lung gas volume, and phospholipid concentration were assessed. IL-2 pretreatment increased the FoxP3(+)/CD3(+) ratio, which was associated with reduced CD3-positive cells in the fetal lungs of LPS-exposed animals. Prophylactic IL-2 treatment did not prevent pulmonary accumulation of myeloperoxidase- and PU.1-positive cells or elevation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-8 and systemic IL-6 concentrations in LPS-exposed animals. Unexpectedly, IL-2 treatment improved fetal lung function of control lambs as indicated by increased disaturated phospholipids and improved lung gas volume. In conclusion, systemic IL-2 treatment in utero preferentially expanded Tregs and improved lung gas volume and disaturated phospholipids. These beneficial effects on lung function were maintained despite the moderate immunomodulatory effects of prophylactic IL-2 in the course of chorioamnionitis. PMID:26519206

  1. Relation Between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Plaque Components in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome: Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Cho, Suk Hee; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Ko, Jum Suk; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives We used virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and plaque components in 279 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Subjects and Methods We divided patients into three groups according to their hs-CRP levels {lowest tertile <0.07 mg/dL (n=93), middle tertile ≥0.07, <0.4 mg/dL (n=93), and highest tertile ≥0.4 mg/dL (n=93)}. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was defined as focal, necrotic core (NC)-rich (≥10% of the cross-sectional area) plaques in contact with the lumen in a plaque burden ≥40%. Results The highest tertile group was mostly diabetics (20%, 27%, 40%, p=0.009), and had the greatest plaque plus media volume (163±139/mm3 vs. 201±155/mm3 vs. 232±176/mm3, p=0.013). The highest tertile group had the greatest absolute and % NC volumes (13.6±15.1 mm3 vs. 14.8±14.2 mm3 vs. 23.7±24.3 mm3, p<0.001, and 14.9±8.7% vs. 16.0±8.7% vs. 19.5±10.2%, p=0.024, respectively). The culprit lesion TCFA was observed most frequently in the highest tertile group (28% vs. 35% vs. 55%, p=0.006). By multivariable analysis, absolute NC volume was an independent predictor of hs-CRP elevation {odds ratio (OR); 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06-1.21, p=0.004}, and hs-CRP was an independent predictor of TCFA (OR; 1.86, 95% CI=1.11-2.90, p=0.010). Conclusion VH-IVUS analysis has demonstrated that ACS patients with elevated hs-CRP have more vulnerable plaque component (NC-rich plaques and higher frequency of culprit lesion TCFA), compared with ACS patients with normal hs-CRP. PMID:21949527

  2. Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Kramer, Boris W.; Thuijls, Geertje; Kemp, Matthew W.; Saito, Masatoshi; Willems, Monique G. M.; Senthamarai-Kannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-amniotic exposure to proinflammatory agonists causes chorioamnionitis and fetal gut inflammation. Fetal gut inflammation is associated with mucosal injury and impaired gut development. We tested whether this detrimental inflammatory response of the fetal gut results from a direct local (gut derived) or an indirect inflammatory response mediated by the chorioamnion/skin or lung, since these organs are also in direct contact with the amniotic fluid. The gastrointestinal tract was isolated from the respiratory tract and the amnion/skin epithelia by fetal surgery in time-mated ewes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (controls) was selectively infused in the gastrointestinal tract, trachea, or amniotic compartment at 2 or 6 days before preterm delivery at 124 days gestation (term 150 days). Gastrointestinal and intratracheal LPS exposure caused distinct inflammatory responses in the fetal gut. Inflammatory responses could be distinguished by the influx of leukocytes (MPO+, CD3+, and FoxP3+ cells), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ expression and differential upregulation of mRNA levels for Toll-like receptor 1, 2, 4, and 6. Fetal gut inflammation after direct intestinal LPS exposure resulted in severe loss of the tight junctional protein zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and increased mitosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Inflammation of the fetal gut after selective LPS instillation in the lungs caused only mild disruption of ZO-1, loss in epithelial cell integrity, and impaired epithelial differentiation. LPS exposure of the amnion/skin epithelia did not result in gut inflammation or morphological, structural, and functional changes. Our results indicate that the detrimental consequences of chorioamnionitis on fetal gut development are the combined result of local gut and lung-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:24458021

  3. Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Thuijls, Geertje; Kemp, Matthew W; Saito, Masatoshi; Willems, Monique G M; Senthamarai-Kannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2014-03-01

    Intra-amniotic exposure to proinflammatory agonists causes chorioamnionitis and fetal gut inflammation. Fetal gut inflammation is associated with mucosal injury and impaired gut development. We tested whether this detrimental inflammatory response of the fetal gut results from a direct local (gut derived) or an indirect inflammatory response mediated by the chorioamnion/skin or lung, since these organs are also in direct contact with the amniotic fluid. The gastrointestinal tract was isolated from the respiratory tract and the amnion/skin epithelia by fetal surgery in time-mated ewes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (controls) was selectively infused in the gastrointestinal tract, trachea, or amniotic compartment at 2 or 6 days before preterm delivery at 124 days gestation (term 150 days). Gastrointestinal and intratracheal LPS exposure caused distinct inflammatory responses in the fetal gut. Inflammatory responses could be distinguished by the influx of leukocytes (MPO(+), CD3(+), and FoxP3(+) cells), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ expression and differential upregulation of mRNA levels for Toll-like receptor 1, 2, 4, and 6. Fetal gut inflammation after direct intestinal LPS exposure resulted in severe loss of the tight junctional protein zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and increased mitosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Inflammation of the fetal gut after selective LPS instillation in the lungs caused only mild disruption of ZO-1, loss in epithelial cell integrity, and impaired epithelial differentiation. LPS exposure of the amnion/skin epithelia did not result in gut inflammation or morphological, structural, and functional changes. Our results indicate that the detrimental consequences of chorioamnionitis on fetal gut development are the combined result of local gut and lung-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:24458021

  4. Myocardial distribution of indium-111-antimyosin Fab in acute inferior and right ventricular infarction: comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, T.; Sakakibara, T.; Noto, T.; Shoji, T.; Tsuda, T.; Kubota, M.; Hattori, A.; Iimura, O. )

    1991-05-01

    In a postmortem study of a 69-yr-old female patient who had suffered 2 yr previously a non-Q-wave anterior infarction and who had sustained just seven days earlier a left inferior and right ventricular infarction, the distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab was compared to the results of {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and histologic examination. Indium-111-antimyosin Fab imaging could not be performed because of cardiogenic shock. However, postmortem gamma scintillation counting revealed increased activities of antimyosin Fab in the inferoapical and right ventricular infarcted regions in which {sup 99}mTc-pyrophosphate positive imagings were observed; in contrast, a histologically confirmed old subendocardial anterior infarction had no definite activity. Thus, the myocardial distribution of {sup 111}In-antimyosin Fab corresponded well to the results of {sup 99}mTc scintigrams and histologic examinations in a human heart, suggesting that this technique could be useful in vivo for detecting several-day-old myocardial infarction of the right ventricle as well as the left ventricle. Tissue from the 2-yr-old infarction was not identified by this technique.

  5. Histological evolution of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Takako; Yoshida, Yuji; Kitasato, Yasuhiko; Yoshimi, Michihiro; Koga, Takaomi; Tsuruta, Nobuko; Minami, Masato; Harada, Taishi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masaki; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the histological evolution in the development of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Methods and results We examined four patients who had undergone surgical lung biopsy twice, or who had undergone surgical lung biopsy and had been autopsied, and in whom the histological diagnosis of the first biopsy was not PPFE, but the diagnosis of the second biopsy or of the autopsy was PPFE. The histological patterns of the first biopsy were cellular and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia, cellular interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with organizing pneumonia, CIP with granulomas and acute lung injury in cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Septal elastosis was already present in the non-specific interstitial pneumonia-like histology of case 1, but a few additional years were necessary to reach consolidated subpleural fibroelastosis. In case 3, subpleural fibroelastosis was already present in the first biopsy, but only to a small extent. Twelve years later, it was replaced by a long band of fibroelastosis. The septal inflammation and fibrosis and airspace organization observed in the first biopsies were replaced by less cellular subpleural fibroelastosis within 3–12 years. Conclusions Interstitial inflammation or acute lung injury may be an initial step in the development of PPFE. PMID:25234959

  6. Unreamed or RIA reamed nailing: an experimental sheep study using comparative histological assessment of affected bone tissue in an acute fracture model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Sprecher, Christoph; Rahn, Berton A; Green, James; Müller, Christof A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA), a reaming system designed to incorporate the advantages of irrigation and suction for every day clinical use. The evaluation process was focused on the displacement of the medullary content and its impact on cortical perfusion. The results of the RIA reamed nailing were compared to conventional non-reamed nailing (NRN). The tibia of the sheep was used as an acute fracture model. The fracture and nailing procedure was followed by intravital staining with Procion red. The effects on cortical perfusion (Procion red staining) were addressed in polymer embedded sections and cryosections. Sudan III stained cryosections were evaluated with respect to the cortical fat distribution. After irrigation and suction minute amounts of fat were observed in the cortex, whereas after non-reamed nailing the endosteal third of the cortical bone was penetrated with fat. Non-reamed nailing acutely showed better perfusion in the endosteal tenth and periosteal third of the cortical bone, after irrigation and suction reaming perfusion was preserved to a lesser degree. Irrigation and suction significantly reduces fat intravasation, and thus the danger of system-wide damage. Therefore, the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator is as efficient as its experimental predecessors. PMID:21144924

  7. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  8. Inhibition of bacterial growth and intramniotic infection in a guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis using PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Navath, Raghavendra S; Menjoge, Anupa R; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Bellair, Robert; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2010-08-16

    Dendrimers have emerged as topical microbicides to treat vaginal infections. This study explores the in vitro, in vivo antimicrobial activity of PAMAM dendrimers, and the associated mechanism. Interestingly, topical cervical application of 500 microg of generation-4 neutral dendrimer (G(4)-PAMAM-OH) showed potential to treat the Escherichia coli induced ascending uterine infection in guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis. Amniotic fluid collected from different gestational sacs of infected guinea pigs posttreatment showed absence of E. coli growth in the cultures plated with it. The cytokine level [tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1beta)] in placenta of the G(4)-PAMAM-OH treated animals were comparable to those in healthy animals while these were notably high in infected animals. Since, antibacterial activity of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers is known, the activity of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers was compared with it. Though the G(4)-PAMAM-NH(2) shows superior antibacterial activity, it was found to be cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cell line above 10 microg/mL, while the G(4)-PAMAM-OH was non-cytotoxic up to 1mg/mL concentration. Cell integrity, outer (OM) and inner (IM) membrane permeabilization assays showed that G(4)-PAMAM-OH dendrimer efficiently changed the OM permeability, while G(4)-PAMAM-NH(2) and G(3.5)-PAMAM-COOH damaged both OM and IM causing the bacterial lysis. The possible antibacterial mechanism are G(4)-PAMAM-NH(2) acts as polycation binding to the polyanionic lipopolysaccharide in E. coli, the G(4)-PAMAM-OH forms hydrogen bonds with the hydrophilic O-antigens in E. coli membrane and the G(3.5)-PAMAM-COOH acts as a polyanion, chelating the divalent ions in outer cell membrane of E. coli. This is the first study which shows that G(4)-PAMAM-OH dendrimer acts as an antibacterial agent. PMID:20580797

  9. Appendicitis in Dar es Salaam, histological pattern.

    PubMed

    Mbembati, N A; Lema, L E; Mwakyoma, H A; Ussiri, E V

    1996-03-01

    Histology of 378 appendicectomy specimens submitted to the Histopathology Department of Muhimbili Medical Centre from its surgical wards over a 10 year period (1985 to 1994) were reviewed. There were 185 cases (48.9 pc) of acute appendicitis, 101 cases (26.7 pc) of chronic appendicitis, 74 (19.6 pc) normal appendices and 13 cases (3.5 pc) schistosomal appendicitis. There were two cases of tuberculous appendicitis and two cases of mucocele of the appendix. Apart from the high frequency of chronic appendicitis the histological findings in this study compare well with findings reported from other studies. PMID:8653771

  10. Histologic diagnosis of sodomy.

    PubMed

    Paparo, G P; Siegel, H

    1979-10-01

    A case of homicidal strangulation with sodomy is presented. Without the use of a simple routine histologic technique, the diagnosis of sodomy could not have been unequivocally substantiated. PMID:541642

  11. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  12. [Histological techniques in oncodermatology].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Le Guellec, S; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Gangloff, D; Meresse, T; Chavoin, J-P; Grolleau, J-L; Garrido, I

    2012-04-01

    The skin oncology or "oncodermatology" requires a surgical treatment in most cases. For some surgeons, the oncodermatology takes a very important part of their practice. In the course of diagnostic and therapeutic of skin lesions, the pathologist plays now an essential role. He will guide our surgery. The techniques used by this specialist are numerous. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the different histological methods used to improve our management of skin tumors. PMID:22463986

  13. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    PubMed Central

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. PMID:25360444

  14. Histological findings in human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A. C.; Bothwell, P. W.

    1967-01-01

    The histological findings in 14 cases of brucellosis are described. Unusual findings include the occurrence of brucellosis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease and in another with lymphosarcoma. A patient with hepatic cirrhosis apparently due to brucellosis is included in the series. Images PMID:5632572

  15. Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

  16. Histologic Technician. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for histologic technician is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task…

  17. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  18. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Anwar, Khurshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth) or proximal (22 teeth) dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT), radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases. PMID:24932190

  19. The association of histologic placental inflammation with category II fetal heart tracings.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Barrett K; Su, Emily; Grobman, William; Huang, Michael; Ernst, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed whether placentas in women delivered by cesarean for category II fetal heart tracings (FHT) exhibit a higher incidence of acute inflammation than those of women delivered by cesarean for labor arrest. This case control study included singleton pregnancies ≥36 weeks of gestation delivered by cesarean for an FHT indication (cases) or because of labor arrest (controls) 2005-2009 at Prentice Women's Hospital. Exclusions were maternal diabetes, hypertension, known thrombophilia, connective tissue disorders, clinical evidence of chorioamnionitis, placental abruption, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, or an infant with a birth weight less than the 10th percentile. Women were included in the case group if the indication for cesarean delivery was based on the FHT and review of the FHT determined that they were designated as category II prior to delivery. A perinatal pathologist, unaware of indications for delivery, assessed placental inflammation in maternal and fetal compartments. Stage and grade of acute inflammation, from none to severe (scored 0-3), in the membranes, chorionic plate, chorionic vessels, and umbilical cord were assessed, and overall maternal and fetal inflammatory stages were assigned. Findings indicative of chronic inflammation were also noted. Other than lower umbilical artery cord gases in women with category II FHT, cases (n  =  51) and controls (n  =  27) had similar baseline characteristics and newborn outcomes, as well as similar placental pathologic findings. In uncomplicated patients, the presence or extent of placental inflammation does not appear to differ between women delivered for category II FHT and labor arrest. PMID:22671990

  20. Streptococcal necrotising fasciitis: comparison between histological and clinical features.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, F G; Leppard, B J; Seal, D V

    1987-01-01

    Nineteen acute and 17 subacute cases of necrotising fasciitis due to beta haemolytic streptococci are described. Excised tissue from seven and four cases, respectively, was available for histological examination. The two clinical types showed remarkable similarities, with inflammation and necrosis from epidermis to subcutaneous fat. Haemorrhage was present in variable amounts in both types. Gram positive cocci were not always identified in tissue, nor cultured, when serological tests were required to confirm the diagnosis. The only apparent difference between the acute and subacute type was the higher incidence of thrombi in some blood vessels of acute cases, whereas patent vessels or recanalized thrombus were usually found in subacute cases. This quantitative difference in the degree of thrombosis may alone be responsible for the varying clinical features and response to antibiotics. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4a Fig 4b Fig 1 PMID:3558868

  1. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown. PMID:25863518

  2. Histological aspects of cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, M; Shimizu, T; Sasai, Y

    1976-02-01

    There is a close relationship between the rate of the uterine cervix opening during parturition and the presence or absence of a completely ripened cervix. In order to learn the basic pattern of the ripening of cervix, histological and histochemical studies were performed on the human uterine cervix during pregnancy. It was noted that the collagen bundles disintegrated into fine fibers and also underwent quantitative changes during the ripening process of the cervix. During pregnancy, the number of connective tissue cells was increased, but that of mast cells was decreased. Acid mucopolysaccharides in the cervical ground substance were found to increase in late pregnancy. PMID:136067

  3. Identifying neutrophils in H&E staining histology tissue images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiazhuo; MacKenzie, John D; Ramachandran, Rageshree; Chen, Danny Z

    2014-01-01

    Identifying neutrophils lays a crucial foundation for diagnosing acute inflammation diseases. But, such computerized methods on the commonly used H&E staining histology tissue images are lacking, due to various inherent difficulties of identifying cells in such image modality and the challenge that a considerable portion of neutrophils do not have a "textbook" appearance. In this paper, we propose a new method for identifying neutrophils in H&E staining histology tissue images. We first segment the cells by applying iterative edge labeling, and then identify neutrophils based on the segmentation results by considering the "context" of each candidate cell constructed by a new Voronoi diagram of clusters of other neutrophils. We obtain good performance compared with two baseline algorithms we constructed, on clinical images collected from patients suspected of having inflammatory bowl diseases. PMID:25333103

  4. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  5. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Daubermann, Melissa Falster; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; dos Santos, Matheus Mülling; Ramos, Angelica; Torres Salazar, Gerson; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe)2), an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg) or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days) exposed to (PhTe)2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe)2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe)2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe)2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe)2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe)2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung. PMID:26236579

  6. Comparative histology of pineal calcification.

    PubMed

    Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

    1998-07-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable

  7. Clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics of paediatric epithelioid glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Sabin, Noah D.; Klimo, Paul; Dalton, James; Lee, Ryan; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB. Methods Review of clinical characteristics and therapy, imaging studies, and histology was performed in patients younger than 22 years with e-GB seen at our institution over 15 years. Sequencing of hotspot mutations and FISH of relevant genes were undertaken. Results Median age at diagnosis of six patients was 7.6 years. Tumours originated in the cerebral cortex (n=2) or diencephalon (n=4). Three patients presented with acute, massive haemorrhage and three had leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Paediatric e-GB had the typical histological characteristics seen in adult tumours. Universal immunoreactivity for INI1 and lack of diverse protein expression were seen in all cases. One tumour had a chromosome 22q loss. Three tumours (50%) harboured a BRAF: p.V600E. One thalamic tumour had an H3F3A p.K27M. All patients received radiation therapy with (n=3) or without chemotherapy (n=3). All patients experienced tumour progression with a median survival of 169 days. One patient with non-metastatic disease had early leptomeningeal progression. Two patients had symptomatic tumour spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) through a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. One additional patient had widespread metastases outside the CNS identified at autopsy. Conclusions Paediatric e-GBs are rare cancers with an aggressive behaviour that share histological and genetic characteristics with their adult counterparts. BRAF inhibition is a potential treatment for these tumours. PMID:24127995

  8. Comparative Histology of Plasma Treated Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Kyle

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric plasmas applied in surgical settings have unique characteristics found in histological results from animal tissue studies. This is evident in both ex vivo bench tissue tests and in vivo fresh tissue. Examples of these histological features are presented as results of a comparative study between plasma treated, common medical argon coagulation, and electrosurgery.

  9. Reproducibility of histologic classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D.; Bianchi, S.; Cipriani, F.; Duca, P.; Amorosi, A.; Avellini, C.; Russo, A.; Saragoni, A.; Todde, P.; Valdes, E.

    1991-01-01

    A panel review of histologic specimens was carried out as part of a multi-centre case-control study of gastric cancer (GC) and diet. Comparisons of diagnoses of 100 GCs by six pathologists revealed agreement in histologic classification for about 70-80% of the cancers. Concordance was somewhat higher when using the Lauren rather than the Ming or World Health Organization classification systems. Histologic types from reading biopsy tissue agreed with those derived from surgical specimens for 65-75% of the 100 tumours. Intra-observer agreement in histologic classification, assessed by repeat readings up to 3 years apart by one pathologist, was 95%. The findings indicate that, although overall concordance was good, it is important to standardise diagnoses in multi-centre epidemiologic studies of GC by histologic type. PMID:2039701

  10. Relationship between cardioscopic images and histological changes in the left ventricle of patients with idiopathic myocarditis†

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yasumi; Uchida, Yasuto; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kanai, Masahito; Shirai, Seiichiro; Nakagawa, Osamu; Hiruta, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Aims Endomyocardial biopsy is essential for definite diagnosis of idiopathic myocarditis. However, since endomyocardial biopsy is guided by fluoroscopy, whether or not the diseased myocardium is biopsied depends on chance, and this may lead to misdiagnosis. If the endocardial surface represents changes indicative of stages of myocarditis, staging of myocarditis and targeted cardioscope-guided biopsy could be used for accurate histological diagnosis. Methods and results The relationship between left ventricular endocardial surface colour observed by cardioscopy and biopsy findings were examined in 78 patients with suspected idiopathic myocarditis. Of these, 59 patients were diagnosed histologically as idiopathic myocarditis. Endocardial colour was classified into red, milky white, purple, yellowish brown, or white. Biopsied specimens with red and milky white wall segments exhibited histological changes compatible with acute myocarditis; purple segments, active chronic myocarditis; and yellowish brown and white segments, inactive chronic myocarditis. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of red and milky white colours for detecting acute myocarditis were 100, 100, and 100%, respectively; of purple for detecting active chronic myocarditis were 83, 92, and 78%, respectively; and yellowish brown and white for detecting inactive chronic myocarditis were 82, 74, and 53, respectively. Conclusion Red and milky white endocardial surface colours predicted histological acute myocarditis, and purple predicted active chronic myocarditis. However, yellowish brown and white colours did not predict inactive chronic myocarditis. PMID:21257727

  11. [Metal implant sensitivity: clinical and histological presentation].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, D; Letulé, V; Schneider, J J; Flaig, M J

    2016-05-01

    Metal implant sensitivity (intolerance) can cause pain, reduced mobility, loosening of the implant and skin rashes. Knowledge of differential diagnoses, histology and appropriate diagnostics are essential for proper diagnosis. To outline typical clinical signs and histology in metal-implant-associated skin lesions we present three exemplary patients from our implant allergy outpatient department and give an overview of the current literature regarding metal implant sensitivity. In patients with a negative patch test the lymphocyte transformation test may reveal metal sensitization. Even "pure" titanium alloys may contain traces of nickel. The histology of implant-associated skin reactions goes from teleangiectatic postimplantation erythema to eczema and vasculitis. Based on the synopsis of history, clinical picture, allergological testing and histology, metal implant sensitivity can be diagnosed more precisely. PMID:27090521

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  13. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  14. Graphs and Grammars for Histology: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Prewitt, Judith M. S.

    1979-01-01

    The invention of the microscope disclosed a whole new world, that of the hitherto invisibly small. Histologic evidence as revealed by the microscope has become a cornerstone of medical diagnosis, and efforts are now being made to lay foundations so that the medical visual information processing burden can be alleviated significantly by cost-effective automation. This paper lays image processing foundations by presenting a graph-theoretic and syntactic model for the analysis of histologic patterns, and presents results to date.

  15. Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia presenting as xanthomatous skin eruption

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, JR; Tansey, P; Chung, P; Burnett, AK; Thomson, J; McDonald, GA

    1982-01-01

    A case of acute myelomonocytic leukaemia (AMMOL) is reported in which skin infiltration with xanthomatous nodules was the presenting feature. The histological, including ultrastructural, appearances are described. Images PMID:6958680

  16. Distinct patterns of peritumoral histological findings in subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saito, Michihiro; Imada, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Maetani, Iruru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are primary pancreatic neoplasms that can act as precursors to invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The peritumoral stroma has been increasingly recognized to play an important role in many types of tumors. Therefore, to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the peritumoral stroma in IPMNs, we examined the histological features of the peritumoral stroma in each subtype and histological grade of IPMNs. Eighty-two patients with IPMN, who underwent surgical resection, were reviewed clinicopathologically. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (86 lesions in total) were histologically subclassified into gastric (n = 51), intestinal (n = 22), pancreatobiliary (n = 11), and oncocytic (n = 2) subtypes. Peritumoral histological features between the gastric and intestinal subtypes were evaluated by each histological grade. The results showed that subepithelial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration were more commonly observed in the gastric subtype (74% and 79%, respectively) than in the intestinal subtype (12% and 25%, respectively) of low-grade IPMNs. On the other hand, mucus lakes were more commonly observed in the intestinal subtype (100%) than in the gastric subtype (0%) of high-grade IPMNs. In addition, pancreatobiliary subtype IPMNs tended to exhibit acute inflammation such as neutrophil predominance. This study showed that peritumoral histological features differed among subtypes of IPMNs from low-grade tumors. These differences suggest the possibility that each subtype of IPMNs has a distinct mechanism from an early stage of tumor progression, which is reflected in the properties of the peritumoral stroma. PMID:26265194

  17. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  18. [Gastritis from a histological point of view].

    PubMed

    Vieth, M; Stolte, M

    2006-06-01

    Since the rediscovery of spiral-shaped gastric bacteria in 1983 by Warren and Marshal numerous detailed facts have enlarged our knowledge base for a better understanding of gastritis. The WHO classified Helicobacter as a class 1 carcinogen. Helicobacter plays a role in many diseases of the upper GI tract (gastric and duodenal ulcer, MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer). Knowledge of the interaction between bacterium and host led to an improvement of the diagnosis of gastritis. Unfortunately endoscopy, histology, and patient's symptoms do not correlate with each other. Therefore, gastritis is a purely histological diagnosis. A histological diagnosis always needs to be accompanied by an etiological cause of the inflammation. Only when this information is given a clinical consequence can be drawn from a histological diagnosis. In Germany the so-called ABCD scheme of gastritis is widely used (A: autoimmune gastritis, B: bacterial gastritis, C: chemical reactive gastritis, D: other forms of gastritis). At least two antrum and two corpus biopsies (matrix diagnostics) are necessary to reach representative tissue with an acceptable probability. If less than these four (minimal standard) biopsies are taken, the histological diagnosis will remain uncertain. PMID:16612608

  19. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat's pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  20. Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants

    PubMed Central

    Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Manthey, Suzanne; Rentsch, Barbe; Rammelt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and assess bone regeneration in sheep in combination with new implant materials classical histological staining methods as well as immunohistochemistry may provide additional information to standard radiographs or computer tomography. Available published data of bone defect regenerations in sheep often present none or sparely labeled histological images. Repeatedly, the exact location of the sample remains unclear, detail enlargements are missing and the labeling of different tissues or cells is absent. The aim of this article is to present an overview of sample preparation, staining methods and their benefits as well as a detailed histological description of bone regeneration in the sheep tibia. General histological staining methods like hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner trichrome, Movat’s pentachrome and alcian blue were used to define new bone formation within a sheep tibia critical size defect containing a polycaprolactone-co-lactide (PCL) scaffold implanted for 3 months (n = 4). Special attention was drawn to describe the bone healing patterns down to cell level. Additionally one histological quantification method and immunohistochemical staining methods are described. PMID:24504113

  1. Accurate Histological Techniques to Evaluate Critical Temperature Thresholds for Prostate In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv; Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Sugar, Linda

    2007-05-01

    Various histological techniques have been compared to evaluate the boundaries of thermal damage produced by ultrasound in vivo in a canine model. When all images are accurately co-registered, H&E stained micrographs provide the best assessment of acute cellular damage. Estimates of the boundaries of 100% and 0% cell killing correspond to maximum temperature thresholds of 54.6 ± 1.7°C and 51.5 ± 1.9°C, respectively.

  2. The International Histological Classification of Tumours*

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the WHO project on the histological classification of tumours, which has included the establishment of several collaborating centres and has involved more than 300 pathologists in over 50 countries. The project has resulted in the publication, over the last 14 years, of 25 volumes in the first series of the International Histological Classification of Tumours (IHCT), each giving a classification of tumours specific to a certain site. The classifications are based primarily on the microscopic characteristics of the tumours and are concerned with morphologically identifiable cell types and histological patterns as seen by means of light microscopy and conventional staining techniques. The article also describes the relationship between IHCT and other classification and coding systems and assesses possible future developments that may result from new approaches to diagnosis. PMID:6978190

  3. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. PMID:27267916

  4. Rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: LIP and PPFE and rare histologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias: AFOP and BPIP.

    PubMed

    Kokosi, Maria A; Nicholson, Andrew G; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2016-05-01

    In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium. Thin-walled cysts and diffuse ground glass are considered the typical radiologic features. The clinical course is highly variable with corticosteroid responsiveness evident in approximately half of cases. IPPFE is defined histologically by coexisting upper lobe pleural and intra-alveolar fibrosis with elastosis. Dense subpleural irregular fibrosis and consolidation are the cardinal radiologic features. A history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection is frequent. Responses to immunomodulation have not been reported and the rate of progression appears to be highly variable. AFOP is a rare histologic pattern lying within the spectrum of acute/subacute lung injury, characterized by organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition without hyaline membranes. BPIP is characterized histologically by fibrosis and/or inflammation confined to the alveolar interstitium around bronchovascular bundles, overlapping with peribronchial metaplasia and fibrosis in some series. Currently, AFOP and BPIP are both best viewed as histological entities rather than true clinical disorders, in the absence of characteristic associated imaging patterns and clinical features. PMID:26627191

  5. Psammomatous Melanotic Schwannoma: A Challenging Histological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Merat, Rastine; Szalay-Quinodoz, Ildiko; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS) is a rare pigmented tumor that can be part of the Carney complex. Here, we describe the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting an isolated subcutaneous PMS. Histopathological analysis could not formally exclude the malignant nature of the tumor. The challenging histological diagnosis and consequently the management of the patient are described. PMID:27047937

  6. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  7. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K.; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. Methods and Results In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin—3,3’-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. Validation To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Context Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics. PMID:26717571

  8. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  9. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Oral Use of Blue Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Osman; Kose, Ösman; Safali, Mukerrem

    2011-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe pustular cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by a rapid clinical course with typical histological findings. It is accompanied by fever and acute eruption of non-follicular pustules overlying erythrodermic skin. The causative agents are most frequently antibacterial drugs. We present a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by methylene blue and indigotin dyes. PMID:22016599

  10. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  11. Porcine deltacoronavirus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Sarver, Craig; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3' untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus. PMID:26475155

  12. The histological nature of epulides in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, F J; Ligthelm, A J; Weber, A

    1992-02-01

    The histological characteristics of a series of 154 oral tumours with the clinical appearance of epulides in 129 dogs were reviewed. Diagnoses were based on current criteria in human oral pathology and compared with the original diagnoses. The histological findings suggested that the majority of epulides in the dog can be classified as focal fibrous hyperplasia (43.5 per cent), peripheral ameloblastoma (17.5 per cent), peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) (16.9 per cent) and pyogenic granuloma (1.95 per cent). In addition, a number of other odontogenic tumours (1.95 per cent) and non-odontogenic tumours (18.2 per cent) such as fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which are not traditionally associated with the clinical appearance of an epulis, were diagnosed. Of 74 lesions that were previously diagnosed as fibromatous and ossifying epulides, 50 (68 per cent) were reclassified as focal fibrous hyperplasia and 21 (28 per cent) as peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type). The majority of lesions (76 per cent), which were originally classified as acanthomatous epulis, were found to be peripheral ameloblastoma. In addition, three squamous cell carcinomas, two rare odontogenic tumours and two cases of focal fibrous hyperplasia were diagnosed in this classification. It was concluded that, as in man, the term epulis is a clinically descriptive term and that the renal nature of these lesions should be determined histologically. PMID:1597534

  13. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26644877

  14. Acute myelofibrosis in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D I

    1975-01-01

    Two boys with Down's syndrome, recognized at birth, developed acute myelogibrosis at the ages of 19 and 21 months. The disorder presented with anaemia and splenomegaly, and clinically resembled acute leukaemia, but bone marrow histology showed a bizarre pattern with generalized fibrosis, markedly increased reticulin, large reticulum cells, and giant cells resembling megakaryocytes. The children survived 6 and 11 months from diagnosis. A third case is quoted (Hillman and Forrester, 1968) which was also studied at this hospital; the features of all 3 cases are similar. There appears to be an increased incidence of acute myelofibrosis in children with Down's syndrome, which may be a further example of the instability of the haemopoietic system in the disease. In children with Down's syndrome and unusual leukaemia-like illness, histological examination of the bone marrow may be diagnostic. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG.3. PMID:125073

  15. Autoimmune hepatitis, one disease with many faces: Etiopathogenetic, clinico-laboratory and histological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Zachou, Kalliopi; Koukoulis, George K; Dalekos, George N

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an unresolving progressive liver disease of unknown etiology characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies detection and interface hepatitis. Due to the absence of specific diagnostic markers and the large heterogeneity of its clinical, laboratory and histological features, AIH diagnosis may be potentially difficult. Therefore, in this in-depth review we summarize the substantial progress on etiopathogenesis, clinical, serological and histological phenotypes of AIH. AIH has a global distribution affecting any age, both sexes and all ethnic groups. Clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic to severe or rarely fulminant hepatitis. Hypergammaglobulinemia with selective elevation of IgG is found in most cases. Autoimmune attack is perpetuated, possibly via molecular mimicry, and favored by the impaired control of T-regulatory cells. Histology (interface hepatitis, emperipolesis and hepatic rosette formation) and autoantibodies detection although not pathognomonic, are still the hallmark for a timely diagnosis. AIH remains a major diagnostic challenge. AIH should be considered in every case in the absence of viral, metabolic, genetic and toxic etiology of chronic or acute hepatitis. Laboratory personnel, hepato-pathologists and clinicians need to become more familiar with disease expressions and the interpretation of liver histology and autoimmune serology to derive maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:25574080

  16. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact. PMID:12842857

  17. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  18. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  19. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-06-23

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  20. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  1. Molecular histology in skin appendage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Ting-Berreth, S A; Yin, E; Jung, H S; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-15

    Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of skin appendages? What are the molecular bases of the morphogenesis and histogenesis of skin appendages? Recently, many new molecules expressed in a spatial and temporal specific manner during the formation of skin appendages were identified by molecular biological approaches. In this review, novel molecular techniques that are useful in skin appendage research are discussed. The distribution of exemplary molecules from different categories including growth factors, intracellular signaling molecules, homeobox genes, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules are summarized in a diagram using feather and hair as models. We hope that these results will serve as the ground work for completing the molecular mapping of skin appendages which will refine and re-define our understanding of the developmental process beyond relying on morphological criteria. We also hope that the listed protocols will help those who are interested in this venture. This new molecular histology of skin appendages is the foundation for forming new hypotheses on how molecules are mechanistically involved in skin appendage development and for designing experiments to test them. This may also lead to the modulation of healing and regeneration processes in future treatment modalities. PMID:9297695

  2. An animal model for chorioamnionitis at term

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Ovo, Valeria; Rosenzweig, Jason; Burd, Irina; Merabova, Nana; Darbinian, Nune; Goetzl, Laura

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to develop an animal model for intrapartum inflammation at term to investigate the interactions between maternal and fetal inflammatory responses and adverse neurologic outcome. STUDY DESIGN Lipopolysaccharide (160, 320, or 640 μg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to day 20 term-pregnant Sprague Dawley rat dams 2, 4, and 6 hours before sample collection. Maternal outcomes included dam core temperature and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6). Fetal outcomes included plasma IL-6, brain IL-6 messenger RNA expression, and brain IL-6 protein expression. Primary cortical cell cultures were prepared to examine neuronal morphologic condition. Neurite counts were obtained with the use of automated Sholl analysis. RESULTS Maternal plasma IL-6 levels peaked 2 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulus and rapidly resolved, except for an observed low level persistence at 6 hours with 640 μg/kg. Fetal plasma and placental IL-6 expression also peaked rapidly but only persisted in placental samples. Fetal brain IL-6 RNA and protein expression was significantly higher than control litters at 6 hours after the exposure to both 320 μg/kg (P ≤ .05) and 640 μg/kg (P ≤ .01). Cortical cells from fetuses that were exposed for 6 hours to maternal systemic inflammation showed reduced neurite number and neurite length (P < .001) with increasing lipopolysaccharide dose. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrate that fetal brain injury follows isolated systemic maternal inflammation and that fetal brain inflammation lags after maternal stimulus, which creates a potential 4-hour clinical window for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25979619

  3. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a 10-year-old dog.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, T L

    2001-01-01

    A 10-year-old shih tzu was presented with lethargy, anorexia, coughing, and dyspnea of 2 days' duration. Despite treatment with parenteral fluids, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and diuretics, the dog died. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed histologically. PMID:11565374

  5. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tubes. Histological findings in two patients.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, B R; Weström, L; Ahrons, S; Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; von Mecklenburg, C; Henrikson, H; Mårdh, P A

    1979-01-01

    In two patients with acute salpingitis, C. trachomatis was isolated from the cervix. In one of the patients, the organism was also recovered from the Fallopian tubes, and in the other, chlamydial inclusions were found in Giemsa-stained tubal epithelial cells. A significant change in micro-immunofluorescence antibodies to C. trachomatis occurred in both patients during the course of the disease. The Fallopian tubes of both patients were removed and studied by conventional histological techniques and, in the case of one of them, by transmission electron microscopy. Images PMID:526846

  7. Rheumatoid neuropathy: a histological and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Weller, R. O.; Bruckner, F. E.; Chamberlain, M. Anne

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerves in five patients with rheumatoid neuropathy were examined electrophysiologically and by sural nerve biopsy. There was close correlation between the clinical severity of the disease and the degree of nerve damage found histologically and by EMG. Group 1 patients with a mild distal sensory neuropathy showed varying degrees of axonal degeneration in the large myelinated fibres and some segmental demyelination. Group 2 patients with a severe, rapidly progressive sensori-motor neuropathy had extensive loss of myelinated fibres. In one case all the large fibres had degenerated. The second case had lost both large and small myelinated fibres together with many of the non-myelinated axons. The major nerve damage in both groups appeared to be axonal degeneration but some segmental demyelination was detected. Occlusive vascular disease in the vasa nervorum was considered to be the major cause of the nerve damage. Images PMID:4320255

  8. The Histological Slides and Drawings of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Ramón y Cajal's studies in the field of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his original preparations are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain). In this article, we catalogue and analyse more than 4,500 of Cajal's histological preparations, the same preparations he used during his scientific career. Furthermore, we catalogued Cajal's original correspondence, both manuscripts and personal letters, drawings and plates. This is the first time anyone has compiled an account of Cajal's enormous scientific production, offering some curious insights into his work and his legacy. PMID:20339483

  9. Pilot experimental study on amniotic epithelial mesenchymal cell transplantation in natural occurring tendinopathy in horses. Ultrasonographic and histological comparison

    PubMed Central

    Muttini, Aurelio; Russo, Valentina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara; Tosi, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola; Valbonetti, Luca; Abate, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: amnion-derived stem cells are considered a promising alternative source for tendon tissue regeneration. Purpose: aims of this paper were to illustrate the ultrasound and histological outcomes following the treatment of acute and chronic superficial digital flexor tendon spontaneous lesions in horses with ovine amniotic epithelial cells xenotransplantation. Methods: six adult horses suffering from unilateral acute (4 cases) and chronic (2 cases) tendinopathy (clinical and ultrasound diagnosis) were enrolled. At baseline, ovine amniotic epithelial cells were grafted, in sterile conditions and under ultra-sound control, into the most damaged area. Ultra-sound controls were performed at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after cells implantation; after horse euthanasia (180 days) tendon samples were collected and submitted to histological examination (cellularity, extracellular matrix fiber organization, blood vessels). Results: at baseline, in the acute cases, the ultra-sound exam showed a focal, dis-homogeneous, hypo-echoic area into the superficial digital flexor tendon, with loss of the normal fibrillar pattern, while in the chronic cases the damaged tendon area appeared thickened and completely hyper-echoic. At the final follow-up tendon echotexture was more regular, the cross-sectional area similar to the contra-lateral limb, and the collagen fibers were oriented in parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tendon both in the acute and chronic cases, suggesting a positive healing response. These findings were supported by the histological analyses which showed an almost complete restoration of normal tendon architecture with an optimal alignment of tendon fibers. Conclusions: the present pilot study supports the hypothesis that amniotic epithelial cells are provided of an excellent healing potential and shows a very good correlation between the ultrasound findings and the histologic features. PMID:25878980

  10. Acute malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dupont, John S

    2006-01-01

    Acute malocclusion can result from disturbances in the maxillary/mandibular tooth relationship. These alterations in the occlusal position can result from high fillings, sinus problems, abscesses, periodontal disease, and moving or erupting teeth. Conditions seen less frequently include acute malocclusions secondary to an event (such as trauma) that make a stable dental relationship an unstable one. Patients can demonstrate any of a number of clinical conditions that interfere with their comfort and ability to function. This article provides information on some of the less familiar causes of acute malocclusion. PMID:16689064

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  12. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  13. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all

  14. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  15. Histological and ultrastructural studies of renal lesions in Babesia canis infected dogs treated with imidocarb.

