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Sample records for acute intestinal infection

  1. Acute intestinal infections of non-dysenteric etiology*

    PubMed Central

    Linetskaya-Novgorodskaya, E. M.

    1959-01-01

    Recent work on the epidemiology and microbiology of acute intestinal infections has brought about a revision of long-held views as to many of their characteristics and as to their grouping. This paper deals with these infections in the light of this recent work, with particular reference to findings made in Leningrad. PMID:14417237

  2. [THE MODES OF EVALUATION OF TYPE OF DEHYDRATION IN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED BECAUSE OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Krieger, E A; Samodova, O V; Gulakova, N N; Aruiev, A B; Krylova, L A; Titova, L V

    2015-11-01

    Every year about 800,000 cases of intestinal infections end in lethal outcome due to dehydration. The different types of dehydration acquire differential approach to correction. Everywhere there is no application of routine detection of osmolarity of blood plasma under exicosis in children in view of absence of possibility of instrumental measurement. The search of techniques is needed to make it possible to indirectly detect types of dehydration in children hospitalized because of acute intestinal infection with purpose to apply rationale therapy of water-electrolyte disorders. The sampling of 32 patients with intestinal infections accompanied with signs of exicosis degree I-III was examined. The detection of osmolarity of blood was implemented by instrumental technique using gas analyzer ABL 800 Flex (Radiometer; Denmark) and five estimate techniques according to results of biochemical analysis of blood. The differences in precision of measurement of osmolarity of blood plasma by instrumental and estimate techniques were compared using Bland-Altman graphic technique. It is established that formula: 2x[Na+kp] + [glucosekp] (mmol/l) is the most recise. Its application provided results comparable with values detected by instrumental mode. PMID:26999860

  3. Intestinal pathogens, diarrhoea and acute phase proteins in naturally infected dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Seppä-Lassila, Leena; Orro, Toomas; Lassen, Brian; Lasonen, Riikka; Autio, Tiina; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the association between Eimeria spp. related signs and innate immune response in dairy calves was examined. Calves (n=100) aged 15-60 days were clinically examined and faecal samples, blood samples and deep nasopharyngeal swabs obtained. The samples were analysed for intestinal pathogens, acute phase proteins and WBC count, and respiratory tract pathogens, respectively. Diarrhoea was diagnosed in 32.6% (23.3-43.0%, 95% CI) of calves. An association between the pathogenic Eimeria spp. and diarrhoea was detected by multiple correspondence analysis. Eimeria related signs (diarrhoea, presence of pathogenic species and total oocyst count) were combined resulting a four level variable. Calves with weak signs of eimeriosis had decreased haptoglobin concentrations (p=0.02) and increased fibrinogen concentrations (p=0.048) compared to no signs. Increased haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations were associated with respiratory tract infection and umbilical infection. Serum amyloid A and WBC counts showed no association with signs of eimeriosis or clinical diagnoses. PMID:26264522

  4. Upregulation of ICOS on CD43+ CD4+ murine small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes during acute reovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Garza, Tomas; Teng, B.-B.; Klein, John R. . E-mail: john.r.klein@uth.tmc.edu

    2006-04-14

    Murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) can be classified according to expression of a CD43 glycoform recognized by the S7 monoclonal antibody. In this study, we examined the response of S7+ and S7- IELs in mice during acute reovirus serotype 3 (Dearing strain) infection, which was confirmed by virus-specific real-time PCR. In vivo proliferation increased significantly for both S7- and S7+ IELs on day 4 post-infection as determined by BrdU incorporation; however, expression of the inducible costimulatory (ICOS) molecule, which peaked on day 7 post-infection, was upregulated on S7+ CD4+ T cells, most of which were CD4+8- IELs. In vitro ICOS stimulation by syngeneic peritoneal macrophages induced IFN-{gamma} secretion from IELs from day 7 infected mice, and was suppressed by treatment with anti-ICOS mAb. Additionally, IFN-{gamma} mRNA increased in CD4+ IELs on day 6 post-infection. These findings indicate that S7- and S7+ IELs are differentially mobilized during the immune response to reovirus infection; that the regulated expression of ICOS is associated with S7+ IELs; and that stimulation of IELs through ICOS enhances IFN-{gamma} synthesis during infection.

  5. Small Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  6. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  7. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    PubMed

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83). PMID:27266031

  8. Management of acute intestinal ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    The acute abdomen due to a vascular catastrophe affecting the major splanchnic vessels is often a life-threatening condition that can be very difficult to diagnose. In this article the pathological and physiological changes found in large- and small-intestinal ischaemia are related to the clinical features of the illness. Radiological, biochemical, and haematological aids to diagnosis are discussed. The treatment of large- and small-bowel ischaemia and of their specific complications, such as malabsorption and gastric hypersecretion, is outlined. PMID:835982

  9. Preventive effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on acute secretory diarrhea in a pig model of intestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, B; Duncker, S; Barth, S; Bauerfeind, R; Gruber, A D; Deppenmeier, S; Breves, G

    2006-04-01

    Pretreatment with the probiotic Escherichia colistrain Nissle 1917 (EcN) was assessed in a pig model of intestinal infection to prevent acute secretory diarrhea. In the model 10(10) colony forming units of the porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Abbotstown (EcA) was given via orogastric tube to weaned piglets at day 21 postpartum (-EcN/+EcA group, n = 7). Forty-eight hours after challenge electrophysiological parameters of isolated intact jejunal epithelia were characterized in Ussing chambers. In agreement with clinical signs of diarrhea, tissues of challenged animals showed an overshoot of secretory response after stimulation of the cAMP-mediated second messenger pathway by forskolin, indicating higher excitability of chloride secretory systems under infected conditions. The data were compared with respective measurements from animals that got a daily dose of 10(10) cfu of the probiotic EcN over 10 days before EcA challenge (+EcN/+EcA group; n = 4), from a group that received only EcN (+EcN/-EcA; n = 4), or from a group that remained totally untreated (-EcN/-EcA; n = 6). EcN pretreatment completely abolished clinical signs of secretory diarrhea in +EcN/+EcA animals. Furthermore, jejunum epithelia of these animals did not exhibit an overshoot of secretory response upon stimulation with forskolin. Our studies demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of prophylactic EcN in pig small intestine for preventing an effect of toxigenic EcA. This infection model with freshly weaned piglets may be predestinated to further characterize EcN effects on the cellular level, i.e., involved second messenger pathways, or it may also be useful to examine the efficacy of other substrates or microbe strains against secretory stimuli. PMID:16614995

  10. Sarcocystid organisms found in bile from a dog with acute hepatitis: a case report and review of intestinal and hepatobiliary Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2016-03-01

    Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. PMID:26870918

  11. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use. PMID:27430075

  12. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a

  13. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  14. Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Lawrance C.; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n = 3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n = 4) or THC (THC/SIV; n = 4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal

  15. Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections*

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are distributed virtually throughout the world, with high prevalence rates in many regions. Amoebiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis are among the ten most common infections in the world. Other parasitic infections such as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, intestinal capillariasis, and strongyloidiasis are of local or regional public health concern. The prevention and control of these infections are now more feasible than ever before owing to the discovery of safe and efficacious drugs, the improvement and simplification of some diagnostic procedures, and advances in parasite population biology. PMID:3501340