    PubMed

    Máthé, A; Dobos-Kovács, M; Vörös, K

    2007-12-01

    Histological and electron microscopic examinations of the kidneys of 8 dogs suffering from fatal, naturally acquired Babesia canis infection and nephropathy are presented. Seven animals were treated with imidocarb dipropionate on average 4.5 days prior to death. Severe anaemia was present only in 2 cases. Degenerative histological changes observed mostly in the proximal convoluted tubules included vacuolar-hydropic degeneration, necrosis and detachment of renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells from the basement membrane. Necrotic debris occasionally formed acidophilic casts within the tubules. In some cases, necrosis of the whole tubule was observed. Haemoglobin casts in the tubules and haemoglobin droplets in RTE cells seldom appeared. No significant histological changes were seen in the glomeruli. Ultrastructural lesions in RTE cells included nuclear membrane hyperchromatosis, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, swelling or collapse of mitochondria with fragmentation of cristae and vacuolar-hydropic degeneration in the endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli. Nuclear oedema was also observed. Many RTE cells exhibiting necrosis collapsed. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration and necrosis were also observed in the glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelium. The severe acute tubular necrosis described in this study is probably the result of hypoxic renal injury. Systemic hypotension leading to vasoconstriction in the kidneys might be the most important cause of renal hypoxia in B. canis infections, but anaemia may also contribute to inadequate oxygenation. Imidocarb should be applied with caution in patients with possible renal involvement until further data become available on its potential nephrotoxicity in dogs. PMID:18277710

  16. Widespread expression of serum amyloid A in histologically normal human tissues. Predominant localization to the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Urieli-Shoval, S; Cohen, P; Eisenberg, S; Matzner, Y

    1998-12-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase reactant whose level in the blood is elevated to 1000-fold as part of the body's responses to various injuries, including trauma, infection, inflammation, and neoplasia. As an acute-phase reactant, the liver has been considered to be the primary site of expression. However, limited extrahepatic SAA expression was described in mouse tissues and in cells of human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we describe nonradioactive in situ hybridization experiments revealing that the SAA mRNA is widely expressed in many histologically normal human tissues. Expression was localized predominantly to the epithelial components of a variety of tissues, including breast, stomach, small and large intestine, prostate, lung, pancreas, kidney, tonsil, thyroid, pituitary, placenta, skin epidermis, and brain neurons. Expression was also observed in lymphocytes, plasma cells, and endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis of selected tissues revealed expression of the SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4 genes but not of SAA3, consistent with expression of these genes in the liver. Immunohistochemical staining revealed SAA protein expression that co-localized with SAA mRNA expression. These data indicate local production of the SAA proteins in histologically normal human extrahepatic tissues. PMID:9815279

  17. Gastrointestinal Zygomycosis Masquerading as Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Tak; Chang, Tammy T.; Gill, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Zygomycosis is a rare invasive opportunistic fungal infection that occurs in the setting of hematologic malignancies, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and immunosuppressive therapies. We report the first case of disseminated appendiceal zygomycosis due to Absidia spp. in a neutropenic patient who initially presented as acute appendicitis. A 63-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia presented as acute appendicitis while receiving induction chemotherapy and ultimately succumbed to overwhelming disseminated zygomycosis. Initial symptoms included loose stools and right lower abdominal pain unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Clinical examination and cross-sectional imaging suggested acute appendicitis. The final diagnosis was established by histological evaluations of the ileocecectomy specimen, which showed angioinvasive fungal organisms within the necrotic appendiceal wall with characteristics typical of zygomycetes. Fungal cultures demonstrated Absidia spp. The patient was treated with amphotericin B but expired in the setting of fungal sepsis. A diagnosis of a fungal infection, including zygomycosis, should be considered in all chemotherapy-induced neutropenic patients who present with symptoms of acute appendicitis. A high index of clinical suspicion with prompt histologic and culture diagnosis of zygomycosis may reduce the high mortality and morbidity associated with zygomycosis of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27403107

  18. Derivation and validation of murine histologic alterations resembling asthma, with two proposed histologic grade parameters

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Shome, Goutam; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to define murine histologic alterations resembling asthma in a BALB/c OVA model and to suggest grading criteria. Identified were six salient histologic findings in lungs with putative allergic inflammation: 1) bronchoarterial space inflammation; 2) peri-venular inflammation; 3) inflammation about amuscular blood vessels; 4) inter-alveolar space inflammation, not about capillaries; 5) pleural inflammation; and 6) eosinophils within the inflammatory aggregates. An initial study comprised six groups of twelve mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, sensitized; 3) stressed, challenged; 4) not physically stressed, control; 5) not physically stressed, sensitized; 6) not physically stressed, challenged. A second study comprised four experimental groups of twenty mice each: 1) stressed, control; 2) stressed, challenged; 3) not physically stressed, control; 4) not physically stressed, challenged. A third study evaluated two grading criteria, 1) the proportion of non-tracheal respiratory passages with inflammatory aggregates and 2) mitoses in the largest two non-tracheal respiratory passages, in five groups of five mice each, evaluated at different times after the last exposure. Results The first study suggested the six histological findings might reliably indicate the presence of alterations resembling asthma: whereas 82.4% of mice with a complete response had detectable interleukin (IL)-5, only 3.8% of mice without one did; whereas 77.8% of mice with a complete response were challenged mice, only 6.7% of mice without complete responses were. The second study revealed that the six histological findings provided a definition that was 97.4% sensitive and 100% specific. The third study found that the odds of a bronchial passage's having inflammation declined 1) when mitoses were present (OR = 0.73, 0.60 - 0.90), and 2) with one day increased time (OR = 0.75, 0.65 - 0.86). Conclusion A definition of murine histologic alterations resembling

  19. Are histologic studies of adenotonsillectomy really necessary?

    PubMed

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-10-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost-benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  20. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Rebechi, Giseli; Pontes, Thiago Euênio; Braga, Elias Lobo; Matos, Willian Maduel; Rebechi, Fernando; Matsuyama, Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5%) were male and 139 (49.5%) were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%), 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%), and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%). The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%). None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries. PMID:25992042

  1. Spermatogenesis in Leptodactylus chaquensis. Histological study.

    PubMed

    Iruzubieta Villagra, Ana Lucrecia; Cisint, Susana Beatriz; Crespo, Claudia Alejandra; Medina, Marcela Fátima; Ramos, Inés; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2014-08-01

    The organization and the histological characteristics of Leptodactylus chaquensis testis throughout the reproductive cycle were analyzed in the presented study. Gonads of adult males, processed with routine techniques for optical microscopy, revealed that during the reproductive period the seminiferous tubules were characterized by presentation of a large number of cysts, germ cells at the same maturation stage supported by Sertoli cells. All the germ line cells were also present in the postreproductive period and maintained their morphological characteristics. Primary spermatogonia were large-sized cells found isolated or in small groups. The rest of the cells of the germ line formed cysts. Secondary spermatogonia showed morphological characteristics similar to their predecessors, although they were smaller. Primary and secondary spermatocytes showed images of the different stages of the first and second meiotic division respectively. One finding was the presence of intercytoplasmic bridges between the secondary spermatocytes. Primary spermatids were rounded cells with an acrosomal vesicle associated with the nucleus and had cysts that were characterized by large intercellular spaces. Secondary spermatids were elongated cells with a well defined acrosome, which in the spermatozoa had the shape of an arrowhead. Another peculiar characteristic of this species was the fusion of the walls of the seminiferous tubule with the efferent duct that formed a path for spermatozoa during spermiation. The presence in the seminiferous tubules of all stages of the spermatogenic line during the two periods of the cycle studied indicated that Leptodactylus chaquensis had a potentially continuous reproductive cycle. PMID:23171585

  2. Histological investigations on the Tyrolean Ice Man.

    PubMed

    Hess, M W; Klima, G; Pfaller, K; Künzel, K H; Gaber, O

    1998-08-01

    The 5,200-year-old Tyrolean Ice Man discovered in 1991 in the Otztal Alps is the world's most ancient known human glacier mummy. Histological investigation was aimed at 1) optimizing specimen preparation and 2) documenting the preservation state of (sub)cellular components. Minute pieces of frozen tissue were removed endoscopically from rib bone and cartilage, major blood vessels, oral cavity and alimentary tract, liver, spleen, diaphragm, respiratory system, femoral muscle and nerve, sympathetic trunk, brain, and skin. Double fixation with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide and embedding in Epon/Araldite epoxy resins proved to be the method of choice for both light and transmission electron microscopy combined with classical histochemistry. In particular, mild evacuation of the desiccated tissue was determined to be essential to ensure homogeneous infiltration with fixatives and resins; as a result, sections of excellent quality could be obtained with any kind of sample. With regard to the preservation degree of (sub)cellular components, distinct tissue-specific patterns were observed. There were highly intact skeletal and connective tissues proper, however, most interestingly, there were remarkably intact nervous tissue components as well. By contrast, epithelial, muscle, and reticular connective tissues as well as blood had generally disintegrated due to autolysis, freeze/thaw damage, and adipocere formation. For a tentative interpretation of these patterns, we considered general aspects of cryopreservation, such as physicochemical properties of subcellular constituents and tissue physiology. PMID:9712480

  3. Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma presenting as acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Atif Saleem; Da Costa, Mark; Hennessy, Terry; Kiernan, Thomas John

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a young woman who was initially diagnosed with acute stroke with no obvious risk factors. Preliminary investigation with transthoracic echocardiography and subsequent advanced imaging with transoesophageal echocardiography suggested the diagnosis of a benign cardiac tumour on the anterior leaflet of mitral valve. The patient underwent urgent surgical resection. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac papillary fibroelastoma. She made complete clinical recovery with no recurrence of symptoms. PMID:23761612

  4. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  5. Complex Retrieval of Embedded IVC Filters: Alternative Techniques and Histologic Tissue Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, William T.; Cupp, John S.; Louie, John D.; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Hovsepian, David M.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods to retrieve embedded optional and permanent filters in order to manage or reduce risk of long-term complications from implantation. Histologic tissue analysis was performed to elucidate the pathologic effects of chronic filter implantation. Methods: We studied the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods for removing embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in 10 consecutive patients over 12 months. Indications for retrieval were symptomatic chronic IVC occlusion, caval and aortic perforation, and/or acute PE (pulmonary embolism) from filter-related thrombus. Retrieval was also performed to reduce risk of complications from long-term filter implantation and to eliminate the need for lifelong anticoagulation. All retrieved specimens were sent for histologic analysis. Results: Retrieval was successful in all 10 patients. Filter types and implantation times were as follows: one Venatech (1,495 days), one Simon-Nitinol (1,485 days), one Optease (300 days), one G2 (416 days), five Guenther-Tulip (GTF; mean 606 days, range 154-1,010 days), and one Celect (124 days). There were no procedural complications or adverse events at a mean follow-up of 304 days after removal (range 196-529 days). Histology revealed scant native intima surrounded by a predominance of neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis in all specimens. Histologic evidence of photothermal tissue ablation was confirmed in three laser-treated specimens. Conclusion: Complex retrieval methods can now be used in select patients to safely remove embedded optional and permanent IVC filters previously considered irretrievable. Neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis are the major components that must be separated to achieve successful retrieval of chronic filter implants.

  6. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  7. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  8. Lip enhancement: surgical alternatives and histologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, I

    2000-03-01

    This study included 66 consecutive patients, 58 women and 8 men, who underwent 86 surgical procedures on the lips during 1989-1998. Lip enlargement was performed in 59 patients, and lip reduction was performed in 7 patients. Indications were purely aesthetic in 61 cases and reconstructive in 5 cases. The following surgical techniques were used for lip augmentation: implantation of crystal silicone, polyacrylamide hydrogel, Gore-Tex tubes, autologous fat, and dermis-fat graft. A new instrument originally designed by the author, the dermis-fat graft passer, significantly speeded up and facilitated execution of the latter procedure. Other operations included V-Y plasty, lip lifting by buffalo horn excision, lip lengthening by frenulum plasty, and lip reduction by wavy tangential excision. Eighty-six percent of patients could be followed up; the mean length of follow-up was 4.2 years. Use of silicone microparticles (Bioplastique) was abandoned because of the tendency for lumping. Polyacrylamide gel is promising because of its ease of use, and Gore-Tex tubes are promising because of their ability to create and accentuate the Cupid's bow form for the upper lip. However, these products are new, and follow-up studies with longer observation times are needed to reach definite conclusions. Of these studied methods, autologous fat transplant was found to be particularly useful for enlargement and restoration in cases of age-related atrophy of the lips and perioral tissues. Dermis-fat grafting was the most efficient, versatile, and reliable method of lip enlargement. Long-term survival of transplanted autologous tissues was confirmed by histologic studies of biopsy specimens. PMID:10724279

  9. Histologic remission: the ultimate therapeutic goal in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Bressenot, Aude; Kampman, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of the mucosal layer, and activity of the disease is assumed to be related to mucosal appearance. Mucosal healing has emerged as a major therapeutic goal in UC. Whether mucosal healing should be the ultimate therapeutic goal in these patients is unknown. Even when endoscopy suggests mucosal healing, evidence of histologic activity has been observed. Histologic healing requires complete recovery of the colonic mucosa, with absence of inflammation or structural changes. Histologic improvements have been linked with improved clinical outcomes, such as a reduced risk of relapse and need for surgery/hospitalization and a reduced risk of developing cancer. Hence, there is a rationale for aiming for histologic remission in UC. Numerous methods of classification of histologic activity in UC have been proposed, although only some of these are widely used. We review the current definitions of histologic remission, the range of scoring systems most commonly used, and the evidence of histologic improvement that is available from the latest therapies for UC. We also highlight questions that will require careful consideration if histologic remission is to become more widely used as an end point in clinical trials and a treatment goal in clinical practice. PMID:23911875

  10. Image-based histologic grade estimation using stochastic geometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petushi, Sokol; Zhang, Jasper; Milutinovic, Aladin; Breen, David E.; Garcia, Fernando U.

    2011-03-01

    Background: Low reproducibility of histologic grading of breast carcinoma due to its subjectivity has traditionally diminished the prognostic value of histologic breast cancer grading. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and reproducibility of grading breast carcinomas with automated computer-based image processing that utilizes stochastic geometry shape analysis. Methods: We used histology images stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) from invasive mammary carcinoma, no special type cases as a source domain and study environment. We developed a customized hybrid semi-automated segmentation algorithm to cluster the raw image data and reduce the image domain complexity to a binary representation with the foreground representing regions of high density of malignant cells. A second algorithm was developed to apply stochastic geometry and texture analysis measurements to the segmented images and to produce shape distributions, transforming the original color images into a histogram representation that captures their distinguishing properties between various histological grades. Results: Computational results were compared against known histological grades assigned by the pathologist. The Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) similarity metric and the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification algorithm provided correlations between the high-dimensional set of shape distributions and a priori known histological grades. Conclusion: Computational pattern analysis of histology shows promise as an effective software tool in breast cancer histological grading.

  11. Promoting Rapid Learning in the Histology Laboratory by Integrating Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Vonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of incorporating technology in the histology laboratory by using high-resolution video-imaging equipment (VIE). The study sought to determine if (1) the VIE would allow students to more easily and rapidly find histological structures over more conventional methods, and (2) if they could find the structures with the…

  12. Bowenoid papulosis: clinical and histological study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, E; Vilata, J J; Sanchez, J L; Lloret, A; Fortea, J M

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases of bowenoid papulosis are reported. The clinical diagnoses were confirmed by histology. In one case an immunoperoxidase method showed the presence of papillomavirus antigen in the nucleus of the most superficial epidermal cells. We consider bowenoid papulosis to be a condition with specific features that distinguish it clinically and histologically from carcinoma in situ and condylomata acuminata. Images PMID:3034760

  13. Acute Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hammad; Fasanya, Adebayo; Cheema, Tariq; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Acute pneumonia is an active infection of the lungs that results when an individual at risk gets exposed to a particular microbiological pathogen. Acute pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the United States that is attributable to an infection. The risk factors, pathogenesis, and microbiological organisms involved differ if the pneumonia develops in the community versus health care-associated environment. The development of concise and comprehensive guidelines has led to an improvement in the management of the problem. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms and the increase in the percentage of elderly population keep mortality risk very substantial. PMID:26919676

  14. Dermoscopy of Grover's disease: Variability according to histological subtype.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Pegolo, Enrico; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Distinguishing Grover's disease from other papular dermatoses is often a troublesome task. According to two relatively recent case reports, dermoscopy may be useful in assisting the diagnosis of such a disorder by showing a peculiar pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermoscopic features of Grover's disease in a larger series of patients and correlate dermoscopy with histopathological findings. Seven patients with histopathologically confirmed Grover's disease were included in the study, with three of them displaying a Darier-like histology and the remaining four cases having a spongiotic histological pattern. The results of our study suggest that Grover's disease may display different features according to the histological subtype, with a central star-shaped/branched polygonal/roundish-oval brownish area surrounded by a whitish halo being characteristic of the Darier-like histological subtype and whitish scales over a reddish-yellowish background being characteristic of the spongiotic histological subtype. PMID:26892381

  15. Histological Study of Fresh Versus Frozen Semitendinous Muscle Tendon Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Pereira, João Alberto Ramos Maradei; França Bisneto, Edgard N.; Giovani, Arlete Mazzini Miranda; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to histologically analyze allografts from cadaveric semitendinous muscle after cryopreservation at −80°C in comparison to a control group kept at only −4°C to test the hypothesis that the histological characteristics of the tissue are maintained when the tendons are kept at lower temperatures. METHODS: In a tissue bank, 10 semitendinous tendons from 10 cadavers were frozen at −80ºC as a storage method for tissue preservation. They were kept frozen for 40 days, and then a histological study was carried out. Another 10 tendon samples were analyzed while still “fresh”. RESULTS: There was no histological difference between the fresh and frozen samples in relation to seven variables. CONCLUSIONS: Semitendinous muscle tendon allografts can be submitted to cryopreservation at −80ºC without suffering histological modifications. PMID:20360921

  16. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  17. Histologic differences between cryothermic and hyperthermic therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coad, James E.; Bischof, John C.

    2003-06-01

    Minimally invasive cryothermic and hyperthermic therapies are being increasingly used to destroy dysfunctional and neoplastic tissues in several organ systems. This report morphologically compares the acute tissue response that follow cryothermic and microwave therapy in porcine kidneys. Three cryothermic and hyperthermic groups of treated kidneys were pooled from other studies for evaluation: 1) in vitro treated non-perfused, 2) in situ treated with 2-hour post in vivo perfusion, and 3) in situ treated with 3-day or 7-day post in vivo perfusion. The cryolesions showed uniform central coagulative-type necrosis and interstitial hemorrhage. The hyperthermic lesions showed central thermal fixation and a rim of coagulative necrosis. The cryothermic and hyperthermic lesions both had a similar narrow transition zone of partial cell injury. The cryothermic lesions developed a wound healing response that advanced into the central lesion. In contrast, the heat-treated tissues lacked a prominent wound healing response and appeared to resist breakdown/repair by the body. Thus, the tissue effects of and response to cryothermic and heat injury appear to be different.

  18. Clinical and morphological correlations in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Slujitoru, Anca Stefania; Enache, Andreea Lorena; Pintea, Irina Lavinia; Rolea, Elisabeta; Stocheci, Cristina Mariana; Pop, O T; Predescu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    We studied the clinical and histopathological changes in twenty-seven cases of acute ischemic stroke, aged between 65 and 75 years. All deaths occurred within 30 days after stroke. The aim of our study was to establish the clinical and histological correlations in acute ischemic stroke to detect prognostic factors. Brain lesions after acute stroke were observed in all regions. Our study describes the heterogeneity of brain injury after acute ischemic stroke with the participation of all brain components and the chronology in which these lesions develop and evolve. By histological and immunohistochemical studies, we identified neuronal, glial and vascular damage. The neurons had undergone in the area of lesion a process of necrosis, ballooning or condensation process. In the ischemic penumbra, we observed the presence of red neurons. Vascular lesions were represented by the discontinuity of capillaries, always associated with a marked perivascular edema. The following clinical and morphological correlations were established: liquefactive necrosis, astrocyte gliosis, phagocytosis phenomena are the more intense the later the death of the patient; apoptosis phenomena are the more intense the faster the death of the patient; the entire cerebral microcirculation presented microscopic modifications following the ischemic strokes, regardless of the time since the lesion occurred and the histological examination was made; the major neurological complications of the ischemic stroke - the hemorrhagic transformation phenomena, cerebral edema, were microscopically objectified, regardless of the time since the lesion occurred and the histological examination was made. PMID:23303014

  19. Histology, imaging and new diagnostic work-flows in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, John; Yagi, Yukako

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Since their introduction in 1999, fully automated, high speed, high-resolution whole slide imaging devices have become increasing more reliable, fast and capable. While by no means perfect, these devices have evolved to a point where one can consider placing them in a pre-diagnostic role in a clinical histology lab. Methods At the Massachusetts General Hospital, we are running a pilot study placing high end WSI devices in our main clinical histology lab (after the cover slipper and before slides are sent to the pathologist) to examine the requirement for both the machine and the laboratory. Results Placing WSI systems in the clinical lab stresses the system in terms of reliability and throughput. Significantly however, success requires significant modification to the lab workflow. It is likely laboratories need to move from manual, large batch processes to increasingly automated, continuous flow (or mini-batch) processes orchestrated by the LIS using bar coding to track and direct slides, and incorporating the decision to image into the specimen type and the histology orders. Furthermore, image quality, capture speed and reliability are functions of the quality of the histology presented to the WSI devices. Conclusion Imaging in pathology does not begin in a WSI robot but in the grossing room and in the histology lab. As more and more imaging devices are placed in histology lab, the inter-relationships histology and pathology imaging will become increasing understood. PMID:18673502

  20. Dental students' evaluations of an interactive histology software.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Cristian; Rubí, Rafael; Donoso, Manuel; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed dental students' evaluations of a new Interactive Histology Software (IHS) developed by the authors and compared students' assessment of the extent to which this new software, as well as other histology teaching methods, supported their learning. The IHS is a computer-based tool for histology learning that presents high-resolution images of histology basics as well as specific oral histologies at different magnifications and with text labels. Survey data were collected from 204 first-year dental students at the Universidad Austral de Chile. The survey consisted of questions for the respondents to evaluate the characteristics of the IHS and the contribution of various teaching methods to their histology learning. The response rate was 85 percent. Student evaluations were positive for the design, usability, and theoretical-practical integration of the IHS, and the students reported they would recommend the method to future students. The students continued to value traditional teaching methods for histological lab work and did not think this new technology would replace traditional methods. With respect to the contribution of each teaching method to students' learning, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for an evaluation of IHS, light microscopy, and slide presentations. However, these student assessments were significantly more positive than the evaluations of other digital or printed materials. Overall, the students evaluated the IHS very positively in terms of method quality and contribution to their learning; they also evaluated use of light microscopy and teacher slide presentations positively. PMID:23144485

  1. Soft Tissue Response to Titanium Abutments with Different Surface Treatment: Preliminary Histologic Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Canullo, Luigi; Dehner, Jan Friedrich; Penarrocha, David; Checchi, Vittorio; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary prospective RCT was to histologically evaluate peri-implant soft tissues around titanium abutments treated using different cleaning methods. Sixteen patients were randomized into three groups: laboratory customized abutments underwent Plasma of Argon treatment (Plasma Group), laboratory customized abutments underwent cleaning by steam (Steam Group), and abutments were used as they came from industry (Control Group). Seven days after the second surgery, soft tissues around abutments were harvested. Samples were histologically analyzed. Soft tissues surrounding Plasma Group abutments predominantly showed diffuse chronic infiltrate, almost no acute infiltrate, with presence of few polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, and a diffuse presence of collagenization bands. Similarly, in Steam Group, the histological analysis showed a high variability of inflammatory expression factors. Tissues harvested from Control Group showed presence of few neutrophil granulocytes, moderate presence of lymphocytes, and diffuse collagenization bands in some sections, while they showed absence of acute infiltrate in 40% of sections. However, no statistical difference was found among the tested groups for each parameter (p > 0.05). Within the limit of the present study, results showed no statistically significant difference concerning inflammation and healing tendency between test and control groups. PMID:27366741

  2. Soft Tissue Response to Titanium Abutments with Different Surface Treatment: Preliminary Histologic Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Canullo, Luigi; Dehner, Jan Friedrich; Penarrocha, David; Checchi, Vittorio; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary prospective RCT was to histologically evaluate peri-implant soft tissues around titanium abutments treated using different cleaning methods. Sixteen patients were randomized into three groups: laboratory customized abutments underwent Plasma of Argon treatment (Plasma Group), laboratory customized abutments underwent cleaning by steam (Steam Group), and abutments were used as they came from industry (Control Group). Seven days after the second surgery, soft tissues around abutments were harvested. Samples were histologically analyzed. Soft tissues surrounding Plasma Group abutments predominantly showed diffuse chronic infiltrate, almost no acute infiltrate, with presence of few polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes, and a diffuse presence of collagenization bands. Similarly, in Steam Group, the histological analysis showed a high variability of inflammatory expression factors. Tissues harvested from Control Group showed presence of few neutrophil granulocytes, moderate presence of lymphocytes, and diffuse collagenization bands in some sections, while they showed absence of acute infiltrate in 40% of sections. However, no statistical difference was found among the tested groups for each parameter (p > 0.05). Within the limit of the present study, results showed no statistically significant difference concerning inflammation and healing tendency between test and control groups. PMID:27366741

  3. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  4. Histologic evidence of repetitive blunt force abdominal trauma in four pediatric fatalities.

    PubMed

    Dye, Daniel W; Peretti, Frank J; Kokes, Charles P

    2008-11-01

    In cases of acute fatal child abuse, certain injuries, including cutaneous blunt force trauma, skull fractures, subdural hematomas, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and retinal hemorrhages are common and well described in the pediatric and forensic literature. These gross findings at autopsy, when taken into consideration with scene investigation and interviews with caregivers, may indicate both a clear manner and cause of death. In such cases, the discovery of additional pathologic changes attributable to older abusive injuries helps support a conclusion of death due to inflicted trauma. We discuss four cases of fatal child abuse in which acute blunt force abdominal trauma was the cause of death. In each of these cases, careful examination with proper sectioning and microscopy of select abdominal tissues revealed that the acute tissue trauma was superimposed on a background of older, healing injury. This older trauma was characterized by classic histologic elements of tissue repair, including fibroblast proliferation, early scar formation, increased vascularity, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Iron and trichrome stains were used to confirm the presence of hemosiderin and fibrosis in all four cases, but the recognition of fibroblast proliferation and a reactive vascular pattern was best seen on routine hematoxylin and eosin stains. The gross and microscopic autopsy findings, along with available investigative information, established the diagnosis of chronic physical abuse. PMID:18808370

  5. The atlas of mouse development eHistology resource.

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth; Moss, Julie; Burton, Nick; Roochun, Yogmatee; Armit, Chris; Richardson, Lorna; Baldock, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The Atlas of Mouse Development by Professor Mathew Kaufman is an essential text for understanding mouse developmental anatomy. This definitive and authoritative atlas is still in production and is essential for any biologist working with the mouse embryo, although the last revision dates back to 1994. Here, we announce the eHistology online resource that provides free access to high-resolution colour images digitized from the original histological sections (www.emouseatlas.org/emap/eHistology/index.php) used by Kaufman for the Atlas. The images are provided with the original annotations and plate numbering of the paper atlas and enable viewing the material to cellular resolution. PMID:26015534

  6. [Incus homograft--histological study of implanted ossicles (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sprem, N; Zirdum, A

    1976-11-01

    The methodes of obtaining, preparing and storing of ossicles for homoiotransplantation is described. Using this method, 21 patients have been operated. Four reoperations have been performed, and in two cases implants were found and subsequently subjected to histological analysis. The method of preparing the histological slides is described. The study of examined homografts revealed the normal bone structure and signs of revitalisation, which is clearly shown in the micrographs. On the basis of functional results and histological examination, the authors conclude that the use of devitalised homografts is recommanded in total and/or partial defects of ossicles. PMID:136576

  7. Endometrial decidualization: a rare cause of acute appendicitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Skyle J; Kaur, Anupinder; Wullschleger, Martin E

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular endometriosis is a rare and poorly understood pathology that affects women in their reproductive years. In the gravid woman, ectopic endometrial tissue undergoes decidualization. This physiological process can result in acute appendicitis in exceptional cases. Here we describe a patient in her second trimester of pregnancy who presented with right iliac fossa pain and clinical, laboratory and imaging findings consistent with acute appendicitis. A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed with intraoperative findings suspicious for malignancy. Histological analysis made the surprising diagnosis of decidualized endometriosis causing luminal constriction resulting in acute appendicitis. We also detail the challenging diagnostic and management issues faced by clinicians in such cases. PMID:27106612

  8. Endometrial decidualization: a rare cause of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Skyle J.; Kaur, Anupinder; Wullschleger, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Appendicular endometriosis is a rare and poorly understood pathology that affects women in their reproductive years. In the gravid woman, ectopic endometrial tissue undergoes decidualization. This physiological process can result in acute appendicitis in exceptional cases. Here we describe a patient in her second trimester of pregnancy who presented with right iliac fossa pain and clinical, laboratory and imaging findings consistent with acute appendicitis. A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed with intraoperative findings suspicious for malignancy. Histological analysis made the surprising diagnosis of decidualized endometriosis causing luminal constriction resulting in acute appendicitis. We also detail the challenging diagnostic and management issues faced by clinicians in such cases. PMID:27106612

  9. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  10. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  11. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  12. Acute glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, N

    2000-09-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a representative disease of acute nephritic syndrome characterized by the sudden appearance of edema, hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension. The prototype of AGN is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). "Nephritogenic streptococci" are defined as organisms that are cultured from a patient who develops AGN. Although only a limited number of M-types of streptococci have been recognized as "nephritogenic streptococci", all M-types of streptococci may have nephritogenic potential because the genes for major putative nephritogenic antigens such as SPEB and NAPIr are found to be present in all group A streptococci thus far examined. Pathogenic mechanisms for APSGN involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity have been recently proposed. The role of humoral immunity is presumed to be mediated by the in situ formation of nephritogenic streptococcal antigen-antibody complexes and circulating immune complexes. While in the cellular immune component a role for delayed-type hypersensitivity has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of APSGN. PMID:10969898

  13. OOGENESIS AND OVARIAN HISTOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although folliculogenesis and oogenesis have been observed in numerous reptiles, these phenomena have not been described in detail in a crocodilian. Oogenesis and histological features of the adult ovary of Alligator mississippiensis are described. Using a complex process, the ov...

  14. PREPARATION OF WHOLE SMALL FISH FOR HISTOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic pathology, which is primarily concerned with chemically-induced structural changes in cells or tissues, depends on the proper histological processing of test specimens. In fishes, histopathological examination is widely recognized as a reliable method for disease diag...

  15. The enlightenments from ITMIG Consensus on WHO histological classification of thymoma and thymic carcinoma: refined definitions, histological criteria, and reporting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Fang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification of the thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) has been criticized for poor interobserver reproducibility or inconsistencies in the routine pathological diagnosis. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) panel achieved an agreement to maintain the widely accepted WHO framework but to refine historic definitions and histological criteria, and further introduce some new terms with the aim to improve interobserver reproducibility. This review addresses the enlightenments we can get from the ITMIG consensus on the WHO histological classification of the thymoma and TC, which may be helpful for most pathologists. PMID:27114842

  16. Radiologic and histologic presentation of male mammary myofibroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Omar, Lena A; Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Saluja, Karan; Merchant, Kanwal A; Sharma, Pooja B

    2016-07-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in older men and women. Less commonly, these benign tumors may also occur in soft tissues located outside of the breast, in which case they are referred to as mammary-type myofibroblastomas. The histologic composition of this benign spindle cell tumor can be markedly varied. We present a case of a large mammary myofibroblastoma in a male patient and discuss the typical imaging and histologic makeup of these tumors. PMID:27365886

  17. Radiologic and histologic presentation of male mammary myofibroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rojanapremsuk, Theera; Saluja, Karan; Merchant, Kanwal A.; Sharma, Pooja B.

    2016-01-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that typically presents in older men and women. Less commonly, these benign tumors may also occur in soft tissues located outside of the breast, in which case they are referred to as mammary-type myofibroblastomas. The histologic composition of this benign spindle cell tumor can be markedly varied. We present a case of a large mammary myofibroblastoma in a male patient and discuss the typical imaging and histologic makeup of these tumors. PMID:27365886

  18. Toxic effects of lead on biochemical and histological alterations in green mussel (Perna viridis) induced by environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, G; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R

    2014-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted on green mussel (Perna viridis) to determine the adverse effects of lead (Pb). Exposure of organisms to acute toxicity test for 96 h and lethal concentration (LC(50)) was the endpoint of the test. Acute toxicity for 96-h LC(50) and 95% confidence intervals of P. viridis was 2.62 ± 0.12 (2.62-3.24) mg/L Pb. Chronic toxicity tests revealed that survival of exposed organisms decreased with elevated exposure concentrations. No-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) were calculated based on survival of test organisms. Results of this study demonstrated an increase in toxicity in test organisms with rise in exposure time and concentration. In this study, histology and biochemical enzymes, namely, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and lipid peroxides, were correlated with chronic value and survival endpoints of P. viridis after chronic exposure to Pb. Biochemical and histological responses to different concentrations of Pb were assessed and significant differences were observed between control and increasing exposure concentrations. Biomarker studies in internal organs confirmed that the observed changes are due to adverse effects of Pb. This assessment of toxicity was the first step to determining the seawater quality criteria for marine organisms. PMID:24588225

  19. In Vivo Inflammatory Effects of Ceria Nanoparticles on CD-1 Mouse: Evaluation by Hematological, Histological, and TEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Anna; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; de Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; De Marzi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The attention on CeO2-NPs environmental and in vivo effects is due to their presence in diesel exhaust and in diesel filters that release a more water-soluble form of ceria NPs, as well as to their use for medical applications. In this work, acute and subacute in vivo toxicity assays demonstrate no lethal effect of these NPs. Anyhow, performing in vivo evaluations on CD-1 mouse systems, we demonstrate that it is even not correct to assert that ceria NPs are harmless for living systems as they can induce status of inflammation, revealed by hematological-chemical-clinical assays as well as histological and TEM microscope observations. TEM analysis showed the presence of NPs in alveolar macrophages. Histological evaluation demonstrated the NPs presence in lungs tissues and this can be explained by assuming their ability to go into the blood stream and lately into the organs (generating inflammation). PMID:25032226

  20. Effect of acute aluminum phosphide exposure on rats: a biochemical and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Anand, R; Kumari, Priyanka; Kaushal, Alka; Bal, Amanjit; Wani, Willayat Y; Sunkaria, Aditya; Dua, Raina; Singh, Surjit; Bhalla, Ashish; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2012-11-23

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP), a widely used fumigant and rodenticide leads to high mortality if ingested. Its toxicity is due to phosphine liberated when it comes in contact with moisture. The exact mechanism of action of phosphine is not known. In this study male Wistar rats were used. The animals received a single dose (20mg AlP/kg body weight i.g.) orally. Basic serum biochemical parameters, activity of mitochondrial complexes, antioxidant enzymes and parameters of oxidative stress, individual mitochondrial cytochrome levels were measured along with tissue histopathology and immunostaining for cytochrome c and compared with controls. The serum levels of creatinine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, magnesium and cortisol were higher (p<0.01); the activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, IV were observed to be significantly decreased in liver tissue in treated rats (p<0.01). The activity of catalase was lower (p<0.05) with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (p<0.05) whereas superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected in them. There was a significant decrease in all the cytochromes in brain and liver tissues (p<0.05) with the exception of cytochrome b in brain, the levels of which remained same. Histopathology revealed congestion in most organs with centrizonal hemorrhagic necrosis in liver. Ultra structural changes indicating mitochondrial injury was observed in heart, liver and kidney tissues. There was also a marked reduction in the cytochrome-c immunostaining compared to the controls. Toxicity due to AlP appears to result as a consequence of both-energy insufficiency and oxidative stress, with a possible and preferential interaction with the tissue cytochromes. PMID:23041170

  1. The relation of birthweight to histological appearances in vessels of the placental bed.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, I R; Price, A B; Geirsson, R T

    1986-05-01

    Biopsy of the placental bed was attempted at caesarean section in 109 patients: 77 consecutive and 32 selected because of the maternal or fetal condition. Forty-seven (44%) of these biopsies were from the placental bed and contained spiral arteries suitable for comment. Histological examination separated the patients into four groups: comprising 11 whose vessels showed normal physiological changes, 20 who showed inadequate physiological change, 12 with acute atherosis, and four with a mixed pattern. There was no relation between these changes and maternal age, parity, race or smoking habit, but no physiological change and atherosis were more common in association with maternal hypertension. Mean adjusted birthweight was greatest in those with physiological changes, less in those without physiological changes or the mixed pattern, and least in those with atherosis. The four patients in the mixed group did not have any unifying clinical characteristics. PMID:3707878

  2. Endoscopic and histological features of mycophenolate mofetil colitis in patients after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Calmet, Fernando H.; Yarur, Andres J.; Pukazhendhi, Geetha; Ahmad, Jawad; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used after organ transplantation. Gastrointestinal side effects occur in approximately 45% of patients. The spectrum of histologic features associated with MMF colitis has been well described, but data on the endoscopic features is lacking. The aim of the study was to describe the endoscopic features of MMF colitis in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) as well as the frequency of histologic features and identify associated risk factors. Methods A retrospective review of all SOTRs taking MMF and who underwent colonoscopy between 2000 and 2010 was performed. 36 cases of MMF colitis were identified and 361 patients served as controls. Descriptive statistics and data analysis looking for associated risk factors were performed. Results Among SOTRs taking MMF who underwent colonoscopy, MMF colitis was diagnosed in 9%. Endoscopic findings ranged from erythema (33%) to erosions/ulcers (19%). 47% of patients had a normal colonoscopy and everyone had rectal sparing. Histological findings included acute colitis-like findings (50%), inflammatory bowel disease-like characteristics (36%), ischemia-like findings (5.6%), and graft-versus-host disease-like features (8.3%). Diarrhea occurred in 83%. Kidney transplantation was associated with a higher risk of MMF colitis (OR 5.8 [2.86-11.86], P<0.0001) whereas liver transplantation was associated with a lower risk (OR 0.06 [0.03-0.16], P<0.0001). Conclusion MMF colitis is fairly prevalent in SOTRs taking MMF who undergo colonoscopy. Diarrhea is the most common reason for colonoscopy referral (83%) and up to 47% of patients have normal colonoscopy, suggesting the need for routine biopsies to help confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26126799

  3. Pathology of flupirtine-induced liver injury: a histological and clinical study of six cases.

    PubMed

    Puls, Florian; Agne, Clemens; Klein, Fritz; Koch, Martin; Rifai, Kinan; Manns, Michael P; Borlak, Jürgen; Kreipe, Hans H

    2011-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury may cause impairment of liver function and is a leading cause of acute liver failure. Identification of the causative substance in patients receiving several drugs is often difficult in clinical practice. Evaluation of liver biopsies in suspected drug-induced injury is a challenging task that requires close clinico-pathological correlation. Recognizing a characteristic morphological pattern of liver injury may contribute to identification of the causative drug. Flupirtine, a non-opioid analgesic, has been reported to cause liver injury of idiosyncratic type in rare instances. We wished to characterize the histopathological features of flupirtine-induced liver injury, which have not been reported so far. Liver biopsies of five patients with severe liver injury and one explanted liver of a patient with flupirtine-induced acute liver failure that required transplantation were assessed. In addition clinical presentation and course were reviewed and clinical follow up was performed. Extensive perivenular necrosis with associated ceroid pigment-laden macrophages and a mild to moderate lymphocytic infiltrate was a common feature in all cases. Histological extent of liver necrosis corresponded well to serum amino-transferase levels. Accidental reexposure of one patient resulted in a plasma cell rich hepatitis with perivenular necrosis. This study provides evidence that flupirtine can cause substantial liver injury of hepatocellular type. Liver damage is associated with a characteristic morphological picture, the recognition of which will aid in causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury. Clinical and histological features raise the possibility of an immune-mediated toxicity. PMID:21590308

  4. Histologic comparison of needle, holmium:YAG, and erbium:YAG endoscopic goniotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui; Rivera, Brian K.; Hernandez, Eleut; Shetlar, Debra J.

    1995-05-01

    An endoscope allows visualization of the anterior chamber angle in porcine eyes despite the presence of cloudy corneas. The pectinate ligaments in the anterior chamber angle are a surgical model for primary infantile glaucoma. This study investigated the histologic results, one month after treating the anterior chamber angle with a goniotomy needle, the holmium:YAG laser, or the erbium:YAG laser coupled to a small endoscope. The anterior chambers were deepened with a viscoelastic material in one-month-old anesthetized pigs. An Olympus 0.8 mm diameter flexible endoscope was externally coupled to a 23 gauge needle or a 300 micron diameter fiber. The angle was treated for 120 degrees by one of the three methods, and the probe was removed. During the acute study, all three methods cut the pectinate ligaments. The histologic findings one month after healing demonstrated minimal surrounding tissue damage following goniotomy with a needle and the most surrounding tissue damage following treatment with the holmium:YAG laser.

  5. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  6. Histology-directed MALDI mass spectrometry for the diagnostic pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hark Kyun; Kim, In-Hoo

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of targeted agents, it has become clinically important to distinguish histologic types of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) using biopsy samples. We investigated whether direct tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis on lipid may classify histology of NSCLCs. Twentyone pairs of frozen, resected NSCLCs were analyzed using histology-directed, MALDI MS. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid were manually deposited on areas of each tissue section enriched in epithelial cells to identify lipid profiles, and mass spectra were acquired using a MALDI-time of flight instrument. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, two major histologic types of NSCLC, were found to have different lipid profiles. Discriminatory lipids correctly classified the histology of 80.4% of independent NSCLC surgical tissue samples (41 out of 51) in validation set, suggesting that lipid profiles can classify NSCLCs according to the histologic type. We also found that protein and lipid MALDI MS profiles can classify 30 breast cancers according to the intrinsic subtypes. Immunohistochemistry-defined, luminal, HER2+, and triple-negative tumors demonstrated different protein and lipid profiles, as evidenced by cross validation P values < 0.01. Discriminatory proteins and lipids classified tumors according to the intrinsic subtype with median prediction accuracies of 80.0-81.3% in 100 random test sets. Potential advantages of this label-free approach may include small tissue requirement, relatively rapid procedure, and low reagent cost. Day-today variation of this technology is also acceptable, with the Pearson correlation of 0.95. Taken together, these results suggest the possible clinical utility of histology-directed, lipid and protein MALDI MS.

  7. [The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].

    PubMed

    Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

    2013-01-01

    In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect. PMID:24003483

  8. Histological changes and wound healing response following noncontact holmium: YAG laser thermal keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, D D

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate acute histological changes and the induced wound healing response in corneal tissue following noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK). METHODS: LTK using 10 pulses and a range of radiant energies was performed on 3 human corneas one day prior ro their removal at penetrating keratoplasty. Rabbit corneas were treated with 10-pulse and 5-pulse LTK and followed for up to 3 months. Tissues were studies with light and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The amount of acute tissue injury increased with increasing pulse radiant energy. In human corneas, changes in the irradiated zones included epithelial cell injury and death loss of fine filamentous structure in Bowman's layer, disruption of stromal lamallae, and keratocyte injury and death. In the rabbit corneas, similar acute changes were noted. By 3 weeks, epithelial hyperplasia and stromal contraction were present. Wound healing in the rabbit corneas included repair of the epithelial attachment complex, keratocyte activation, synthesis of type I collagen, partial restoration of stromal keratan sulfate and type VI collagen, and retrocorneal membrane formation. Compared to 10-pulse treatments, 5-pulse treatments produced less acute tissue injury and had more rapid restoration of normal stromal architecture. CONCLUSION: Noncontact LTK produces acute epithelial and stromal tissue changes and in rabbit corneas stimulates a brisk wound healing response. These changes could contribute to postoperative regression of induced refractive correction. Further work is required to determine if reductions in the magnitude of acute tissue injury and induced wound healing response will enhance the efficacy and stability of LTK. Images FIGURE 1A FIGURE 1B FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 4C FIGURE 4D FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 5D FIGURE 6A FIGURE 6B FIGURE 6C FIGURE 6D FIGURE 7A FIGURE 7B FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 8C FIGURE

  9. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent-onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:22515999

  10. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  11. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  12. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  13. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    PubMed Central

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  14. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology.

    PubMed

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M; Schad, Lothar R; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies. PMID:27306927

  15. Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.

    PubMed

    Beer, Trevor W; Drury, Paul; Heenan, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined. This area experiences high levels of solar radiation, and all assessable biopsies showed solar elastosis. Patients were aged between 41 and 97 years (median age 74), with 76% of tumors occurring in men (male to female ratio approximately 3 to 1). Most tumors were small, with a median diameter of 10 mm and a range of 4-35 mm. Only 5% exceeded 20 mm in diameter. Most AFX were well-circumscribed dermal lesions, with limited invasion of subcutis in a minority. Histological variants identified included keloidal (n = 8), clear cell (n = 3), and granular cell (n = 3), plaque like (n = 4), and myxoid (n = 1). Bland cytological appearances (spindle cell nonpleomorphic AFX) were noted in 5 tumors, with osteoclast-like giant cells in 2. Features suggesting regression were present in 22 cases. Two cases recurred locally, none metastasized. No tumors expressed melanocytic or epithelial markers. Seventy-four percent of cases expressed smooth muscle actin, typically strongly and diffusely. No AFX stained with desmin. Only 1 of 50 cases was CD117 positive. In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis. Histological mimics, such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, must be carefully excluded. Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology. PMID:20526171

  16. Multi-class texture analysis in colorectal cancer histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Bianconi, Francesco; Melchers, Susanne M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Automatic recognition of different tissue types in histological images is an essential part in the digital pathology toolbox. Texture analysis is commonly used to address this problem; mainly in the context of estimating the tumour/stroma ratio on histological samples. However, although histological images typically contain more than two tissue types, only few studies have addressed the multi-class problem. For colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent tumour types, there are in fact no published results on multiclass texture separation. In this paper we present a new dataset of 5,000 histological images of human colorectal cancer including eight different types of tissue. We used this set to assess the classification performance of a wide range of texture descriptors and classifiers. As a result, we found an optimal classification strategy that markedly outperformed traditional methods, improving the state of the art for tumour-stroma separation from 96.9% to 98.6% accuracy and setting a new standard for multiclass tissue separation (87.4% accuracy for eight classes). We make our dataset of histological images publicly available under a Creative Commons license and encourage other researchers to use it as a benchmark for their studies.

  17. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2016-01-01

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness. PMID:26493433

  18. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  19. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  20. Syphilitic lymphadenitis clinically and histologically mimicking lymphogranuloma venereum.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Annesu; Bamford, Colleen; Lewis, David; Martini, Markus; Wainwright, Helen

    2016-01-01

    An inguinal lymph node was discovered incidentally during surgery for a suspected strangulated inguinal hernia. The patient had recently been treated for candidal balanoposthitis and was known to have a paraphimosis. A new foreskin ulcer was discovered when he was admitted for the hernia surgery. The lymph node histology showed stellate abscesses suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Chlamydial serologic tests were negative. As the histological appearance and clinical details provided were thought to suggest LGV, tissue was also sent for a real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction assay. This was used to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunction with other genital ulcer-related pathogens. The assay was negative for C. trachomatis, but positive for Treponema pallidum. Further histochemical staining of the histological specimen confirmed the presence of spirochaetes. PMID:27138664

  1. Intestinal Preparation Techniques for Histological Analysis in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan M; Duckworth, Carrie A; Vowell, Kate; Burkitt, Michael D; Pritchard, D Mark

    2016-01-01

    The murine intestinal tract represents a difficult organ system to study due to its long convoluted tubular structure, narrow diameter, and delicate mucosa which undergoes rapid changes after sampling prior to fixation. These features do not make for easy histological analysis as rapid fixation in situ, or after simple removal without careful dissection, results in poor postfixation tissue handling and limited options for high quality histological sections. Collecting meaningful quantitative data by analysis of this tissue is further complicated by the anatomical changes in structure along its length. This article describes two methods of intestinal sampling at necropsy that allow systematic histological analysis of the entire intestinal tract, either through examination of cross sections (circumferences) by the gut bundling technique or longitudinal sections by the adapted Swiss roll technique, together with basic methods for data collection. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27248432

  2. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour. PMID:26258698

  3. Porokeratosis ptychotropica: a rare manifestation with typical histological exam.

    PubMed

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Lellis, Rute Facchini; Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Manzione, Thiago da Silveira; Rodrigues, Maria Clarissa de Faria Soares

    2016-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized clinically by a distinctive ridge-like border, and histologically by cornoid lamellae. The known clinical variants of porokeratosis are: classic porokeratosis of Mibelli, disseminated superficial (actinic) porokeratosis (DSAP), porokeratosis palmaris et plantaris disseminata, linear porokeratosis and punctate porokeratosis. In 1995, a seventh form was described as porokeratosis ptychotropica: a verrucous form resembling psoriasis involving the gluteal cleft presenting on the histological exam multiple cornoid lamellae. There are very few reports in the literature of this clinical variant. The present study describes the case of a healthy male presenting gluteal hyperkeratotic plaques for 22 years. He had been to several dermatologists, none of them had achieved a definitive diagnosis. We present a typical clinical presentation and its dermoscopy findings, in addition to histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27579746

  4. Acute pain.

    PubMed

    Good, M

    1999-01-01

    The review of acute pain describes the problem of unresolved pain and its effects on the neural, autonomic, and immune systems. Conceptualizations and mechanisms of pain are reviewed as well as theories of pain management. Descriptive studies of patient and nurse factors that inhibit effective pain management are discussed, followed by studies of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. Critical analysis reveals that most studies were atheoretical, and therefore, this proliferation of information lacked conceptual coherence and organization. Furthermore, the nature and extent of barriers to pain management were described, but few intervention studies have been devised, as yet, to modify the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of nurses and patients that are barriers to pain management. Although some of the complementary therapies have sufficient research support to be used in clinical pain management, the physiological mechanisms and outcomes need to be studied. It is critical at this time to design studies of interventions to improve assessment, decision making, attentive care, and patient teaching. PMID:10418655

  5. Chronic histological effects of ultrasonic hyperthermia on normal feline brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B E; Obana, W G; Borcich, J K; Kleinman, R; Singh, D; Britt, R H

    1986-05-01

    The histopathological changes associated with ultrasonic heating of normal cat brain have been correlated with thermal distributions. Ultrasound energy was applied for 50 min at different intensities to generate tissue temperatures from 42 to 48 degrees C. Animals were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 56 days. The organization and resolution of thermal damage was characterized by three stages of histopathological changes within the nervous tissue. The acute stage (Days 1-3) was defined by (1) extensive coagulation necrosis, (2) pyknosis of neuronal elements in the gray matter, (3) edema and vacuolation in the white matter, and (4) polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The subacute stage (Days 3-21) was characterized by (1) the appearance of lipid-laden macrophages, (2) liquefaction of the necrotic regions, (3) fibroblastic proliferation, and (4) vascular proliferation with some perivascular inflammatory infiltration (lymphocytes). Lastly, the chronic stage (Days 21-56) was defined by (1) fibrosis (reticulin and collagen formation) and (2) gliosis (reactive astrocytic proliferation) occurring around the fluid-filled necrotic center. Analysis of these data has also included a study of the lesion size versus the dose (temperature for 50 min) of heating. The results demonstrate a significant linear dose-response correlation. The results of this study indicate that the histological appearance and time course of repair of thermal injury in the normal brain tissue are analogous to acute brain necrosis resulting from cerebral infarction, except the thermal damage does not result in significant hemorrhage. PMID:3704114

  6. Biochemical and histological changes in rat liver caused by cypermethrin and beta-cyfluthrin.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Brijender; Saxena, Prabhu N; Saxena, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Cypermethrin and beta-cyfluthrin are two most widely used multipurpose pyrethroids. After determining their oral LD50 (416.98 mg kg-1 and 354.8 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively), we assessed their hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats following acute (0.1 LD50 for 1 day) and sub-acute (0.1 LD50 for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days) poisoning. The assessment was based on hepatic marker enzymes AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. AST, ALT, LDH, total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, and free fatty acids in hepatic homogenate increased following pyrethroid stress. In contrast, hepatic proteins, glycogen, and ALP activity decreased due to lysis of structural proteins and leakage of enzymes into the blood stream. Biochemical data were consistent with histological alterations (cytoplasmic vacuolisation, nuclear polymorphism, eccentric nucleus, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and sinusoidal dilation). Comparatively greater hepatocellular damage was noted in beta-cyfluthrin than in cypermethrin-treated rats, which is probably related to the fluorine atom in beta-cyfluthrin. PMID:23612525

  7. Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: from histological to molecular assessment.

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Chibon, Frédéric; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Several histological grading systems for soft tissue sarcomas have been described since the early 1980s. Their main objective is to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. Two histological grading systems are used in daily practice, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) systems. They have been devised by combining histological parameters: number of mitoses per high-power field, the presence of necrosis, cellular and nuclear morphology and the degree of cellularity for the NCI grading; and tumour differentiation, mitotic index and extent of necrosis for the French system. Histological grading is far more appropriate to assess the risk of metastasis. However, several limitations prevent its use: grade cannot be applied to all histological types, its reproducibility is not perfect, a three-grade system generates an intermediate grade with undetermined prognosis, and finally the core needle biopsy, now widely used for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, is not the best sample to assess the grade. The development of molecular grading in addition to histological grading probably represents the next step. Molecular signatures based on quantitative evaluation of chromosomal complexity such as CINSARC (complexity index in sarcomas) appear as a strong independent predictive factor for metastasis in several types of sarcoma, and even in several other types of cancer. When they can be instituted in daily practice on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material, molecular signatures will not only provide information on risk of metastasis, but also better understanding of cancer development, response or resistance to evaluated drugs, and potential targets for future treatments. PMID:24378389

  8. Comprehensive histologic analysis of ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Nakamura, Harumi; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Asamura, Hisao; Sekine, Ikuo; Fukayama, Masashi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    A subset (1% to 5%) of non-small-cell lung carcinomas harbors the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Data from previous studies on the histomorphology of ALK-rearranged lung cancer are inconsistent, and the specific histologic parameters that characterize this subset and how accurately such parameters predict underlying ALK abnormality remain uncertain. To answer these questions, we performed a comprehensive histologic analysis of 54 surgically resected, extensively sampled ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas and compared them with 100 consecutive resections of ALK-wild-type lung cancers. All 54 cases showed at least a focal adenocarcinoma component, and 3 and 2 cases had additional squamous and sarcomatoid differentiation, respectively. Solid or acinar growth pattern, cribriform structure, presence of mucous cells (signet-ring cells or goblet cells), abundant extracellular mucus, lack of lepidic growth, and lack of significant nuclear pleomorphism were more common in ALK-positive cancers. Two recognizable constellations of findings, a solid signet-ring cell pattern and a mucinous cribriform pattern, were present at least focally in the majority (78%) of ALK-positive tumors, but were rare (1%) in ALK-negative tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that a combination of these 2 patterns was the most powerful histologic indicator of ALK rearrangement. Characteristic histologies were present both in primary sites and in metastases. Thus, histologic findings may help to identify cases for ALK testing. However, none of the histologic parameters were completely sensitive or specific to ALK rearrangement, and histomorphology should not replace confirmatory molecular or immunohistochemical studies. ALK-positive cancers commonly showed coexpression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and p63, and its significance is currently unclear. PMID:21753699

  9. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Histology showed that the muscle tissue divided by the POEM procedure was completely replaced by fibrosis. These findings may indirectly show the permanence of the POEM procedure. PMID:26752956

  10. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Histology showed that the muscle tissue divided by the POEM procedure was completely replaced by fibrosis. These findings may indirectly show the permanence of the POEM procedure. PMID:26752956

  11. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  12. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  13. [Modified histological methods using a nuclear dye gallocyanine].

    PubMed

    Zadorozhnyĭ, V V

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that a nuclear stain; gallocyanine, be used simultaneously with the three main histological staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Van-Gieson's, and Nissl' stainings. This modification is technically simple, gives preparations of a high quality, and is time- and labour-saving. PMID:6186229

  14. Evaluation of Virtual Microscopy in Medical Histology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication…

  15. Partial hydatidiform mole: histologic parameters in correlation with DNA genotyping.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Histologic diagnosis of partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) continues to be problematic, and DNA genotyping has recently become cost-effective for precise separation of PHM from its mimics. We performed a comprehensive reevaluation of histologic parameters of PHM in correlation with DNA genotyping. A total of 143 early abortion specimens were subjected to genotyping as part of the routine workup, resulting in 60 cases of PHM, 52 cases of various chromosomal trisomies, and 31 cases of nonmolar diploid gestations. All available hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed retrospectively by 2 gynecologic pathologists blinded to the genotyping results. Significant histologic overlaps were present among genetically confirmed PHM, hydropic abortions, and chromosomal trisomy syndromes. The following morphologic parameters emerged with diagnostic significance for PHM: villus size, presence of 2 villous populations, round or oval pseudoinclusions, at least moderate villous hydrops, cistern formation, and trophoblastic hyperplasia. The most sensitive morphologic features for PHM included villous hydrops (86% sensitivity) or the presence of at least 1 of the following 3 parameters: 2 villous populations, round or oval pseudoinclusions, and cisterns (84% sensitivity). The presence of cisterns and villous size ≥2.5 mm had the highest positive predictive value (90%) for PHM. In conclusion, no single or combined morphologic features are sufficient for definitive diagnosis of PHM. The presence of any one of the following histologic findings should prompt DNA genotyping workup to rule out PHM: round or oval pseudoincludions, cistern formation, 2 populations of villi, and a villous size of ≥2.5 mm. PMID:23518914

  16. HISTOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF HEPATIC NEOPLASIA IN RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    The histological progression of hepatic neoplasia has not been as systematically studied in rainbow trout as it has been in rodents. Two putative preneoplastic lesions have been identified, the eosinophilic focus and the basophilic focus, but whether these correspond to similar l...

  17. Early Renal Histological Changes in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Nasiri, Ebrahim; Shafi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease. Most investigators have focused on glomerular changes in diabetic kidney and non-glomerular alterations have been less attended. The present study has been conducted to find early non-glomerular histological changes in diabetic renal tissue. Twenty male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were used for the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single injection of Alloxan. After 8 weeks, paraffin embedded blocks of kidneys were prepared for evaluating the histological changes due to diabetes. Histological study showed the deposit of eosinophilic materials in the intermediate substantial of medulla and thickening of renal arterial wall in the kidney of 70% of diabetic rats. The average weight of kidneys increased when compared to non diabetic animals. Furthermore, the amount of blood flow in arteries of all diabetic kidneys has been enhanced. The present study demonstrates some early renal histological changes in diabetes mellitus which were earlier compared to those reported previously. Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive disease and renal care design can help better prognosis achievement. PMID:24551816

  18. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  19. Could nitric oxide be a mediator of action of oxytocin on myocardial injury in rats? (Biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical study).

    PubMed

    Hussien, Noha I; Mousa, Ayman M

    2016-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT) was revisited recently as a hormone of cardiovascular system with several new functions in cardiovascular regulation. But less is known about its role in acute myocardial injury (MI). The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of OT on the biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical changes of MI induced by isoprenaline (ISO) in adult male albino rats and studying the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in its action. Forty male albino rats were divided into 5 groups: control rats (Group I), acute MI rats (Group II), rats pretreated with OT prior to induction of MI (Group III), rats injected with a combination of OT and atosiban (ATO, OT receptor antagonist) prior to induction of MI (Group IV). In Group V, a combination of OT and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) were injected to the rats prior to induction of MI. The heart wall in all groups were taken and processed for histological, immunohistochemical, morphometrical and biochemical studies. We concluded that OT has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on MI and its effects is mediated through NO. PMID:27226256

  20. Histological and histometrical evidences for phenol immunotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Louei Monfared, Ali; Jaafari, Afsaneh; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Phenol is a common industrial and ubiquitous environmental chemical which is used to synthesize resins and plastics. Due to its anesthetic and disinfectant properties, phenol is also widely used in pharmaceutical products. Since there were no adequate data about phenol immunotoxicity, the purpose of the present study is to investigate its toxic effects on the histological structures of the lymphoid organs in the mice. A total of 80 mice were randomly distributed into one control group and three experimental groups. The control group received only distilled water, whereas experimental groups were orally administered phenol at the concentrations of 80, 180, and 320 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 28 consecutive days, tissue samples were taken and histological changes of the spleens, thymuses, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes were examined using optical microscopy. The results showed that in the phenol treated animals; splenic megakaryocyte counts increased, the diameter of the splenic follicles decreased, the thymocyte population in both cortex and medulla reduced, the thickness of the reticular layers of adrenal gland increased and lymphatic cells populations in the lymph node were reduced, significantly (P < 0.01). Also, remarkable histological changes were noted in the various lymphatic organs of the treated mice. Overall, present findings give some histological evidences that selected qualitative and quantitative parameters of the lymphatic organs were significantly altered by phenol administration. In conclusion, the significant decreases of the immune cell populations together with histological alterations in the immunocompetent organs of the mice exposed to phenol indicate the immunosuppressive and immunotoxic properties of this chemical material. PMID:24829551

  1. Histological examination has a major impact on macroscopic necropsy diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, F D C; Saldiva, P H N; Mauad, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: Necropsy is the gold standard for clinicopathological discrepancy studies and epidemiological surveys. Inadequate sampling or lack of tissue may hamper the final interpretation and quality of the necropsy. Aim: To compare the histological and gross necropsy diagnoses of different organs. Methods: A retrospective comparison of the provisional reports (gross findings only) and the final reports (after histological examination) of the necropsies performed at the department of pathology of the Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University, Brazil, a large tertiary care complex, in 2001. The total number of diagnoses listed for the lungs, heart, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and spleen were calculated. Findings were categorised into concordant/refined diagnosis, discordant/additional diagnosis, histology needed, and inconclusive. Results: Three hundred and seventy one postmortem reports were analysed. There were 214 men and 157 women, with a mean age of 50.3 years, ranging from 1 to 92. The lung received the highest number (954) and the pancreas the lowest number (390) of diagnoses. The highest frequencies of discrepancies between the gross and microscopic findings were found in the lung and the liver: 38.7% and 35.1%, respectively. The brain had the lowest frequency of discrepancies. In a small number of cases, the final diagnosis could only be achieved through microscopic analysis, with the highest frequency being found in the kidneys (8.5%). Conclusions: Histological analysis has a major impact on previously performed gross diagnosis at necropsy, especially in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Adequate sampling and histological analysis are important for necropsy quality. PMID:16311344

  2. Torsion of epiploic appendage mimic acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Pogorelić, Zenon; Stipić, Radoslav; Druzijanić, Nikica; Perko, Zdravko; Grandić, Leo; Vilović, Katarina; Mrklić, Ivana; Jurić, Ivo; Boschi, Vladimir; Bekavac, Josip

    2011-12-01

    Epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of focal abdominal pain which, depending on its localisation, can mimic a variety of abdominal diseases. We report a case of 36-year-old woman who presented with a classic signs of acute appendicitis. On examination, the obese, afebrile, and had very strong right iliac fossa tenderness and guarding. The white cell count was 12.82 x 10(9)/L, and C reactive protein count was 15.13MG/DL. She underwent emergency laparoscopic procedure after the acute appendicitis diagnosis has been established. Laparoscopic exploration of the abdominal cavity showed vermiform, no inflamed, appendix and necrotic appendix epiploica of the caecum. The treatment consisted of typical laparoscopic appendectomy and laparoscopic resection of the necrotic appendix epiploica. The patient made rapid recovery and was discharged from the hospital on second day after the operation. Histological investigation of the appendix epiploica revealed gangrenous epiploic appendage. PMID:22397276

  3. Both Acute and Chronic Placental Inflammation Are Overrepresented in Term Stillbirths: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hulthén Varli, Ingela; Petersson, Karin; Kublickas, Marius; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To elucidate differences in the frequency and severity of acute chorioamnionitis (CAM) and chronic villitis in placentas from stillborns compared with liveborns at term and to evaluate other risk factors and placental findings. Design. Case-control study. Setting. All delivery wards in major Stockholm area. Population or Sample. Placentas from stillborn/case (n = 126) and liveborn/control (n = 273) neonates were prospectively collected between 2002 and 2005. Methods. CAM was assessed on a three-grade scale based on the presence and distribution of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the chorion/amnion. The presence of vasculitis and funisitis was recorded separately. Chronic villitis was diagnosed by the presence of mononuclear cells in the villous stroma. Relevant clinical data were collected from a specially constructed, web-based database. The statistic analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression. Results. CAM (especially severe, AOR: 7.39 CI: 3.05–17.95), villous immaturity (AOR: 7.17 CI: 2.66–19.33), villitis (<1 % AOR: 4.31 CI: 1.16–15.98; ≥1 %, AOR: 3.87 CI: 1.38–10.83), SGA (AOR: 7.52 CI: 3.06–18.48), and BMI >24.9 (AOR: 2.06 CI: 1.21–3.51) were all connected to an elevated risk of term stillbirth. Conclusions. We found that CAM, chronic villitis, villous immaturity, SGA, and maternal overweight, but not vasculitis or funisitis are independently associated with risk for stillbirth at term. PMID:22966214

  4. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Some haematological, biochemical and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-04-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the nanoalumina toxicity on the histological architecture, some haematological and biochemical aspects in male albino rats, during acute and sublethal experiments. Rats, in acute experiments, were injected with a single-acute dose of 3.9 g or 6.4 g or 8.5 g of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) kg(-) (1), whereas those of sublethal were injected with 1.3 g of Al2O3 kg(-) (1)2 days(-) (1) One-way analysis of variance indicated that injected doses and the experimental periods were significantly affected by haemoglobin (Hb) content; haematocrit value (Hct); white blood cell (WBC) count; blood platelet (Plt) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC). In acute experiments, Hct, WBC count, MCV and Plt were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, whereas Hb, MCH and MCHC markedly decreased. In comparison with the related controls after 1, 3 and 7 days post-injection, red blood cell count, Hb, Hct, WBC count, Plt and MCV were significantly increased, but begun to decrease after 14 or/and 28 days and were associated with a marked decrease in MCH and MCHC. In serum of rats injected with acute or sublethal dose, the concentrations of total protein (TP) and total lipid (TL) were significantly lesser than the corresponding controls, whereas the levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased. The injected doses were directly proportional with all the studied biochemical parameter, except the TL and TP that exhibited a negative correlation. Histologically, the highest acute and sublethal doses of nanoalumina caused hepatic irregular disarray, necrosis to the hepatic and Kupffer cells that are associated with congested blood sinusoids. The renal tissues characterized by the appearance of inter-tubular congestion that is accompanied by the dilation of the vascular glomeruli that completely occupied Bowman

  5. Selective Exposure of the Fetal Lung and Skin/Amnion (but Not Gastro-Intestinal Tract) to LPS Elicits Acute Systemic Inflammation in Fetal Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Cox, Tom; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis. PMID:23691033

  6. Maxillo-ethmoidal chloroma in acute myeloid leukaemia: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, E; Minotto, C; Ianniello, F; Cavaleri, S; Armato, E; Capuzzo, P

    2005-01-01

    Summary Chloroma, also called Granulocytic Sarcoma or Myeloid Sarcoma, is a rare malignant extra-medullary neoplasm of myeloid precursor cells. It is usually associated with myeloproliferative disorders but its appearance may precede the onset of leukaemia. Chloroma may be found in several extracranial sites. Involvement of the head and neck region is uncommon. Differential diagnosis is often difficult and includes acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, large cell NHL, lymphoblastic lymphoma and Ewing’s sarcoma. The case is presented of a maxillo-ethmoidal chloroma occurring in a case of poor prognosis acute myeloid leukaemia, emphasizing the clinical and cyto-histological features and problems concerning differential diagnosis. PMID:16450777

  7. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by piroxicam: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Y; Jallouli, Moez; Mseddi, M; Turki, H; Bahloul, Z

    2014-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe adverse cutaneous reaction characterized by an acute episode of sterile pustules over erythematous-edematous skin. The main triggering drugs are antibiotics, mainly beta-lactam and macrolides. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs may rarely be responsible. We describe a case of a woman with AGEP, who presented with generalized pustulosis lesions after the use of piroxicam for renal colic. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical and histological correlations and the dermatosis resolved after withdrawal of the drug. PMID:24741202

  8. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  9. Histological and Morphometric Analyses for Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tulis, David Anthony

    2010-01-01

    i. Summary Experiments aimed at analyzing the response of blood vessels to mechanical injury and ensuing remodeling responses often employ the highly characterized carotid artery balloon injury model in laboratory rats. This approach utilizes luminal insertion of a balloon embolectomy catheter into the common carotid artery with inflation and withdrawal resulting in an injury characterized by vascular endothelial cell (EC) denudation and medial wall distension. The adaptive response to this injury is typified by robust vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) replication and migration, SMC apoptosis and necrosis, enhanced synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, partial vascular EC regeneration from the border zones, luminal narrowing and establishment of a neointima in time-dependent fashion. Evaluation of these adaptive responses to blood vessel injury can include acute and longer-term qualitative and quantitative measures including expression analyses, activity assays, immunostaining for a plethora of factors and signals, and morphometry of neointima formation and gross mural remodeling. This chapter presents a logical continuation of Chapter    in this series that offers details for performing the rat carotid artery balloon injury model in a standard laboratory setting by providing commonly used protocols for performing histological and morphometric analyses in such studies. Moreover, procedures, caveats, and considerations included in this chapter are highly relevant for alternative animal vascular physiology/pathophysiology studies and in particular those related to mechanisms of vascular injury and repair. Included in this chapter are specifics for in situ perfusion-fixation, tissue harvesting and processing for both snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded protocols, specimen embedding and sectioning, slide preparation, several standard histological staining steps, and routine morphological assessment. Included in Notes are important caveats

  10. Maxillary sinus grafting with fresh frozen allograft versus bovine bone mineral: A tomographic and histological study.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Samuel Porfirio; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Sehn, Felipe Perraro; Silva, Erick Ricardo; Garcez-Filho, João de Andrade; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated histologically and tomographically the effects of fresh frozen bone allograft (FFB) or bovine bone mineral (BBM) in maxillary sinus floor augmentations. In total, 30 maxillary sinuses from 30 patients (mean age = 51.17 ± 10.86 years) underwent sinus augmentation. Patients were divided in two test groups (15 sinuses each). The first group was grafted with allograft bone, and the second group received bovine bone mineral. After 6 months, bone samples from each group were collected for histological examination. Implant survival rates were 97.78% (FFB group) and 100% (BBM group) 6 months after functional loading. Median volumetric reductions of 31.2% (11.33-40.56) and 12.22% (9.91-20.59) were observed in the FFB and BBM groups, respectively. Comparisons between the groups for differences in initial and final volumes of bone (p = 0.015) and the rate of resorption (p = 0.009) showed statistically significant differences. The FFB group showed osteoblastic cells in close contact with osteoid matrix, connected through bridges between allograft bone particles and new bone formation. The BBM group showed BBM particles in close contact with new bone, with visible osteoid matrix bridges and osteoblastic cells surrounding it. None showed signs of acute or chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Despite better results with BBM, both FFB and BBM in maxillary sinus augmentation resulted in high percentages of new bone formation, and allowed implant placement with a low rate of failure of osseointegration at a 6-month follow-up. PMID:27107475

  11. Primed Mycobacterial Uveitis (PMU): Histologic and Cytokine Characterization of a Model of Uveitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pepple, Kathryn L.; Rotkis, Lauren; Van Grol, Jennifer; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Lam, Deborah L.; Carlson, Eric; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic features and cytokine profiles of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and a primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU) model in rats. Methods In Lewis rats, EAU was induced by immunization with interphotoreceptor binding protein peptide, and PMU was induced by immunization with a killed mycobacterial extract followed by intravitreal injection of the same extract. Clinical course, histology, and the cytokine profiles of the aqueous and vitreous were compared using multiplex bead fluorescence immunoassays. Results Primed mycobacterial uveitis generates inflammation 2 days after intravitreal injection and resolves spontaneously 14 days later. CD68+ lymphocytes are the predominant infiltrating cells and are found in the anterior chamber, surrounding the ciliary body and in the vitreous. In contrast to EAU, no choroidal infiltration or retinal destruction is noted. At the day of peak inflammation, C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10), IL-1β, IL-18, and leptin were induced in the aqueous of both models. Interleukin-6 was induced 2-fold in the aqueous of PMU but not EAU. Cytokines elevated in the aqueous of EAU exclusively include regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemokine (GRO/KC), VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and IL-17A. In the vitreous, CXCL10, GRO/KC, RANTES, and MIP-1α were elevated in both models. Interleukin-17A and IL-18 were elevated exclusively in EAU. Conclusions Primed mycobacterial uveitis generates an acute anterior and intermediate uveitis without retinal involvement. Primed mycobacterial uveitis has a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile compared with EAU, suggesting PMU is a good complementary model for study of immune-mediated uveitis. CXCL10, a proinflammatory cytokine, was increased in the aqueous and

  12. Computer-aided Image Processing of Angiogenic Histological

    PubMed Central

    Sprindzuk, Matvey; Dmitruk, Alexander; Kovalev, Vassili; Bogush, Armen; Tuzikov, Alexander; Liakhovski, Victor; Fridman, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the questions regarding the image evaluation of angiogeneic histological samples, particularly the ovarian epithelial cancer. Review is focused on the principles of image analysis in the field of histology and pathology. The definition, classification, pathogenesis and angiogenesis regulation in the ovaries are also briefly discussed. It is hoped that the complex image analysis together with the patient’s clinical parameters will allow an acquiring of a clear pathogenic picture of the disease, extension of the differential diagnosis and become a useful tool for the evaluation of drug effects. The challenge of the assessment of angiogenesis activity is the heterogeneity of several objects: parameters derived from patient’s anamnesis as well as of pathology samples. The other unresolved problems are the subjectivity of the region of interest selection and performance of the whole slide scanning. Keywords Angiogenesis; Image processing; Microvessel density; Cancer; Pathology PMID:22481986

  13. Interactive histology of large-scale biomedical image stacks.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Schneider, Jens; Turney, Stephen G; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Meyer, Dominik; Westermann, Rüdiger; Reid, R Clay; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2010-01-01

    Histology is the study of the structure of biological tissue using microscopy techniques. As digital imaging technology advances, high resolution microscopy of large tissue volumes is becoming feasible; however, new interactive tools are needed to explore and analyze the enormous datasets. In this paper we present a visualization framework that specifically targets interactive examination of arbitrarily large image stacks. Our framework is built upon two core techniques: display-aware processing and GPU-accelerated texture compression. With display-aware processing, only the currently visible image tiles are fetched and aligned on-the-fly, reducing memory bandwidth and minimizing the need for time-consuming global pre-processing. Our novel texture compression scheme for GPUs is tailored for quick browsing of image stacks. We evaluate the usability of our viewer for two histology applications: digital pathology and visualization of neural structure at nanoscale-resolution in serial electron micrographs. PMID:20975179

  14. Histologic diagnoses of tissues from two nineteenth century Habsburgs.

    PubMed

    Józsa, László G

    2008-03-01

    This study describes the histological alterations of the internal organs of Prince Joseph Habsburg (1776-1847) and his first wife, Alexandra Pavlovna Romanova (1783-1801). Both corpses were mummified and the internal organs were stored separately in rosemary oil, in metal vessels. Royal Prince Joseph Habsburg died on 13 January 1847. The microscopic study confirms focal subacute glomerulonephritis (type Berg) with IgA precipitate on the glomerular mesangium and Bowmann's capsule. To the best of this author's knowledge, this is the first case in the paleopathological literature in which the subacute IgA glomerulonephritis could be confirmed immunohistochemically. Gout (urate nephropathy), severe arteriosclerosis, prostate adenoma and purulent prostatitis could also be diagnosed. The Prince's first wife, Alexandra Pavlovna Romanova, died in childbirth at age 18 years, along with her newborn daughter. Histological examination of Alexandra's organs revealed severe fibrocaseous and miliary tuberculosis, with dissemination to the lymph nodes, liver and spleen. PMID:18831390

  15. Osgood Schlatter lesion: histologic features of slipped anterior tibial tubercle.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, F; Giordano, M; Aulisa, A G; Poggiaroni, A; Guzzanti, V

    2011-01-01

    No study reports the histological features of the various zone of the anterior tubercle of the tibia in the different stages of the Osgood-Schlatter (O-S) lesion. For this reason we carried on an histological study. Specimens were taken from 13 patients with O-S lesion prior to surgery. In 4 cases in the apophyseal stage lesions were present in an altered fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. In 9 cases in the epiphyseal stage varying degrees of reparative tissues were observed in the bed of the fragment of the secondary ossification centre. In 3 of them a zone of lesion was observed within the fibrocartilage anterior to the ossification centre. These results suggest that the slippage of the patellar tendon insertion may be progressive and caused by pathological fibrocartilage. PMID:21669134