  16. Dengue Virus Infection with Highly Neutralizing Levels of Cross-Reactive Antibodies Causes Acute Lethal Small Intestinal Pathology without a High Level of Viremia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Satoru; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Wang, Jiaqi; Rivino, Laura; Lok, Shee-Mei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Severe dengue virus (DENV)-associated diseases can occur in patients who have preexisting DENV antibodies (Abs) through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. It is well established that during ADE, DENV-antibody immune complexes (ICs) infect Fcγ receptor-bearing cells and increase the systemic viral burden that can be measured in the blood. For protection against infection with DENV serotypes 1 to 4, strongly neutralizing Abs must be elicited to overcome the effect of ADE. Clinical observations in infants who have maternal DENV Abs or recent phase II/III clinical trials with a leading tetravalent dengue vaccine suggested a lack of correlation between Ab neutralization and in vivo disease prevention. In addressing this gap in knowledge, we found that inoculation of ICs formed with serotype cross-reactive Abs that are more than 98% neutralized in vitro promotes high mortality in AG129 mice even though peak viremia was lower than that in direct virus infection. This suggests that the serum viremia level is not always correlated with disease severity. We further demonstrated that infection with the ICs resulted in increased vascular permeability, specifically in the small intestine, accompanied with increased tissue viral load and cytokine production, which can be suppressed by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) Abs. Flow cytometric analysis identified increased infection in CD11bint CD11cint/hi CD103− antigen-presenting cells by IC inoculation, suggesting that these infected cells may be responsible for the increase in TNF-α production and vascular permeability in the small intestine that lead to mortality in mice. Our findings may have important implications for the development of dengue therapeutics. IMPORTANCE We examined the relationship between the neutralizing level of Abs at the time of infection and subsequent disease progression in a mouse model in order to understand why patients who are shown to have a neutralizing

  17. Mucin Dynamics in Intestinal Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Sara K.; Florin, Timothy H. J.; McGuckin, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17) in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05). Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon. Conclusion Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection. PMID:19088856

  18. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25999427

  19. Dynamics of Cytokine/Chemokine Responses in Intestinal CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kenway-Lynch, Carys S.; Das, Arpita; Pan, Diganta; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of intestinal CD4+ T cells was associated with decreased production of several T-helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 cytokines and increased production of interleukin 17 (IL-17), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), CCL4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by CD8+ T cells 21 days after simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques. Shifting of mucosal TH1 to TH2 or T-cytotoxic 1 (TC1) to TC2 cytokine profiles was not evident. Additionally, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed upregulation of macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic) cytokines that have been linked to HIV disease progression. PMID:23966391

  20. Acute intestinal obstruction due to a non-involuted uterus after cesarean section: case report.

    PubMed

    Karaman, K; Ercan, M; Demir, H; Yener Uzunoglu, M; Bostanci, S

    2016-01-01

    The involution of the uterus is influenced by a number of factors such as advanced childbearing age, electrolyte disturbances, multiparity, repeated cesarean sections, and vaginal infections. The authors report the management of a clinical case of a 41-year-old female who presented with acute intestinal obstruction due to a non-involuted uterus after cesarean section. PMID:27048040

  1. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Jie; Song, Qiao-ling; Chen, Han-qin

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP’s severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP’s process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP. PMID:18257123

  2. Mucosal immune responses following intestinal nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Zaph, C; Cooper, P J; Harris, N L

    2014-01-01

    In most natural environments, the large majority of mammals harbour parasitic helminths that often live as adults within the intestine for prolonged periods (1–2 years) 1. Although these organisms have been eradicated to a large extent within westernized human populations, those living within rural areas of developing countries continue to suffer from high infection rates. Indeed, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2·5 billion people worldwide, mainly children, currently suffer from infection with intestinal helminths (also known as geohelminths and soil-transmitted helminths) 2. Paradoxically, the eradication of helminths is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergy observed in developed countries. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of host–helminth interactions at the mucosal surface that result in parasite expulsion or permit the establishment of chronic infections with luminal dwelling adult worms. We will also provide insight into the adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immune protection against re-infection with helminth larvae, a process that is likely to be key to the future development of successful vaccination strategies. Lastly, the contribution of helminths to immune modulation and particularly to the treatment of allergy and inflammatory bowel disease will be discussed. PMID:25201407

  3. Etiology and Outcome of Acute Intestinal Obstruction: A Review of 367 Patients in Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Souvik, Adhikari; Zahid Hossein, Mohammed; Amitabha, Das; Nilanjan, Mitra; Udipta, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: The etiology of acute intestinal obstruction, which is one of the commonest surgical emergencies, varies between countries and has also changed over the decades. We aimed to provide a complete epidemiological description of acute intestinal obstruction in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients admitted in our unit with a diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction between the years 2005 and 2008 at Medical College, Calcutta. The study comprised of 367 patients. Results: Acute intestinal obstruction was the diagnosis in 9.87% of all patients admitted with males (75.20%) grossly outnumbering females. The commonest age group affected was 20-60 years. In our patients, the main cause of obstruction was obstructed hernia followed by malignancy with adhesions coming third. Intestinal tuberculosis was an important cause for obstruction in our patients comprising 14.17% of patients. Conservative management was advocated in 79 patients while the rest underwent surgery. Postoperative complications occurred in 95 patients and of these, 38 patients had a single complication and the rest, more than 1. The main complications were wound infection, basal atelectasis, burst abdomen and prolonged ileus. The mortality rate was 7.35% (27 patients). The highest mortality occurred in those with intestinal tuberculosis. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the pattern of intestinal obstruction differs from the Western world with obstructed hernias being the most important cause and also emphasizes the fact that intestinal tuberculosis assumes a prominent role. It also highlights the necessity of using universal precautions because of the ever increasing number of HIV patients in those with intestinal obstruction. PMID:20871195

  4. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact Urine Most people come into contact with ... with another person. You should avoid kissing and sexual contact with an infected person. The virus may ...

  5. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  6. Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Perrimon, Norbert; Rahme, Laurence

    2009-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperproliferating intestinal stem cells (SCs) and progenitors drive cancer initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. In addition, chronic inflammation and infection have been increasingly recognized for their roles in cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bacterial infections can initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis remain elusive. Using a Drosophila model of gut pathogenesis, we show that intestinal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic bacterial pathogen, activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, a hallmark of the host stress response. This, in turn, causes apoptosis of enterocytes, the largest class of differentiated intestinal cells, and promotes a dramatic proliferation of SCs and progenitors that serves as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism to replenish the apoptotic enterocytes. However, we find that this homeostatic mechanism can lead to massive over-proliferation of intestinal cells when infection occurs in animals with a latent oncogenic form of the Ras1 oncogene. The affected intestines develop excess layers of cells with altered apicobasal polarity reminiscent of dysplasia, suggesting that infection can directly synergize with the genetic background in predisposed individuals to initiate SC-mediated tumorigenesis. Our results provide a framework for the study of intestinal bacterial infections and their effects on undifferentiated and mature enteric epithelial cells in the initial stages of intestinal cancer. Assessment of progenitor cell responses to pathogenic intestinal bacteria could provide a measure of predisposition for apoptotic enterocyte-assisted intestinal dysplasias in humans. PMID:19934041

  7. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in

  8. Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Progatzky, Fränze; Sangha, Navjyot J; Yoshida, Nagisa; McBrien, Marie; Cheung, Jackie; Shia, Alice; Scott, James; Marchesi, Julian R; Lamb, Jonathan R; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1β-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells. PMID:25536194

  9. Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Progatzky, Fränze; Sangha, Navjyot J.; Yoshida, Nagisa; McBrien, Marie; Cheung, Jackie; Shia, Alice; Scott, James; Marchesi, Julian R.; Lamb, Jonathan R.; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol- or saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induces chronic, often systemic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems worldwide. In vivo information regarding the local and direct inflammatory effect of these dietary components in the intestine and, in particular, on the intestinal epithelium is lacking. Here we report that both mice and zebrafish exposed to high-fat (HFDs) or high-cholesterol (HCDs) diets develop acute innate inflammatory responses within hours, reflected in the localized interleukin-1β-dependent accumulation of myeloid cells in the intestine. Acute HCD-induced intestinal inflammation is dependent on cholesterol uptake via Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and inflammasome activation involving apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, which leads to Caspase-1 activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Extended exposure to HCD results in localized, inflammation-dependent, functional dysregulation as well as systemic pathologies. Our model suggests that dietary cholesterol initiates intestinal inflammation in epithelial cells. PMID:25536194

  10. Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery of neonatal pigs infected with rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Moon, Hong Kil; Phillips, Oulayvahn; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Arthington, John D; Odle, Jack