  16. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  17. Histologic and temperature alterations induced by skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Dzubow, L M

    1985-05-01

    The histologic alterations induced by spray refrigerants independent of and in combination with dermabrasion were studied with the use of the domestic pig as a model. Tissue injury was found to be a function of spray duration and freeze intensity. Both preabrasion freezing and postabrasion refreezing could produce damage additive to that of mechanical planing. Skin surface and intradermal temperature variations during refrigeration were recorded. The possible implications of these findings as they pertain to clinical dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:4008684

  18. Remote histology learning from static versus dynamic microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized. Digitized microscopy images can be presented in either a static or dynamic format. This study of remote histology education identifies whether dynamic pictures are superior to static images for the acquisition of histological knowledge. Test results of two cohorts of second-year Bachelor in Medicine students at Ghent University were analyzed in two consecutive academic years: Cohort 1 (n = 190) and Cohort 2 (n = 174). Students in Cohort 1 worked with static images whereas students in Cohort 2 were presented with dynamic images. ANCOVA was applied to study differences in microscopy performance scores between the two cohorts, taking into account any possible initial differences in prior knowledge. The results show that practical histology scores are significantly higher with dynamic images as compared to static images (F (1,361) = 15.14, P < 0.01), regardless of student's gender and performance level. Several reasons for this finding can be explained in accordance with cognitivist learning theory. Since the findings suggest that knowledge construction with dynamic pictures is stronger as compared to static images, dynamic images should be introduced in a remote setting for microscopy education. Further implementation within a larger electronic learning management system needs to be explored in future research. Anat Sci Educ 9: 222-230. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26441000

  19. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  20. Renal histology in diabetic nephropathy: A novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahay, M; Mahankali, R K; Ismal, K; Vali, P S; Sahay, R K; Swarnalata, G

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction. PMID:25097335

  1. Effect of hyaluronan on periodontitis: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Gontiya, Gauri; Galgali, Sushama R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conventional, non-surgical periodontal therapy consists of supra- and subgingival tooth debridement. However, it is a technically demanding procedure and is not always efficient at eradicating all periodontal pathogens and in reducing inflammation. Therefore, local subgingival application of other chemotherapeutic agents may be used as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological outcomes of local subgingival application of 0.2% hyaluronic acid gel (GENGIGEL®) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty sites were chosen from 26 patients with chronic periodontitis (criteria being periodontal pockets ≥5mm). Experimental sites additionally received HA gel subgingivally at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week. Clinical parameters were re-assessed at 4th, 6th, and 12th week. At 4th week recall, a gingival biopsy was obtained from test and control site for histologic examination. Results: Intra-group analysis of all the clinical parameters at all sites from baseline to 4th, 6th, and 12th week showed statistically significant changes. Experimental sites showed statistically significant improvement in Gingival index and Bleeding index at 6th and 12th week when compared with control sites. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the PPD and RAL between control and experimental sites at 4th, 6th, and 12th week time interval. No statistically significant association was found between the histological grading of the sites that received HA treatment. Conclusion: Subgingival placement of 0.2% HA gel along with SRP provided a significant improvement in gingival parameters. However, no additional benefit was found in periodontal parameters. Histologically, experimental sites showed reduced inflammatory infiltrate, but it was not statistically significant. PMID:23055583

  2. [Epidemiologic aspects of the histologic types of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J; Matthäi, C; Wilde, J

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed in the county of Erfurt including all lung cancer patients of the years 1963, 1968, and 1972 to 1977, together 2,585 males and 358 females. The following results were found: 1. The incidence of lung cancer increased significantly from 1963 to 1977. 2. About 60% of all lung cancer patients were younger than 70 years. 3. In male patients squamous cell carcinomas prevailed with 44.8%. Small cell cancers came up to 34.6% and adenocarcinomas to 10.1%. Large cell cancers reached 10.5%. These types in female patients had a proportion to each other like 26.9%: 30.8%: 30.4%: 11.9%. The proportion of adenocarcinomas increased significantly during 1963 to 1977. 4. We found a non significant age relation of histological types. The adenocarcinoma and the small cell cancers dropped with rising age. 5. The classification of histological types and the conditions of detection of lung cancers did not change in the study interval. Therefore the altering of patterns of histological types, especially the increase of adenocarcinomas was attached to the beginning of cigarette smoking in younger ages and the increasing proportion of filter tipped brands as well to a variation of exposition against professional cancerogens. 6. Patients with adenocarcinomas have the highest survival rate after 5 years: 8.1%. Squamous cell lung cancer patients have a 5 year survival rate of 6.8%. Patients with small cell cancers and large cell cancers ranged at 2.7% or 2.6%. 7. Peripheral tumors of each histological type will be detected earlier by fluorographic screening than central carcinomas. Therefore the 5 year survival rates of peripheral cancers always are more favourable than that of central cancers. 8. For the problems in exact typing and staging we propose an internationally adjusted definition of tumor localization as a third parameter for prognosis. PMID:2171236

  3. Histology of the cricothyroid membrane: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Felicia, Christilda

    2014-01-01

    Puncture of the cricothyroid membrane is a component of several clinical procedures. Among the several complications are the immediate risk of bleeding, long-term risk of subglottic stenosis and hoarseness of voice. Presence of blood vessels in the cricothyroid membrane has also been implicated in the extra-laryngeal spread of laryngeal cancers. Though various authors have described the attachments of the cricothyroid membrane, very few have studied its histology. We studied the histology of the cricothyroid membrane using hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's trichrome and Verhoeff's special stain. The cricothyroid membrane was found to be continuous on its deeper aspect with the mucosa of the subglottic larynx and lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The membrane was observed to be fibroelastic, containing equal proportions of collagen and elastic fibers and numerous fibroblast nuclei. Numerous blood vessels are seen traversing through the membrane, which probably connect intralaryngeal with other extralaryngeal vessels. These histological findings help to further understand the complications of cricothyroidotomy and spread of laryngeal cancer. PMID:24533406

  4. Histological/biological characterization of decellularized bovine jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Wei-Yong; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Jin, Zhen-Xiao

    2007-04-01

    Several deficiencies in currently available right ventricular valved conduits make them problematic for use in infants and children. A solution would be to develop a tissue-engineered valved conduit containing autologous cells. A method was devised to produce a decellularized bovine matrix scaffold for developing a tissue-engineered right ventricular valved conduit. Fresh bovine jugular veins were treated with sodium deoxycholate and Triton X-100. The major structural proteins of the fresh and decellularized jugular venous valves and vessel walls were detected by histological methods. Thickness, water absorption rate, water maintenance rate, disruption strength, and extensibility were determined. Circumferential and radial specimens of valves and vessel walls were subjected to tensile testing. Histological analysis showed that no cell fragments were retained within the decellularized matrix scaffold and the major structural proteins had been retained intact. There were no significant differences in thickness, rates of absorption and maintenance of water, disruption strength, and extensibility between the decellularized and fresh veins. It was concluded that this treatment can successfully remove cellular components while maintaining the major structural components and the histological and biological properties of bovine jugular veins. PMID:17387188

  5. Idelalisib-associated Colitis: Histologic Findings in 14 Patients.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Anna-Sophie; Panarelli, Nicole C; Geyer, Julia T; Bhavsar, Erica B; Furman, Richard R; Leonard, John P; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2015-12-01

    Idelalisib is an inhibitor of the PI3Kδ isoform approved for treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Many patients develop gastrointestinal symptoms during idelalisib therapy; however, the pathologic effects of this drug have not been characterized. We identified 50 patients who received at least 3 months of idelalisib therapy. Clinical findings and symptoms were noted for each patient, and endoscopic findings were recorded for those who underwent colonoscopic examination. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from colonic biopsy samples were evaluated for histologic patterns of injury. Twenty-three (46%) patients experienced diarrhea during treatment with idelalisib, including 8 with severe symptoms (≥7 stools/d above baseline and/or requiring hospitalization). Fourteen patients underwent colonoscopic examination with mucosal biopsy. Twelve (86%) of these had colitis characterized by intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt cell apoptosis, and neutrophilic infiltration of crypt epithelium. Eleven patients had symptoms severe enough to warrant drug withdrawal, including 9 who were also treated with corticosteroids. Idelalisib commonly causes diarrheal symptoms in patients undergoing therapy for B-cell neoplasia, which may be severe in nearly 20% of patients. Characteristic histologic features include the combination of intraepithelial lymphocytosis and crypt cell apoptosis, often accompanied by neutrophils. Discontinuation of the drug results in symptomatic improvement and resolution of histologic changes. PMID:26448188

  6. The human sunburn reaction: histologic and biochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrest, B.A.; Soter, N.A.; Stoff, J.S.; Mihm, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet-induced erythema reaction was investigated histologically and biochemically in four subjects, utilizing suction blister aspirates, analyzed for histamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and Epon-embedded 1-mu skin biopsy sections from control skin and from irradiated skin at intervals for 72 hours after exposure to a Hanovia lamp. Major histologic alterations in the epidermis included dyskeratotic and vacuolated keratinocytes (sunburn cells), and disappearance of Langerhans cells. In the dermis the major changes were vascular, involving both the superficial and deep venular plexuses. Endothelial cell enlargement was first apparent within 30 minutes of irradiation, peaked at 24 hours, and persisted throughout the 72-hour study period. Mast cell degranulation and associated perivenular edema were first apparent at 1 hour and striking at the onset of erythema, 3 to 4 hours postirradiation; edema was absent and mast cells were again normal in number and granule content at 24 hours. Histamine levels rose approximately fourfold above control values immediately after the onset of erythema and returned to baseline within 24 hours. PGE2 levels were statistically elevated even before the onset of erythema and reached approximately 150% of the control value at 24 hours. These data provide the first evidence that histamine may mediate the early phase of the human sunburn reaction and increase our understanding of its complex histologic and biochemical sequelae.

  7. Meniscal allograft sterilisation: effect on biomechanical and histological properties.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Lovric, Vedran; Oliver, Rema; Bertollo, Nicky; Broe, David; Walsh, William R

    2015-09-01

    Sterilisation of allografts are a crucial step in ensuring safety and viability. Current sterilisation standards such as 25 kGy gamma irradiation (γ) can have adverse effects on the ultrastructure and biomechanical properties of allograft tissue. Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) technology, represents an improved sterilisation process that potentially preserves tissue properties. This study aimed to test the effect of SCCO2 sterilisation on the biomechanical and histological properties of the meniscus and compare this to the current standard of γ. Thirty-two 18-month old ovine menisci were randomly assigned into three groups for sterilisation (SCCO2, γ and control). After treatment, biomechanical indentation testing (stiffness and stress relaxation) or histological analysis [percentage of void, cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) per slide] was undertaken. Both SCCO2 and gamma groups displayed an increase in stiffness and stress relaxation as compared to control, however, this difference was lesser in samples treated with SCCO2. No significant histological quantitative differences were detected between SCCO2 and control specimens. Gamma-treated samples demonstrated a significant increase in void and decrease in ECM. Interestingly, both treatment groups demonstrated a decreasing mean void and increasing ECM percentage when analysed from outer to inner zones. No significant differences were detected in all-endpoints when analysed by section. SCCO2 sterilisation represents a potential feasible alternative to existing sterilization techniques such as γ. PMID:25589449

  8. Virtual histology and color flow intravascular ultrasound in peripheral interventions.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, Edward B; Irshad, Khalid; Reid, Donald B

    2006-09-01

    The quality and interpretation of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has been revolutionized in recent years by two new and major advances: virtual histology and color flow IVUS. Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VHIVUS) is a catheter-based technology where IVUS is generated from the transducer on the catheter tip and the reflected signals from the artery wall produce a color-coded map of the arterial disease. Different histological constituents of the plaque produce different reflected signals and these are assigned different colors (dark green, fibrous; yellow/green, fibrofatty; white, calcified; red, necrotic lipid core plaque). This color-coded map assists the interventionalist in understanding more fully how the lesion will behave at the moment of treatment, whether it will resist complete stent deployment or be liable to embolization. Originally introduced for coronary interventions, VHIVUS is now being applied to peripheral situations. Because it provides a detailed and close-proximity view of plaque, its potential to improve the safety and efficacy of carotid endoluminal repair is stimulating substantial interest. Similarly, color flow IVUS provides greater understanding for the operator of blood flow, and the interface between the vessel wall and the blood stream, lumen size, and success of treatment. Color flow IVUS does not use the Doppler effect, but creates real-time images that resemble color flow Doppler ultrasound. These two technological advances in IVUS have greatly improved the ability of the endovascular specialist to understand the arterial disease they are treating and to assess the completion of treatment. PMID:16996418

  9. Histologic evaluation of fresh human ovarian tissue before cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Azem, Foad; Hasson, Joseph; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kossoy, Nadia; Cohen, Tanya; Almog, Beni; Amit, Ami; Lessing, Joseph B; Lifschitz-Mercer, Batriz

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of cryopreserved tissue from patients with cancer may carry the risk of reactivation or redissemination of micrometastases. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the potential involvement of micrometastases in ovarian tissue in cancer patients. Ovarian biopsies were collected from patients who underwent ovarian tissue cryopreservation, in our IVF unit before chemotherapy between 2000 and 2008. Indications for cryopreservation included breast cancer (n=13), osteosarcoma (n=13), hematologic malignancies (n=13), uterine cervix carcinoma (n=2), endometrial carcinoma (n=1), colon cancer (n=1), and brain medulloblastoma (n=1). The samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined histologically. Immunoperoxidase broad-spectrum cytokeratin staining was also performed on specimens from breast cancer patients. There were 44 patients (age range 5-40 yr) who yielded 40 specimens. No gross pathologic involvement was observed, and the histologic examination revealed normal histology with no evidence of metastases. Our findings showed that for the purpose of considering ovarian tissue cryopreservation in cancer patients, the likelihood of microscopic metastases within ovaries of normal appearance is apparently very low. Clarification of the actual risk of ovarian involvement and any subsequent risk of micrometastases and tumor reimplantation requires further investigation. PMID:19952943

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  11. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  12. An automatic nonrigid registration for stained histological sections.

    PubMed

    Auer, Martin; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2005-04-01

    Automatic computer-based analyses of histological sections which are differently stained require that they are related to each other. Most registration methods are only able to perform rigid-body motion and are sensitive to noise and artifacts. Histological images, however, are accompanied by several artifacts and different contrasts, which require a nonrigid registration. In this paper, we present a hierarchical nonrigid registration algorithm able to align images, which contain minor image artifacts. The algorithm requires no a priori knowledge of the true image. The hierarchical design of the algorithm enhances robustness and accuracy, and saves computational costs. The proposed algorithm is decomposed into a fast, coarse, rigid registration step and a slower, but finer, nonrigid step. For the coarse registration, we use image pyramids, while for the second step, we combine a point-based registration with an elastic thin-plate spline interpolation. Accuracy tests, performed for 20 histological images obtained from human arteries, have shown that the error measure is acceptable, and that the image noise does not cause a problem. The associated convergence rate of the mean pixel displacement error during the rigid and nonrigid registrations is satisfying. The algorithm can be applied to various multicontrast elastic registration problems in medical imaging and may be extended to three dimensions. PMID:15825482

  13. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  14. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  15. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Fitton, J. Helen; Patel, Rahul P.; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore

  16. Dental Pulp: Correspondences and Contradictions between Clinical and Histological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Giuroiu, Cristian Levente; Căruntu, Irina-Draga; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Melian, Anca; Vataman, Maria; Andrian, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp represents a specialized connective tissue enclosed by dentin and enamel, the most highly mineralized tissues of the body. Consequently, the direct examination as well as pathological evaluation of dental pulp is difficult. Within this anatomical context, our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between dental pulp lesions and clinical diagnosis. Pulpectomies were performed for 54 patients with acute and chronic irreversible pulpitides and for 5 patients (control group) with orthodontic extractions. The morphological features were semiquantitatively assessed by specific score values. The clinical and morphological correspondence was noted for 35 cases (68.62%), whereas inconsistency was recorded for 16 cases (31.38%). The results of the statistical analysis revealed the correlations between clinically and pathologically diagnosed acute/chronic pulpitides. No significant differences were established between the score values for inflammatory infiltrate intensity, collagen depositions, calcifications and necrosis, and acute, respectively chronic pulpitides. We also obtained significant differences between acute pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate and calcifications and between chronic pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate, collagen deposition, and calcifications. On the basis of the predominant pathological aspects, namely, acute and chronic pulpitis, we consider that the classification schemes can be simplified by adequately reducing the number of clinical entities. PMID:26078972

  17. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  18. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  19. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  20. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  1. Clinical and histological features of a group of patients with sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, M; Murray, A K; Weller, I V; Morelli, A; Scheuer, P J; Thomas, H C; Sherlock, S

    1981-01-01

    Twelve serologically proven cases of non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis have been described. The clinical course was mild in 11 patients. One patient, however, presented in portal systemic encephalopathy and required steroid treatment. Nine of the 12 patients continued to exhibit raised transaminase (AST) activities six or more months after the onset of the acute hepatitis. In these immunoglobulin concentrations were normal and autoantibodies were not present in significant titre. Four patients had evidence of previous hepatitis B infection, suggesting that the route of transmission of NANB might be similar to that of hepatitis B virus. A further four patients gave a history which suggests a possible parenteral mode of transmission. Liver biopsies were carried out both in the acute (8 cases) and chronic (6 cases) phases of the disease. Histological findings in liver biopsies covered the whole spectrum of acute and chronic hepatitis and 1 patient had cirrhosis. One notable feature in these biopsies was the presence of fatty changes. Images PMID:6796615

  2. Indium 111-granulocyte scanning in the assessment of disease extent and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. A comparison with colonoscopy, histology, and fecal indium 111-granulocyte excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Camilleri, M.; Rees, H.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-05-01

    Indium 111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a new method for imaging inflammatory bowel disease. The technique has recently been made more specific for acute inflammation by labeling a pure granulocyte fraction rather than the conventional mixed leukocyte preparation. We now report a prospective study comparing 111In-granulocyte scanning with endoscopy, histology, and fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion for the assessment of disease extent and severity in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. In 52 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, disease extent and severity were assessed macroscopically, histologically, or by scanning using a numerical grading system. Excellent correlations were found between both endoscopy and histology and 111In scans (r = 0.90 (endoscopy) and r = 0.90 (histology) for extent; r = 0.86 and r = 0.91 for disease activity). Severity graded by scanning also showed a close correlation with fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion (r = 0.90). Indium 111-granulocyte scans are a rapid, accurate, noninvasive means of assessing both disease extent and severity of colonic involvement in inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern University. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained through formative research methodology. Findings indicate that CAI should be used as complimentary to traditional histology instruction.

  4. Design Principles for Computer-assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained through formative research methodology. Findings indicate that computer-assisted instruction should be used as complimentary to traditional histology instruction.

  5. Noise exposure effect on testicular histology, morphology and on male steroidogenic hormone.

    PubMed

    Swami, Chandralekha G; Ramanathan, Jeganathan; Charan Jeganath, C

    2007-07-01

    The noise stress, after it passes through the hearing apparatus, not only affects the auditory apparatus but also other body functions. The alterations in the levels of cortical hormone, adrenocorticosterone, nor-epinephrine hormone (which are primarily considered as stress hormones) on follicular stimulating hormone, testosterone, and lutinizing hormone were reported in relation with stress. Male albino rats weighing 200 to 250 grams were exposed to 100 dB of noise for one hour and three hours in acute group and daily one hour exposure for 60 day, and 90 day in chronic group. The serum testosterone levels were measured in these animals. There was significant reduction in serum testosterone levels and this was similar with earlier reports. The tissues were collected for light and confocal microscopic study. 100dB of traffic noise exposure of varying duration had definite permanent effect on testicular histology and morphology and on the male sex hormone. The adaptation mechanism was noticed at the hormonal level only but the structural changes noticed were definite and permanent. The agglutinated dead sperms revealed the possibility of infertily when chronically exposed to noise stress. PMID:23515367

  6. Noise Exposure Effect on Testicular Histology, Morphology and on Male Steroidogenic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Chandralekha G.; Ramanathan, Jeganathan; Charan Jeganath, C

    2007-01-01

    The noise stress, after it passes through the hearing apparatus, not only affects the auditory apparatus but also other body functions. The alterations in the levels of cortical hormone, adrenocorticosterone, nor-epinephrine hormone (which are primarily considered as stress hormones) on follicular stimulating hormone, testosterone, and lutinizing hormone were reported in relation with stress. Male albino rats weighing 200 to 250 grams were exposed to 100 dB of noise for one hour and three hours in acute group and daily one hour exposure for 60 day, and 90 day in chronic group. The serum testosterone levels were measured in these animals. There was significant reduction in serum testosterone levels and this was similar with earlier reports. The tissues were collected for light and confocal microscopic study. 100dB of traffic noise exposure of varying duration had definite permanent effect on testicular histology and morphology and on the male sex hormone. The adaptation mechanism was noticed at the hormonal level only but the structural changes noticed were definite and permanent. The agglutinated dead sperms revealed the possibility of infertily when chronically exposed to noise stress. PMID:23515367

  7. Ischemic Postconditioning and Subanesthetic S(+)-Ketamine Infusion: Effects on Renal Function and Histology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Resende, Marco A. C.; Pantoja, Alberto V.; Barcellos, Bruno M.; Reis, Eduardo P.; Consolo, Thays D.; Módolo, Renata P.; Domingues, Maria A. C.; Assad, Alexandra R.; Cavalcanti, Ismar L.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Módolo, Norma S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic postconditioning (IP) in renal Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) models improves renal function after IRI. Ketamine affords significant benefits against IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study investigated the effects of IP and IP associated with subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Methods. Forty-one Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: CG (10), control; KG (10), S(+)-ketamine infusion; IPG (10), IP; and KIPG (11), S(+)-ketamine infusion + IP. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. IRI and IP were induced only in IPG and KIPG by left kidney arterial occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Complete reperfusion was preceded by three cycles of 2 min of reocclusion followed by 2 min of reperfusion. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Tubular damage was evaluated by renal histology. Results. Creatinine and BUN were significantly increased. Severe tubular injury was only observed in the groups with IRI (IPG and KIPG), whereas no injury was observed in CG or KG. No significant differences were detected between IPG and KIPG. Conclusions. No synergic effect of the use of subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine and IP on AKI was observed in this rat model. PMID:26413552

  8. Emperipolesis is a potential histological hallmark associated with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Jiang, L; Zhou, G; Liu, S; Liu, Y; Zhang, X; Zhao, S; Wu, L; Yang, M; Ma, L; Wang, X; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    Although emperipolesis exists in infectious liver diseases, the diagnostic value of emperipolesis in chronic hepatitis B is not exactly known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological characteristics and laboratory parameters of emperipolesis in chronic hepatitis B. Totally 402 patients with hepatitis B and other liver diseases were processed in a retrospective assessment. Inflammatory severity of hepatitis B was evaluated with Ishak Scoring System. Immunofluorescent staining was performed for CD8 (T cells), CD20 (B cells), CD56 (NK cells), CD68 (macrophages) and MPO (neutrophils). Emperipolesis was observed in 74.0% of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 82.8% of patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB). In emperipolesis, CD8(+) T cell was the main cell type. Patients with emperipolesis in CHB got high scores of inflammatory activity. Among patients with CHB, emperipolesis was present with higher serum ALT, AST and GGT levels. HBV DNA Load in patients with emperipolesis was as 10 times high as those without emperipolesis. HBeAb was significantly correlated with the evidence of emperipolesis. In chronic hepatitis B, emperipolesis was associated with severity of liver injury. The presence of emperipolesis was an indicator of active liver inflammation. PMID:26511703

  9. SOX10 expression distinguishes desmoplastic melanoma from its histologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Palla, Beth; Su, Albert; Binder, Scott; Dry, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) presents diagnostic challenges due to histologic mimics and limited immunohistochemical staining. Although S100 usually stains DM, other melanoma markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A) are often negative. Dermal/subcutaneous mimics of DM [spindle cell/poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and sarcoma] show negative or unreliable immunohistochemical staining. Recently, SOX10 expression has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker of DM. However, there are no published studies comparing the sensitivity and specificity of SOX10 for DM compared with its most common histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis. We examined 76 cases, including DM (n = 15), spindle cell/poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 18), AFX (n = 13), sarcoma with spindled morphology (n = 20), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) (n = 10). Most (75%, 15/20) of sarcomas were centered in the dermis/subcutis and included sarcoma not otherwise specified, DFSP with sarcomatous transformation and myxofibrosarcoma. SOX10 was diffusely positive in 100% (15/15) of DMs and showed focal staining in 30% (3/10) of MPNSTs. All other tumors were negative for SOX10 [0% (0/18) of carcinomas, 0% (0/13) of AFXs, 0% (0/20) of sarcomas]. In conclusion, SOX10 is a highly useful marker to confirm the diagnosis of DM. In our study, SOX10 showed 100% sensitivity for DM and SOX10 was negative in all histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis, including spindle cell carcinoma, AFX and sarcomas. Similar to S-100 protein, some MPNSTs show scattered positivity but did not show diffuse positivity seen in DM. PMID:23291581

  10. Evaluation of virtual microscopy in medical histology teaching.

    PubMed

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology. PMID:23463716

  11. Correlation of endoscopic optical coherence tomography with histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M.; Willis, Joseph; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. We have recently developed a system for endoscopic OCT (EOCT) to examine the gastrointestinal tract of humans in vivo. Compared to endoscopic ultrasonic devices it offers a higher resolution and does not require coupling gels or fluids. EOCT may lead to a versatile tool for biopsy site selection or optical biopsy itself. The EOCT unit is comprised of an interferometer unit with a high speed scanning reference arm and an endoscopically compatible radially scanning probe as the sample arm. Fast data acquisition allows real-time display. Temporal averaging for speckle reduction and a transformation to correct nonlinear scanning were included in the EOCT control software, both in real-time. During in vivo clinical trials, we have observe the structure of the mucosa and submucosa in several gastrointestinal organs as well as glands, blood vessels, pits, villi and crypts. The purpose of this study was to correlate images acquired in vitro with EOCT to corresponding histological sections. EOCT images were obtained on fresh specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens, which were then fixed in formalin and submitted for standard histology. Tissues examined were normal specimens of stomach, ileum, colon and rectum. It was shown that he thickness of the mucosa correlates well with the first bright layer in EOCT. The R2-value was determined to be 0.69. The submucosa and the muscularis propria could be identified. Furthermore, we were able to show the effect of pressure on the tissue on the visible details in the EOCT images.

  12. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. PMID:26526433

  13. Pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury. An ARDS model.

    PubMed Central

    Guice, K S; Oldham, K T; Johnson, K J; Kunkel, R G; Morganroth, M L; Ward, P A

    1988-01-01

    Cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats is associated with acute lung injury characterized by increased pulmonary microvascular permeability, increased wet lung weights, and histologic features of alveolar capillary endothelial cell and pulmonary parenchymal injury. The alveolar capillary permeability index is increased 1.8-fold after a 3-hour injury (0.30 to 0.54, p less than 0.05). Gravimetric analysis shows a similar 1.5-fold increase in wet lung weights at 3 hours (0.35% vs. 0.51% of total body weight, p less than 0.05). Histologic features assessed by quantitative morphometric analysis include significant intra-alveolar hemorrhage (0.57 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.02 RBC/alveolus at 6 hours, p less than 0.001); endothelial cell disruption (28.11% vs. 4.3%, p less than 0.001); and marked, early neutrophil infiltration (7.45 +/- 0.53 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.18 PMN/hpf at 3 hours, p less than 0.001). The cerulein peptide itself, a cholecystokinin (CCK) analog, is naturally occurring and is not toxic and in several in vitro settings including exposure to pulmonary artery endothelial cells, Type II epithelial cells, and an ex vivo perfused lung preparation. The occurrence of this ARDS-like acute lung injury with acute pancreatitis provides an excellent experimental model to investigate mechanisms and mediators involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3389946

  14. Pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury. An ARDS model.

    PubMed

    Guice, K S; Oldham, K T; Johnson, K J; Kunkel, R G; Morganroth, M L; Ward, P A

    1988-07-01

    Cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats is associated with acute lung injury characterized by increased pulmonary microvascular permeability, increased wet lung weights, and histologic features of alveolar capillary endothelial cell and pulmonary parenchymal injury. The alveolar capillary permeability index is increased 1.8-fold after a 3-hour injury (0.30 to 0.54, p less than 0.05). Gravimetric analysis shows a similar 1.5-fold increase in wet lung weights at 3 hours (0.35% vs. 0.51% of total body weight, p less than 0.05). Histologic features assessed by quantitative morphometric analysis include significant intra-alveolar hemorrhage (0.57 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.02 RBC/alveolus at 6 hours, p less than 0.001); endothelial cell disruption (28.11% vs. 4.3%, p less than 0.001); and marked, early neutrophil infiltration (7.45 +/- 0.53 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.18 PMN/hpf at 3 hours, p less than 0.001). The cerulein peptide itself, a cholecystokinin (CCK) analog, is naturally occurring and is not toxic and in several in vitro settings including exposure to pulmonary artery endothelial cells, Type II epithelial cells, and an ex vivo perfused lung preparation. The occurrence of this ARDS-like acute lung injury with acute pancreatitis provides an excellent experimental model to investigate mechanisms and mediators involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS. PMID:3389946

  15. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    PubMed

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. PMID:24706527

  16. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  17. Pigmented ameloblastic fibro-odontoma: clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Martínez Martínez, Marisol; Romero, Celeste Sánchez; Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Palma Guzmán, José Mario; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-02-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a slow-growing, expansive, benign odontogenic tumor, composed of ameloblastic epithelium embedded in an ectomesenchymal stroma resembling dental papilla, containing hard dental tissue in variable degrees of maturation, including enamel, dentin, and sometimes cementum. AFO typically affects the posterior mandible, causing bony expansion. We report a case of pigmented AFO in a 5-year-old boy, comprising clinical and histological features illustrated by immunohistochemistry using a large panel of antibodies, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25339415

  18. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary. PMID:24314373

  19. Newer applications of the histological stain prepared from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, P C; Mukherjee, A K

    1981-03-01

    A histological stain prepared from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. has been found to be an excellent nuclear stain for various cells of animal and plant origin. As an elastic tissue stain, the results are comparable to standard elastic tissue stains. The striations of voluntary muscle fibers are well shown. The Nissl granules and fibers of cranial nerves in the pons are visualized. When counterstained with light green, it differentially stains muscle and fibrous tissue. The stain can be used as counterstain with certain histochemical procedures with satisfactory results. The preparation and use of this versatile stain are described. PMID:6166099

  20. Histological evaluation of mandibular third molar roots retrieved after coronectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinod; Sproat, Chris; Kwok, Jerry; Beneng, Kiran; Thavaraj, Selvam; McGurk, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in coronectomy for the management of mandibular third molars because it has a low risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve. However, there is concern that the root that is left in place will eventually become a source of infection. We describe the histological evaluation of 26 consecutive symptomatic coronectomy roots in 21 patients. All roots had vital tissue in the pulp chamber and there was no evidence of periradicular inflammation. Persistent postoperative symptoms related predominantly to inflammation of the soft tissue, which was caused by partially erupted roots or failure of the socket to heal. PMID:24684971

  1. Local binary patterns for stromal area removal in histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja S.; Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2012-03-01

    Nuclei counting in epithelial cells is an indication for tumor proliferation rate which is useful to rank tumors and select an appropriate treatment schedule for the patient. However, due to the high interand intra- observer variability in nuclei counting, pathologists seek a deterministic proliferation rate estimate. Histology tissue contains epithelial and stromal cells. However, nuclei counting is clinically restricted to epithelial cells because stromal cells do not become cancerous themselves since they remain genetically normal. Counting nuclei existing within the stromal tissue is one of the major causes of the proliferation rate non-deterministic estimation. Digitally removing stromal tissue will eliminate a major cause in pathologist counting variability and bring the clinical pathologist a major step closer toward a deterministic proliferation rate estimation. To that end, we propose a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for eliminating stromal cells from digital histology images based on the local binary patterns, entropy measurement, and statistical analysis. We validate our CAD system on a set of fifty Ki-67-stained histology images. Ki-67-stained histology images are among the clinically approved methods for proliferation rate estimation. To test our CAD system, we prove that the manual proliferation rate estimation performed by the expert pathologist does not change before and after stromal removal. Thus, stromal removal does not affect the expert pathologist estimation clinical decision. Hence, the successful elimination of the stromal area highly reduces the false positive nuclei which are the major confusing cause for the less experienced pathologists and thus accounts for the non-determinism in the proliferation rate estimation. Our experimental setting shows statistical insignificance (paired student t-test shows ρ = 0.74) in the manual nuclei counting before and after our automated stromal removal. This means that the clinical decision of

  2. [Histological study of different organs in clinically healthy Amazon parrots].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, H; Theodorou, A; Hildebrand, R A

    1994-08-01

    Histologic examination of organs of clinically healthy amazons was carried out. Only variations from the chicken are presented, among others: Occurrence of a complex of vessels and many Herbst' corpuscles in the nasal cavity; evidence of a thick muscular layer as well as many Herbst' corpuscles and nerve fibers as the cover of the syrinx; demonstration of muscular trabeculae in the parabronchia; detection of an artery accompanying the testes with muscular layers reaching into the adventitia and many nerve fibers; very small numbers of active lymph follicles within the white pulp of the spleen. PMID:7940511

  3. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  4. Diagnosis of Placental Abruption: Relationship between Clinical and Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Elsasser, Denise A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Prasad, Vinay; Vintzileos, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the extent to which histologic lesions bearing a diagnosis of abruption conform to a diagnosis based on established clinical criteria. We further examined the profile of chronic and acute histologic lesions associated with clinical abruption. Methods Data from the New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study – a multi-center, case-control study – were utilized to compare the clinical and histologic criteria for abruption. The study was based on 162 women with clinically diagnosed abruption and 173 controls. We examined the concordance between clinical indicators for abruption with those of a histopathological diagnosis. The clinical criteria for a diagnosis of abruption included (i) evidence of retroplacental clot(s); (ii) abruption diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound; or (iii) vaginal bleeding accompanied by nonreassuring fetal status or uterine hypertonicity. The pathological criteria for abruption diagnosis included hematoma, fibrin deposition, compressed villi, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes in cases with older hematomas. Acute lesions included chorioamnionitis, funisitis, acute deciduitis, meconium stained membranes, villous stromal hemorrhage, and villous edema. Chronic lesions included chronic deciduitis, decidual necrosis, decidual vasculopathy, placental infarctions, villous maldevelopment (delayed or accelerated maturation), hemosiderin deposition, intervillous thrombus, and chronic villitis. Results Of clinically diagnosed cases, the sensitivity and specificity for a histologic confirmation of abruption were 30.2% and 100%, respectively. Presence of retroplacental clots remained the single most common finding (77.1%) among clinically diagnosed cases. Among the acute lesions, chorioamnionitis and funisitis were associated with abruption. The only chronic histologic lesion associated with abruption was placental infarctions. Conclusions The concordance between clinical and pathologic criteria for abruption diagnosis is poor. The criteria

  5. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. Histological effects and localization of dissolved microcystins LR and LW in the mayfly Ecdyonurus angelieri Thomas (Insecta, Ephemeroptera).

    PubMed

    Liarte, Sergio; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Puig, María-Ángeles

    2014-12-15

    The ability of microcystins (MCs), the main group of cyanotoxins, to affect the physiological processes and tissues of insects has received little attention. Fresh water dissolved MCs represent one of the main sources of cyanotoxins. In the experiment described herein, captured wild mayfly Ecdyonurus angelieri Thomas, 1968 larvae were exposed to 5 ppb of two distinct microcystins, MC-LR and MC-LW, in separate assays. Evidence of induced mortality, MCs bioaccumulation and severe histological damage affecting fat body and alterations in the tracheal system were evident. Our results reveal the acute sensitivity of the mayfly E. angelieri to MCS, which may serve as early indicators or cyanotoxins production and the quality of freshwater streams. PMID:25255731

  7. An experimental teaching-learning program in histology.

    PubMed

    Li, Enzhong; Chen, Yanfang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an experimental teaching and learning program used in a histology course with first-year students in the first term of their studies in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Huanghuai University, China. Eighty students were divided randomly into two sections (n=40/section). Students in one section were taught using a hybrid case-based and lecture style (experimental section) and the second section was taught using a traditional teaching style (control section). To assess achievement, examinations were administered at the end of every textbook chapter and a final examination was carried out at the end of the course. To determine students' attitude to the teaching styles used, a questionnaire survey was conducted at the end of the term. Results showed that students preferred the experimental style. In the experimental section, students' scores were significantly higher than those of students in the control section both in the chapter and the final examinations (p<.05). Results indicate that the case-based and lecture style is superior to the traditional style of teaching and learning histology. PMID:22130418

  8. Thermoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer: comparison to histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Griep, S. K.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.; Hull, D.

    2014-03-01

    Ex vivo imaging of fresh prostate specimens was performed to test the hypothesis that the thermoacoustic (TA) contrast mechanism generated with very high frequency electromagnetic (EM) irradiation is sensitive to prostate cancer. Ex vivo imaging was performed immediately after radical prostatectomy, performed as part of normal care. Irradiation pulsewidth was 700 ns and duty cycle was extremely low. Typical specific absorption rate (SAR) throughout the prostate was 70-90 kW/kg during pulsing, but time-averaged SAR was below 2 W/kg. TA pressure pulses generated by rapid heating due to EM energy deposition were detected using single element transducers. 15g/L glycine powder mixed into DI water served as acoustic couplant, which was chilled to prevent autolysis. Spatial encoding was performed by scanning in tomographic "step-and-shoot" mode, with 3 mm translation between slices and 1.8-degree rotation between tomographic views. Histology slides for 3 cases scanned with 2.25 MHz transducers were marked for comparison to TA reconstructions. These three cases showed little, moderate, and severe involvement in the histology levels surrounding the verumontanum. TA signal strength decreased with percent cancerous involvement. When VHF is used for tissue heating, the TA contrast mechanism is driven by ionic content and we observed suppressed TA signal from diseased prostate tissue in the peripheral zone. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity.