    2007-12-01

    Rotaviruses infect and elicit diarrhea in neonates of most mammalian species and cause 800,000 infant deaths a year. We used neonatal piglets to study the effects of dietary animal plasma proteins on intestinal health following rotavirus infection. Plasma protein contains a diverse mixture of functional components with biological activity and improves the health of animals challenged with other diarrhea-causing pathogens. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we compared plasma protein- and soy protein-based diets in rotavirus-infected and noninfected piglets to determine if plasma protein reduced acute rotavirus intestinal damage or improved recovery. All infected animals shed rotavirus particles in their feces. Infected, plasma protein-fed piglets maintained growth rates similar to noninfected piglets in the first 3 days of infection; however, soy protein-fed piglets experienced reduced gains. Furthermore, infected, plasma protein-fed piglets showed no clinical signs of diarrhea. Infection reduced intestinal villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio by Day 3 of infection; however, reductions were not attenuated with dietary plasma protein. Infected, plasma protein-fed pigs maintained greater intestinal mucosa protein and estimated total lactase activity than infected, soy protein-fed piglets. Plasma proteins contain growth factors that may aid in rate of recovery as well as virus-binding proteins that may reduce infection pressure in the intestine. These data, combined with findings from other studies using plasma proteins in animal models of diarrhea, indicate the potential for using plasma proteins to improve the health of diarrheic neonates. PMID:17475463

  11. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Intestinal Dilation in Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Mice Deficient in Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ny, Lars; Li, Hua; Mukherjee, Shankar; Persson, Katarina; Holmqvist, Bo; Zhao, Dazhi; Shtutin, Vitaliy; Huang, Huan; Weiss, Louis M.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Factor, Stephen M.; Chan, John; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Jelicks, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi causes megasyndromes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor alterations in the GI tract of T. cruzi–infected mice, and to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of intestinal dilation. Brazil strain–infected C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice exhibited dilatation of the intestines by 30 days post-infection. Average intestine lumen diameter increased by 72%. Levels of intestinal NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, NOS2 and NOS3, were elevated in infected WT mice. Inflammation and ganglionitis were observed in all infected mice. Intestinal dilation was observed in infected WT, NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 null mice. This study demonstrates that MRI is a useful tool to monitor intestinal dilation in living mice and that these alterations may begin during acute infection. Furthermore, our data strongly suggests that NO may not be the sole contributor to intestinal dysfunction resulting from this infection. PMID:18981519

  12. Interferon-γ-Induced Nitric Oxide Causes Intrinsic Intestinal Denervation in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, Rosa M.E.; Marche, Homero H.F.; Bahia, Maria T.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Rossi, Marcos A.; Silva, João S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in neuronal destruction during acute-phase Trypanosoma cruzi infection was evaluated in male C57BL/6 (WT, wild-type) mice and knockout mice [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)−/− and interferon (IFN)−/−]. Selected animals were infected by intraperitoneal injection of 100 trypomastigote forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi. Others were injected intraperitoneally with an equal volume of saline solution and served as controls. Our findings support those of previous studies regarding myenteric denervation in acute-phase T. cruzi infection. In addition, we clearly demonstrate that, despite the fact that parasite nests and similar inflammatory infiltrate in the intestinal wall were more pronounced in infected iNOS−/− mice than in infected WT mice, the former presented no reduction in myenteric plexus neuron numbers. Neuronal nerve profile expression, as revealed by the general nerve marker PGP 9.5, was preserved in all knockout animals. Infected IFN−/− mice suffered no significant neuronal loss and there was no inflammatory infiltrate in the intestinal wall. On days 5 and 10 after infection, iNOS activity was greater in infected WT mice than in controls, whereas iNOS activity in infected knockout mice remained unchanged. These findings clearly demonstrate that neuronal damage does not occur in NO-impaired infected knockout mice, regardless of whether inflammatory infiltrate is present (iNOS−/−) or absent (IFN−/−). In conclusion, our observations strongly indicate that myenteric denervation in acute-phase T. cruzi infection is because of IFN-γ-elicited NO production resulting from iNOS activation in the inflammatory foci along the intestinal wall. PMID:15039223

  13. Increased Immunoendocrine Cells in Intestinal Mucosa of Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients 3 Years after Acute Shigella Infection - An Observation in a Small Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sang In

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. Recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of PI-IBS patients even after complete resolution of infection. We aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of PI-IBS subjects after long term period of infection. Materials and Methods We recruited PI-IBS subjects who had been diagnosed IBS after complete resolution of enteritis caused by shigellosis outbreak 3 years earlier. We compared unmatched four groups, PI-IBS (n = 4), non PI-IBS (n = 7), D-IBS (n = 7, diarrhea predominant type) and healthy controls (n = 10). All of them underwent colonoscopic biopsy at three areas, including descending colon (DC), sigmoid colon (SC) and rectum, which were assessed for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)/peptide YY (PYY)-containing enterochromaffin (EC) cell, intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria T lymphocyte (CD3), CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells and CD68/calprotectin+ macrophages. Results All subjects had no structural or gross abnormalities at colonoscopy. In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, CD3 lymphocytes, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68 + macrophages were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In D-IBS, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, and CD3 lymphocytes were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells tended to increase and PYY containing EC cells, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68+ macrophages were increased compared to non PI-IBS (p < 0.05). Calprotectin + marcrophages were decreased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and IBS compared to control. Conclusion The immunoendocrine cells were sporadically increased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and D-IBS compared with control. Our findings in a very small number of patients suggest that mucosal inflammation may play a role in long-term PI-IBS, and that other sub-groups of IBS and larger scale studies are

  14. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy.

  15. Investigation of intestine function during acute viral hepatitis using combined sugar oral loads.

    PubMed Central

    Parrilli, G; Cuomo, R; Nardone, G; Maio, G; Izzo, C M; Budillon, G

    1987-01-01

    One fifth of all cases of A virus hepatitis (AVH) have symptoms of gastroenteritis at the onset. This study investigated the mediated intestinal absorption of D-xylose (D-xyl) and 3-o-methyl-D-glucose (3-omG) and the non-mediated permeation of lactulose (Lacl, mol wt 342) and L-rhamnose (L-rh, mol wt 164) during acute and remission phases of AVH. Ten patients with AVH were given an oral load containing these sugars (5 g D-xyl: 2.5 g 3-omG, 1 g L-rh, 5 g lacl in 250 ml water) once during the acute phase and again during remission. The same load was given once to a group of 22 healthy controls. The mean concentration of D-xyl in urine and the ratio of D-xyl to 3-omG in plasma and urine were normal in both the AVH phases, ruling out intestinal malabsorption even in the acute phase. This study showed a significant increase in non-mediated permeation to Lacl, but not to L-rh, during the acute phase. These data indicate that the barrier function of the intestine is compromised in AVH infection while the absorptive function is not. An abnormally low concentration of D-xyl and 3-omG in plasma at one hour was found in all patients during the acute phase. This finding cannot be explained by alterations in intestinal absorption, but could be accounted for by increased space distribution of the sugars because of increased diffusion into tissue cells and/or expansion of the extracellular space by fluid retention. PMID:3428669

  16. Acute abdomen: An uncommon presentation of a common intestinal nematode.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Ghazala; Rawat, Vinita; Pandey, Hari Shankar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasitic infection of the intestine which is rarely symptomatic. It is unusual to find it in the wall or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We encountered five such cases where we observed the worm outside the lumen of the intestine. The pathological findings and the clinical features are discussed. This case series highlight that E. vermicularis can be the cause of pathology within the abdomen and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of some commonly encountered abdominal conditions. PMID:26629456

  17. Acute abdomen: An uncommon presentation of a common intestinal nematode

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Ghazala; Rawat, Vinita; Pandey, Hari Shankar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a common parasitic infection of the intestine which is rarely symptomatic. It is unusual to find it in the wall or outside the gastrointestinal tract. We encountered five such cases where we observed the worm outside the lumen of the intestine. The pathological findings and the clinical features are discussed. This case series highlight that E. vermicularis can be the cause of pathology within the abdomen and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of some commonly encountered abdominal conditions. PMID:26629456

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  19. Animal models to study acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiminez, Janelle A; Uwiera, Trina C; Douglas Inglis, G; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine impart a significant and negative impact on the health and well-being of human and non-human mammalian animals. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory disease is mandatory to develop effective treatment and prevention strategies. As inflammatory disease etiologies are multifactorial, the use of appropriate animal models and associated metrics of disease are essential. In this regard, animal models used alone or in combination to study acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the mammalian intestine paired with commonly used inflammation-inducing agents are reviewed. This includes both chemical and biological incitants of inflammation, and both non-mammalian (i.e. nematodes, insects, and fish) and mammalian (i.e. rodents, rabbits, pigs, ruminants, dogs, and non-human primates) models of intestinal inflammation including germ-free, gnotobiotic, as well as surgical, and genetically modified animals. Importantly, chemical and biological incitants induce inflammation via a multitude of mechanisms, and intestinal inflammation and injury can vary greatly according to the incitant and animal model used, allowing studies to ascertain both long-term and short-term effects of inflammation. Thus, researchers and clinicians should be aware of the relative strengths and limitations of the various animal models used to study acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the mammalian intestine, and the scope and relevance of outcomes achievable based on this knowledge. The ability to induce inflammation to mimic common human diseases is an important factor of a successful animal model, however other mechanisms of disease such as the amount of infective agent to induce disease, invasion mechanisms, and the effect various physiologic changes can have on inducing damage are also important features. In many cases, the use of multiple animal models in combination with both chemical and biological incitants is

  20. Trp53 deficiency protects against acute intestinal inflammation1

    PubMed Central

    Spehlmann, Martina E.; Manthey, Carolin F.; Dann, Sara M.; Hanson, Elaine; Sandhu, Sukhman S.; Liu, Linus Y.; Abdelmalak, Farid K.; Diamanti, Michaela A.; Retzlaff, Kristin; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Greten, Florian R.; Wang, Jean Y.J.; Eckmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The p53 protein has not only important tumor suppressor activity, but also additional immunological and other functions, whose nature and extent are only beginning to be recognized. Here we show that p53 has a novel inflammation-promoting action in the intestinal tract, since loss of p53 or the upstream activating kinase, ATM, protects against acute intestinal inflammation in murine models. Mechanistically, deficiency in p53 leads to increased survival of epithelial cells and lamina propria macrophages, higher IL-6 expression due to enhanced glucose-dependent NF-κB activation, and increased mucosal STAT3 activation. Blockade or loss of IL-6 signaling reverses the protective effects of p53 deficiency. Conversely, IL-6 treatment protects against acute colitis in a manner dependent on STAT3 signaling and induction of cytoprotective factors in epithelial cells. Together, these results indicate that p53 promotes inflammation in the intestinal tract through suppression of epithelium-protective factors, thus significantly expanding the spectrum of physiological and immunological p53 activities unrelated to cancer formation. PMID:23772033

  1. Acute appendicitis with intestinal malrotation: the usefulness of coronal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Koyama, Takao; Ishii, Seigo; Takeuchi, Taizo; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kishi, Kazushi; Sato, Morio

    2014-01-01

    We herein present a rare case of acute appendicitis with intestinal malrotation. Coronal images of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed the small intestine on the right side and the large intestine on the left side, thus indicating intestinal malrotation (non-rotation type). In addition, an enhanced, tubular, fluid-filled structure was detected attached to the cecum, which was located superior to the urinary bladder, suggesting acute appendicitis. The present study shows that coronal CT images provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis in patients with intestinal malrotation. PMID:25030562

  2. Increased intestinal permeability during cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    de Maar, E F; Kleibeuker, J H; Boersma-van Ek, W; The, T H; van Son, W J

    1996-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in renal transplant recipients can affect the gastrointestinal tract, but significant clinical manifestations are seldom seen. We hypothesize that subclinical involvement of the gastrointestinal tract may be quite frequent during CMV infection. In order to study this, we measured intestinal permeability by calculating the urinary lactulose mannitol (LM) excretion ratio after oral administration of lactulose and mannitol (normal < 0.030) in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic CMV infection. A total of 111 patients were enrolled in the study, 104 of whom were tested on postoperative day (POD) 10. Twenty-nine patients developed CMV infection, 12 of whom could be studied with the permeability test (median POD 40). Another nine patients without CMV infection were also studied at day 40 and served as controls. The LM ratio increased significantly during CMV infection compared to measurements before active infection (median 0.060 vs. 0.030, P < 0.01) and was significantly higher during the infection than in the control group (median 0.007, P < 0.01). No correlation could be found between the LM ratio and viral load, humoral response to the virus, or symptomatology of infection. We conclude that an increased intestinal permeability is found in a substantial number of patients with an active, albeit asymptomatic, CMV infection after renal transplantation. Pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications remain speculative but will be subject to further study. PMID:8914238

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt, in the period from December 2012 till November 2013. The study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. Fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot gram chromotrope stain for Microsporidia. Also they were processed by Kato-Katz and formol ethyl acetate techniques for intestinal helminths. Additionally, blood samples were collected for measuring hemoglobin levels. Out of 200 mentally handicapped individuals, 87 (43.5%) were infected. The infection rates were 44.6% and 42.6% for non-institutionalized and institutionalized people, respectively. Regarding gender, 46.7% and 38.5% were reported for the males and females respectively. The most common parasites detected were: Cryptosporidium sp. (23.5%), microsporidia (15%), Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Dientamoeba fragilis (8%), Cyclospora cyatanensis (7.5%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.5%) and Entamoeba coli (2.5%). Rates for Isospora belli and Enterobius vermicularis were estimated to be 1.5% for each, while lower rate was reported for Iodamoeba butschlii (1.0%). Prevalence of infections among mentally handicapped individuals are indications for several risk factors, including improper sanitary hygiene and illiteracy about personal hygiene. Therefore, frequent investigations, health care and medical intervention are needed. PMID:26878626

  4. Dengue infection presenting as acute hypokalemic quadriparesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Garg, A; Chhabra, P

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection is one of the most common viral hemorrhagic fevers seen in the tropical countries, including India. Its presentation varies from an acute self-resolving febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhagic shock and multiorgan dysfunction leading to death. Neurological presentations are uncommon and limited to case reports only. Most common neurological manifestations being encephalitis, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.Hypokalemic quadriparesis as a presenting feature of dengue is extremely rare. Here, we report this case of a 33-year-old female, who presented with hypokalemic quadriparesis and was subsequently diagnosed as dengue infection. PMID:25121379

  5. Cytomegalovirus Infection After Intestinal Transplantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Javier; Green, Michael; Kocoshis, Samuel; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ahu-Elmagd, Kareem; Yunis, Eduardo; Irish, William; Todo, Satoru; Reyes, Jorge; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurred in 10 of 41 children undergoing intestinal transplantation from 1990 to 1995. Stratification of CMV disease by donor (D)/recipient (R) serological status was as follows: 3 of 8, D+/R−; 3 of 9, D+/R+; 4 of 9, D−/R+; and 0 of 15, D−/R−. Treatment resulted in resolution of CMV disease in 93.3% of episodes. No deaths attributable to CMV disease occurred in this series. CMV in D+/R− children resulted in more extensive and persistent disease. However, patient and graft survival rates were similar in the different D/R subgroups and between children with and without CMV disease. Cumulative dose of steroid boluses (relative risk [RR]. 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 1.14–2.21) and history of steroid recycles (RR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.21–6.13) were associated with CMV disease. These results suggest that although CMV-associated morbidity in pediatric intestinal transplant recipients was substantial, it was not associated with an increased rate of mortality or graft loss, even among high-risk D+/R− patients. PMID:9402361

  6. Risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among children.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Abosdera, Mostafa Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    Intestinal parasites are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. The effective prevention and control of intestinal parasitic infections requires identification of local risk factors, particularly among high-risk groups. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic factors that may affect the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children. Interviews, observation, and anthropometric indices assessment were used to identify the risk factors. The findings of the study showed that young age, female gender, and severe malnutrition, Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, lack of access to potable water and hot and humid tropical climate are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections all correlated positively with increased rates of infection. Clinical visits were performed on 650 school children aged 5-15 years over a four-year period (2010-2013) in the Nahya Village, Giza Governorate. Stool specimens were examined using the formal ether concentration technique. Data were analysed using the SPSS statistical software. The results suggest that the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among young children is highly dependent on the specific species of the parasite. PMID:23697034

  7. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  8. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    PubMed

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  9. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Marie CM; Buret, André G

    2013-01-01

    Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations. PMID:24379622

  10. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections.