  9. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  10. Two Subtypes of Atypical Leiomyoma: Clinical, Histologic, and Molecular Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ubago, Julianne M; Zhang, Qing; Kim, Julie J; Kong, Beihua; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Atypical leiomyoma (ALM) is a rare variant of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Several recent studies have suggested that ALM has distinct, but also heterogenous, histologic and molecular features, yet little is known about the biology and histogenesis of ALM. Some have even postulated whether the atypical histologic features represent true atypia or simply degenerative changes. In this study, we analyzed the cytologic features of 60 ALM cases and found that ALM could be further divided into 2 subtypes, type I and type II, based primarily on nuclear features. Type I ALM showed round or oval nuclei, distinct and smooth nuclear membranes, prominent nucleoli with perinucleolar halos, and open coarse chromatin. Type II ALM showed elongated or spindled nuclei, irregular nuclear membranes, pinpoint or no nucleoli, and dark smudgy chromatin. There were also architectural differences between type I and type II ALM. Type I ALM often showed diffuse atypia within the tumor, whereas the atypia in type II ALM was patchy, surrounded by usual-type leiomyoma. The 2 subtypes also differed when we compared the immunohistochemical and molecular patterns. Type II tumors showed significantly higher rates of immunoreactivity for p16, p53, and HMGA2 and showed MED12 mutations more frequently than the type I counterparts. Our findings suggest that the type I and type II subtypes of ALM may arise from 2 different pathways. Type I tumors may be related to fumarate hydratase mutations, whereas type II ALM appear to arise in a existing usual-type leiomyomas. PMID:27015034

  11. Usefulness of Skin Explants for Histologic Analysis after Fractional Photothermolysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Bang, Seunghyun; Won, Kwang Hee; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fractional laser resurfacing treatment has been extensively investigated and is widely used. However, the mechanism underlying its effects is poorly understood because of the ethical and cosmetic problems of obtaining skin biopsies required to study the changes after laser treatment. Objective To evaluate the usefulness of human skin explants for the investigation of fractional photothermolysis. Methods Full-thickness discarded skin was treated in 4 ways: no treatment (control), fractional carbon dioxide laser, fractional Er:YAG laser, and fractional 1,550-nm erbium-doped fiber laser. Both treated and non-treated skin samples were cultured ex vivo at the air-medium interface for 7 days. Frozen tissue was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin & eosin for histologic examination and nitro blue tetrazolium chloride for viability testing. Results Skin explants cultured for up to 3 days exhibited histologic changes similar to those observed in in vivo studies, including microscopic treatment zones surrounded by a thermal coagulation zone, re-epithelialization, and formation of microscopic epidermal necrotic debris. However, the explant structure lost its original form within 7 days of culture. The viability of skin explants was maintained for 3 days of culture but was also lost within 7 days. Conclusion The skin explant model may be a useful tool for investigating the immediate or early changes following fractional photothermolysis, but further improvements are required to evaluate the long-term and dermal changes. PMID:26082585

  12. Chordoid glioma: a rare radiologically, histologically, and clinically mystifying lesion.

    PubMed

    Bongetta, Daniele; Risso, Andrea; Morbini, Patrizia; Butti, Giorgio; Gaetani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Chordoid glioma (CG) is a rare central nervous system neoplasm (WHO grade II) of uncertain origin whose typical localization is in the anterior part of the third ventricle. Its clinical, radiological, and histological features may vary and furthermore mimic other kind of benign lesions usually associated with a better outcome. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who underwent gross total removal of a lesion of the third ventricle causing hydrocephalus. The imaging studies and the intraoperative examination led at first to a hypothesis of meningioma. Early surgical and neurological outcomes were good. The patient underwent multiple complications related to hypothalamic dysfunctions and thrombohemorragic issues and eventually died because of systemic infections. Definitive examination was of chordoid glioma of the third ventricle. Reviewing literature, we evaluated possible pitfalls in radiological and histological diagnosis as well as in surgical and medical treatment of CGs. Despite their benign presentation, a high incidence of multiple possible severe complications is reported. Early alertness and combined treatment strategies could improve overall CGs treatment strategies. PMID:26018908

  13. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Thongtharb, Atigan; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James Kenn; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50-64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  14. Classification of Histological Images Based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. Z.; Neves, L.; Duarte, S. C.; Duarte, Y. A. S.; Ramos Batista, V.

    2015-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are of many distinct types, and different classification systems make it difficult to diagnose them correctly. Many of these systems classify lymphomas only based on what they look like under a microscope. In 2008 the World Health Organisation (WHO) introduced the most recent system, which also considers the chromosome features of the lymphoma cells and the presence of certain proteins on their surface. The WHO system is the one that we apply in this work. Herewith we present an automatic method to classify histological images of three types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Our method is based on the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), and it consists of three steps: 1) extracting sub-bands from the histological image through SWT, 2) applying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to clean noise and select the most relevant information, 3) classifying it by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The kernel types Linear, RBF and Polynomial were evaluated with our method applied to 210 images of lymphoma from the National Institute on Aging. We concluded that the following combination led to the most relevant results: detail sub-band, ANOVA and SVM with Linear and RBF kernels.

  15. Histological evidence for a supraspinous ligament in sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Ignacio A; Casal, Gabriel A; Martinez, Rubén D; Ibiricu, Lucio M

    2015-10-01

    Supraspinous ossified rods have been reported in the sacra of some derived sauropod dinosaurs. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this structure, histological evidence has never been provided to support or reject any of them. In order to establish its origin, we analyse and characterize the microstructure of the supraspinous rod of two sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. The supraspinous ossified rod is almost entirely formed by dense Haversian bone. Remains of primary bone consist entirely of an avascular tissue composed of two types of fibre-like structures, which are coarse and longitudinally (parallel to the main axis of the element) oriented. These structures are differentiated on the basis of their optical properties under polarized light. Very thin fibrous strands are also observed in some regions. These small fibres are all oriented parallel to one another but perpendicular to the element main axis. Histological features of the primary bone tissue indicate that the sacral supraspinous rod corresponds to an ossified supraspinous ligament. The formation of this structure appears to have been a non-pathological metaplastic ossification, possibly induced by the continuous tensile forces applied to the element. PMID:26587248

  16. Interobserver Reproducibility of Histological Grading of Canine Simple Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Santos, M; Correia-Gomes, C; Santos, A; de Matos, A; Dias-Pereira, P; Lopes, C

    2015-07-01

    Histological grading of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been performed using an adaptation of the human Nottingham method. The histological grade could be a prognostic factor in CMC; however, no data are available concerning interobserver variability in grading. In this study we analyzed the interobserver reproducibility between three observers when assigning individual parameter scores and grade to 46 CMCs. The influence of tumour size and vascular invasion and/or lymph node metastases on the odds of grading disagreement was also evaluated. The mean kappa values were 0.71, 0.51, 0.69 and 0.70 for tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic counts and grade, respectively. There was moderate to good agreement in scoring parameters and tumour grading, with nuclear pleomorphism being least reproducible. These findings are similar to those of human studies. The odds of grading disagreement increased with tumour size, but decreased with the presence of vascular invasion and/or lymph node metastases. Individual scoring differences were moderated by reaching a consensus between two observers. PMID:25979682

  17. Innervation of amphibian reproductive system. Histological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Iruzubieta Villagra, Lucrecia; Fernández, Silvia N; Ramos, Inés

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we describe for the first time in anuran amphibians the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of innervation in the female reproductive organs. The observations in Rhinella arenarum revealed the presence of nerve fibers located predominantly in the ovarian hilium and in the oviduct wall. In both organs the nerves fibers are placed near blood vessels and smooth muscles fibers. In the present study the histological observations were confirmed using antibodies against peripherin and neurofilament 200 proteins. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that the innervation of the reproductive organs is constituted by unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cells. Axon terminals contain a population of small, clear, translucent vesicles that coexist with a few dense cored vesicles. The ultrastructural characteristics together with the immunopositive reaction to tyrosine hydroxylase of the nerve fibers and the type of synaptic vesicles present in the axon terminal would indicate that the reproductive organs of R. arenarum females are innervated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:24882461

  18. Diagnostics of eosinophilic esophagitis: Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is currently defined as an immune-mediated chronic esophageal disorder that is diagnosed using both clinical and pathologic information. A series of consensus diagnostic guidelines for EoE have brought a measure of consistency to the field, but in practice the diagnosis of EoE can be challenging. Typical clinical symptoms of EoE, including dysphagia, heartburn, and chest pain, can overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which itself is a common indication for performing endoscopic evaluation. The endoscopic findings of EoE, such as esophageal rings, strictures, linear furrows, and white exudates are not specific. Esophageal eosinophilia, the histologic hallmark of EoE, is also not pathognomonic and can be seen in a range of conditions. Further complicating the diagnosis of EoE is the newly recognized entity of proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), a condition that must be excluded prior to confirming a diagnosis of EoE. This paper will review the current diagnostic criteria for EoE, and discuss multiple clinical, endoscopic, and histologic pitfalls in making the diagnosis of EoE. PMID:24603380

  19. Significance of Paneth Cells in Histologically Unremarkable Rectal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pezhouh, Maryam K; Cheng, Edaire; Weinberg, Arthur G; Park, Jason Y

    2016-07-01

    Paneth cell metaplasia of the rectal epithelium is a common histologic finding in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. However, the clinical significance of isolated Paneth cells in otherwise unremarkable rectal mucosa has not been extensively examined. This study examined the frequency and clinical correlates of rectal Paneth cells in 245 biopsies obtained from patients between the ages of 2 weeks to 20 years in a pediatric tertiary care facility from 2010 to 2011. The specimens comprised 193 endoscopic pinch biopsies and 52 rectal suction biopsies. All 245 cases were endoscopically and histologically unremarkable with no prominence of eosinophils, no altered mucosal architecture, and no inflammation. Paneth cells were present in 42 cases (17.1%), which is higher than previous reports. Only 1 of 42 patients with rectal Paneth cells was subsequently diagnosed with Crohn disease. In our study population, the finding of Paneth cells was associated with young age, and the incidence of Paneth cell cases decreased with increasing age (χ=13.69, P=0.0002). Constipation was the most common presenting symptom in patients with rectal Paneth cells and was highly associated with the presence of Paneth cells (odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-9.0). Paneth cells in otherwise unremarkable pediatric rectal biopsies are not rare and frequently occur in common conditions such as idiopathic constipation. PMID:26900817

  20. Histological healing in inflammatory bowel disease: A still unfulfilled promise

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Geboes, Karel; Casella, Giovanni; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on several drugs, including salicylates, corticosteroids, and antibiotics; in addition, the therapeutic armamentarium has considerably evolved with the advent of newer, effective therapeutic measures (such as the biological agents) that are able to improve in a considerable manner both the clinical and endoscopic variables. Thus, mucosal healing, at least considered from an endoscopic point of view, is today regarded as the ultimate endpoint for treatment of these conditions. However, it is also increasingly clear that endoscopic healing is not necessarily paralleled by histological healing; There are few doubts that the latter should be considered as a true, objective healing and the ultimate goal to reach when treating patients with IBD. Unfortunately, and surprisingly, only a few, incomplete, and somewhat conflicting data exist on this topic, especially because there is still the need to standardize both histological assessment and the severity grading of these disorders; Issues that have not been yet been resolved for clinical practice and therapeutic trials. Hopefully, with the help of an increased awareness on the clinical researchers’ side, and the availability of dedicated pathologists on the other side, this matter will be effectively faced and resolved in the near future. PMID:23467585

  1. A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.

    PubMed

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information. PMID:23983318

  2. Effect of Pregnancy on Vocal Cord Histology: An Animal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Köybaşı Şanal, Serap; Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kükner, Aysel; Tezcan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Voice may be affected during the period of pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. However, the exact mechanisms leading to the phonatory changes have not yet uncovered. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible histological changes in the vocal cords of the pregnant rats in three separate trimesters. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Twenty-five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided into four groups: control group, pregnancy day 7 (Group 1), pregnancy day 14 (Group 2) and pregnancy day 20 (Group 3). The laryngeal specimens were obtained under general anesthesia. Histological assessment was performed using Hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue. A stereological analysis of vocal cord tissue was performed using a NIS-Elements D32 Imaging Software. Results: Lamina propria was observed to be edematous, and the lamina propria area was thickened starting from the second trimester. Glycosaminoglycans were observed to increase in the second trimester. Although none was encountered in the control, mast cells were observed in the lamina propria layer of the vocal cord starting in the muscular layer in the first trimester proceed to the subepithelial region as degranulated just before term. The covering epithelium remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: Lamina propria thickening may be attributed to both edema and increased glycosaminoglycans. The presence of mast cells in the cordal tissue may induce edema during pregnancy in rats. PMID:27606142

  3. Histological evidence for a supraspinous ligament in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Ignacio A.; Casal, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Rubén D.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.

    2015-01-01

    Supraspinous ossified rods have been reported in the sacra of some derived sauropod dinosaurs. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this structure, histological evidence has never been provided to support or reject any of them. In order to establish its origin, we analyse and characterize the microstructure of the supraspinous rod of two sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. The supraspinous ossified rod is almost entirely formed by dense Haversian bone. Remains of primary bone consist entirely of an avascular tissue composed of two types of fibre-like structures, which are coarse and longitudinally (parallel to the main axis of the element) oriented. These structures are differentiated on the basis of their optical properties under polarized light. Very thin fibrous strands are also observed in some regions. These small fibres are all oriented parallel to one another but perpendicular to the element main axis. Histological features of the primary bone tissue indicate that the sacral supraspinous rod corresponds to an ossified supraspinous ligament. The formation of this structure appears to have been a non-pathological metaplastic ossification, possibly induced by the continuous tensile forces applied to the element. PMID:26587248

  4. Histological and immunohistochemical studies on primary intracranial canine histiocytic sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    THONGTHARB, Atigan; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; KAGAWA, Yumiko; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a progressive and fatal malignant neoplasm that mainly occurs in middle- to old-aged dogs. This study describes clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of intracranial histiocytic sarcomas in 23 dogs. Magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography of the brains revealed that the tumors mainly located in the cerebrum, particularly the frontal lobe. Seizure was a predominant clinical sign in most of the cases. Histologically, the tumor cells were morphologically classified into round/polygonal- and spindle-shaped cell types. There was a significant association between tumor cell types and hemophagocytic activity (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in other clinicopathological parameters and mitotic index between the 2 types. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for HLA-DR, Iba-1 and CD204 in all the 23 cases, for iNOS in 20, for CD163 in 17, for CD208 (DC-LAMP) in 9, for lysozyme in 8 and for S100 in 5 cases. In addition, the Ki67-proliferative index showed range of 0.50–64.33% (Average 26.60 ± 3.81%). These observations suggest that canine primary intracranial histiocytic sarcomas tend to exhibit both dendritic cell and macrophage phenotypes of histiocytic differentiation. PMID:26668164

  5. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

  6. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. PMID:25439143

  7. The history and histology of bone morphogenetic protein.

    PubMed

    Murray, Samuel S; Brochmann Murray, Elsa J; Wang, Jeffrey C; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

    2016-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins are a group of structurally related proteins within the TGF-β superfamily of proteins with a diverse repertoire of functions in embryonic and adult organisms. As is apparent from the name, the members first characterized participate in bone growth, development, and remodeling. The "morphogenic" activity per se is defined as the induction of a recapitulation of endochondral bone formation by appropriate stem cells. The regenerative capacity of bone has been recognized since ancient times. The mechanism, applications, and conceptual basis of bone transplantation, bone implantation, ectopic bone formation, and exogenously induced bone formation have been studied by many investigators for more than a century. This review examines the efforts to characterize this activity in the European and American literature over approximately the last century. Because of the inherently complex nature of the process induced by these molecules (inflammation, stem cell proliferation, cartilage differentiation, replacement of cartilage with bone) it is important to evaluate previous investigations through a histological perspective. The cellular basis of the contemporary bioassay for BMP activity is illustrated and discussed from the histological point of view. PMID:26907674

  8. The Impact of Histologic Variants on FSGS Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meliambro, Kristin; Campbell, Kirk N.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course is highly variable with disparate responses to therapeutic intervention and rates of progression. Histologic variant subtype has been commonly used as a prognostic and therapeutic guide in the clinical management of FSGS. The tip lesion is widely considered to portend the most favorable prognosis and to be the most responsive to steroid therapy. Conversely, the collapsing lesion, more prevalent in patients of African descent, is associated with steroid resistance and higher risk of disease progression. In the 10 years since the Columbia classification system for FSGS was published, some retrospective and one prospective study explored the impact of histologic variants at the time of biopsy on FSGS outcomes. The results largely validate its clinical predictive value with respect to treatment response, though its utility in cases recurring after kidney transplantation is still unknown. Sampling and interpretation errors are additional sources of caution. More research is needed to fully define reproducible prognostic and therapeutic markers for this polymorphic disorder.

  9. Histological study of alcoholic, nonalcoholic, and obstructive chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, C; Valente, G; Spaccapietra, M; Angonese, C; Del Favero, G; Naccarato, R; Andriulli, A

    1992-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue obtained from 26 patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP), nine patients with nonalcoholic idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (NAICP), and seven patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis (OCP) was studied in an attempt to determine whether clinical or etiologic differences have a morphologic counterpart. Histologically it was easy to distinguish ACP from OCP occurring distal to an obstruction of the pancreatic duct. Nine patients with NAICP showed histological features similar to those found in ACP. Plugs and calcifications were found as frequently in NAICP as in ACP, suggesting that NAICP, whatever the etiology, is truly pancreatolithiasis, which leads to slowly progressive fibrosis and acinar atrophy in the obstructed pancreatic lobule. Nerve fibers were found to be more numerous in all disease categories. Inflammatory foci of lymphocytes associated with nerves were observed in 57 and 35% of cases with OCP and ACP, respectively, but only in one patient with NAICP. These findings may constitute a pathological basis for the existing clinical data showing that NAICP frequently runs a pain-free course. PMID:1553368

  10. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. PMID:22522064

  11. Bone welding--a histological evaluation in the jaw.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ronald; Lauer, Günter; Pilling, Eckart; Jung, Roland; Leonhardt, Henry; Proff, Peter; Stadlinger, Bernd; Pradel, Winnie; Eckelt, Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The expansion of biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in clinical application correlates well to the progress in development of new materials as to the improvement of application methods. One of those new application methods is the ultrasound-aided insertion of Resorb-X pins. The aim of this study was the histological evaluation of possible thermal damage to bone due to the ultrasound insertion. For this purpose, condylar neck fractures in 12 sheep were produced, repositioned and fixed by Resorb-X plates and pins. The animals were sacrificed in two groups, one after 2 weeks and one after 9 weeks. The bone-pin interlinkage and the structure of the bone were histologically evaluated. After 2 weeks a tight bone-polymer interlinkage was seen. Neither a pronounced foreign body reaction nor an interposition of fibrous tissue at the interface or a thermally induced necrosis was observed. The late phase of wound healing after 9 weeks showed pathomorphological characteristics within the normal range of bone healing. The bone seemed to be free of any alteration caused by process engineering. We conclude that thermal stress caused by ultrasound-aided pin insertion does not lead to cellular reaction in the bone. The fast and easy application of this improved biodegradable osteosynthesis system will bring a clear advantage in clinical use. PMID:17695991

  12. Local cause of gingival overgrowth. Clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, Emma Cristina; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; MercuŢ, Veronica; Scrieciu, Monica; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Diaconu, Oana Andreea; Oprea, Bogdan; Pascu, Roxana Maria; CrăiŢoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The overgrowth, depending on its extension, has multiple effects on the stomatognathic apparatus: functional disorders (impaired speech), difficulty in chewing and aesthetic problems but can cause significant psychological problems. We proposed this study, motivated by the relative increased frequency of the gum outgrowth, its multifactorial etiopathogeny, but especially from the point of view of the specialist practitioner, by the problems that this pathology raises not only for the functionality of the stomatognathic apparatus but also for the facial esthetics, and especially for future therapeutic attitudes needed to solve the existing pathology at this level. We conducted a clinical study and a histological one. For the clinical study, we selected 74 patients who experienced different degrees of gingival outgrowing associated with fillings, dental caries, fixed prostheses, mobile prostheses, orthodontic apparatus. Thirty gingival fragments from patients with gingival outgrowing were processed by paraffin-embedding histological technique and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The morphological results obtained provide the necessary support for understanding the possibility of developing a therapeutic strategy to prevent or minimize the gum outgrowth by administering antibiotic and anti-inflammatory medications associated with medications, which shall cause the apoptosis of the fibroblasts. PMID:27516015

  13. Glutathione peroxidase 1 expression, malondialdehyde levels and histological alterations in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus exposed to cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Di; Sheng, Zhang; Wang, You-Fa; Han, Ying-Li; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-03-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is known as a widespread pollutant in aquatic environment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is attributed to Cd exposure, which may affect the growth, development and physiological metabolism of aquatic organisms. In response to these unfavorable damages, antioxidant systems have been developed to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of glutathione peroxidase 1 genes (GPx-1a and GPx-1b) in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus after Cd administration. Total RNA extraction, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed in order to clone the A. fasciatus GPx-1a and GPx-1b full-length cDNA sequences and partial fragment of β-actin cDNA from the liver for the first time. Tissue-specific expression analysis proved that GPx-1 genes were widely expressed in the liver, kidney, gill, testis, muscle, spleen, heart and brain. The changes of GPx-1 mRNA and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver treated with Cd were measured. In addition, the acute toxic effects of Cd on the microstructure of the liver were studied using light microscopy. These results suggest that GPx-1, MDA and liver histology which represent molecular, biochemical and histological levels, can be used as potential biomarkers to monitor Cd pollution. The overall findings also highlight the potential use of those three bio-indicators combined together as a multi-level tool (molecular, biochemical and histological levels) when monitoring Cd contamination and other possible exogenetic pollutants in aquatic environment. PMID:26707212

  14. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhi-Qiang; Luan, Guo-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Zhai, Feng; Guan, Yu-Guang; Bao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection. However, the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known. We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled, and divided into three groups according to the date of admission. The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF), electrocorticography, the depth of cortex damage, and acute histological changes (H and E staining, neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF) staining) were analyzed before and after the operation. The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation. Results: The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation. For the temporal cortex, the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2–9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.09, 0.98 ± 0.08, 1.10 ± 0.11, 1.11 ± 0.09, and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm, respectively. Coagulation with output power of 4–5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer, external granular layer, and external pyramidal layer. Conclusions: The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein, but also reduced the rCBF. We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges, and partially destroy the epileptic focus. PMID:25591564

  15. Histological characteristics of the myometrium in the postpartum hemorrhage of unknown etiology: a possible involvement of local immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Farhana, Mustari; Tamura, Naoaki; Mukai, Mari; Ikuma, Kotomi; Koumura, Yukiko; Furuta, Naomi; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological characteristics of the myometrium obtained in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) of unknown etiology secondary to uterine atony. These characteristics were selected from among registered cases of clinically suspected amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) and classified as PPH of unknown etiology because of no obvious cause of PPH at Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, a registration center for clinical AFE in Japan. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on myometrium using anti-mast cell tryptase, anti-neutrophil elastase, anti-CD68, anti-CD88, anti-CD3, and anti-ZnCP-1 antibodies. Massive infiltrations of inflammatory cells with mast cell degranulation within the myometrium secondary to complement activation were observed in PPH of unknown etiology (n=34), but not in control pregnant women (n=15) or after delivery in women without PPH (n=18). The concomitant immunohistochemical detection of meconium in myometrium suggests that amniotic fluids or fetal materials are one of the candidates for inducing maternal local immune activation in the PPH of unknown etiology. Postpartum acute myometritis in the absence of an infective etiology may be a histological characteristic of PPH of unknown etiology. PMID:26048052

  16. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  17. Optical Histology: High-Resolution Visualization of Tissue Microvasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin Jing-Ming

    Mammalian tissue requires the delivery of nutrients, growth factors, and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases to maintain normal function. These elements are delivered by the blood, which travels through the connected network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system. The vascular system consists of large feeder blood vessels (arteries and veins) that are connected to the small blood vessels (arterioles and venules), which in turn are connected to the capillaries that are directly connected to the tissue and facilitate gas exchange and nutrient delivery. These small blood vessels and capillaries make up an intricate but organized network of blood vessels that exist in all mammalian tissues known as the microvasculature and are very important in maintaining the health and proper function of mammalian tissue. Due to the importance of the microvasculature in tissue survival, disruption of the microvasculature typically leads to tissue dysfunction and tissue death. The most prevalent method to study the microvasculature is visualization. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the gold-standard method to visualize tissue microvasculature. IHC is very well-suited for highly detailed interrogation of the tissue microvasculature at the cellular level but is unwieldy and impractical for wide-field visualization of the tissue microvasculature. The objective my dissertation research was to develop a method to enable wide-field visualization of the microvasculature, while still retaining the high-resolution afforded by optical microscopy. My efforts led to the development of a technique dubbed "optical histology" that combines chemical and optical methods to enable high-resolution visualization of the microvasculature. The development of the technique first involved preliminary studies to quantify optical property changes in optically cleared tissues, followed by development and demonstration of the methodology. Using optical histology, I successfully obtained high

  18. Acute Arterial Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dagnone, L. E.; Brown, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the primary care physician in the initial assessment and management of acute arterial injuries will often be the deciding factor in survival of life, limb or organ system. Most arterial emergencies occur as a result of trauma, disruption of vessel wall and/or occlusion of flow. The common clinical syndromes of acute arterial emergencies are injuries to and beyond the aorta, acute aortic dissection, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and thromboembolic occlusive arterial disease. The role of arteriography and the urgency of definitive surgical repair in acute arterial emergencies is summarized. PMID:21283323

  19. Virtual histology of the human heart using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Moazami, Nader; Rollins, Andrew M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for the visualization of micron-scale structures within nontransparent biological tissues. For the first time, we demonstrate the use of OCT in identifying components of the cardiac conduction system and other structures in the explanted human heart. Reconstructions of cardiac structures up to 2 mm below the tissue surface were achieved and validated with Masson Trichrome histology in atrial, ventricular, sinoatrial nodal, and atrioventricular nodal preparations. The high spatial resolution of OCT provides visualization of cardiac fibers within the myocardium, as well as elements of the cardiac conduction system; however, a limiting factor remains its depth penetration, demonstrated to be ∼2 mm in cardiac tissues. Despite its currently limited imaging depth, the use of OCT to identify the structural determinants of both normal and abnormal function in the intact human heart is critical in its development as a potential aid to intracardiac arrhythmia diagnosis and therapy. PMID:19895104

  20. Liposoluble vitamins in Crustacean feed: Metabolic and Histological responses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gimenez, Analía Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Vitamins are vital for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. This review is focused on the liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in the diets and metabolic responses of the Argentine penaeoid shrimps Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, distributed along the South American coast line. Growth, survival and histological analyses serve as indicators of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimps. Effective diet for shrimp culture that provide not only macronutrients including protein and lipid but also micronutrients such as vitamins for optimal growth is an ever improving subject. This review may help formulating suitable feeds for shrimps. PMID:27319048

  1. Classification of lung cancer histology by gold nanoparticle sensors

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Orna; Peled, Nir; Tisch, Ulrike; Bunn, Paul A.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nanomedical device for the classification of lung cancer (LC) histology. The device profiles volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of (subtypes of) LC cells, using gold nanoparticle (GNP) sensors that are suitable for detecting LC-specific patterns of VOC profiles, as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Analyzing the GNP sensing signals by support vector machine allowed significant discrimination between (i) LC and healthy cells; (ii) small cell LC and non–small cell LC; and between (iii) two subtypes of non–small cell LC: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The discriminative power of the GNP sensors was then linked with the chemical nature and composition of the headspace VOCs of each LC state. These proof-of-concept findings could totally revolutionize LC screening and diagnosis, and might eventually allow early and differential diagnosis of LC subtypes with detectable or unreachable lung nodules. PMID:22033081

  2. Natural root caries: a histologic and microradiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wefel, J S; Clarkson, B H; Heilman, J R

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the detailed histopathology of naturally occurring root caries. Fifty extracted human teeth exhibiting some degree of root caries were sectioned longitudinally and examined with transmitted light, polarized light and microradiography. The occurrence of the histological zones of dentinal caries was tabulated and revealed a lesion body in all cases. Light microscopy showed the same basic features as microradiography and was most useful when the sections were imbibed in quinoline. A structureless area below the main body of the lesion was observed in 77% of the cases when using quinoline. This fluid more clearly defined the extent of the lesion and may show a "phenolic reaction" when using polarized light microscopy. Partial radiopaque surface layers were observed in almost 80% of the sections. This study has described the detailed histopathology of root caries, and aids in the development of model systems to evaluate this emerging dental health problem. PMID:3930671

  3. Experimental osteoporosis in sheep--mechanical and histological approach.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz, Z; Piątek, A; Kuropka, P; Mytnik, E; Nikodem, A; Bieżyński, J; Skrzypczak, P; Pezowicz, C; Kuryszko, J; Reichert, P

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of osteoporotic therapy requires tests on animal model. The use of sheep as model has numerous advantages over other animals. The aim of this study was to describe the change in parameters in sheep with osteoporosis induced using steroids and ovariorectomy methods as opposed to the parameters in healthy sheep. The study was performed on female "merinos" breed sheep divided into the three groups: negative control (NC)--healthy animals, positive control (PC)--ovariorectomized animals and steroid control group (SC)--in which methylprednisolone was administered. This paper presents histological and ultrastructural examination with mechanical comparative tests for force/strength values as well as indentation tests of joint cartilage. The obtained results confirm the loss of bone mass associated with mineral composition content in bones, which has an influence on bone strength. PMID:27096794

  4. Early histological changes of ileal mucosa after augmentation cystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, S; San, T; Cetinel, B; Uygun, N; Hürdağ, C

    2001-07-01

    Segments of bowel are used routinely for transplantation in various pathological conditions such as contracted bladders or poorly compliant neuropathic bladders. However, little is known how these intestinal segments adopt to a toxic environment caused by urine. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine early histological changes of ileal mucosa after augmentation cystoplasty. Seven patients with augmentation cystoplasty underwent random cold-cup biopsies of ileal segments after a mean period of 14.4 months after cystoplasty and morphological changes were evaluated using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Most pronounced features were varying degrees of villous atrophy, increased numbers of Paneth and goblet cells. Severity of atrophic villous changes were not related to the length of the interval between surgery and endoscopic biopsy. These findings may be explained as adaptations of bowel tissue to counteract noxious effects of urine and to maintain its epithelial function in the bladder. PMID:11482379

  5. Virtual histology of the human heart using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Moazami, Nader; Rollins, Andrew M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2009-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for the visualization of micron-scale structures within nontransparent biological tissues. For the first time, we demonstrate the use of OCT in identifying components of the cardiac conduction system and other structures in the explanted human heart. Reconstructions of cardiac structures up to 2 mm below the tissue surface were achieved and validated with Masson Trichrome histology in atrial, ventricular, sinoatrial nodal, and atrioventricular nodal preparations. The high spatial resolution of OCT provides visualization of cardiac fibers within the myocardium, as well as elements of the cardiac conduction system; however, a limiting factor remains its depth penetration, demonstrated to be ~2 mm in cardiac tissues. Despite its currently limited imaging depth, the use of OCT to identify the structural determinants of both normal and abnormal function in the intact human heart is critical in its development as a potential aid to intracardiac arrhythmia diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Skin burns after laser exposure: histological analysis and predictive simulation.

    PubMed

    Museux, Nathanaëlle; Perez, Laetitia; Autrique, Laurent; Agay, Diane

    2012-08-01

    Thermal effects of laser irradiation on skin are investigated in this paper. The main purpose is to determine the damage level induced by a laser exposure. Potential burns induced by two lasers (wavelength 808nm and 1940nm) are studied and animal experimentations are performed. Several exposure durations and laser powers are tested. Based on previous works, a mathematical model dedicated to temperature prediction is proposed and finite-element method is implemented. This numerical predictive tool based on the bioheat equation takes into account heat losses due to the convection on skin surface, blood circulatory and also evaporation. Thermal behavior of each skin layer is also described considering distinct thermal and optical properties. Since the mathematical model is able to estimate damage levels, histological analyses were also carried through. It is confirmed that the mathematical model is an efficient predictive tool for estimation of damage caused by lasers and that thermal effects sharply depend on laser wavelength. PMID:22237052

  7. Histological determination of the human origin of bone fragments.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Porta, David; Gibelli, Daniele; Gamba, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    A frequently encountered task in the forensic scenario is verification of the human origin of severely degraded fragments of bone. In these cases histological methods which consider osteon size and morphology can prove to be useful. The authors in the present study verify the applicability of published algorithms to flat and subadult bones from human, dog, cat, cow, rabbit, sheep, pig, chicken, quail, and turkey samples. Metric analysis was performed on 2031 Haversian canals. Analyses carried out on human samples confirmed a success rate of around 70% on long adult bones; however the percentage of wrong answers was particularly high in the case of newborns and older subadults as well as on flat bones in general. Results therefore suggest that such regression equations should be limited only to bone fragments from long adult bones. PMID:19298464

  8. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention. PMID:26033842

  9. Quantitative histology analysis of the ovarian tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chunyan; Heindl, Andreas; Huang, Xin; Xi, Shaoyan; Banerjee, Susana; Liu, Jihong; Yuan, Yinyin

    2015-01-01

    Concerted efforts in genomic studies examining RNA transcription and DNA methylation patterns have revealed profound insights in prognostic ovarian cancer subtypes. On the other hand, abundant histology slides have been generated to date, yet their uses remain very limited and largely qualitative. Our goal is to develop automated histology analysis as an alternative subtyping technology for ovarian cancer that is cost-efficient and does not rely on DNA quality. We developed an automated system for scoring primary tumour sections of 91 late-stage ovarian cancer to identify single cells. We demonstrated high accuracy of our system based on expert pathologists' scores (cancer = 97.1%, stromal = 89.1%) as well as compared to immunohistochemistry scoring (correlation = 0.87). The percentage of stromal cells in all cells is significantly associated with poor overall survival after controlling for clinical parameters including debulking status and age (multivariate analysis p = 0.0021, HR = 2.54, CI = 1.40-4.60) and progression-free survival (multivariate analysis p = 0.022, HR = 1.75, CI = 1.09-2.82). We demonstrate how automated image analysis enables objective quantification of microenvironmental composition of ovarian tumours. Our analysis reveals a strong effect of the tumour microenvironment on ovarian cancer progression and highlights the potential of therapeutic interventions that target the stromal compartment or cancer-stroma signalling in the stroma-high, late-stage ovarian cancer subset. PMID:26573438

  10. Microcirculatory, mitochondrial, and histological changes following cerebral ischemia in swine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischemic brain injury due to stroke and/or cardiac arrest is a major health issue in modern society requiring urgent development of new effective therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate mitochondrial, microcirculatory, and histological changes in a swine model of global cerebral ischemia. Results In our model, significant microcirculatory changes, but only negligible histological cell alterations, were observed 3 h after bilateral carotid occlusion, and were more pronounced if the vascular occlusion was combined with systemic hypotension. Analysis of mitochondrial function showed that LEAK respiration (measured in the presence of pyruvate + malate but without ADP) was not affected in any model of global cerebral ischemia in pigs. The OXPHOS capacity with pyruvate + malate as substrates decreased compared with the control levels after bilateral carotid artery occlusion, and bilateral carotid artery occlusion + hypotension by 20% and 79%, respectively, resulting in decreases in the respiratory control index of 14% and 73%, respectively. OXPHOS capacity with succinate as a substrate remained constant after unilateral carotid artery occlusion or bilateral carotid artery occlusion, but decreased by 53% after bilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypotension compared with controls (p < 0.05, n = 3–6). Addition of exogenous cytochrome c to mitochondria isolated from ischemia brains had no effect on respiration in all models used in this study. Conclusions We found a decrease in microcirculation and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity, but insignificant neuronal death, after 3 h ischemia in all our pig models of global cerebral ischemia. Dysfunction of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, particularly damage to complex I of the respiratory chain, may be the primary target of the ischemic insult, and occurs before signs of neuronal death can be detected. PMID:24387285

  11. Examining brain microstructure using structure tensor analysis of histological sections.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Frank, Joseph A

    2012-10-15

    The mammalian central nervous system has a tremendous structural complexity, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is unique in its ability to extract microstructural tissue properties at a macroscopic scale. However, despite its widespread use and applications in clinical and research settings, accurate validation of DTI has notoriously lagged the advances in image acquisition and analysis. In this report, we demonstrate an approach to visualize and quantify the microscopic features of histological sections on multiple length scales using techniques derived from image texture analysis. Structure tensor (ST) analysis was applied to fluorescence microscopy images of rat brain sections to visualize and quantify tissue microstructure. Images were digitally color-coded based on the local orientation in the pixelwise ST implementation, which allowed direct visualization of white matter complexity at the microscopic level. A piecewise ST algorithm was also employed to quantify anisotropy and orientation at a resolution comparable to that typically acquired with DTI. Anisotropy measured with ST analysis of stained histological sections was highly correlated with anisotropy measured by ex vivo DTI of the same brains (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, angular histograms, or Fiber Orientation Distributions (FODs), were computed to mimic similar measures derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging methods. The FODs for each pixel were fit to a mixture of von Mises distributions to identify putative regions of multiple fiber populations (i.e. crossing fibers). Despite its current application to two-dimensional microscopy, the ST analysis is a novel approach to visualize and quantify microstructure in the central nervous system in both health and disease, and advances the available set of tools for validating DTI and other diffusion MRI techniques. PMID:22759994

  12. The Effect of Maternal Thrombophilia on Placental Abruption: Histologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kinzler, Wendy L.; Prasad, Vinay; Ananth, Cande V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if the histology of placental abruption differs by maternal thrombophilia status. Study design This was a multicenter, case-control study of women with abruption and delivering at ≥20 weeks’ gestation, collected as part of the ongoing New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study. Women were identified by clinical criteria of abruption. Maternal blood was collected postpartum and tested for anticardiolipin antibodies, and mutations in the Factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes. Cases were comprised of women with an abruption and a positive thrombophilia screen. Controls were comprised of women with an abruption and a negative thrombophilia screen. All placental histology was systematically reviewed by two perinatal pathologists, blinded to the abruption status. Results A total of 135 women with placental abruption were identified, of which 63.0% (n=85) had at least one diagnosed maternal thrombophilia. There were increases in the rates of meconium-stained membranes (7.9% versus 2.1%, P=0.015) and decidual necrosis (4.5% versus 2.1%, P=0.023) when a maternal thrombophilia was diagnosed. Although there was no difference in the overall presence of infarcts between the 2 groups (27.0% versus 38.3%, P=0.064), the presence of an old infarct was more common among women with a positive thrombophilia screen (83.3% versus 44.4%, P=0.003). Conclusion Placental abruption with a positive maternal thrombophilia screen is associated with higher rates of old placental infarcts and decidual necrosis compared with abruption when thrombophilia is not diagnosed. These lesions suggest a chronic etiology of placental abruption in the presence of a maternal thrombophilia. PMID:19330709

  13. Histological Assessment of PAXgene Tissue Fixation and Stabilization Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Kap, Marcel; Smedts, Frank; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Winther, Rosa; Christensen, Nanna; Reischauer, Bilge; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Zatloukal, Kurt; Langer, Rupert; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Bodo, Koppany; de Jong, Bas; Oelmuller, Uwe; Riegman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Within SPIDIA, an EC FP7 project aimed to improve pre analytic procedures, the PAXgene Tissue System (PAXgene), was designed to improve tissue quality for parallel molecular and morphological analysis. Within the SPIDIA project promising results were found in both genomic and proteomic experiments with PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue derived biomolecules. But, for this technology to be accepted for use in both clinical and basic research, it is essential that its adequacy for preserving morphology and antigenicity is validated relative to formalin fixation. It is our aim to assess the suitability of PAXgene tissue fixation for (immuno)histological methods. Normal human tissue specimens (n = 70) were collected and divided into equal parts for fixation either with formalin or PAXgene. Sections of the obtained paraffin-embedded tissue were cut and stained. Morphological aspects of PAXgene-fixed tissue were described and also scored relative to formalin-fixed tissue. Performance of PAXgene-fixed tissue in immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization assays was also assessed relative to the corresponding formalin-fixed tissues. Morphology of PAXgene-fixed paraffin embedded tissue was well preserved and deemed adequate for diagnostics in most cases. Some antigens in PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded sections were detectable without the need for antigen retrieval, while others were detected using standard, formalin fixation based, immunohistochemistry protocols. Comparable results were obtained with in situ hybridization and histochemical stains. Basically all assessed histological techniques were found to be applicable to PAXgene-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. In general results obtained with PAXgene-fixed tissue are comparable to those of formalin-fixed tissue. Compromises made in morphology can be called minor compared to the advantages in the molecular pathology possibilities. PMID:22110732

  14. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  15. The presence of two local myocardial sheet populations confirmed by diffusion tensor MRI and histological validation

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Geoff; Nguyen, Tom C.; Itoh, Aki; Skare, Stefan; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To establish the correspondence between the two histologically observable and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) measurements of myolaminae orientation for the first time and show that single myolaminar orientations observed in local histology may result from histological artifact. Materials and Methods DTMRI was performed on six sheep left ventricles (LV), then corresponding direct histological transmural measurements were made within the antero-basal and lateral-equatorial LV. Secondary and tertiary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor were compared to each of the two locally observable sheet orientations from histology. Diffusion tensor invariants were calculated to compare differences in microstructural diffusive properties between histological locations with one observable sheet population and two observable sheet populations. Results Mean difference ± one standard deviation between DTMRI and histology measured sheet angles was 8° ± 27°. Diffusion tensor invariants showed no significant differences between histological locations with one observable sheet population and locations with two observable sheet populations. Conclusion DTMRI measurements of myolaminae orientations derived from the secondary and tertiary eigenvectors correspond to each of the two local myolaminae orientations observed in histology. Two local sheet populations may exist throughout LV myocardium and one local sheet population observed in histology may be a result of preparation artifact. PMID:21932362

  16. Clinical outcomes of acute myocarditis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K; McCrindle, B; Bohn, D; Wilson, G; Taylor, G; Freedom, R; Smallhorn, J; Benson, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe clinical outcomes of a paediatric population with histologically confirmed lymphocytic myocarditis.
DESIGN—A retrospective review between November 1984 and February 1998.
SETTING—A major paediatric tertiary care hospital.
PATIENTS—36 patients with histologically confirmed lymphocytic myocarditis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Survival, cardiac transplantation, recovery of ventricular function, and persistence of dysrhythmias.
RESULTS—Freedom from death or cardiac transplantation was 86% at one month and 79% after two years. Five deaths occurred within 72 hours of admission, and one late death at 1.9 years. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was used in four patients, and three patients underwent heart replacement. 34 patients were treated with intravenous corticosteroids. In the survivor/non-cardiac transplantation group (n = 29), the median follow up was 19 months (range 1.2-131.6 months), and the median period for recovery of a left ventricular ejection fraction to > 55% was 2.8 months (range 0-28 months). The mean (SD) final left ventricular ejection and shortening fractions were 66 (9)% and 34 (8)%, respectively. Two patients had residual ventricular dysfunction. No patient required antiarrhythmic treatment. All survivors reported no cardiac symptoms or restrictions in physical activity.
CONCLUSIONS—Our experience documents good outcomes in paediatric patients presenting with acute heart failure secondary to acute lymphocytic myocarditis treated with immunosuppression. Excellent survival and recovery of ventricular function, with the absence of significant arrhythmias, continued cardiac medications, or restrictions in physical activity were the normal outcomes.