    PubMed

    Halliez, Marie C M; Buret, André G

    2013-12-21

    Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations. PMID:24379622

  11. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infections: The importance of the intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zanella Terrier, Marie Céline; Simonet, Martine Louis; Bichard, Philippe; Frossard, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial diarrhea. Despite effective antibiotic treatments, recurrent infections are common. With the recent emergence of hypervirulent isolates of C. difficile, CDI is a growing epidemic with higher rates of recurrence, increasing severity and mortality. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an alternative treatment for recurrent CDI. A better understanding of intestinal microbiota and its role in CDI has opened the door to this promising therapeutic approach. FMT is thought to resolve dysbiosis by restoring gut microbiota diversity thereby breaking the cycle of recurrent CDI. Since the first reported use of FMT for recurrent CDI in 1958, systematic reviews of case series and case report have shown its effectiveness with high resolution rates compared to standard antibiotic treatment. This article focuses on current guidelines for CDI treatment, the role of intestinal microbiota in CDI recurrence and current evidence about FMT efficacy, adverse effects and acceptability. PMID:24966611

  12. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases. PMID:16029488

  13. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (P<0.05). The most frequently observed IPs were Blastocystis hominis (4.51%) and Giardia intestinalis (3.54%). The results of this study showed that the transmission of pathogenic parasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. PMID:26796769

  14. [The Most Common Acute Gastrointestinal Infections].

    PubMed

    Greuter, Thomas; Magdeburg, Bernhard

    2015-10-14

    Acute gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea with vomiting as its main presentation are a frequently encountered entity in an outpatient setting. Due to a mostly self-limiting disease course a diagnostic work-up is often futile. Viral infections caused by Noro- or Rotavirus are most frequent, while bacterial infections are second line due to high hygienic standards in developed countries. In an inpatient setting and after a precedent antibiotic treatment one should think of clostridium difficile. Traveler’s diarrhea represents a special case, with most of the cases caused by enterovirulent E. coli. In this mini review we describe the most important pathogens in detail. PMID:26463905

  15. Infectivity of pestivirus following persistence of acute infection.

    PubMed

    Collins, Margaret E; Heaney, Judith; Thomas, Carole J; Brownlie, Joe

    2009-09-18

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an endemic pathogen worldwide and eradication strategies focus on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals arising after in utero infection. Despite this, acute infections with BVDV can persist for months or years after the removal of the PI source despite repeated screening for PIs and tight biosecurity measures. Recent evidence for a prolonged duration of viraemia in the testicles of bulls following acute BVDV infection suggests the possibility of a form of chronic persistence that may more closely resemble the persistence strategies of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To investigate the potential for virus transmission from infected and recovered cattle to virus naïve hosts we established an acute infection of 5 BVDV-naïve calves and monitored animals over 129 days. Infectious BVDV was detected in white blood cells between days 3 and 7 post-challenge. The animals seroconverted by day 21 post-infection and subsequently were apparently immune and free from infectious virus and viral antigen. Animals were further monitored and purified white blood cells were stimulated in vitro with phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA) during which time BVDV RNA was detected intermittently. Ninety-eight days following challenge, blood was transferred from these apparently virus-free and actively immune animals to a further group of 5 BVDV-naïve calves and transmission of infection was achieved. This indicates that BVDV-infected, recovered and immune animals have the potential to remain infectious for BVDV-naïve cohorts for longer than previously demonstrated. PMID:19443139

  16. Pulmonary embolism and acute cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Del Borgo, Cosmo; Gianfreda, Romina; Belvisi, Valeria; Citton, Rita; Soscia, Fabrizio; Notarianni, Ermanno; Tieghi, Tiziana; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2010-12-01

    A case of an immunocompetent man with acute CMV infection associated with a pulmonary embolism is described. Acute CMV infection could be a risk factor for developing thromboembolism. Pulmonary embolism should be included in differential diagnosis in patients with acute CMV infections and pulmonary opacities. PMID:21196823

  17. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  18. Swaddling and acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, K; Yavuz, T; Taylor, C E

    1990-07-01

    In Turkey and China the ancient practice of swaddling is still commonly practiced. Both countries have extremely high rates of pneumonia, especially during the neonatal period. Preliminary evidence on the possibility that swaddling may interfere with normal respiratory function and thereby predispose to pneumonia was gathered in a teaching health center in Ankara. Babies who had been swaddled for at least three months were four times more likely to have developed pneumonia (confirmed radiologically) and upper respiratory infections than babies who were unswaddled. These preliminary findings were highly significant and are being followed up by further studies. PMID:2356917

  19. Mckusick-Kaufman Syndrome Presenting as Acute Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    V Badakali, Ashok; N Vanaki, R; S Samalad, Mahantesh

    2013-01-01

    Hydrometrocolpos and polydactyly have been associated with many syndromes and can present at any age. Rarely does hydrometrocolpos present as neonatal intestinal obstruction. We report two cases of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome presenting with intestinal obstruction. In both cases, intestinal obstruction got relieved after a cutaneous vaginostomy. PMID:26023427

  20. Enteric infection meets intestinal function: how bacterial pathogens cause diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Hodges, Kim; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. In bacterium-induced diarrhoea, rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes results from inhibition of the normal absorptive function of the intestine as well as the activation of secretory processes. Advances in the past 10 years in the fields of gastrointestinal physiology, innate immunity and enteric bacterial virulence mechanisms highlight the multifactorial nature of infectious diarrhoea. This Review explores the various mechanisms that contribute to loss of fluids and electrolytes following bacterial infections, and attempts to link these events to specific virulence factors and toxins. PMID:19116615

  1. Intestinal helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults in Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Wright, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, studies on the prevalence of intestinal helminth co-infection amongst HIV-infected patients as well as possible interactions between these two infections are limited. Aim To investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminth infestation amongst adults living with HIV or AIDS at Mthatha General Hospital. Setting Study participants were recruited at the outpatient department of Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 amongst consecutive consenting HIV-positive adult patients. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained using data collection forms and structured interviews. Stool samples were collected to investigate the presence of helminths whilst blood samples were obtained for the measurement of CD4+ T-cell count and viral load. Results Data were obtained on 231 participants, with a mean age of 34.9 years, a mean CD4 count of 348 cells/µL and a mean viral load of 4.8 log10 copies/mL. Intestinal helminth prevalence was 24.7%, with Ascaris Lumbricoides (42.1%) the most prevalent identified species. Statistically significant association was found between CD4 count of less than 200 cells/µL and helminth infection (p = 0.05). No statistically significant association was found between intestinal helminth infection and the mean CD4 count (p = 0.79) or the mean viral load (p = 0.98). Conclusion A high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was observed amongst the study population. Therefore, screening and treatment of helminths should be considered as part of the management of HIV and AIDS in primary health care. PMID:26842519

  2. Diarrhea incidence and intestinal infections among rotavirus vaccinated infants from a poor area in Brazil: a spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. The pathogen most strongly associated with diarrhea is rotavirus followed by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, helminthes and protozoan. Adequate sanitation and water supply contribute to decrease acute diarrhea incidence of most etiologic agents, although vaccination remains the most important intervention to control rotavirus acute diarrhea. This study aimed to describe environmental conditions and analyze spatially the acute diarrhea and intestinal infection among rotavirus vaccinated infants from Laranjeiras-Sergipe, Brazil. Methods Children were enrolled between 2 and 11 months of age and followed through 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from a questionnaire, and immunization data were obtained from children vaccination card. Children stool samples were collected each month in order to run laboratory analyses. The household spatial localization was obtained by using a Global Positioning System (GPS). Spatial analysis was performed using the TerraView computer program and Kernel intensity estimation. Results A total of 1,113 stool samples were collected with 80 being diarrhea associated. Diarrhea incidence rate was 0.5 ± 1.0 episodes/child/year. The overall infection rates by Ascaris lumbricoides, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia and rotavirus were 5.1%, 3.0%, 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. 3.8% of diarrhea-associated stool samples were positive for rotavirus and 11.3% were positive for helminths and protozoans. There were some changes on spatial distribution of intestinal infections and diarrhea episodes along the four trimesters evaluated. Conclusions The studied infants live equally in precarious conditions of sanitation which probably explain the significant rates of parasitic infections appearing in early life. The low acute diarrhea incidence in the studied rotavirus vaccinated