Keywords: myocarditis; paediatric cardiology; immunosuppression PMID:10409542

  17. Inflamed temporal artery: histologic findings in 354 biopsies, with clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Alberto; Muratore, Francesco; Boiardi, Luigi; Restuccia, Giovanna; Pipitone, Nicolò; Pazzola, Giulia; Tagliavini, Elena; Ragazzi, Moira; Rossi, Giulio; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed 888 temporal artery biopsies (TAB) performed in 871 patients in a single institution from January 1986 to December 2013. Forty-four biopsies (4.9%) were inadequate, 490 (55.2%) were devoid of inflammation and were considered negative, and 354 (39.9%) showed inflammation and were considered positive. On the basis of the localization of the inflammation, positive TABs were further classified into 4 categories: small vessel vasculitis (SVV), in which inflammation was limited to small periadventitial vessels devoid of muscular coat, with sparing of the temporal artery (32 cases, 9% of the positive biopsies); vasa vasorum vasculitis (VVV), in which inflammation was limited to the adventitial vasa vasorum (23 cases, 6.5% of the positive biopsies); inflammation limited to adventitia (ILA), in which inflammation extended from a strictly perivascular localization to the surrounding adventitia, without medial involvement (25 cases, 7% of the positive biopsies); and transmural inflammation (TMI), in which inflammation crossed the external elastic lamina and extended to the media (274 cases, 77.5% of the positive biopsies). In TMI, inflammation was generally more prominent between media and adventitia and mostly consisted of T lymphocytes and macrophages, with occasionally a significant number of plasma cells. Numerous eosinophils or neutrophils (with or without leucocytoclasia and suppurative necrosis), fibrinoid necrosis (limited to small branches of the temporal artery), and acute thrombosis were unusual, being present in 8%, 1.8%, 0.7%, and 9.5% of our biopsies with TMI, respectively. Giant cells, laminar necrosis, and calcifications prevailed along the internal elastic lamina and were present in 74.8%, 25.2%, and 20% of the biopsies with TMI, respectively. Among the 322 patients with positive TAB on whom we obtained clinical information, 317 had giant cell arteritis and 5 had a different disease: 3 (with SVV at histology) had ANCA-associated vasculitis, 1

  18. Acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Lang, Joanna; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates up to 20% of all hospital admissions. Responding to the increase in admissions, complications, mortality, morbidity, and cost of AKI, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes convened an expert panel to study the issue, review the literature, and publish guidelines to evaluate and treat patients with AKI in the acute setting. This article reviews those guidelines. PMID:27023656

  19. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies. PMID:27253358

  20. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  1. The role of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio to leverage the differential diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever attack and acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Adem; Erol, Mehmet Fatih; Senel, Soner; Eroler, Emir; Yumun, Havvanur Alparslan; Uslu, Ali Ugur; Erol, Asiye Mukaddes; Tihan, Deniz; Duman, Ugur; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Solak, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by attacks of fever and diffuse abdominal pain. The primary concern with this presentation is to distinguish it from acute appendicitis promptly. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the role of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to leverage the differential diagnosis of acute FMF attack with histologically proven appendicitis. Methods: Twenty-three patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis and 88 patients with acute attack of FMF were included in the study. NLR, C-reactive protein and other hematologic parameters were compared between the groups. Results: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in patients with acute appendicitis compared to the FMF attack group (8.24 ± 6.31 vs. 4.16 ± 2.44, p = 0.007). The performance of NLR in diagnosing acute appendicitis with receiver operating characteristic analysis with a cut-off value of 4.03 were; 78% sensitivity, 62% specificity, and area under the curve 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.655 to 0.8655; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that NLR, the simple and readily available inflammatory marker may have a useful role in distinguishing acute FMF attack from acute appendicitis. PMID:26864298

  2. Histological evaluation of sodium percarbonate exposure on the gills of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Forwood, James M; Harris, James O; Landos, Matt; Deveney, Marty R

    2015-06-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a recurring problem in Australian rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farms and requires strategically timed, repeat treatments for effective management. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is permitted for use in Australia, with host safety margins based on the toxicity of acute exposures to hydrogen peroxide (HP), the active product released when SPC is added to water. The effects of exposure to HP released by SPC, of repeated doses and of doses exceeding 100 mg l-1 on rainbow trout are unknown. We exposed juvenile rainbow trout (mean weight: 30.5 ± 9 g) to repeated doses of 50, 150 and 250 mg l-1 SPC for 1 h on Days 1, 2, 7 and 8 of a treatment regime. The effect of SPC was assessed by histological evaluation of structural changes in gill tissue. Survival was 100% in all groups, but some fish exposed to 250 mg l-1 SPC displayed impaired swimming performance, and on Day 9 after the final treatment, oedema was present in 9.8% of lamella, which was significantly higher than the mean occurrence of 1.7, 4.2 and 1.3% in fish treated with 0, 50 and 150 mg l-1 SPC, respectively. These changes resolved within 24 h of the cessation of treatment. We conclude that SPC is safe to use on rainbow trout in doses of ≤150 mg l-1 at 17°C, however caution is advised at doses approaching 250 mg l-1. Water temperature, fish age, fish size and maturity, intensity of parasite infection and stocking density could alter the sensitivity of rainbow trout to SPC treatments. PMID:26036833

  3. Oxidative state and histological changes in muscles of mastication after conditioning training.

    PubMed

    Gedrange, T; Lupp, A; Walter, B; Harzer, W; Bauer, R

    2001-04-01

    Stress due to endurance training of striated muscles leads to adaptive changes in the distribution of muscle fiber types (i.e. ratio of type I and type II fibers). Moreover, severe training leads to tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress in muscles. In the current study, we examined the relationship between histological changes and oxidative state in muscles of mastication during the acute adaptation phase to a sustained muscle load. Six domestic pigs received build-ups on the molar teeth in order to induce a sustained load of the muscles of mastication for a duration of four weeks. Afterwards the masseter (M1, M2, M3), medial pterygoid (PM), temporal (TP1, TP2), and geniohyoid muscles (GH) were removed and the fiber type distribution was determined by enzyme histochemistry. Additionally, the tissue content of glutathione and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products were measured. The above treatment led to muscle fiber transformation of type II into type I (M1, M2, TP2, PM) and a decrease of the GSH content (M1, M2 and TP2). The changes in the GSH/GSSG ratio were in accordance with the changes in proportions of muscle fiber types, with the lowest GSH/GSSG ratios in the most stressed muscles of the treated animals. No significant changes in LPO products were found. The decrease of the GSH/GSSG ratio in the most stressed muscles indicates an increased intracellular oxidative stress, which may be caused by tissue hypoxia during the chronic phase of muscle adaptation. PMID:11370740

  4. Pigmented guinea pig skin irradiated with Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Morphologic and histologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, J.S.; Margolis, R.J.; Polla, L.L.; Watanabe, S.; Hruza, G.J.; Parrish, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Q-switched ruby laser pulses cause selective damage to cutaneous pigmented cells. Repair of this selective damage has not been well described. Therefore, using epilated pigmented and albino guinea pig skin, we studied the acute injury and tissue repair caused by 40-ns, Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Gross observation and light and electron microscopy were performed. No specific changes were evident in the albino guinea pigs. In pigmented animals, with radiant exposures of 0.4 J/cm2 or greater, white spots confined to the 2.5-mm exposure sites developed immediately and faded over 20 minutes. Delayed depigmentation occurred at seven to ten days, followed by full repigmentation by four to eight weeks. Regrowing hairs in sites irradiated at and above 0.4 J/cm2 remained white for at least four months. Histologically, vacuolation of pigment-laden cells was seen immediately in the epidermis and the follicular epithelium at exposures of 0.3 J/cm2 and greater. Melanosomal disruption was seen immediately by electron microscopy at and above 0.3 J/cm2. Over the next seven days, epidermal necrosis was followed by regeneration of a depigmented epidermis. By four months, melanosomes and melanin pigmentation had returned; however, hair follicles remained depigmented and devoid of melanocytes. This study demonstrates that selective melanosomal disruption caused by Q-switched ruby laser pulses leads to transient cutaneous depigmentation and persistent follicular depigmentation. Potential exists for selective treatment of pigmented epidermal and dermal lesions with this modality.

  5. Histological Evaluation of 3D MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Therapy in the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Siddharth; Boyes, Aaron; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that transurethral ultrasound therapy, with a single ultrasound transducer guided by temperature feedback from a single MRI plane (slice), can be used to treat a targeted region accurately in the prostate gland. We have extended this approach to a larger, 3D, targeted volume within the prostate, using a multi-element transducer controlled concurrently by temperature feedback from multiple imaging planes. Animals were placed supine in a 1.5 T clinical MRI, and the transurethral heating device was positioned with image guidance. A four-element transducer (each element was 5 mm long, operating at ˜8 MHz) was rotated to treat a targeted volume around the device. Temperature maps transverse to each element were acquired during heating and used to control the acoustic power of each element and the rate of rotation of the device. T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced (CE) MR images were obtained pre- and post-heating. Following the treatment, prostates were removed and fixed, axially sliced, stained with H&E, and digitally imaged at high-resolution to outline boundaries of cell death. Slice alignment and image registration techniques were developed to enable quantitative comparison of the axial MRI images and matching histological sections. Prostate sections showed clear regions of coagulative necrosis, extending ˜20 mm along the urethra, which correlated well with CE MRI data and transducer length. After registration, the outer border of coagulative necrosis on H&E conformed well to the target isotherm, similar to results from our previous (single element) acute studies. These results confirm that our previous analysis techniques for a single transducer can be extended to multiple elements, and that a large volumetric ablation of the prostate gland is feasible with a high degree of accuracy.

  6. Histotripsy Effects on the Bladder Trigone: Functional and Histologic Consequences in the Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Christopher L.; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Cheng, Xu; Ives, Kimberly A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Roberts, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Histotripsy is an extracorporeal therapeutic ultrasound (US) technology, where high-amplitude acoustic energy is applied to targeted tissue. Previous research has demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of histotripsy tissue homogenization and debulking of the prostate in the canine model. Before translating this technology for human use, it is prudent to examine the susceptibility of critical periprostatic structures to cavitation injury in the event of histotripsy mistargeting. In this study, we sought to characterize the tissue effects and biologic response of directly treating the bladder trigone with histotripsy. Materials and Methods In eight anesthetized canines, 750,000 histotripsy pulses were applied uniformly across a 2×1.5-cm area encompassing the bladder trigone and ureteral orifices. Prostate and bladder trigone were harvested immediately after treatment (2 subjects) or at 14 days (6 subjects). Flexible cystourethroscopy, US imaging, and creatinine levels were obtained at intervals until harvest, 14 days after treatment. In one control subject, harvested at 2 days, the same treatment algorithm was applied to the prostate. Results Transrectal US imaging revealed a cavitation bubble cloud on the surface of the bladder trigone and progressive development of tissue edema during treatment. Flexible cystourethroscopy immediately after treatment confirmed edema and erythema of the trigone. In the six subjects survived 2 weeks after treatment, one incidence of transient, self-limited ureteral obstruction was noted based on hydronephrosis and creatinine levels. At harvest, ureteral orifices were confirmed patent by passage of a guide wire. Histologic evaluation revealed hemorrhage acutely with mild localized fibrosis at 14 days. Conclusions In this study, designed along the lines of a worst-case, destructive testing scenario, direct targeting of the bladder trigone with supratherapeutic histotripsy failed to induce

  7. Pathology of breast cancer in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis. [X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretsky, P.M.; Woodard, E.; Bonfiglio, T.A.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Morse, I.P.

    1980-11-15

    The gross and microscopic pathology of breast cancers in women irradiated for acute postpartum mastitis was compared to the breast cancers found in the sisters of the irradiated women. In considering the lesions in the two populations, the size, location, histologic type, histologic grade, inflammatory response, lymphatic and blood vascular invasion, nipple involvement, axillary lymph node metastases, and menopausal status at the time of diagnosis were statistically indistinguishable. The only parameter that was different in the two populations was the desmoplastic response to the malignant lesion. The control population had more marked fibrosis within the cancers compared with the irradiated women.

  8. Bone marrow and splenic histology in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Mendes, Larissa Sena Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia is a rare chronic neoplastic B-cell lymphoproliferation that characteristically involves blood, bone marrow and spleen with liver, lymph node and skin less commonly involved. Histologically, the cells have a characteristic appearance with pale/clear cytoplasm and round or reniform nuclei. In the spleen, the infiltrate involves the red pulp and is frequently associated with areas of haemorrhage (blood lakes). The cells stain for B-cell related antigens as well as with antibodies against tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, DBA44 (CD72), CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123, cyclin D1 and annexin A1. Mutation of BRAF -V600E is present and antibody to the mutant protein can be used as a specific marker. Bone marrow biopsy is essential in the initial assessment of disease as the bone marrow may be inaspirable or unrepresentative of degree of marrow infiltration as a result of the tumour associated fibrosis preventing aspiration of the tumour cell component. Bone marrow biopsy is important in the assessment of therapy response but in this context staining for CD11c and Annexin A1 is not helpful as they are also markers of myeloid lineage and identification of low level infiltration may be obscured. In this context staining for CD20 may be used in conjunction with morphological assessment and staining of serial sections for cyclin D1 and DBA44 to identify subtle residual infiltration. Staining for CD79a and CD19 is not recommended as these antibodies will identify plasma cells and can lead to over-estimation of disease. Staining for CD20 should not be used in patients following with anti-CD20 based treatments. Down regulation of cyclin D1 and CD25 has been reported in patients following BRAF inhibitor therapy and assessment of these antigens should not be used in this context. Histologically, hairy cell leukaemia needs to be distinguished from other B-cell lymphoproliferations associated with splenomegaly including splenic marginal zone lymphoma, splenic

  9. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  10. [Do histologic changes of the upper renal pole in double ectopic ureterocele justify a conservative approach?].

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, P A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper pole segment in patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele to verify if a less aggressive surgery is justified in the prenatally diagnosed patients. We reviewed the histology of the upper pole segment of 15 consecutive patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele treated between 1991 and 1999 at the Paediatric Surgery Unit of University Hospital of Messina. The diagnosis of duplex system ectopic ureterocele was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Paediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory and obstructive changes. All 15 patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele were surgically treated with heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine of the 15 patients were prenatally diagnosed. The histology of the upper pole segment of the 9 prenatally diagnosed showed in all patients segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands and an inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in 6 patients (66.6%) and in 2 (22.2%) nephroblastomatosis. The histology of six the postnatal postnatally diagnosed patients showed in all patients segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper pole histology of the patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele diagnosed prenatally did not show any evidence of reversible histological change. Considering the histology and the good outcome of patients treated with upper pole nephroureterectomy a less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified. PMID:11723852

  11. IVUS-based histology of atherosclerotic plaques: improving longitudinal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Arash; Pauly, Olivier; Setarehdan, S. Kamaledin; Unal, Gozde; Navab, Nassir

    2010-03-01

    Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque characterization in IVUS images, it suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to ECG-gating. In this paper, we propose an image-based approach to overcome this limitation. Since each tissue have different echogenic characteristics, they show in IVUS images different local frequency components. By using Redundant Wavelet Packet Transform (RWPT), IVUS images are decomposed in multiple sub-band images. To encode the textural statistics of each resulting image, run-length features are extracted from the neighborhood centered on each pixel. To provide the best discrimination power according to these features, relevant sub-bands are selected by using Local Discriminant Bases (LDB) algorithm in combination with Fisher's criterion. A structure of weighted multi-class SVM permits the classification of the extracted feature vectors into three tissue classes, namely fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcified tissues. Results shows the superiority of our approach with an overall accuracy of 72% in comparison to methods based on Local Binary Pattern and Co-occurrence, which respectively give accuracy rates of 70% and 71%.

  12. Chronic Achilles paratenonitis in athletes: a histological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kvist, M; Józsa, L; Järvinen, M J; Kvist, H

    1987-01-01

    Pathological alterations of chronic Achilles paratenonitis were studied histologically and histochemically in tissue samples obtained operatively from 16 athletes with this complaint and from 3 control patients. The activities of 11 different enzymes--lactate, succinate, malate, glucose-6-phosphate and glutamate dehydrogenases, lipoamide dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase (NADH2- and NADPH2-diaphorases), acid and alkaline phosphatases, phosphorylase and leucylaminopeptidase--were studied. Pathological findings were located diffusely around the tendon. A slight inflammatory cell reaction was found in all cases. The fatty areolar tissue was clearly thickened and edematous, and showed fibrinous exudations, widespread fat necrosis, considerable connective tissue proliferation and adhesion formation. The blood vessels showed profound degenerative and necrotizing changes. The thin membranes of the paratenon were clearly hypertrophied. Increased enzyme activities were mainly found in the fibroblasts, inflammatory cells and vascular walls. A moderate activity of lysosomal enzymes, an increased activity of enzymes of electron transport, anaerobic glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt and decreased activity of those of aerobic energy metabolism were found. Simultaneously an increased amount of both neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides and a locally increased amount of elastic fibres were found in the inflamed paratenon. These results indicate that marked metabolic changes occur in paratenonitis, i.e. an increased catabolism and decreased oxygenation of the inflamed areas. The morphological alterations suggest that the gliding function of the paratenon may be impaired. PMID:3588019

  13. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  14. Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2013-10-01

    Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5 μm in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. PMID:23769456

  15. [Comparative clinical analysis of histological systems of adrenocortical tumors diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bokhyan, V Yu; Stilidi, I S; Pavlovskaya, A I

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and cortical adenoma presents certain difficulties since there is no specific histological criterion allowing to distinguish tumors of the adrenal cortex with malignant clinical course. Currently there are offered several systems, and the most widely spread have the index Weiss (IW) and the modified index Weiss (MIW). The accuracy of one or another of the proposed systems remains a matter of debate. There was analyzed own experience on the use of IW and MIW in the diagnosis of 91 cases of the ACC and 13 cases of cortex adenomas of the size at least 5 cm. For the diagnosis of large adenomas sensitivity IW was 77%, MIW--100%. For the diagnosis of metastatic and non-metastatic ACC--100% and 97%, 100% and 86%, respectively (p > 0.05). In multivariate analysis of life expectancy of patients the definition of IW and MIW had a prognostic significance. MIW was less subjective, more simple and convenient to be used and it showed a great informative value at the reclassification of certain "adenomas" into ACC. However to use it on their own, without IW, was impractical as MIW had wider gray area and did not reach the threshold value in some cases of ACC. For the diagnosis of tumors of the adrenal cortex IW remains a standard; when a value was equal of 2 or in cases of doubt it was necessary to calculate MIW as well. PMID:26995980

  16. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  17. Ophidian Spectaculitis and Spectacular Dysecdysis: A Histologic Description.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, M O; Bertelsen, M F; Heegaard, S; Garner, M M

    2015-11-01

    The histologic features of abnormal spectacles in 60 snakes from the 5 families of Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Pythonidae, and Viperidae are described in a retrospective study conducted on specimens submitted to a private diagnostic service during a period of 15 years. Fifty-two snakes had inflammatory reactions in the spectacle. The stroma and outer epithelium of the spectacle were the layers most often involved in inflammatory disease. Lesions of the outer epithelium included edema, hyperkeratosis, and granulocyte infiltration occasionally with bacterial colonies and fungal elements. The stroma had infectious agents and inflammatory reactions in vessels and between the collagen fibrils. The inner epithelium had varying degrees of hyperplasia and hypertrophy, but no infectious agents were seen. Infectious agents in these cases included mites, bacterial disease, fungal disease, or a combination of bacterial and fungal disease. Special stains identified the bacteria most commonly involved to be Gram-positive cocci. Thirteen snakes had dysecdysis of the spectacle. Of these, 5 displayed a concurrent inflammatory reaction of the spectacle, while the remaining 8 snakes had extra keratin layers on a spectacle with an otherwise normal appearance. These keratin layers were attached to serocellular crusts located on the inner surface of the periocular scales. The cause for dyskeratotic lesions of the spectacle was not always apparent, and concurrent acariasis, other forms of dermatitis, trauma, suboptimal husbandry, and visceral disease were considered possible contributing factors. It was notable that only 4% of the submitted cases were found to have spectaculitis and/or spectacular dysecdysis. PMID:26077780

  18. Quantitative image analysis of histological sections of coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-06-01

    The study of coronary arteries has evolved from examining gross anatomy and morphology to scrutinizing micro-anatomy and cellular composition. Technological advances such as high- resolution digital microscopes and high precision cutting devices have allowed examination of coronary artery morphology and pathology at micron resolution. We have developed a software toolkit to analyze histological sections. In particular, we are currently engaged in examining normal coronary arteries in order to provide the foundation for study of remodeled tissue. The first of two coronary arteries was stained for elastin and collagen. The second coronary artery was sectioned and stained for cellular nuclei and smooth muscle. High resolution light microscopy was used to image the sections. Segmentation was accomplished initially with slice- to-slice thresholding algorithms. These segmentation techniques choose optimal threshold values by modeling the tissue as one or more distributions. Morphology and image statistics were used to further differentiate the thresholded data into different tissue categories therefore refine the results of the segmentation. Specificity/sensitivity analysis suggests that automatic segmentation can be very effective. For both tissue samples, greater than 90% specificity was achieved. Summed voxel projection and maximum intensity projection appear to be effective 3-D visualization tools. Shading methods also provide useful visualization, however it is important to incorporate combined 2-D and 3-D displays. Surface rendering techniques (e.g. color mapping) can be used for visualizing parametric data. Preliminary results are promising, but continued development of algorithms is needed.

  19. Effective topical delivery systems for corticosteroids: dermatological and histological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, İpek; Azizoğlu, Erkan; Özyazıcı, Mine; Nenni, Merve; Gürer Orhan, Hande; Özbal, Seda; Tekmen, Işıl; Ertam, İlgen; Ünal, İdil; Özer, Özgen

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disease with severe eczematous lesions. Long-term topical corticosteroid treatment can induce skin atrophy, hypopigmentation and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increase. A new treatment approach was needed to reduce the risk by dermal targeting. For this purpose, Betamethasone valerate (BMV)/Diflucortolone valerate (DFV)-loaded liposomes (220-350 nm) were prepared and incorporated into chitosan gel to obtain adequate viscosity (∼13 000 cps). Drugs were localized in stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin in ex-vivo permeation studies. The toxicity was assessed on human fibroblast cells. In point of in-vivo studies, pharmacodynamic responses, treatment efficacy and skin irritation were evaluated and compared with previously prepared nanoparticles. Liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations produced higher paw edema inhibition in rats with respect to the commercial cream. Similar skin blanching effect with commercial creams was obtained via liposome in gels although they contain 10 times less drug. Dermatological scoring results, prognostic histological parameters and suppression of mast cell numbers showed higher treatment efficiency of liposome/nanoparticle in gel formulations in AD-induced rats. TEWL and erythema measurements confirmed these results. Overview of obtained results showed that liposomes might be an effective and safe carrier for corticosteroids in skin disease treatment. PMID:25259424

  20. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  1. [Metastatic tumors in the ovary, difficulties of histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tamás, Judit; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Tóth, Erika

    2015-09-01

    The ovary is a common site of metastases. Secondary tumors account for 3-40% of all ovarian malignancies. Most ovarian metastases arise from the colon, although tumors of the breast, stomach and endometrium are also common places of origin. Clinical and histological features of metastatic tumors frequently mimic primary ovarian malignancies, causing serious diagnostic problems for the surgical pathologist. However, differentiation between primary ovarian cancer and ovarian metastasis is important in order to prevent inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment. The distinction between primary and secondary ovarian malignancies is especially difficult in cases when the metastasis is diagnosed before the primary tumor. Frozen section is widely used in the intra-operative assessment of patients with ovarian tumors but it can be very difficult to distinguish certain types of primary ovarian tumors and metastases from other sites. We examined 152 cases of secondary ovarian neoplasm diagnosed at the National Institute of Oncology, Hungary from 2000 to 2014. Colorectal cancer was the most common primary tumor (58 cases), followed by breast (33 cases), endometrium (30 cases) and stomach cancer (13 cases). The differential diagnosis proved the most difficult in cases when endometrioid and mucinous tumors were present in the ovaries. Metastases of colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas may simulate benign or borderline cystadenomas too. In these cases the knowledge of the patient's history and immunohistochemical stains were helpful. In our study we discuss the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasms and the limits of the intraoperative frozen sections. PMID:26339910

  2. Classification of Histology Sections via Multispectral Convolutional Sparse Coding*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yin; Barner, Kenneth; Spellman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Image-based classification of histology sections plays an important role in predicting clinical outcomes. However this task is very challenging due to the presence of large technical variations (e.g., fixation, staining) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state). In the field of biomedical imaging, for the purposes of visualization and/or quantification, different stains are typically used for different targets of interest (e.g., cellular/subcellular events), which generates multi-spectrum data (images) through various types of microscopes and, as a result, provides the possibility of learning biological-component-specific features by exploiting multispectral information. We propose a multispectral feature learning model that automatically learns a set of convolution filter banks from separate spectra to efficiently discover the intrinsic tissue morphometric signatures, based on convolutional sparse coding (CSC). The learned feature representations are then aggregated through the spatial pyramid matching framework (SPM) and finally classified using a linear SVM. The proposed system has been evaluated using two large-scale tumor cohorts, collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Experimental results show that the proposed model 1) outperforms systems utilizing sparse coding for unsupervised feature learning (e.g., PSD-SPM [5]); 2) is competitive with systems built upon features with biological prior knowledge (e.g., SMLSPM [4]). PMID:25554749

  3. Review of Arthroscopic and Histological Findings Following Knee Inlay Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Gregory G; Kambour, Michael T; Uribe, John W

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of cartilage rim loading in defects exceeding the threshold diameter of 10 mm is well documented. Contoured defect fill off-loads the perimeter and counteracts further delamination and progression of defects. When biological procedures have failed, inlay arthroplasty follows these concepts. The human biological response to contoured metallic surface implants has not been described. Four patients underwent non-implant-related, second-look arthroscopy following inlay arthroplasty for bi- (n=3) and tricompartmental (n=1) knee arthrosis without subchondral bone collapse. Arthroscopic probing of the implant-cartilage interface of nine prosthetic components did not show signs of implant-cartilage gap formation, loosening, or subsidence. The implant periphery was consistently covered by cartilage confluence leading to a reduction of the original defect size diameter. Femoral condyle cartilage flow appeared to have more hyaline characteristics. Trochlear cartilage flow showed greater histological variability and less organization with fibrocartilage and synovialized scar tissue. This review reconfirmed previous basic science results and demonstrated effective defect fill and rim off-loading with inlay arthroplasty. PMID:27082884

  4. YAG lasers in restorative dentistry: a histological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koort, Hans J.; Frentzen, Matthias

    1992-06-01

    An important indicator to prove the effectiveness of laser radiation and to control the side effects are histological studies of dental hard tissues. In our study, different pulsed, rare earth doped YAG-laser systems in the range from 1 micrometers to 3 micrometers were investigated. An improved plastic embedding technique based on a penetrating uv-activated PMMA-medium was developed to cut undecalcified sections of 15 micrometers thickness. The Nd:YAG laser showed wide zones of necrosis but little carbonization. The radiation of Holmium and Thullium-doped YAG lasers causes strong but well-defined zones of carbonization comparable to those of pulsed (ms) CO2 lasers. The Erbium-doped YAG-laser was the most effective system. As predominant side effects, residual zones of debris and microcracks were observed. In deeper cavities, the zones of damages increase. The side effects of the pulsed infrared laser types seem to be mainly influenced by the physical or chemical properties of the dental tissues and not by the selected laser parameters.

  5. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  6. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  7. Acute Lung Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mac Sweeney, Rob; McAuley, Daniel F.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Lung failure is the most common organ failure seen in the intensive care unit. The pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure (ARF) can be classified as (1) neuromuscular in origin, (2) secondary to acute and chronic obstructive airway diseases, (3) alveolar processes such as cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and pneumonia, and (4) vascular diseases such as acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. This article reviews the more common causes of ARF from each group, including the pathological mechanisms and the principles of critical care management, focusing on the supportive, specific, and adjunctive therapies for each condition. PMID:21989697

  8. Acute porphyric disorders.

    PubMed

    Moore, A W; Coke, J M

    2000-09-01

    Acute porphyrias are classified into 3 distinct groups of rare genetic disorders of metabolic enzyme biosynthesis. Acute porphyrias can significantly impact multiple organ systems, which often provides a challenge to the dentist presented with such a patient. A case of hereditary coproporphyria is reported in a patient with many of the classical signs and symptoms. The patient also had complex dental needs that required special medical and pharmacotherapeutic modifications. The acute porphyrias are reviewed by the authors with presentation of this challenging case. Recommendations for other dental health care professionals encountering these patients are then presented. PMID:10982942

  9. Alteration in systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output during acute cellular rejection and recovery in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Garan, Arthur R; Uriel, Nir; Sayer, Gabriel; Sims, Daniel; Zahner, Doris; Farr, Maryjane; Mancini, Donna; Jorde, Ulrich P

    2010-03-01

    Coronary vascular reserve is impaired during acute cellular rejection of the orthotopically transplanted heart, but changes in the peripheral vasculature during rejection have not been well described. To investigate whether peripheral vascular compensatory mechanisms are preserved after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), we longitudinally observed systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac output (CO) during acute cellular rejection. CO decreased during high-grade acute cellular rejection, and maintenance of mean arterial pressure was achieved by increases in SVR, and these changes did not return to baseline until several months after histologic resolution of rejection. PMID:19875310

  10. Gallbladder melanoma mimicking acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    De Simone, P; Mainente, P; Bedin, N

    2000-06-01

    Gallbladder (GB) melanoma is a rare entity with a dismal prognosis. Its primary or secondary status is difficult to establish in the absence of an overt cutaneous localization. We report herein the case of a misdiagnosed GB melanoma mimicking acute acalculous cholecystitis that was treated by means of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A 54-year-old man was referred to our institution for acute cholecystitis. Apart from the ablation of some nevocytic nevi 7 years before admission, the patient's medical history was unremarkable. The ultrasound (US) examination showed a slightly enlarged acalculous gallbladder with thickened walls and a well-circumscribed polypoid mass in the fundus. The patient was treated medically and referred to LC. At surgery, some satellite nodules were visualized in the GB hepatic bed. The GB was removed, and two hepatic nodules were excised. Histology showed a pT3 melanoma. The patient underwent an open hepatic wedge resection 3 weeks after laparoscopy. No recurrence was observed at 6-month follow-up. To date, only one case of melanoma of the gallbladder treated with LC has been reported. GB melanoma is a diagnostic challenge when there is no evidence of a primary lesion. However, the occurrence of acalculous cholecystitis and a GB polyp in patients with a positive history of mole ablation should alert surgeons to the possibility of a melanoma. PMID:11265063

  11. Diagnostic approaches to acute transfusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Leo, A; Pedal, I

    2010-06-01

    The erroneous transfusion of ABO-incompatible red cells may lead to life-threatening hemolysis and complement-induced shock, resulting in death in less than 10% of cases (acute hemolytic transfusion reaction, AHTR). Identification of the cause of an erroneous transfusion is accomplished in nearly all incidents merely by checking the identity of the patient, blood sample and blood bag. The erroneous transfusion is confirmed by serological and--in the case of a fatality- immunohistochemical methods. The differential diagnosis should rule out transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), other immunologically triggered causes such as febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) or allergic reactions, but also nonimmunological causes such as bacterial contamination of the blood components, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and other rare events such as citrate overload or embolism (by air or debris). In the case of a fatality, evaluation of a patient's medical records, serological and microbiological analyses, autopsy and histology, taken together, clarify questions of causality. PMID:20140541

  12. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  13. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  14. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  15. Acute coronary syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Heart attack-ACS; Myocardial infarction-ACS; MI-ACS; Acute MI-ACS; ST-elevation myocardial infarction-ACS; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction-ACS; Unstable angina-ACS; Accelerating angina-ACS; New- ...

  16. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  17. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  18. Acute Flaccid Myelitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a condition that affects the nervous system, ... from a variety of causes including viral infections. AFM is characterized by a sudden weakness in one ...

  19. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  20. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  1. A histological study of retrieved Cambridge acetabular components.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Roger A; Field, Richard E; Jones, Eric; Sood, Asheesh; Rushton, Neil

    2010-01-01

    A new uncemented acetabular component, the Cambridge cup, has been designed to mimic the anatomy and physiology of subchondral bone in order to minimise stress shielding and enhance long-term component stability. Cambridge cups were implanted in a cohort of 50 women who presented with displaced sub-capital fracture of the femoral neck. The cups were manufactured with an hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Twenty six cups were implanted after removal of the HA. Twelve Cambridge cups were retrieved post-mortem between two and 84 months after implantation. Histological and histomorphometric testing was undertaken to analyse the residual HA coating thickness, bone apposition to the implant surface and particulate wear debris in the surrounding tissues. The HA-coated implants showed significantly greater bone apposition to the implant surface with significantly less fibrous tissue formation than the uncoated implants. Where HA resorption occurred, bone and bone marrow was seen adjacent to the implant. Excessive wear of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene liner was not seen. The HA-coated components demonstrated good initial bone implant bonding and the flexible carbon polymer appeared to maintain stability following HA resorption. The uncoated implants showed little or no bony apposition but had a fibrous membrane apposed to the implant surface. This may be explained by a combination of micro-motion at the bone implant interface and having a component surface finish that was poorly suited to osseous attachment. Hydroxyapatite coated acetabular components can provide reliable osseous attachment. Subsequent HA resorption need not compromise medium-term osseous fixation to an appropriate implant surface. PMID:20235075

  2. A quantitative histological analysis of the dilated ureter of childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, B R; Partin, A W; Epstein, J I; Quinlan, D M; Gosling, J A; Gearhart, J P

    1992-11-01

    A quantitative histological study of the dilated ureter of childhood was performed on 26 ureters. The specimens were from 15 male and 11 female patients 10 days to 12 years old (mean age 2.0 years). A color image analysis system was used to examine and compare collagen and smooth muscle components of the muscularis layers to normal control ureters of similar age. In comparing primary obstructed (12) to primary refluxing (14) megaureters and control ureters (6), there was a statistically different collagen-to-smooth muscle ratio (p < 0.001) between the primary obstructed and primary refluxing megaureter groups. For patients with primary refluxing megaureter there was a 2-fold increase in the tissue matrix ratio of collagen-to-smooth muscle when compared to patients with primary obstructed megaureter. In the primary obstructed megaureters the amount of collagen and smooth muscle was not statistically different from controls (p > 0.01). The increased tissue matrix ratio of 2.0 +/- 0.35 (collagen-to-smooth muscle) in the refluxing megaureter group compared to 0.78 +/- 0.22 in the obstructed megaureter group and 0.52 +/- 0.12 in controls was found to be due not only to a marked increase in collagen but also a significant decrease in the smooth muscle component of the tissue. Primary obstructed and normal control ureters had similar quantitative amounts of smooth muscle with 60 +/- 5% and 61 +/- 6%, respectively, while refluxing megaureters had only 40 +/- 5% smooth muscle. The percentage collagen was 36 +/- 5 in the obstructed megaureter group and 30 +/- 5 in controls, with refluxing megaureters having 58 +/- 5% collagen on analysis. Our findings emphasize the significant differences in the structural components (collagen and smooth muscle) of the dilated ureter of childhood, and provide us with further insight into the pathological nature of these dilated ureters and their surgical repair. PMID:1433552

  3. Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive route for drug administration. The blood flow into the nasal region is slightly more than reabsorbed back into the nasal veins, but the excess will drain into the lymph vessels, making this region a very attractive route for vaccine delivery. Many of the side effects seen following intranasal administration are caused by some of the 6 nerves that serve the nasal cavity. The 5th cranial nerve (trigeminus nerve) is responsible for sensing pain and irritation following nasal administration but the 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve) will respond to such irritation by stimulating glands and cause facial expressions in the subject. The first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve), however, is the target when direct absorption into the brain is the goal, since this is the only site in our body where the central nervous system is directly expressed on the mucosal surface. The nasal mucosa contains 7 cell types and 4 types of glands. Four types of cells and 2 types of glands are located in the respiratory region but 6 cell types and 2 types of glands are found in the olfactory region. PMID:22788696

  4. Anatomical and histological factors affecting intranasal drug and vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive route for drug administration. The blood flow into the nasal region is slightly more than reabsorbed back into the nasal veins, but the excess will drain into the lymph vessels, making this region a very attractive route for vaccine delivery. Many of the side effects seen following intranasal administration are caused by some of the 6 nerves that serve the nasal cavity. The 5th cranial nerve (trigeminus nerve) is responsible for sensing pain and irritation following nasal administration but the 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve) will respond to such irritation by stimulating glands and cause facial expressions in the subject. The first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve), however, is the target when direct absorption into the brain is the goal, since this is the only site in our body where the central nervous system is directly expressed on the mucosal surface. The nasal mucosa contains 7 cell types and 4 types of glands. Four types of cells and 2 types of glands are located in the respiratory region but 6 cell types and 2 types of glands are found in the olfactory region. PMID:22788696

  5. The periepiglottic space: topographic relations and histological organisation.

    PubMed Central

    Reidenbach, M M

    1996-01-01

    Important aspects of histological organisation and topographic relations of the pre-epiglottic space are not fully understood. This region was therefore reinvestigated in plastinated serial sections of 19 human adult specimens. The cranial part of the pre-epiglottic space is homogenously filled with adipose tissue and extends around the epiglottis in a horseshoe fashion. Therefore, the term periepiglottic space (PES) is a more accurate description of this region. The cranial border of the PES is constituted by the hyoepiglottic membrane, which extends between the epiglottis and the tongue, and the hyoepiglottic ligament. The ligament consists of a cranial fibre layer anchored within the lingual muscles, and a caudal layer attached to the hyoid bone. Anterior to the lingual surface of the epiglottis, both fibre layers become apposed to form a dense collagenous mass, which may stabilise the epiglottis during deglutition. Contractions of the infrahyoid muscles will be transmitted to the thyrohyoid membrane anterior to the PES by numerous collagenous septa which originate from the membrane and radiate into the muscles. In contrast, the pre-epiglottic adipose tissue is not connected to the thyrohyoid membrane. The caudal part of the PES is subdivided by two paramedian sagittal collagenous septa. They include a medial compartment bordered by the epiglottis posteriorly and the thyroepiglottic ligament inferiorly. The two lateral subdivisions of the PES extend between the glands of the vestibular folds and towards the aryepiglottic folds, but a distinct confining collagenous layer is absent there. Posterolaterally, the PES is separated from the paraglottic space by the thyroarytenoid muscle and by a cranial extension of the fibrous sheet of the muscle. This collagenous tissue is often split into several layers and displays gaps which may facilitate the spread of malignancies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655405

  6. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  7. Histological study of excimer laser on carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavantes, Maria C.; Pasqualucci, C. A.; Zamorano, Lucia J.