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Miyagi, I

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed in the inhabitants of 3 coastal and 2 inland villages of Campalagian District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in July 1992. A total of 398 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, Harada-Mori culture and agar-plate culture techniques. Protozoan cysts were examined by formalin ether concentration technique on 380 fecal samples. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent with the overall positive rates as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 25.3%, Trichuris trichiura 59.3%, hookworm 68.3% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.3%. Eight species of protozoan were detected with the overall prevalence as follows: Entamoeba histolytica 10.9%, E. hartmanni 16.3%, E. coli 31.9%, Endolimax nana 12.5%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 5.4%, Giardia lamblia 4.6%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8% and Blastocystis hominis 18.0%. In the inland villages, prevalence of hookworm infection was higher than Ascaris and Trichuris infections, while in the coastal villages Trichuris infection was predominant. Egg count revealed that the infection level was light in most of the hookworm and Trichuris carriers. Prevalence of lavatories among houses appeared to be inversely proportional to the prevalence of hookworm infection. Meanwhile, the incomplete structure of the lavatories might result in contamination of environment with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Harada-Mori culture was the most efficient method in the detection of hookworm infection compared to other techniques. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found in all villages, but the former was the predominant species. An adult pinworm was detected by agar-plate culture of feces. Two types of pinworm males, corresponding to Enterobius vermicularis and E. gregorii, were observed. PMID:8266235

  4. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. PMID:26199634

  5. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. PMID:26199634

  6. Update on prevention and treatment of intestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Blair, Paul; Diemert, David

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal helminth infections are some of world's most common tropical diseases and cause significant impairments in pediatric growth and cognitive impairment as well as maternal health, particularly in areas lacking adequate access to safe water or sanitation. Routine mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelminthic medications to children living in endemic areas and interventions to improve water hygiene and sanitation form the basis of current control efforts. We review recent evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches and outline the limitations of MDA, including poor cure rates against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, rapid post-MDA reinfection, and inadequate coverage of at-risk populations. Ultimately, alternative tools and strategies, including new drugs, drug combinations, and vaccines, will be needed to control or ultimately eliminate these infections. PMID:25821189

  7. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Di Genova, Bruno M; Tonelli, Renata R

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases' pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  8. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Di Genova, Bruno M.; Tonelli, Renata R.

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite–host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases’ pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  9. Acute appendicitis with intestinal non-rotation presenting with partial small bowel obstruction diagnosed on CT.

    PubMed

    Zissin, R; Kots, E; Shpindel, T; Shapiro-Feinberg, M

    2000-05-01

    The findings of acute appendicitis on CT have been extensively described in the literature. This is a report of a case of acute appendicitis in a patient with intestinal non-rotation presenting with partial small bowel obstruction. Analysis of the CT findings allowed a correct diagnosis. PMID:10884757

  10. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for human intestinal infection and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings concerning Drosophila melanogaster intestinal pathology suggest that this model is well suited for the study of intestinal stem cell physiology during aging, stress and infection. Despite the physiological divergence between vertebrates and insects, the modeling of human intestinal diseases is possible in Drosophila because of the high degree of conservation between Drosophila and mammals with respect to the signaling pathways that control intestinal development, regeneration and disease. Furthermore, the genetic amenability of Drosophila makes it an advantageous model species. The well-studied intestinal stem cell lineage, as well as the tools available for its manipulation in vivo, provide a promising framework that can be used to elucidate many aspects of human intestinal pathology. In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in the study of Drosophila intestinal infection and pathology, and briefly review the parallels and differences between human and Drosophila intestinal regeneration and disease. PMID:21183483

  11. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B.; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S.; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab–infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection. PMID:26764484

  12. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L; Frank, Daniel N; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection. PMID:26764484

  13. Critical role of intestinal epithelial cell-derived IL-25 in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in intestinal function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigated the mechanism of immune regulation of IL-25 and the contribution of IL-25 to nematode infection-induced alterations in intestinal smooth muscle and epithelial cell function. Mice were infected with an enteric nematode or injected with IL-25 or IL-13. In vitro smooth m...

  14. Selenium (Se) deficiency alters intestinal diaphorase activity in mice infected with the intestinal parasitic worm Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice fed a diet deficient in Se show reduced resistance to a secondary infection with H. polygyrus. IL-4 and IL-13-dependent- increases in intestinal smooth muscle hyper-contractility and decreased glucose absorption correlate with expulsion of the adult worm following a challenge infection. Selen...

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AMONG ORPHANS INFECTED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATHUM THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Prasertbun, Rapeepan; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections can negatively impact growth and nutrition in children. The infections can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a variety of illnesses. We measured antioxidant enzyme levels in orphan children infected with intestinal parasites to investigate the influence of nutritional status on antioxidant enzymes. This cross sectional study was conducted at an orphanage in Thailand. Stool samples were obtained from each subject and examined for intestinal parasites. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count and biochemical parameters, including serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, were obtained from studied subjects. One hundred twenty-eight children were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were found on microscopic examination of the stools in 36.7% (47/128); 18% (23/128) had a mixed parasite infection. Intestinal protozoa were found in 34.4% of subjects and intestinal helminthes were found in 2.3%. The median GPx level in children infected with intestinal parasites (2.3 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in non-infected children (7.7 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in SOD levels between the two groups. When comparing GPx levels in children with 1) pathogenic parasites, 2) non-pathogenic parasites and 3) no intestinal parasite infection, GPx levels differed significantly among three groups (2.2 ng/ml, 2.4 ng/ml and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) (p < 0.05). When separating children by BMI and type of infection, the median SOD level in underweight children infected with pathogenic parasites (107.2 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in underweight children infected with non-pathogenic parasites (68.6 ng/ml) and without intestinal parasite infections (72.2 ng/ml). The present study identified two key findings: low GPx levels in children with intestinal parasitic infections, and the potential impact of malnutrition on some antioxidants. PMID:26466411

  16. 017. Exogenous acute lipoid pneumonitis from animal fat aspiration (part of intestine)

    PubMed Central

    Gkika, Dimitra; Manos, Emmanouil; Kolovos, Dimitrios; Batsouli, Vassiliki; Pathiaki, Eirini; Mavromati, Evagelia; Divani, Smaroula; Vardouli, Anna; Panagopoulos, Angelos; Karkanis, Konstantinos; Angel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the aspiration of animal fats, bronchoscopy is promptly necessary, not only for removing the foreign body but also for its therapeutic importance in order to avoid severe lipoid pneumonia, because fat acids are very toxic for the bronchial mucosa. Methods Patient 84 years old, nonsmoker, with a medical history of heart disease under acenocoumarol, referred accidental aspiration of cooked animal intestine, 12 hours ago, with rough cough and dyspnea that started instantly. To be noted, the patient presented with wheezing in both lungs. Thoracic CT scan images reveal a suspicion of aspiration, confirmed by indirectly evidence (right middle lobe atelectasis and also mediastinum transposition to the left and consolidation with atelectasis in the left lower lobe, as evidence of previous infections-possible aspirations, emerged from his case story). Therefore, urgent bronchoscopy was performed and the foreign body, that was movable with the cough, was removed. Bronchial lavage was performed due to acute infection in whole bronchial tree. A reactive granuloma tissue was noted in the entrance of the middle lobe, but because of the anticoagulant intake biopsy wasn’t performed. During his hospitalization the patient was under antibiotics, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Results At the time of revaluation, two weeks after, the patient was non symptomatic while the new CT scan showed evidence of residual infection in the left lung and atelectasis of the right middle lobe on the left. Bronchoscopy was reperformed and biopsy was taken in the entrance of the right middle lobe because of the noted reactive granuloma tissue, seen at the first bronchoscopy. No signs of bronchial inflammation were found (impressive improvement due to immediate intervention). Conclusions Animal fat aspiration causes acute bronchial inflammation and therefore, lipoid pneumonia within a few hours, due to rapid hydrolysis of releasing fatty acids. Removing the animal fat with the