    1992-06-01

    The employment of photoablative effect on coronary artery angioplasty has been a new exciting field as a treatment option. Guided by good results in the literature, our group decided to study the laser/tissue interaction on carotid arteries with the intent of a less invasive treatment of intracranial and extracranial obstructed disease in vascular neurosurgery. We studied human cartoid arteries from ten male autopsy specimens with an average age of 53 years (34 - 37 years old) which a total of 22 laser applications were performed. Using the same repetition rate and energy, 20 Hz and 30 mJ, we compared the effect of the laser energy on 'normal' and 'pathologic' areas of the carotid arteries. The pathologic specimens, presenting calcified and non-calcified plaques, the same as the macroscopical 'normal' specimens, were submitted to the energy of the Excimer Laser with 308 nm wavelength. The laser beam was delivered perpendicularly through continuous flushing of saline on the targeted artery wall varying from 200 to 400 pulses. Histological studies were done and statistical analysis was performed. The results showed that the depth of penetration varied from 113 micrometers to 1200 micrometers , with a width of the lesion ranging from 150 micrometers - 1500 micrometers . In our study we found that the range between non-effective and destructive effect caused by the laser was around 400 pulses. We encountered minimal degree of carbonization while lasering on calcified plaques. We concluded that Excimer laser is a feasible and secure tool to prevent thermical complications of laser treatment, which will allow neurosurgeons in the future athermic laser angioplasty. Progress in this field must rely on further in vitro and in vivo research, before it can be clinically applied as well as improvements in delivery systems.

  8. Histological responses to downy mildew in resistant and susceptible grapevines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqi; Wang, Lan; Zhu, Jiali; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Yuejin; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Downy mildew in grapevines, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease throughout the grape-producing nations, especially in more humid climates. Downy mildew mainly affects the cultivated varieties of Vitis vinifera. A promising way to minimize or eliminate P. viticola infections is by the adoption of resistant cultivars. Chinese wild grapevines are reported to possess resistance to many fungal diseases. In this study, three Chinese wild grapevines (Vitis pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1, Vitis davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, and Vitis piasezkii Liuba-8) and a European cultivated variety (V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir) were inoculated with P. viticola, and a histological survey was undertaken. Macroscopic observations revealed no sporulation in V. piasezkii Liuba-8, little sporulation in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1 and V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, but serious sporulation in V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir. Aniline blue staining indicated callose deposition in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1, V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, and V. piasezkii Liuba-8. Cells with distinctive fluorescence were also observed in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1. After staining with 3,3-diaminobenzidine, production of H₂O₂ was observed early on, after infection in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5 and V. piasezkii Liuba-8. No H₂O₂ accumulation was observed in V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir. It is concluded that V. piasezkii Liuba-8 should be classified as "highly resistant" to downy mildew, V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1 and V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5 as "resistant," and V. vinifera Pinot noir as "susceptible." The possible roles of stomatal callose deposition in the defense r6eactions of the mildew-resistant grapevines are discussed. PMID:25027553

  9. The importance of histologic parameters of lacteal involvement in cases of canine lymphoplasmacytic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Giacomo; Cerquetella, Matteo; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Pengo, Graziano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Spaterna, Andrea; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most frequent form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs is represented histologically, by lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE), a histological category, often associated with other morphologic alterations including lymphangiectasia (LE). However, literature data on this latter topic are quite scarce and have mostly been obtained in single reports or in small series. Aim: We evaluated some morphologic parameters of intestinal villi and lacteals in a large cohort of dogs, and correlated them with serum albumin and cholesterol values. Patients and methods: We investigated 136 dogs (94 with LPE, and 42 with gastrointestinal problems different from IBD) and analyzed their clinical, laboratory (albumin and cholesterol values), endoscopic, and histologic variables. Results: The LPE group showed significantly impaired clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histologic variables compared to controls. Affected dogs showed significant correlations between canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) scores and endoscopic and histologic variables. Moreover, the grade of hematologic changes were strongly related to the intestinal histologic variables, in particular those concerning villous and lacteals morphology. Conclusion: Dogs with LPE had intestinal histologic abnormalities (height, width, height/width ratio, calculated for both villi and lacteals), whose degree correlated with the severity of hypoalbuminemia and hypocholesterolemia. Evaluation of endoscopic and histologic variables in association to the clinical findings may reveal useful insights for the pathogenesis of LPE and, hopefully, might lead to more targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25584174

  10. Prediction of Lung Cancer Histological Types by RT-qPCR Gene Expression in FFPE Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Schallheim, Jason M.; Hayes, D. Neil; Roberts, Patrick J.; Bastien, Roy R.L.; Mullins, Michael; Yin, Xiaoying; Miller, C. Ryan; Thorne, Leigh B.; Geiersbach, Katherine B.; Muldrew, Kenneth L.; Funkhouser, William K.; Fan, Cheng; Hayward, Michele C.; Bayer, Steven; Perou, Charles M.; Bernard, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer histologic diagnosis is clinically relevant because there are histology-specific treatment indications and contraindications. Histologic diagnosis can be challenging owing to tumor characteristics, and it has been shown to have less-than-ideal agreement among pathologists reviewing the same specimens. Microarray profiling studies using frozen specimens have shown that histologies exhibit different gene expression trends; however, frozen specimens are not amenable to routine clinical application. Herein, we developed a gene expression–based predictor of lung cancer histology for FFPE specimens, which are routinely available in clinical settings. Genes predictive of lung cancer histologies were derived from published cohorts that had been profiled by microarrays. Expression of these genes was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) in a cohort of patients with FFPE lung cancer. A histology expression predictor (HEP) was developed using RT-qPCR expression data for adenocarcinoma, carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. In cross-validation, the HEP exhibited mean accuracy of 84% and κ = 0.77. In separate independent validation sets, the HEP was compared with pathologist diagnoses on the same tumor block specimens, and the HEP yielded similar accuracy and precision as the pathologists. The HEP also exhibited good performance in specimens with low tumor cellularity. Therefore, RT-qPCR gene expression from FFPE specimens can be effectively used to predict lung cancer histology. PMID:23701907

  11. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Taler, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health is discussed. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  12. Method of and Apparatus for Histological Human Tissue Characterization Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); TalEr, George A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining important histological characteristics of tissue, including a determination of the tissue's health. Electrical pulses are converted into meaningful numerical representations through the use of Fourier Transforms. These numerical representations are then used to determine important histological characteristics of tissue. This novel invention does not require rectification and thus provides for detailed information from the ultrasonic scan.

  13. Histological evaluation of coagulation foci produced in the human lens with a holmium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Dariusz; Kecik, Tadeusz; Pratnicki, Antoni; Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Mariusz

    1997-10-01

    We present the results of histological evaluation of human lenses treated with the holmium laser. The lenses, extracted at the time of extracapsular surgery for cataract, were placed in containers filled with Ringer's solution. After treatment with laser-emitted radiation they were histologically evaluated. The formation of crater-like defects was found in the material studied.

  14. Computerized methodology for micro-CT and histological data inflation using an IVUS based translation map.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Lambros S; Rigas, George A; Sakellarios, Antonis I; Exarchos, Themis P; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Naka, Katerina K; Panetta, Daniele; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Vozzi, Federico; Michalis, Lampros K; Parodi, Oberdan; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-10-01

    A framework for the inflation of micro-CT and histology data using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images, is presented. The proposed methodology consists of three steps. In the first step the micro-CT/histological images are manually co-registered with IVUS by experts using fiducial points as landmarks. In the second step the lumen of both the micro-CT/histological images and IVUS images are automatically segmented. Finally, in the third step the micro-CT/histological images are inflated by applying a transformation method on each image. The transformation method is based on the IVUS and micro-CT/histological contour difference. In order to validate the proposed image inflation methodology, plaque areas in the inflated micro-CT and histological images are compared with the ones in the IVUS images. The proposed methodology for inflating micro-CT/histological images increases the sensitivity of plaque area matching between the inflated and the IVUS images (7% and 22% in histological and micro-CT images, respectively). PMID:25771781

  15. Reconstruction of 3-Dimensional Histology Volume and its Application to Study Mouse Mammary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Shojaii, Rushin; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Spyropoulos, Demetri; Raouf, Afshin; Martel, Anne; Seth, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Histology volume reconstruction facilitates the study of 3D shape and volume change of an organ at the level of macrostructures made up of cells. It can also be used to investigate and validate novel techniques and algorithms in volumetric medical imaging and therapies. Creating 3D high-resolution atlases of different organs1,2,3 is another application of histology volume reconstruction. This provides a resource for investigating tissue structures and the spatial relationship between various cellular features. We present an image registration approach for histology volume reconstruction, which uses a set of optical blockface images. The reconstructed histology volume represents a reliable shape of the processed specimen with no propagated post-processing registration error. The Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained sections of two mouse mammary glands were registered to their corresponding blockface images using boundary points extracted from the edges of the specimen in histology and blockface images. The accuracy of the registration was visually evaluated. The alignment of the macrostructures of the mammary glands was also visually assessed at high resolution. This study delineates the different steps of this image registration pipeline, ranging from excision of the mammary gland through to 3D histology volume reconstruction. While 2D histology images reveal the structural differences between pairs of sections, 3D histology volume provides the ability to visualize the differences in shape and volume of the mammary glands. PMID:25145969

  16. [Keloid scars (part I): Clinical presentation, epidemiology, histology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Kerfant, N; Jaloux, C; Martinet, L; Bertrand, B; Casanova, D

    2016-04-01

    Keloid scars are a dysregulated response to cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by excessive deposition of collagen. Clinical and histological aspects are typical but they are often confused with hypertrophic scars. Principal pathogenesis is abnormal regulation of the collagen equilibrium because of TGFβ. In this first part, clinical characteristics, physiopathology and histology of keloid scars are explained. PMID:26545809

  17. 76 FR 82306 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Use of Histology in Biomarker Qualification Studies.'' This guidance is intended to assist sponsors that conduct biomarker qualification studies for which histology is a reference standard. This guidance discusses the processes that should be considered to ensure the quality and......

  18. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Elkhatib, Rania; Idowu, Modupe; Brown, Gregory S.; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Person, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment records revealed thirteen negative tests for AIP. PMID:25525547

  19. Acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis may be associated with Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Abou, Magali; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompetent hosts is generally asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosic syndrome. Its association with acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis has rarely been reported. A 24-year-old woman presented with pelvic pain, vulvodynia, abnormal vaginal discharge, burning with urination, fatigue, fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. The vulva and cervix were red with vesicular lesions on the cervix. Genital herpes simplex infection (HSV) was suspected and valacyclovir was given orally. However, serial viral cultures performed 7 weeks apart did not isolate HSV as suspected, but CMV was confirmed by immunofluorescence and early antigen research. Blood tests confirmed an acute CMV infection. Typical inclusions were found at histology. Symptoms resolved slowly with persistence of cervical lesions at 7 weeks from diagnosis. The frequency of CMV genital infection is probably underestimated. The infection is not always asymptomatic and might be confused with genital HSV infection. The clinical course is longer. PMID:23606387

  20. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  1. Association of coexisting morphological umbilical cord abnormality and clinical cord compromise with hypoxic and thrombotic placental histology.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    To assess the usefulness and limitations of placental histology when morphological umbilical cord (UC) abnormality coexists with clinical UC compromise, 5634 consecutive placentas were divided into four groups and statistically compared: group 1-182 placentas from pregnancies with clinical features of UC compromise (variable decelerations, UC entanglement, prolapse, or true knot at delivery); group 2-1355 placentas with abnormal UC morphology or insertion; group 3-152 placentas with at least one phenotype from group 1 and one from group 2; group 4-3945 placentas with no clinical or morphological UC-related phenotypes (control group).Differences were analyzed by ANOVA or χ (2). Of 68 phenotypes studied, 13 clinical and 18 placental phenotypes were statistically significant. In group 1, 2 phenotypes were most common (oligohydramnios and abnormal fetal heart rate tracing). In group 2, 6 phenotypes were most common, including 4 clinical (abnormal umbilical artery Dopplers, nonmacerated stillbirth, multiple pregnancy, and fetal growth restriction) and 2 placental. In group 3, 23 phenotypes were most common, including 7 clinical (gestational hypertension, polyhydramnios, induction of labor, cesarean section, macerated stillbirth, congenital malformations, and abnormal 3rd stage of labor) and 16 placental. The existence of clinical signs of UC compromise alone was associated with the absence of pathomorphological placental abnormalities. However, the coexistence of clinical and abnormal morphological UC phenotypes was statistically significantly associated with placental histological signs of decreased fetal blood flow, hypoxia (acute and chronic post uterine), shallow placental implantation, and/or amnion nodosum. Thus, confirmation of clinical UC compromise should not be expected on placental examination if no morphological UC abnormality or abnormal UC insertion has been found. PMID:26983702

  2. Three‐dimensional myocardial scarring along myofibers after coronary ischemia–reperfusion revealed by computerized images of histological assays

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Monica Y.; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Aoyagi, Hiroko; Higa, Jason K.; Xiao, Chun‐Yang; Abdelkarim, Ahmed Z.; Marh, Karra; Aoyagi, Toshinori; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Lozanoff, Scott; Matsui, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction is characterized by LV dilatation and development of a fibrotic scar, and is a critical factor for the prognosis of subsequent development of heart failure. Although myofiber organization is recognized as being important for preserving physiological cardiac function and structure, the anatomical features of injured myofibers during LV remodeling have not been fully defined. In a mouse model of ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, our previous histological assays demonstrated that broad fibrotic scarring extended from the initial infarct zone to the remote zone, and was clearly demarcated along midcircumferential myofibers. Additionally, no fibrosis was observed in longitudinal myofibers in the subendocardium and subepicardium. However, a histological analysis of tissue sections does not adequately indicate myofiber injury distribution throughout the entire heart. To address this, we investigated patterns of scar formation along myofibers using three‐dimensional (3D) images obtained from multiple tissue sections from mouse hearts subjected to I/R injury. The fibrotic scar area observed in the 3D images was consistent with the distribution of the midcircumferential myofibers. At the apex, the scar formation tracked along the myofibers in an incomplete C‐shaped ring that converged to a triangular shape toward the end. Our findings suggest that myocyte injury after transient coronary ligation extends along myofibers, rather than following the path of coronary arteries penetrating the myocardium. The injury pattern observed along myofibers after I/R injury could be used to predict prognoses for patients with myocardial infarction. PMID:25347856

  3. Lung cancer histology and smoking--relationship and time trends among Jewish males in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rennert, G; Rennert, H S; Epstein, L

    1991-01-01

    Due to the recent reported increase in incidence rates of adenocarcinoma and the weaker relationship of this histological type to smoking, a study was undertaken to investigate changes over time in smoking and lung cancer histology. Medical records of 428 Jewish male lung cancer patients from 1957 to 1985 were studied for smoking history and histological diagnosis. No time trend was found in the smoking-histology relationship, although in this study adenocarcinoma was found to be strongly related to smoking in all periods. Thus, the increase in adenocarcinoma reported in Israel is not the reflection of less smoking or a change in the smoking-adenocarcinoma relationship. It is postulated that changes in the type of cigarettes smoked might be responsible for the change in the incidence of histological types. PMID:1851668

  4. Comparison of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute and chronic cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; McGahan, J.P.

    1982-12-01

    Seventy-five patients with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant who were subsequently confirmed operatively and histologically to have acute or chronic cholecystitis underwent radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree, ultrasonography, and/or computerized tomography before operation. fifty-eight of the patients had acute cholecystitis and 17 had chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Analysis of our data indicates that ultrasonography is an accurate and better screening test than cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, but it is less accurate in the detection of acute cholecystitis. On the other hand, radionuclide imaging is highly sensitive and specific in the early diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but it is poor in the diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis unless the cystic duct is obstructed. CT scanning is more expensive than ultrasonography but may be extremely helpful in problematic cases such as the diagnosis of the cause in biliary obstruction or in imaging of the pancreas.

  5. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  6. Isolation and characterization of human malignant glioma cells from histologically normal brain.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, D L; Chicoine, M R

    1997-03-01

    Brain invasion prevents complete surgical extirpation of malignant gliomas; however, invasive cells from distant, histologically normal brain previously have not been isolated, cultured, and characterized. To evaluate invasive human malignant glioma cells, the authors established cultures from gross tumor and histologically normal brain. Three men and one woman, with a mean age of 67 years, underwent two frontal and two temporal lobectomies for tumors, which yielded specimens of both gross tumor and histologically normal brain. Each specimen was acquired a minimum of 4 cm from the gross tumor. The specimens were split: a portion was sent for neuropathological evaluation (three glioblastomas multiforme and one oligodendroglioma) and a portion was used to establish cell lines. Morphologically, the specimens of gross tumor and histologically normal brain were identical in three of the four cell culture pairs. Histochemical staining characteristics were consistent both within each pair and when compared with the specimens sent for neuropathological evaluation. Cultures demonstrated anchorage-independent growth in soft agarose and neoplastic karyotypes. Growth rates in culture were greater for histologically normal brain than for gross tumor in three of the four culture pairs. Although the observed increases in growth rates of histologically normal brain cultures do not correlate with in vivo behavior, these findings corroborate the previously reported stem cell potential of invasive glioma cells. Using the radial dish assay, no significant differences in motility between cultures of gross tumor and histologically normal brain were found. In summary, tumor cells were cultured from histologically normal brain acquired from a distance greater than 4 cm from the gross tumor, indicating the relative insensitivity of standard histopathological identification of invasive glioma cells (and hence the inadequacy of frozen-section evaluation of resection margins). Cell lines

  7. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  8. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Mohammed H; Al-Ansari, Mariam A

    2007-04-01

    A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas. PMID:19727350

  9. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Mohammed H.; Al-Ansari, Mariam A.

    2007-01-01

    A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas. PMID:19727350

  10. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia: A rare form of nonbacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Prashant; Kumar, Kuldeep; Mittal, Sarita; Goyal, Nidhi; Trikha, Sahil; Vashisth, Arti

    2016-04-01

    Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare disease characterized by bilateral basilar infiltrates and histological findings of organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin in the form of "fibrin balls." Here, we report a 43-year-old female with complaints of fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath with hypoxemia. High-resolution computed tomography thorax revealed diffuse confluent consolidation in bilateral lung zones. Bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy revealed features of AFOP. With prednisolone treatment, there was an improvement in her condition. AFOP is a rare disease and should be taken into consideration and differential diagnosis of severe acute pneumonias with no significant comorbidities. PMID:27303141

  11. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia: A rare form of nonbacterial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Prashant; Kumar, Kuldeep; Mittal, Sarita; Goyal, Nidhi; Trikha, Sahil; Vashisth, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare disease characterized by bilateral basilar infiltrates and histological findings of organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin in the form of “fibrin balls.” Here, we report a 43-year-old female with complaints of fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath with hypoxemia. High-resolution computed tomography thorax revealed diffuse confluent consolidation in bilateral lung zones. Bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy revealed features of AFOP. With prednisolone treatment, there was an improvement in her condition. AFOP is a rare disease and should be taken into consideration and differential diagnosis of severe acute pneumonias with no significant comorbidities. PMID:27303141

  12. Histology of the regeneration of Paulownia tomentosa (Paulowniaceae) by organogenesis.

    PubMed

    San José, Ma del Carmen; Cernadas, Ma José; Corredoira, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a fast-growing tree species with a considerable economic potential because of its value for wood as well as its high biomass production, and elevated stress tolerance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the development of adventitious buds in leaves obtained from four-week-old shoots of P. tomentosa, in order to identify the cells involved in in vitro adventitious bud development. Leaves (proximal halves with the petiole) from the first node were excised from four-week-old micropropagated shoots, and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 3% (w/v) sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) Sigma agar, 22.7 microM thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2.9 microM indole-3-acetic acid for two weeks, explants were then transferred to the same medium with 0.44 microM N6-benzyladenine for another four weeks. Five explants were collected daily during the two first weeks in TDZ treatment. A total of 140 samples were processed. Most of the buds developed indirectly from the callus formed in the petiole stub, and they became visible after eight-ten days of culture, although some buds were also observed in the area of the laminar cut at the level of the veins. The first histological changes could be observed after two-three days of culture, with the dedifferentiation of some subepidermal and inner parenchyma cells, which exhibited a large, prominent nucleus, densely-stained cytoplasm and a high nucleus-to-cell area ratio. Proliferation of these cells gives rise to meristemoid formation after seven-ten days of culture. Organized cell division in meristemoids allows the formation of bud primordia that emerged from the explants surface. The progressive structural differentiation of the apical meristem, leaf primordia, and procambium strands, led to formation of complete buds that were observed in the exterior of the explants after 10-15 days of culture. Direct development of buds from cells in the subepidermic and/or epidermic layers were observed on the

  13. Placental fetal stem segmentation in a sequence of histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athavale, Prashant; Vese, Luminita A.

    2012-02-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental fetal stems. Analysis of the fetal stems in a placenta could be useful in the study and diagnosis of some diseases like autism. To study the fetal stem structure effectively, we need to automatically and accurately track fetal stems through a sequence of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histology slides. There are many problems in successfully achieving this goal. A few of the problems are: large size of images, misalignment of the consecutive H&E slides, unpredictable inaccuracies of manual tracing, very complicated texture patterns of various tissue types without clear characteristics, just to name a few. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to achieve automatic tracing of the fetal stem in a sequence of H&E images, based on an inaccurate manual segmentation of a fetal stem in one of the images. This algorithm combines global affine registration, local non-affine registration and a novel 'dynamic' version of the active contours model without edges. We first use global affine image registration of all the images based on displacement, scaling and rotation. This gives us approximate location of the corresponding fetal stem in the image that needs to be traced. We then use the affine registration algorithm "locally" near this location. At this point, we use a fast non-affine registration based on L2-similarity measure and diffusion regularization to get a better location of the fetal stem. Finally, we have to take into account inaccuracies in the initial tracing. This is achieved through a novel dynamic version of the active contours model without edges where the coefficients of the fitting terms are computed iteratively to ensure that we obtain a unique stem in the segmentation. The segmentation thus obtained can then be used as an

  14. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

  15. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Phlebotomy improves histology in chronic hepatitis C males with mild iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Massimo; Andorno, Silvano; Rossini, Angelo; Boldorini, Renzo; Bozzola, Cristina; Carmagnola, Stefania; Piano, Mario Del; Albano, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of mild iron depletion and the factors predictive for histological improvement following phlebotomy in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: We investigated 28 CHC Caucasians with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and non responders to, or unsuitable for, antiviral therapy who underwent mild iron depletion (ferritin ≤ 70 ng/mL) by long-term phlebotomy. Histological improvement, as defined by at least one point reduction in the staging score or, in case of unchanged stage, as at least two points reduction in the grading score (Knodell), was evaluated in two subsequent liver biopsies (before and at the end of phlebotomy, 48 ± 16 mo apart). RESULTS: Phlebotomy showed an excellent safety profile. Histological improvement occurred in 12/28 phlebotomized patients. Only males responded to phlebotomy. At univariate logistic analysis alcohol intake (P = 0.034), high histological grading (P = 0.01) and high hepatic iron concentration (HIC) (P = 0.04) before treatment were associated with histological improvement. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that in males high HIC was the only predictor of histological improvement following phlebotomy (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94, P = 0.031). Accordingly, 12 out of 17 (70%) patients with HIC ≥ 20 μmol/g showed histological improvements at the second biopsy. CONCLUSION: Male CHC Caucasian non-responders to antiviral therapy with low-grade iron overload can benefit from mild iron depletion by long-term phlebotomy. PMID:20128028

  17. Can histologic changes of the upper pole justify a conservative approach in neonatal duplex ectopic ureterocele?

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper-pole segment in patients with duplex-system ectopic ureterocele (DEU) to determine if less aggressive surgery is justified in prenatally-diagnosed cases. The study included 15 consecutive patients with DEU treated between 1991 and 1999. The diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory, and obstructive changes. All 15 patients were surgically treated by heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine cases were diagnosed prenatally; the histology of the upper-pole segment in these patients showed segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands, and an inflammatory tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 6 (66.6%) and nephroblastomatosis in 2 (22.2%). The histology of the 6 postnatally-diagnosed patients showed segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy, and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper-pole histology of the prenatally-diagnosed patients did not show any evidence of reversible histologic changes. Considering this findings and the good outcome of patients treated with upper-pole nephroureterectomy, less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified. PMID:12598963

  18. Using Molecular Phenotyping to Guide Improvements in the Histologic Diagnosis of T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J; Chang, J; Salazar, I D R; Lopez, M Merino; Halloran, P F

    2016-04-01

    Recognition that some lesions typical of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) also occur in antibody-mediated rejection requires revision of the histologic TCMR definition. To guide this process, we assessed the relative importance of various lesions and the performance of new histology diagnostic algorithms, using molecular TCMR scores as histology-independent estimates of true TCMR. In 703 indication biopsies, random forest analysis and logistic regression indicated that interstitial infiltrate (i-lesions) and tubulitis (t-lesions) were the key histologic predictors of molecular TCMR, with arteritis (v-lesions) having less importance. Histology predicted molecular TCMR more accurately when diagnoses were assigned by strictly applying the Banff rules to the lesion scores and redefining isolated v-lesion TCMR. This improved prediction from area under the curve (AUC) 0.70 with existing rules to AUC 0.80. Further improvements were achieved by introducing more categories to reflect inflammation (AUC 0.84), by summing the lesion scores (AUC 0.85) and by logistic regression (AUC 0.90). We concluded that histologic assessment of TCMR can be improved by placing more emphasis on i- and t-lesions and incorporating new algorithms for diagnosis. Nevertheless, some discrepancies between histologic and molecular diagnoses persist, partially due to the inherent nonspecificity of i- and t-lesions, and molecular methods will be required to help resolve these cases. PMID:26730747

  19. Model-based recovery of histological parameters from multispectral images of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidovic-Rowe, Dzena; Claridge, Ela

    2005-04-01

    Colon cancer alters the macroarchitecture of the colon tissue. Common changes include angiogenesis and the distortion of the tissue collagen matrix. Such changes affect the colon colouration. This paper presents the principles of a novel optical imaging method capable of extracting parameters depicting histological quantities of the colon. The method is based on a computational, physics-based model of light interaction with tissue. The colon structure is represented by three layers: mucosa, submucosa and muscle layer. Optical properties of the layers are defined by molar concentration and absorption coefficients of haemoglobins; the size and density of collagen fibres; the thickness of the layer and the refractive indexes of collagen and the medium. Using the entire histologically plausible ranges for these parameters, a cross-reference is created computationally between the histological quantities and the associated spectra. The output of the model was compared to experimental data acquired in vivo from 57 histologically confirmed normal and abnormal tissue samples and histological parameters were extracted. The model produced spectra which match well the measured data, with the corresponding spectral parameters being well within histologically plausible ranges. Parameters extracted for the abnormal spectra showed the increase in blood volume fraction and changes in collagen pattern characteristic of the colon cancer. The spectra extracted from multi-spectral images of ex-vivo colon including adenocarcinoma show the characteristic features associated with normal and abnormal colon tissue. These findings suggest that it should be possible to compute histological quantities for the colon from the multi-spectral images.

  20. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  1. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  2. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  3. EX VIVO CORRELATION OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC SMALL INTESTINAL WALL LAYERING WITH HISTOLOGY IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Alexandre B; Granger, L Abbigail; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-09-01

    Canine ultrasonographic intestinal layers have been reported to correlate with histological layering. However, discrepancies have been reported in people, and additional layers visualized. The aim of this method comparison study was to describe ex vivo canine small intestinal layering and correlate it with histology. Small intestinal samples of 12 adult dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease were resected immediately following euthanasia, pinned on a Petri dish, and transverse ultrasonographic images acquired in a water bath, using a high-frequency linear transducer. Transverse histological sections were obtained at the same level. Measurements of the intestinal layers were performed on the ultrasonographic and histological images. No significant statistical differences were noted between the ultrasonographic and histological measurements and strong to very strong (r > 0.7) positive correlation was observed for all layers, except for the serosa, which had a low moderate positive correlation (r = 0.479). In addition to the five established layers, a dual mucosal echogenicity was consistently observed, with seven samples presenting an additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity. Histologically, this dual echogenicity was attributed to the intestinal villi (mildly echogenic) and lamina propria (hypoechoic). The additional inner mucosal severe hyperechogenicity observed in seven samples was attributed to mild-to-moderate lacteal dilation histologically. In 4/12 ileal samples, an additional hyperechoic mucosal line was also observed parallel to the submucosa, corresponding histologically to prominent Peyer's patches. Finally, a hyperechoic line was observed within the muscularis of all samples, corresponding histologically to the interface between the muscularis longitudinal and circular layers. PMID:27377194

  4. Functional and histological improvement after everolimus rescue of chronic allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kai Ming; Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Luk, Cathy Choi-Wan; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the strategy of mTOR inhibitors with calcineurin inhibitor minimization in renal transplant recipients with known chronic allograft dysfunction. Methods In this open-label, single-arm study, renal transplant patients were recruited after biopsy-confirmed chronic allograft dysfunction in the absence of acute rejection episode within 2 months, with proteinuria <0.8 g/day, and serum creatinine <220 μmol/L or estimated glomerular filtration rate >40 mL/min/1.73 m2. They were converted to everolimus (aiming for trough everolimus level 3–8 ng/mL) with cyclosporine minimization, to assess the effect on renal function, rate of glomerular filtration rate decline, and longitudinal transplant biopsy at 12 months. Results Seventeen Chinese patients (median transplant duration, 4.2 years) were recruited; no patients discontinued study medication. The mean slope of the glomerular filtration rate over time was −4.31±6.65 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in the year before everolimus, as compared with 1.29±5.84 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in the 12 months of everolimus therapy, a difference of 5.61 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–10.8) favoring everolimus therapy (P=0.036). Serial renal biopsy histology showed significant decrease of tubular atrophy (15.7%±11.3% versus 7.1%±7.3%, P=0.005) and interstitial fibrosis (14.8%±11.5% versus 7.2%±8.2%, P=0.013). Intrarenal expression of TGF-β1 mRNA showed a nonsignificant decrease after everolimus treatment. Conclusion In renal transplant recipients with biopsy-confirmed chronic allograft dysfunction, we found a significant beneficial effect of everolimus rescue therapy and calcineurin inhibitor minimization strategy on the improvement of glomerular filtration rate decline rate. In secondary analysis, everolimus was shown to slow down the disease progression by reducing the tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scoring. PMID:26056462

  5. Histological Evaluation of Prostate Tissue Response to Image-Guided Transurethral Thermal Therapy After a 48h Recovery Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Image-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy shows strong potential for sparing of critical adjacent structures during prostate cancer treatment. Preclinical experiments were conducted to provide further information on the extent of the treatment margin. Four experiments were carried out in a canine model to investigate the pathology of this margin during the early stages of recovery and were compared to previous results obtained immediately post-treatment. Sedated animals were placed in a 1.5T clinical MRI, and the heating device was positioned accurately within the prostatic urethra with image guidance. Using an MRI-compatible system, the ultrasound device was rotated 365° treating a prescribed volume contained within the gland. Quantitative temperature maps were acquired throughout the treatment, providing feedback information for device control. Animals were allowed to recover and, after 48h, an imaging protocol including T2 and contrast enhanced (CE) MRI was repeated before the animals were sacrificed. Prostate sections were stained with H&E. Careful slice alignment methods during histological procedures and image registration were employed to ensure good correspondence between MR images and microscopy. Although T2 MRI revealed no lesion acutely, a hypo-intense region was clearly visible 2 days post-treatment. The lesion volume defined by CE-MRI increased appreciably during this time. Whole-mount H&E sections showed that the margin between coagulated and normal-appearing cells narrowed during recovery, typically to a width of under 1mm compared to 3mm acutely. These results illustrate the high level of precision achievable with transurethral thermal therapy and suggest methods to monitor the physiological response non-invasively.

  6. A comparison between the cytological and histological characteristics in thirteen canine and feline thymomas

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Catherine A.; Jacobs, Robert M.; Couto, C. Guillermo

    1989-01-01

    Cytological smears and histological sections collected from histologically diagnosed cases of thymoma in nine dogs and four cats were reviewed. Most of the histological features were apparent in the cytological specimens with two notable differences. The epithelial component was underestimated and Hassal's corpuscles were not observed using Wright's-stained cytological preparations. Features of thymoma were recognized in seven of the nine cases in which fine needle aspiration biopsy was done. Therefore, cytology, and specifically fine needle aspiration biopsy, has the potential to be a useful aid in the rapid diagnosis of canine and feline thymomas. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423346

  7. A combined histological and MRI brain atlas of the common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John D.; Kenkel, William M.; Aronoff, Emily C.; Bock, Nicholas A.; Zametkin, Molly R.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2009-01-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is of growing importance for research in neuroscience and related fields. In the present work, we describe a combined histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brains of two adult female marmosets. Histological sections were processed from Nissl staining and digitized to produce an atlas in a large format that facilitates visualization of structures with significant detail. Naming of identifiable brain structures was performed utilizing current terminology. The histological sections and a simplified schematic atlas are available online at http://udn.nichd.nih.gov/brainatlas_home.html. PMID:19744521

  8. Histological variability in fossil and recent alligatoroid osteoderms: systematic and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Currie, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Statements about morphological variation in extinct taxa often suffer from insufficient sampling that can be remedied by taking advantage of larger sample sizes provided by related, extant taxa. This analysis quantitatively and qualitatively examines histological and morphological variation of osteoderms from extant and extinct alligatoroid specimens. Statistically significant differences were correlated with changes in osteoderm size and shape. These differences are independent of position on the body, taxonomy, or evolution. Histological variation in alligatoroid osteoderms is due to morphological constraints on the elements themselves, and not taxonomic differences. This has implications for the recognition of histological characters in the osteoderms of extinct archosaur groups that lack extant representatives. PMID:23381912

  9. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770

  10. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  11. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-11-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  12. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2003-08-01

    Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit. Diabetes, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, and shock or cardiac arrest have been associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Children may also be affected, especially after a viral illness. The pathogenesis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is a paradigm of complexity. Ischemia and reperfusion injury, or the effects of eicosanoid proinflammatory mediators, appear to be the central mechanisms, but bile stasis, opioid therapy, positive-pressure ventilation, and total parenteral nutrition have all been implicated. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is the most accurate diagnostic modality in the critically ill patient, with gallbladder wall thickness of 3.5 mm or greater and pericholecystic fluid being the two most reliable criteria. The historical treatment of choice for acute acalculous cholecystitis has been cholecystectomy, but percutaneous cholecystostomy is now the mainstay of therapy, controlling the disease in about 85% of patients. Rapid improvement can be expected when the procedure is performed properly. The mortality rates (historically about 30%) for percutaneous and open cholecystostomy appear to be similar, reflecting the severity of illness, but improved resuscitation and critical care may portend a decreased risk of death. Interval cholecystectomy is usually not indicated after acute acalculous cholecystitis in survivors; if the absence of gallstones is confirmed and the precipitating disorder has been controlled, the cholecystostomy tube can be pulled out after the patient has recovered. PMID:12864960

  13. Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendinitis

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Alexander; Jeffery, Caroline C; Ansari, Khalid; Naik, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of neck pain in a middle-aged woman, initially attributed to a retropharyngeal infection and treated with urgent intubation. With the help of computed tomography, the diagnosis was later revised to acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis, a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscles. It is critical to differentiate between these two disease entities due to dramatic differences in management. A discussion of acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis and its imaging findings is provided below. PMID:27252789

  14. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  15. Acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.S.; Wilk, P.J.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Gliedman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-eight patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis were reviewed. The results of history and physical examinations were usually nondiagnostic. IDA cholescintigraphy (93 per cent accuracy rate) was the only reliable diagnostic modality. The results of oral cholecystography, intravenous cholangiography and ultrasonography were considerably less reliable. One-half of the patients had gangrenous cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy was the preferred operation with an over-all mortality of 9 per cent. IDA cholescintigraphy is an important new modality for the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis which, in the past, has often been difficult to diagnose.

  16. Acute Gynecologic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Carolyn K

    2015-11-01

    Premenopausal women with acute pelvic pain comprise a significant percentage of patients who present to the emergency room. Etiologies can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, or vascular. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and overlapping. The choice of imaging modality is determined by the clinically suspected differential diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for suspected obstetric or gynecologic disorders. CT is more useful when gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathology is likely. MR imaging is rarely used in the emergent setting, except to exclude appendicitis in pregnant women. This article presents a comprehensive review of imaging of acute gynecologic disorders. PMID:26526439

  17. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  18. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment. PMID:27033939

  19. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  20. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  1. [Histologic classification of lung cancers and reproducibility of diagnoses based on 10 years' autopsy material].