  17. Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium – a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

  18. A Novel Role for TL1A/DR3 in Protection against Intestinal Injury and Infection.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li-Guo; Bamias, Giorgos; Arseneau, Kristen O; Burkly, Linda C; Wang, Eddy C Y; Gruszka, Dennis; Pizarro, Theresa T; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    TNF-like cytokine 1A (TL1A) is expressed on APCs and provides costimulatory signals to activated lymphocytes that bear its functional receptor, death receptor 3 (DR3). TL1A/DR3 signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of human and experimental inflammatory bowel disease. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cytokine/receptor pair in acute intestinal injury/repair pathways. We demonstrate that intact DR3 signaling protected mice from acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis because DR3(-/-) mice showed more severe mucosal inflammation and increased mortality. DR3(-/-) mice were compromised in their ability to maintain adequate numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in response to acute mucosal damage. This defect in immune regulation led to a nonspecific upregulation of effector proinflammatory pathways, which was most prominent for the Th17 immunophenotype. TL1A(-/-) mice were similarly more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate colitis, although without mortality and with delayed kinetics compared with DR3(-/-) mice, and also displayed significantly reduced numbers of regulatory T cells. Infection of DR3(-/-) mice with Salmonella typhimurium was associated with defective microbial clearance and elevated bacterial load. Taken together, our findings indicate a novel protective role for the TL1A/DR3 axis in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis during acute intestinal injury/repair, which contrasts with its known pathogenic function during chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:27233964

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients, Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Paboriboune, Phimpha; Phoumindr, Niranh; Borel, Elisabeth; Sourinphoumy, Khamphang; Phaxayaseng, Saykham; Luangkhot, Elodie; Sengphilom, Bouachanh; Vansilalom, Yathmany; Odermatt, Peter; Delaporte, Eric; Etard, Jean- François; Rabodonirina, Meja

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. Methodology One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Principal Findings The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years) and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3). Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively). Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%). Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively), were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively). The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent regardless of their

  20. Management of infection in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Werner; Werner, Jens; Uhl, Waldemar; Büchler, Markus W

    2002-01-01

    The clinical course of acute pancreatitis varies from a mild, transitory illness to a severe, rapidly fatal disease. In about 80% to 90% of cases pancreatitis presents as a mild, self-limiting disease with low morbidity and mortality. Unlike mild pancreatitis, necrotizing pancreatitis develops in about 15% of patients, with infection of pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis representing the single most important risk factor for a fatal outcome. Infection of pancreatic necrosis in the natural course develops in the second and third week after onset of the disease and is reported in 40% to 70% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Just recently, prevention of infection by prophylactic antibiotic treatment and assessment of the infection status of pancreatic necrosis by fine-needle aspiration have been established in the management of severe pancreatitis. Because medical treatment alone will result in a mortality rate of almost 100% in patients with signs of local and systemic septic complications, patients with infected necrosis must undergo surgical intervention, which consists of an organ-preserving necrosectomy combined with a postoperative closed lavage concept that maximizes further evacuation of infected debris and exudate. However, intensive care treatment, including prophylactic antibiotics, reduces the infection rate and delays the need for surgery in most patients until the third or fourth week after the onset of symptoms. At that time, debridement of necrosis is technically easier to perform, due to better demarcation between viable and necrotic tissue compared with necrosectomy earlier in the disease. In contrast, surgery is rarely needed in the presence of sterile pancreatic necrosis. In those patients the conservative approach is supported by the present data. PMID:12483263

  1. [Acute intestinal obstruction revealing enteropathy associated t-cell lymphoma, about a case].

    PubMed

    Garba, Abdoul Aziz; Adamou, Harissou; Magagi, Ibrahim Amadou; Brah, Souleymane; Habou, Oumarou

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare complication of celiac disease (CD). We report a case of EATL associated with CD revealed by acute intestinal obstruction. A North African woman of 38 years old with a history of infertility and chronic abdominal pain was admitted in emergency with acute intestinal obstruction. During the surgery, we found a tumor on the small intestine with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the specimen objectified a digestive T lymphoma CD3+ and immunological assessment of celiac disease was positive. The diagnosis of EATL was thus retained. Chemotherapy (CHOEP protocol) was established as well as gluten-free diet with a complete response to treatment. The EATL is a rare complication of CD that can be revealed by intestinal obstruction. The prognosis can be improved by early treatment involving surgery and chemotherapy. Its prevention requires early diagnosis of celiac and gluten-free diets. PMID:27217874

  2. Intestinal parasite infections and fecal steroid levels in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Immune-endocrine interactions have been evaluated much less frequently in nonhuman primates, and this may be due, in part, to logistical and ethical concerns regarding trapping and sampling of endangered species, especially apes. Using noninvasive fecal collection methods, the present study evaluates possible relationships between fecal steroid levels and gastrointestinal parasite infections in the Ngogo chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Because both testosterone and cortisol exhibit immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in other animal models, it was hypothesized that both testosterone and cortisol would be positively associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in these animals. When placed in a mixed model simultaneously, both testosterone (F = 4.98, df = 1, P = 0.033) and cortisol (F = 5.94, df = 1, P = 0.020) were positively associated with total (helminth and protozoan) parasite richness (the number of unique intestinal parasite species recovered from hosts' fecal samples). It is possible that androgens and corticoids alter the ability of a host to mount an effective immune response against concomitant infection with multiple parasitic species. The utility of fecal samples for assessing immune-endocrine interactions is discussed. PMID:16444733

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections among children in central Albania

    PubMed Central

    Sejdini, A; Mahmud, R; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, M; Sejdini, F; Gjoni, V; Xhaferraj, K; Kasmi, G

    2011-01-01

    Although intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) among children remain a global issue, the current information on such infections in Albanian children is very limited. A cross-sectional study of the IPI in 321 children living in the Albanian counties of Tirana (152) and Elbasan (169) was therefore conducted in 2008, with a pre-tested standard questionnaire employed to gather the relevant personal and clinical data. Using formalin–ether concentration and permanent stains, stool samples were examined microscopically for the ova, cysts and oocysts of any parasites. The overall prevalence of IPI was 19% (61 of 321), with protozoan infections (11·5%) apparently more common than infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH; 8·1%). Giardia duodenalis was the parasite most frequently detected (10·9%), followed by hookworm (5·6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1·9%), Trichuris trichiura (0·6%), Cryptosporidium (0·3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0·3%). The results of a univariate analysis indicated that the children from Tirana county were significantly more likely to be found infected with STH compared with the children from Elbasan county (12·5% v. 4·1%; P = 0·006). Children sampled in the community were also more likely to be found STH-positive than the children sampled as they attended hospitals and health clinics (10·5% v. 6·0%) but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The children found STH-positive were five times more likely to be suffering from diarrhoea than the other children checked in clinical settings (P = 0·004) and were also more likely to be suffering from abdominal pain (P = 0·054) and/or diminished appetite (P = 0·016). PMID:21801503

  4. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection induces intestinal epithelial cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

    2014-06-25

    The morbidity and mortality in piglets caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in large economic losses to the swine industry, but the precise pathogenesis of ETEC-associated diseases remains unknown. Intestinal epithelial cell autophagy serves as a host defense against pathogens. We found that ETEC induced autophagy, as measured by both the increased punctae distribution of GFP-LC3 and the enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Inhibiting autophagy resulted in decreased survival of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. ETEC triggered autophagy in IPEC-1 cells through a pathway involving the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:24742948

  5. Cerebral Scedosporium apiospermum infection presenting with intestinal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lin, D; Kamili, Q; Qurat-Ul-Ain, K; Lai, S; Musher, D M; Hamill, R