    PubMed

    Károlyi, P

    1989-06-11

    Reviewing autopsy records of a ten-year period in the Department of Pathology of Szolnok County Hospital 1607 lung cancer cases were detected, in 1213 of which histological reexamination could be performed. The reproducibility of main histological groups was 73.4%, highest of all in small cell lung cancer. The cause of the relatively low reproducibility rate can be first of all the considerably changeable histological appearance and the frequency of transitional forms between terminally differentiated tumor types. One must not even leave lower diagnostic accuracy of frozen sections out of consideration, the basic method of first diagnosis. The light microscopic heterogeneity and transitional histological forms have been analysed in this article. PMID:2671857

  2. Morphological and histological identification of Paramphistomum cervi (Trematoda: Paramiphistoma) in the rumen of infected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Chaoudhary, Vijayata; Hasnani, J. J.; Khyalia, Mukesh K.; Pandey, Sunanda; Chauhan, Vandip D.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Patel, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to identify Paramphistomum cervi on the basis of its morphology and histology to be the common cause of paramphistomosis in infected sheep and its differentiation from other similar Paramphistomes in Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Adult rumen flukes were recovered from the rumen of naturally infected sheep slaughtered in various abattoirs in Gujarat. Some adult flukes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, and some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histological slides of the flukes were prepared for detailed morphological and histological studies. Result: Microscopic pictures of the parasite used in identification define the similarity in the morphology and histology of the anterior sucker, pharynx, esophagus, genital atrium, posterior sucker (acetabulum) and testes to the P. cervi. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the most common species found in sheep infected with Paramphistomosis is P. cervi on the basis of its histo-morphological appearance in Gujarat. PMID:27047009

  3. E-cadherin, N-cadherin Expression and Histologic Characterization of Canine Choroid Plexus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Reginato, A; Girolami, D; Menchetti, L; Foiani, G; Mandara, M T

    2016-07-01

    Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are reported with an increasing incidence in dogs, and they call for a reexamination of histologic features and criteria of classification corresponding to their biological behavior. In this study, the human World Health Organization classification was applied to 16 canine CPTs, and the expression of molecules involved in neoplastic cell adhesion (E-cadherin, N-cadherin), invasion (doublecortin), and proliferation (Ki-67) was investigated. Mitotic index was found to be the main criterion for grading CPTs. Cell density and multilayering of papillae were also statistically associated with histologic grade. Intraventricular spread and parenchymal invasion was observed for tumors showing histologic benign features. E-cadherin was expressed in all CPT grades, independent of tumor invasion. N-cadherin immunolabeling was more expressed in grade I than high-grade CPTs, whereas doublecortin expression was not detected in CPTs. An increasing proliferative activity was observed in relation with histologic grade. PMID:26792846

  4. Study of the skin anatomy with high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography and histological correlation*

    PubMed Central

    Barcaui, Elisa de Oliveira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Moraes, Heleno

    2015-01-01

    The present essay is aimed at getting the radiologist familiar with the basic histological skin structure, allowing for a better correlation with sonographic findings. A high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography apparatus was utilized in the present study. The histological analysis was performed after the skin specimens fixation with formalin, inclusion in paraffin blocks and subsequent staining with hematoxylin-eosin. The authors present a literature review showing the relationship between sonographic and histological findings in normal cutaneous tissue, and discuss the technique for a better performance of the sonographic scan. High-frequency ultrasonography is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of different skin conditions. However, as this method is operator-dependent, it is crucial to understand the normal skin structure as well as the correlation between histological and sonographic findings. PMID:26543285

  5. Histologic Evaluation of Human Alveolar Sockets Treated With an Artificial Bone Substitute Material

    PubMed Central

    Wakimoto, Mari; Ueno, Takaaki; Hirata, Azumi; Iida, Seiji; Aghaloo, Tara; Moy, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    This study involved a histologic, enzyme histologic, immunohistologic, and three-dimensional microstructure evaluating the extent of osteogenesis and repair in the human alveolar extraction socket achievable with an artificial bone substitute. After tooth extraction in 7 patients, extraction sockets were filled with Mastergraft (15% hydroxyapatite, 85% β-tricalcium phosphate complex). Radio-micrographs and histologic examinations were performed on samples obtained during dental implant placement procedure. On micro– computed tomography, new bone was observed in all collected samples, and osteogenesis was observed to have taken place around the artificial bone substitute. Histologically, active osteogenesis was found throughout the region observed. Addition of new bone around the Mastergraft was observed, and osteoblast-like cells were present. Cells that had partially invaded the artificial bone included tartrate-resistant acid phosphate–positive and CD34-positive cells. These findings indicate that the Mastergraft artificial bone induced osteogenesis in the jawbone and seemed effective for repairing bone defects. PMID:21415629

  6. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  7. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  8. Role of Histological Criteria and Immunohistochemical Markers in Predicting Risk of Malignancy in Parathyroid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Niraj; Chaudhary, Nandita; Pradhan, Roma; Agarwal, Amit; Krishnani, Narendra

    2016-06-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasm accounting for 0.5-6 % of primary hyperparathyroidism. Histological criteria are currently considered as established means to diagnose malignancy in parathyroid neoplasms; however, it does not accurately predict the risk of aggressive behaviour of PC. Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers have been used in the literature with variable results. This work was planned to study whether IHC markers would have any added advantage over histology in predicting outcome in parathyroid neoplasms. Two hundred twenty-seven parathyroid neoplasms were reviewed according to older and revised histological criteria. IHC was performed for parafibromin, APC, galectin-3, PGP9.5 and Ki67. Diagnostic categories were correlated with clinical, biochemical, histological features and IHC markers. Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical variables. Review of histology by earlier and revised criteria showed a change in diagnosis of five cases of atypical adenoma (15.1 %), all of which were diagnosed as carcinoma according to earlier criteria. Change in diagnosis did not affect behaviour of disease as none of the cases showed recurrence or metastasis on follow-up. Combination of PF, Gal-3 and PGP9.5 showed 50 % sensitivity, 97.9 % specificity and 95.4 % predictive accuracy for PC. Histological criteria still remains the most established method for predicting risk of malignancy in parathyroid neoplasms irrespective of whether old or revised criteria are used. Combination of positive (Gal-3, PGP9.5) and negative (PF) IHC markers may be used as an adjunct to histology in histological, atypical and malignant parathyroid neoplasms to obviate the need for repeated follow-up. PMID:26984237

  9. A practical hybrid model of application, integration, and competencies at interactive table conferences in histology (ITCH).

    PubMed

    Ettarh, Rajunor

    2016-05-01

    Significant changes have been implemented in the way undergraduate medical education is structured. One of the challenges for component courses such as histology in medical and dental curricula is to restructure and deliver training within new frameworks. This article describes the process of aligning the purpose and experience in histology laboratory to the goal of applying knowledge gained to team-based medical practice at Tulane University School of Medicine. Between 2011 and 2015, 711 medical students took either a traditional laboratory-based histology course (353 students) or a team-based hybrid histology course with active learning in laboratory (358 students). The key difference was in the laboratory component of the hybrid course - interactive table conferences in histology-during which students developed new competencies by working in teams, reviewing images, solving problems by applying histology concepts, and sharing learning. Content, faculty and online resources for microscopy were the same in both courses. More student-student and student-faculty interactions were evident during the hybrid course but student evaluation ratings and grades showed reductions following introduction of table conferences when compared to previous ratings. However, outcomes at National Board of Medical Examiners(®) (NBME(®) ) Subject Examination in Histology and Cell Biology showed significant improvement (72.4 ± 9.04 and 76.44 ± 9.36 for percent correct answers, traditional and hybrid courses, respectively, P < 0.0001). This model of table conferences to augment the traditional histology laboratory experience exemplifies the extent that restructuring enhancements can be used in currently taught courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 9: 286-294. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26749245

  10. Fat tissue histological study at NIR laser treatment of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.

    2011-07-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after laser irradiation at different doses are analyzed. These data may be used at carrying out of the analysis of histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photodynamic therapy. The obtained data are important for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser irradiation used in the treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  11. Acute Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shirtliff, Mark E.; Mader, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection. PMID:12364368

  12. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  13. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  14. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  15. [Acute blood pressure elevations].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M

    2000-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294

  16. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  17. Acute hepatitis E complicated by acute pancreatitis and multiorgan dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Suman S; Khan, Zohaib; Rau, Nileshwar Radhakrishna; Rao, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    We report this rare case of a 27-year-old man who presented with acute hepatitis E and went on to develop acute epigastric pain. He was diagnosed to have acute severe pancreatitis with shock and acute renal failure due to hepatitis E. Such a phenomenon has rarely been reported in the literature, with patients following a benign course and complete recovery after conservative management and analgesia. Awareness of this potentially life-threatening complication, especially in young men from endemic areas with acute hepatitis E presenting with abdomen pain has been highlighted. PMID:24899005

  18. In situ characterization of the brain-microdevice interface using Device Capture Histology

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Andrew J.; Desai, Himanshi A.; Steckbeck, Mitchell A.; Patel, Neil K.; Otto, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of brain-implantable microdevice bio-integration remains a formidable challenge. Prevailing histological methods require device extraction prior to tissue processing, often disrupting and removing the tissue of interest which had been surrounding the device. The Device-Capture Histology method, presented here, overcomes many limitations of the conventional Device-Explant Histology method, by collecting the device and surrounding tissue intact for subsequent labeling. With the implant remaining in situ, accurate and precise imaging of the morphologically preserved tissue at the brain/microdevice interface can then be collected and quantified. First, this article presents the Device-Capture Histology method for obtaining and processing the intact, undisturbed microdevice-tissue interface, and images using fluorescent labeling and confocal microscopy. Second, this article gives examples of how to quantify features found in the captured peridevice tissue. We also share histological data capturing 1) the impact of microdevice implantation on tissue, 2) the effects of an experimental anti-inflammatory coating, 3) a dense grouping of cell nuclei encapsulating a long-term implant, and 4) atypical oligodendrocyte organization neighboring a longterm implant. Data sets collected using the Device-Capture Histology method are presented to demonstrate the significant advantages of processing the intact microdevice-tissue interface, and to underscore the utility of the method in understanding the effects of the brain-implantable microdevices on nearby tissue. PMID:21802446

  19. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. PMID:24280942

  20. Real-time histology in liver disease using multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Mohammed, Yousuf H.; Thomas, James A.; Bridle, Kim R.; Thorling, Camilla A.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Liu, Xin; Crawford, Darrell H. G.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional histology with light microscopy is essential in the diagnosis of most liver diseases. Recently, a concept of real-time histology with optical biopsy has been advocated. In this study, live mice livers (normal, with fibrosis, steatosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and ischemia-reperfusion injury) were imaged by MPM-FLIM for stain-free real-time histology. The acquired MPM-FLIM images were compared with conventional histological images. MPM-FLIM imaged subsurface cellular and subcellular histopathological hallmarks of live liver in mice models at high resolution. Additional information such as distribution of stellate cell associated autofluorescence and fluorescence lifetime changes was also gathered by MPM-FLIM simultaneously, which cannot be obtained from conventional histology. MPM-FLIM could simultaneously image and quantify the cellular morphology and microenvironment of live livers without conventional biopsy or fluorescent dyes. We anticipate that in the near future MPM-FLIM will be evaluated from bench to bedside, leading to real-time histology and dynamic monitoring of human liver diseases. PMID:25798303

  1. A Gauss-Seidel Iteration Scheme for Reference-Free 3-D Histological Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Daum, Volker; Steidl, Stefan; Maier, Andreas; Köstler, Harald; Hornegger, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of histological slice sequences offers great benefits in the investigation of different morphologies. It features very high-resolution which is still unmatched by in-vivo 3-D imaging modalities, and tissue staining further enhances visibility and contrast. One important step during reconstruction is the reversal of slice deformations introduced during histological slice preparation, a process also called image unwarping. Most methods use an external reference, or rely on conservative stopping criteria during the unwarping optimization to prevent straightening of naturally curved morphology. Our approach shows that the problem of unwarping is based on the superposition of low-frequency anatomy and high-frequency errors. We present an iterative scheme that transfers the ideas of the Gauss-Seidel method to image stacks to separate the anatomy from the deformation. In particular, the scheme is universally applicable without restriction to a specific unwarping method, and uses no external reference. The deformation artifacts are effectively reduced in the resulting histology volumes, while the natural curvature of the anatomy is preserved. The validity of our method is shown on synthetic data, simulated histology data using a CT data set and real histology data. In the case of the simulated histology where the ground truth was known, the mean Target Registration Error (TRE) between the unwarped and original volume could be reduced to less than 1 pixel on average after 6 iterations of our proposed method. PMID:25312918

  2. Are Histological Findings of Thulium Laser Vapo-Enucleation Versus Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Comparable?

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Macchi, Alberto; Ratti, Dario; Finkelberg, Elisabetta; Casellato, Stefano; Bozzini, Giorgio; Maruccia, Serena; Marenghi, Carlo; Picozzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    We investigated if an adequate histological diagnosis can be made from tissue after Thulium laser vapo-enucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) and whether it is comparable to transurethral prostate resection (TURP) tissue findings in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We analyzed 350 ThuLEP and 100 matched TURP tissue specimens from patients who underwent one of the two procedures between January 2009 and June 2014. Thulium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (ThuVEP) was combined with mechanical morcellation of the resected lobe. Each histological specimen was reviewed by two pathologists. Preoperative prostate ultrasound volume, total serum prostatic specific antigen and postoperative tissue weight were evaluated. Microscopic histological diagnosis was assessed by standard histological techniques and immunohistochemical evaluation. Patients were comparable in terms of age and preoperative total serum prostate specific antigen. Incidental adenocarcinoma and high grade PIN of the prostate were diagnosed in a comparable percent of specimens in the 2 groups (2.5 % in the ThuVEP group versus 3 % in the TURP group). Tissue thermal artifacts induced by the Thulium laser are mostly due to coagulation as that of the conventional monopolar diathermy in TURP. Tissue quality was maintained in the ThuVEP histological specimens. Tissue maintain histological characteristics and proprieties without modification for successive immunoistochemical analysis. The pathologist ability to detect incidental prostate cancer and PIN was maintained even if there is a quoted of vaporized tissue. PMID:25862670

  3. Histologic Examination of an Assemblage of Psittacosaurus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) Juveniles From the Yixian Formation (Liaoning, China).

    PubMed

    Bo, Zhao; Hedrick, Brandon P; Chunling, Gao; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R; Fengjiao, Zhang; Caizhi, Shen; Dodson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Psittacosaurus is one of the most abundant dinosaurs known, which allows for extensive study of its growth and form. Previous studies have evaluated growth trajectories of Psittacosaurus using bone histology. However, we present the first study of Psittacosaurus comparative juvenile histology and describe the histology of Psittacosaurus within its first year of life based on multiple sections taken from an exquisite monospecific assemblage of juveniles from the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, China. Specimens studied had femur lengths ranging from 30 to 36 mm. The five juveniles examined all have similar histologic patterns in the midshaft and epiphyseal regions showing that there is limited plasticity in bone development in juvenile Psittacosaurus and that all of the specimens in the assemblage were likely the same age. The microstructure patterns are compatible with the hypothesis that Psittacosaurus was precocial and that these juveniles were neonates. Based on comparisons with other juvenile ornithischians, juvenile Psittacosaurus had a growth rate similar to Orodromeus, slower than that of Maiasaura, Dysalotosaurus, or hadrosaurs consistent with small body size. Our results support previous studies that demonstrated that the orientation of vascular canals is likely not solely reflective of growth rate, but is also affected by underlying biomechanical, structural processes. The number of studies done on theropod and sauropodomorph histology dwarfs those of ornithischians. More studies of ornithischian histology are necessary in order to better establish phylogenetic trends in microstructure and to learn more about growth in this important clade. PMID:26864238

  4. Routine histologic examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: an evaluation of sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Machler, B C; Kirsner, R S; Elgart, G W

    1998-04-01

    Clinical differentiation of dermatophyte infection from dystrophic changes due to psoriasis may be challenging. Typically, potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations, fungal culture, and occasionally, nail unit biopsy specimens are utilized to help differentiate between the two. These tests are often time-consuming and may yield false-negative results. Increasing regulation of the office laboratory has caused some physicians to forgo this testing, which was previously routine. We investigated the utility of routine histologic examination of nail clippings in differentiating onychomycosis from psoriatic onychodystrophy. Twenty-three distal nail clipping specimens (twelve specimens from patients with onychodystrophy of unknown cause and eleven control specimens from nails with known cause) were evaluated by routine histology and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Of the dystrophic cases, four were demonstrated to be onychomycosis by the presence of hyphae on histologic evaluation and by culture, whereas only three of these cases yielded positive results on KOH examination. Eight cases of onychodystrophy were due to psoriasis. Yeast forms were detected on one case of psoriatic onychodystrophy that demonstrated yeast growth on culture. In our study, routine histologic examination with PAS staining was equal to culture and superior to KOH preparation in leading to the correct diagnosis of dermatophyte infection. In addition, the diagnosis of psoriasis of the nail plate was detected accurately by routine histologic examination. Routine histologic examination with PAS staining is a rapid, simple, and reliable test in the evaluation of onychodystrophy. PMID:9564595

  5. Long Bone Histology and Growth Patterns in Ankylosaurs: Implications for Life History and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Martina; Hayashi, Shoji; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone. PMID:23894321

  6. Reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic pathways, invasiveness and histologic subtypes: Results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Merritt, Melissa A; Schock, Helena; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Duell, Eric J; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, M-D; Brändstedt, Jenny; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-09-01

    Whether risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) differ by subtype (i.e., dualistic pathway of carcinogenesis, histologic subtype) is not well understood; however, data to date suggest risk factor differences. We examined associations between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors for EOC by subtype in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Among 334,126 women with data on reproductive and hormone-related risk factors (follow-up: 1992-2010), 1,245 incident cases of EOC with known histology and invasiveness were identified. Data on tumor histology, grade, and invasiveness, were available from cancer registries and pathology record review. We observed significant heterogeneity by the dualistic model (i.e., type I [low grade serous or endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, malignant Brenner] vs. type II [high grade serous or endometrioid]) for full-term pregnancy (phet  = 0.02). Full-term pregnancy was more strongly inversely associated with type I than type II tumors (ever vs. never: type I: relative risk (RR) 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.69]; type II, RR: 0.81 [0.61-1.06]). We observed no significant differences in risk in analyses by major histologic subtypes of invasive EOC (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell). None of the investigated factors were associated with borderline tumors. Established protective factors, including duration of oral contraceptive use and full term pregnancy, were consistently inversely associated with risk across histologic subtypes (e.g., ever full-term pregnancy: serous, RR: 0.73 [0.58-0.92]; mucinous, RR: 0.53 [0.30-0.95]; endometrioid, RR: 0.65 [0.40-1.06]; clear cell, RR: 0.34 [0.18-0.64]; phet  = 0.16). These results suggest limited heterogeneity between reproductive and hormone-related risk factors and EOC subtypes. PMID:25656413

  7. Histologic effects of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Zaino, Richard J.; Brady, William E; Todd, William; Leslie, Kimberly; Fischer, Edgar G.; Horowitz, Neil S.; Mannel, Robert S.; Walker, Joan L.; Ivanovic, Marina; Duska, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Progestins have been used in the treatment of recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma for almost 50 years. Some endometrial carcinomas respond to hormonal therapy, but the mechanism of action remains incompletely known. We wished to determine the efficacy of progestins to induce a histologic response in endometrioid carcinomas and explore its effects on histologic and immunohistochemical measures of growth and cell death. Methods The Gynecologic Oncology Group initiated a study of 75 women with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, 59 of whom received the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for 21-24 days immediately prior to hysterectomy and had available slides. Initial biopsies and hysterectomies were H&E stained and immunostained for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), progesterone receptor Beta (PRB), Bcl-2, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase-3 (Casp3). A histologic response was defined subjectively, following which specific histologic measurements and semi-quantitative scores of immunohistologic variables of initial biopsies were compared to post-treatment slides. Results Only one complete histologic response was seen, but 37 tumors (63%) had a partial histologic response. Specific histologic changes included the following: a decrease in the nuclear grade, the number of mitotic figures, nucleoli, and mean gland cellularity, and acquisition of more abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, squamous metaplasia, and secretion. The tumors that displayed a subjectively defined histologic response following treatment differed initially from those that did not only with respect to initial nuclear grade and the mitotic index. Statistically significant differences in the specific histologic features in carcinomas of responders versus non-responders following treatment were found only with respect to acquisition of pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and luminal secretion. More than 90% of tumors were initially ER positive and 76% were PR positive. The

  8. Interface and biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate knee ligament prostheses. A histological and ultrastructural device retrieval analysis in failed synthetic implants used for surgical repair of anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Kock, H J; Stürmer, K M; Letsch, R; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective clinical study of 54 patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament instability, 56 artificial ligaments made of polyethylene terephthalate (Trevira hochfest) were implanted to restore knee stability. The average follow-up of these artificial knee ligaments was 40.2 (12-79) months; five implants (10%) had to be explanted due to failure after an average of 17.8 (6-50) months. All explants were examined by histological and ultrastructural methods in a device retrieval analysis. With regard to short- and medium-term artificial ligament failure in the human knee joint, a non-isometric surgical implantation technique, inappropriate strain during rehabilitation and implant fatigue and wear were responsible for ligament failures. PMID:7696041

  9. Histological aspects and healing rates of gastric ulcers treated with omeprazole 20 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg B.I.D.

    PubMed

    Rossini, F P; Spandre, M; Gemme, C; Cavallero, M; Bertone, A; Coverlizza, S; Risio, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this double blind trial was to compare omeprazole 20 mg once daily with ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. in treatment of benign gastric ulcer, evaluating both rates and histological aspects of the ulcer healing process. Eighteen patients were randomized, 9 to each treatment; one patient (ranitidine group) was excluded from the analysis because of malignant ulcer. Omeprazole appeared to be more effective than ranitidine in healing gastric ulcer. A more rapid relief of symptoms was observed in the omeprazole group than in the ranitidine group. Both drugs reduced chronic atrophic gastritis (with a trend in favour of omeprazole), while omeprazole showed a prompter activity on the components of acute inflammation. PMID:2797847

  10. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  11. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

  12. Excision of sympathetic ganglia and the rami communicantes with histological confirmation offers better early and late outcomes in Video assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rathinam, Sridhar; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Rajesh, Pala B

    2008-01-01

    Background Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy (VATS) is an established minimally invasive procedure for thoracic sympathetic blockade in patients with hyperhidrosis, facial flushing and intractable angina. Various techniques using clips, diathermy and excision are used to perform sympathectomy. We present our technique of excision of the sympathetic chain with histological proof and the analysis of the early and late outcomes. Methods We evaluated 200 procedures in 100 consecutive patients, who underwent Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy by a single surgeon in our centre between September 1996 to March 2007. All patients had maximum medical therapy prior to surgery and were divided into 3 groups based on indications, Group 1(hyperhidrosis: 48 patients), Group 2 (facial flushing: 26 patients) and Group 3(intractable angina: 26 patients). The demography and severity of symptoms for each group were analysed. The endpoints were success rate, 30 day mortality, complications and patient's satisfaction. Results 99 patients had bilateral VATS sympathectomy and 1 had unilateral sympathectomy. The conversion rate to open was 1(1%). All patients had successful removal of ganglia proven histologically with no perioperative mortality in our series. The complications included pneumothorax (5%), acute coronary syndrome (2%), transient Horner's syndrome (1%), transient paraesthesia (1%), wound infection (4%), compensatory hyperhidrosis (18%), residual flushing (3%) and wound pain (5%). There were five late deaths in the intractable angina group at a mean follow up of 36.7 months. Overall success rates of abolishing the symptoms were 96.3%, 87.5% and 95.2% for Group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusion Excision of the sympathetic chain with histological confirmation during VATS sympathectomy is a safe and effective method in treating hyperhidrosis, facial flushing and intractable angina with good long term results and satisfaction. PMID:18700966

  13. Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature. PMID:19824123

  14. Acute Atherosis of the Uterine Spiral Arteries: Clinicopathologic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-01-01

    Acute atherosis is unique vascular changes of the placenta associated with poor placentation. It is characterized by subendothelial lipid-filled foam cells, fibrinoid necrosis of the arterial wall, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, and it is histologically similar to early-stage atherosclerosis. Acute atherosis is rare in normal pregnancies, but is frequently observed in non- transformed spiral arteries in abnormal pregnancies, such as preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, spontaneous preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes. In preeclampsia, spiral arteries fail to develop physiologic transformation and retain thick walls and a narrow lumen. Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries is believed to be the main cause of uteroplacental ischemia, which can lead to the production of anti-angiogenic factors and induce endothelial dysfunction and eventually predispose the pregnancy to preeclampsia. Acute atherosis is more frequently observed in the spiral arteries of the decidua of the placenta (parietalis or basalis) than in the decidual or myometrial segments of the placental bed. The presence and deeper location of acute atherosis is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes, more severe disease, earlier onset of preeclampsia, and a greater frequency of SGA neonates in patients with preeclampsia. Moreover, the idea that the presence of acute atherosis in the placenta may increase the risk of future cardiovascular disease in women with a history of preeclampsia is of growing concern. Therefore, placental examination is crucial for retrospective investigation of pregnancy complications and outcomes, and accurate placental pathology based on universal diagnostic criteria in patients with abnormal pregnancies is essential for clinicopathologic correlation. PMID:26530045

  15. Frequency and clinical significance of placental histological lesions in an unselected population at or near term.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Sangeeta; Lees, Christoph C; Hackett, Gerald; Jessop, Flora; Sebire, Neil J

    2011-12-01

    Associations between specific placental histological abnormalities and obstetric outcomes are reported. However, most data are based either on high-risk cases or relate to case-control studies selected from those with abnormal placental histology findings, with the unavoidable biases that these approaches entail. This study reports the frequency of the several common, objective and predefined histological abnormalities of the placenta as identified by pathologists blinded to all clinical information. A total 1,153 women were recruited from an unselected population delivering at 34-43 weeks. Histological findings in common obstetric outcome groups were compared to those of the unselected population, and odds ratios and predictive values were calculated. Normal histological findings were present in 72.1% of pregnancies with normal outcomes and in 79.1%, 66.6%, 80%, and 74.8% of pregnancies affected by pre-eclampsia (PET), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small for gestational age (SGA), respectively. Chronic placental underperfusion was seen more frequently in PIH (odds ratio (OR) 2) and SGA (OR 1.4), while villitis of unknown aetiology was observed more commonly in cases with PIH (OR 3.2). Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy was twice as common in cases with GDM whilst massive perivillous fibrin deposition was much more frequent in those with PET (OR 20.2) and SGA (OR 8.9). Chorangiomata were 13 times more common in pregnancies with PET. However, in all cases, positive predictive values were low, with the majority of cases with histological abnormalities being associated with normal outcome. At term, specific placental histological lesions are significantly more common in complicated pregnancies, but the clinical significance of such lesions in a specific case remains uncertain, since the majority will be identified from clinically uncomplicated normal pregnancies. PMID:22038509

  16. Histological inflammation increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Ruben J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients are at greater risk for the development of colorectal neoplasia. Several individual studies have demonstrated associations between severity of histologic inflammation and colorectal neoplasia. However, a comprehensive systematic review has not been completed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between histologic inflammation and risk for neoplasia among available observational studies. Methods Three databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) were systematically searched. Studies were included if they included UC patients who underwent colonoscopic assessment and when histologic inflammation and colorectal neoplasia were both reported. Colorectal neoplasia rates were compared. Quantitative meta-analysis was attempted. Results Four of 1,422 records found were eligible. Results from 2 case-control studies reported a 3.5-fold increased risk for colorectal neoplasia associated with a single point increase in histologic inflammation. This result was further corroborated by one cohort study that demonstrated increased hazard ratios. The second cohort study reported outcomes for patients with normal gross endoscopy, but had increased histological inflammation when neoplasia was assessed. Finally, this study reported increased risk for neoplastic progression by histological inflammation among patients who were normal by gross endoscopic evaluation. Quantitative meta-analysis was unsuccessful due to heterogeneity between study measures. Conclusions There is strong evidence that histologic inflammation among patients with UC increases the risk of colorectal neoplasia. The depth and nature of assessment of additional clinical variables was varied and may have resulted in greater outcome discrepancy. Additional study related to mechanisms of inflammation-related neoplasia and therapeutic modification is needed.

  17. Acute Heart Failure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip D; Bellou, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  18. Acute Biliary Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Forty-seven cases of biliary tract infection with septic shock are presented. The sepsis was caused by empyema of the gallbladder in 23 cases and by cholangitis in the remainder. Gallstones were most frequently the cause of the sepsis. An appropriate diagnostic description of the syndrome of biliary tract infection and septic shock should therefore include a description of the underlying biliary disease as well as the term acute biliary shock. In this series, emergency surgical management by removal of gallstones and drainage of suppuration was felt to be the most appropriate treatment. There was a high incidence of gallbladder rupture (10.6%) and intrahepatic stones (53.2%). Of the 13 patients who died, 8 might have survived if early operation had been performed after the diagnosis of acute biliary septic shock was established. PMID:2278914

  19. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  20. [Acute aortic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). PMID:27254622

  1. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  2. Acute Ischemic Stroke Intervention.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Yavagal, Dileep R; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of disability worldwide and among the leading causes of mortality. Although intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) was approved nearly 2 decades ago for treatment of AIS, only a minority of patients receive it due to a narrow time window for administration and several contraindications to its use. Endovascular approaches to recanalization in AIS developed in the 1980s, and recently, 5 major randomized trials showed an overwhelming superior benefit of combining endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with IV-rtPA over IV-rtPA alone. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of catheter-based treatment from first-generation thrombectomy devices to the game-changing stent retrievers, results from recent trials, and the evolving stroke systems of care to provide timely access to acute stroke intervention to patients in the United States. PMID:27256835

  3. Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia Associated With Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Successfully Treated With Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lam-Phuong; Ahdoot, Stella; Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Zhang, Yanhong; Stollenwerk, Nicholas; Schivo, Michael; Harper, Richart

    2016-01-01

    Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is an extremely rare, relatively new, and distinct histological pattern of acute lung injury characterized predominately by the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin and associated organizing pneumonia. AFOP may be idiopathic or associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions. It has a variable clinical presentation from mild respiratory symptoms to that similar to the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently there is no consensus on treatment, and corticosteroids previously were of unclear benefit. To date, there are less than 40 cases of AFOP reported in the literature and only one has been linked to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we report the first case series of 2 patients who developed AFOP following allogenic stem cell transplant that were successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids. PMID:27152316

  4. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  5. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  6. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  7. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814

  8. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  9. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Lais Martins Moreira; Marcondes, Mariana Barros; Lima, Mariana Ferreira; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-07-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine. PMID:25229278

  10. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  11. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ulinski, Tim; Sellier-Leclerc, Anne-Laure; Tudorache, Elena; Bensman, Albert; Aoun, Bilal

    2012-07-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a frequent cause of acute renal failure, characterised by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrate in the interstitium of the kidney. Immuno-allergic reaction to certain medications, mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are by far the most important etiology for TIN today, but other situations such as infections, toxins, and vasculitis are known to induce TIN. Incidence of TIN is increasing, probably due to prescription habits and NSAID overuse, representing 3-7% of acute kidney injury in biopsies in children. Avoidance of the causal substance and rapid steroid therapy are hallmarks for patient care, but spontaneous initial recovery is very frequent and the general prognosis seems satisfactory. However, development of chronic TIN, without response to steroid or other immunosuppressive treatment, is possible. As the largest part of TIN is secondary to certain drugs, clear indications in particular for NSAID or antibiotics should be respected to reduce the number of TIN cases. PMID:21638156

  12. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS. PMID:19420806

  13. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  14. [Acute hepatic lesion caused by Giardia lamblia].

    PubMed

    Sotto, A; Alvarez, J L; García, B; Pomar, F; Cendán, A

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of 20 rats infested by Giardia muris in which a histologic study was made of the liver, as well as of 25 patients with giardiasis and elevated alanine-aminotransferase levels. Patients with positive A or B hepatitis markers, cholelithiasis or history of drug or alcohol use were excluded. Tests of liver function and liver biopsy were performed and antiparasite therapy was given during three months of follow-up, after which the liver biopsy was repeated. Humoral alterations were compared to those of 30 patients with acute viral hepatitis (15 type A and 15 type B) over the same periods of time. In 20% of the rats, nonspecific liver lesions were found. In the patients liver enzymes and the thymol test normalized a month after treatment and serum bile acids became normal in the third month. The liver biopsy demonstrated hepatic damage in 94% of the patients (in 20 cases cell lesions and in 12 cases inflammatory lesions) which regressed in the third month, the follow-up biopsy being normal after eradication of the parasite was confirmed. The comparative study with viral hepatitis showed highly significant differences in all the variables studied during the follow-up stage. Emphasis is placed on the importance of this lesion and its differential diagnosis to prevent its progression to chronic liver disease. PMID:2334580

  15. Early Effects of Intensive Lipid-Lowering Treatment on Plaque Characteristics Assessed by Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hee; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The effects of short-term intensive lipid-lowering treatment on coronary plaque composition have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. We investigated the influence of short-term intensive lipid-lowering treatment on quantitative and qualitative changes in plaque components of non-culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, single-center trial. Seventy patients who underwent both baseline and three-month follow-up virtual histology intravascular ultrasound were randomly assigned to either an intensive lipid-lowering treatment group (ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg, n=34) or a control statin treatment group (pravastatin 20 mg, n=36). Using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, plaque was characterized as fibrous, fibro-fatty, dense calcium, or necrotic core. Changes in plaque components during the three-month lipid-lowering treatment were compared between the two groups. Results Compared with the control statin treatment group, there was a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intensive lipid-lowering treatment group (-20.4±17.1 mg/dL vs. -36.8±17.4 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in baseline, three-month follow-up, or serial changes of gray-scale intravascular ultrasound parameters between the two groups. The absolute volume of fibro-fatty plaque was significantly reduced in the intensive lipid-lowering treatment group compared with the control group (-1.5±3.4 mm3 vs. 0.8±4.7 mm3, respectively; p=0.024). A linear correlation was found between changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and changes in the absolute volumes of fibro-fatty plaque (p<0.001, R2=0.209). Conclusion Modification of coronary plaque may be attainable after only three months of intensive lipid-lowering treatment. PMID:27401638

  16. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Induced by Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid: Report of a Case Presenting With Generalized Lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Syrigou, Ekaterini; Grapsa, Dimitra; Charpidou, Andriani; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare pustular skin reaction, most commonly triggered by antibiotics. Although its diagnosis is based primarily on the presence of specific clinical and histopathologic features, additional in vivo (patch testing) or in vitro testing may be required, especially in atypical cases, to more accurately determine the causative agent. The authors report a histologically confirmed case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis that was induced by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as documented by subsequent patch testing, and presented with generalized painful lymphadenopathy, mimicking an acute infectious process. This is a very rare and diagnostically challenging clinical presentation of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which has been reported, to the best of our knowledge, only once previously. PMID:25997755

  17. Can endoscopic atrophy predict histological atrophy? Historical study in United Kingdom and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Shin; Gotoda, Takuji; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Oda, Ichiro; Kondo, Hitoshi; Gatta, Luigi; Naylor, Greg; Dixon, Michael; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Axon, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic concordance between endoscopic and histological atrophy in the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS: Using published data, a total of 252 patients, 126 in the United Kingdom and 126 in Japan, aged 20 to 80 years, were evaluated. The extent of endoscopic atrophy was classified into five subgroups according to a modified Kimura-Takemoto classification system and was compared with histological findings of atrophy at five biopsy sites according to the updated Sydney system. RESULTS: The strength of agreement of the extent of atrophy between histology and visual endoscopic inspection showed good reproducibility, with a weighted kappa value of 0.76 (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that three factors were associated with decreased concordance: Japanese ethnicity [odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.43], older age (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.16-0.66) and endoscopic atrophy (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.03-0.36). The strength of agreement between endoscopic and histological atrophy, assessed by cancer risk-oriented grading, was reproducible, with a kappa value of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.75-0.87). Only nine patients (3.6%) were endoscopically underdiagnosed with antral predominant rather than extensive atrophy and were considered false negatives. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic grading can predict histological atrophy with few false negatives, indicating that precancerous conditions can be identified during screening endoscopy, particularly in patients in western countries. PMID:26673849

  18. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and its clinicopathological correlation with modified Anneroth's histological grading system

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kajal V; Chalishazar, Monali; Dave, Vishal R; Panja, Pritam; Singh, Manisha; Modi, Tapan G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an epithelial neoplasm generally beginning as focal overgrowth of altered stem cells near the basement membrane, moving upward and laterally, replacing the normal epithelium. Histopathological grading has been used for many decades in an attempt to predict the clinical behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, Forty biopsies were studied for histological grading and p53 expression. The p53 expression was studied in relation to clinical parameters such as age, sex of patient and site of tumors. Relation between histological grade of malignancy and p53 protein expression was analysed. All cases were classified according to Anneroth's histological malignancy grading system (1987). Materials and Methods: 40 cases of OSCC were assessed for clinical parameters, Anneroth's histological grading and immunohistochemically stained with p53 protien. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were analyzed using Spearman's Co-relation. Observations and Results: The positive expression of p53 was found in 62% of carcinomas studied. Positivity of p53 showed correlation with histological grade of malignancy and with individual parameters like degree of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, number of mitoses and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration while showed a negative correlation with pattern of invasion. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant correlation between parameters of tumor cell population, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and p53 expression. A significant association between high grade of malignancy and p53 overexpression and insignificant correlation of p53 with age, sex of the patient and site of the tumor was found. PMID:27194859

  19. Detection of sarcocystis parasites in retail beef: a regional survey combining histological and genetic detection methods.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Bobbi; Trainer, Thomas; Simmons-Arnold, Linda; Evans, Mark; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2008-10-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are parasitic protists acquired when undercooked, cyst-laden meat is consumed. While both Sarcocystis hominis and S. cruzi encyst in beef, only S. hominis is pathogenic to humans. In this study, we used histological methods and novel molecular techniques to determine the regional prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis spp. in retail beef. Of 110 samples, 60 supported amplification of parasite rRNA by PCR. All 41 sequenced representatives were identified as S. cruzi. To compare detection methods, 48 samples were then examined in parallel by histology and PCR, and 16 and 26 samples, respectively, were positive. Five samples positive by initial histologic sections were not amplified by PCR. Fifteen PCR-positive samples did not contain sarcocysts on initial histologic section, but additional sections from these samples revealed sarcocysts in an additional 12 samples. When combined, histology with additional sections and PCR detected 31 positive specimens of the 48 total specimens. We found no evidence of human pathogen S. hominis and confirm that cattle pathogen S. cruzi is highly prevalent in this regional sample. PCR assays may increase the detection sensitivity of Sarcocystis spp. and contribute diagnostic precision. PMID:18939769

  20. Histological features of the gastric mucosa in children with primary bile reflux gastritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bile reflux is one of the primary factors involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions in patients with chronic gastritis; however, little is known about the exact histological features of bile reflux and its contributions to gastric mucosal lesions in this disease, especially in children with primary bile reflux gastritis (BRG). The aim of this study was to investigate the classic histological changes of the gastric mucosa in children with primary BRG. Methods The Bilitec 2000 was used for 24 h monitoring of gastric bile in 59 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The histological characteristics of the gastric mucosa were examined and scored. Results Thirteen of the 59 patients had a helicobacter pylori infection and were excluded; therefore, 46 cases were included in this study. The positive rate of pathological duodenogastric reflux was significantly higher in patients with foveolar hyperplasia than those without foveolar hyperplasia; however, the rate was significantly lower in patients with vascular congestion than those without vascular congestion. The longest reflux time and the total percentage time of bile reflux were significantly lower in patients with vascular congestion than those without vascular congestion. A total of 9 types of histological changes were analyzed using a binary logistic regression. Foveolar hyperplasia and vascular congestion in the superficial layer became significant variables in the last step of the stepwise regression. Conclusions Foveolar hyperplasia was associated with the severity of bile reflux, suggesting that it is a histological feature of primary BRG in children, while vascular congestion may be a protective factor. PMID:22289498