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of cerebral Scedosporium apiospermum infection presenting with intestinal manifestations in a 64-year-old male patient on immunosuppression for orthotopic liver transplantation. At admission, the patient's chief complaint was chronic watery diarrhea and he was found to have colonic ulcers on endoscopy. His hospital course was complicated by a tonic-clonic seizure caused by a left frontal brain abscess, with the causative agent being identified by culture. He was treated with lobectomy, high-dose intravenous voriconazole, and liposomal amphotericin with clinical, endoscopic, and histologic improvement. To our knowledge, S. apiospermum has not been previously described as a cause of colitis. The septate branching appearance of the Scedosporium species is similar to the more common Aspergillus species. This case of gastrointestinal Scedosporium brings into question previously reported cases of isolated gastrointestinal aspergillosis diagnosed by histopathology. Clinical suspicion for S. apiospermum must be maintained in immunosuppressed patients presenting with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:23440749

  6. Acute encephalitis as initial presentation of primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Añón, Rosário Pazos; Àguas, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is a life-threatening condition. A wide variety of infectious agents are implicated and in many patients no cause is found. HIV acute seroconversion illness can rarely present as acute encephalitis. Although most experts agree in starting antiretroviral treatment in severe acute HIV infection, the evidence of the benefits are still lacking. The authors report a case of severe acute encephalitis as a primary presentation of HIV infection in which introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in clinical recovery. This case highlights the need to consider HIV infection in the differential diagnosis of treatable viral encephalitis. PMID:22761210

  7. Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shany; Eytan, Ori

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection has been reported many times in the literature since the mid 1980s – mainly in case reports and in small case series, but also in four controlled studies. Still, many physicians are unaware of this association although acute cytomegalovirus infection diagnosis in a thrombosis patient may warrant antiviral therapy and may affect anticoagulation therapy duration. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics of patients with thrombosis and acute cytomegalovirus infection are reviewed, and the current knowledge concerning this unique association is presented herein. We believe it is time to add acute cytomegalovirus infection to the list of thrombosis triggers. PMID:25624857

  8. Intestinal Microbiota-Kidney Cross Talk in Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sanjeev; Martina-Lingua, Maria N.; Bandapalle, Samatha; Pluznick, Jennifer; Hamad, Abdel Rahim A.; Peterson, Daniel A.; Rabb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) involves multiple and overlapping immunological, biochemical, and hemodynamic mechanisms that modulate the effects of both the initial insult and the subsequent repair. Limited but recent experimental data have revealed that the intestinal microbiota significantly affects outcomes in AKI. Additional evidence shows significant changes in the intestinal microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients and in experimental AKI. In this minireview, we discuss the current status of the effect of intestinal microbiota on kidney diseases, the immunomodulatory effects of intestinal microbiota, and the potential mechanisms by which microbiota can modify kidney diseases and vice versa. We also propose future studies to clarify the role of intestinal microbiota in kidney diseases and to explore how the modification of gut microbiota may be a potential therapeutic tool. PMID:25343838

  9. Drosophila C Virus Systemic Infection Leads to Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Lamiable, Olivier; Lee, Kwang-Zin; Galiana, Delphine; Troxler, Laurent; Meignin, Carine; Hetru, Charles; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Daeffler, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which results from intestinal obstruction with the accumulation of peritrophic matrix at the entry of the midgut and the accumulation of the food ingested in the crop, a blind muscular food storage organ. The related virus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), which efficiently grows in Drosophila, does not trigger this pathology. We show that DCV, but not CrPV, infects the smooth muscles surrounding the crop, causing extensive cytopathology and strongly reducing the rate of contractions. We conclude that the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection results from the tropism of the virus for an important organ within the foregut of dipteran insects, the crop. IMPORTANCE DCV is one of the few identified natural viral pathogens affecting the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. As such, it is an important virus for the deciphering of host-virus interactions in insects. We characterize here the pathogenesis associated with DCV infection in flies and show that it results from the

  10. Protective effects of fenofibrate against acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiankun; He, Guizhen; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yukang; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether pretreatment with fenofibrate could mitigate acute lung injury (ALI) in a mice model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 6): sham, intestinal I/R + vehicle, and intestinal I/R + fenofibrate. Intestinal I/R was achieved by clamping the superior mesenteric artery. Fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) or equal volume of vehicle was injected intraperitoneally 60 minutes before the ischemia. At the end of experiment, measurement of pathohistological score, inflammatory mediators and other markers were performed. In addition, a 24-hour survival experiment was conducted in intestinal I/R mice treated with fenofibrate or vehicle. The chief results were as anticipated. Pathohistological evaluation indicated that fenofibrate ameliorated the local intestine damage and distant lung injury. Pretreatment with fenofibrate significantly decreased inflammatory factors in both the intestine and the lung. Consistently, renal creatine levels and hepatic ALT levels were significantly decreased in the fenofibrate group. Moreover, serum systemic inflammatory response indicators were significantly alleviated in the fenofibrate group. In addition, fenofibrate administration significantly improved the survival rate. Collectively, our data indicated that pretreatment with fenofibrate prior to ischemia attenuated intestinal I/R injury and ALI. PMID:26902261

  11. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection. PMID:26310309

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrk, Jogen; Zekanović, Drazen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Kresimir; Mrden, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group (29 vs. 26 %) and there was no significant difference on the severity of the disease. There was significant association in the patients with three and more risk factors, where the patients with lower blood pressure (124.4/77.4 vs. 145.9/87.7 mmHg) and better controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.1% vs. 6.9%) had greater risk for AMI if they are H. pylori seropositive. The large multicentric trials would be needed to define a precise role of H. pylori infection on the developement of AMI. PMID:22053556

  13. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M.R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Hornef, Mathias W.; Payne, Matthew S.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Janssen, Leon E.W.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 107 colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3+ lymphocytes, MPO+ cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  14. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    PubMed

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  15. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  16. Kinetics of acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii and histopathological changes in the duodenum of rats.

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Aline Rosa; Vicentino-Vieira, Suellen Laís; da Silva Watanabe, Paulo; Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; de Melo, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira; Garcia, João Luiz; José de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo; Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii crosses the intestinal barrier to spread into the body. We investigate the intestinal wall and epithelial cells of the duodenum of rats infected with T. gondii during different time points of acute infection. Male Wistar rats, 60 days of age, were assigned into groups that were orally inoculated with 5000 sporulated oocysts T. gondii for 6 h (G6), 12 h (G12), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48), 72 h (G72), 7 days (G7d), and 10 days (G10d). The control group (CG) received saline. The rats were killed and the duodenum was processed to obtain histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff, and Alcian blue (pH 2.5 and 1.0). Morphometry was performed on the layers of the intestinal wall and enterocytes, and the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes was counted. The data were compared by ANOVA considering 5% as level of significance. The infection provoked an increase in the width of villi and crypts; decrease in enterocyte height; increase in the smaller-diameter and reduction in the larger-diameter of the enterocytes nuclei, increased number of goblet cells secreting neutral (G6, G12 and G7d) and acidic (G7d and G10d) mucus, and increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (G48). The infected groups showed atrophy of the submucosa and muscular layers and the total wall. Acute infection with T. gondii caused morphological changes in the intestinal wall and epithelial cells of the duodenum in rats. PMID:26993084

  17. Outbreak of Intestinal Infection Due to Rhizopus microsporus▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Leung, S. Y.; Tsoi, H. W.; Yam, W. C.; Tai, Josepha W. M.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Tse, Herman; Li, Iris W. S.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Leung, Anskar Y. H.; Lie, Albert K. W.; Liang, Raymond H. S.; Que, T. L.; Ho, P. L.; Yuen, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sinopulmonary and rhinocerebral zygomycosis has been increasingly found in patients with hematological malignancies and bone marrow transplantation, but intestinal zygomycosis remains very rare in the literature. We investigated an outbreak of intestinal infection due to Rhizopus microsporus in 12 patients on treatment for hematological malignancies over a period of 6 months in a teaching hospital. The intake of allopurinol during hospitalization (P < 0.001) and that of commercially packaged ready-to-eat food items in the preceding 2 weeks (P < 0.001) were found to be independently significant risk factors for the development of intestinal zygomycosis. A total of 709 specimens, including 378 environmental and air samples, 181 food samples, and 150 drug samples, were taken for fungal culture. Among them, 16 samples of allopurinol tablets, 3 prepackaged ready-to-eat food items, and 1 pair of wooden chopsticks were positive for Rhizopus microsporus, which was confirmed by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA gene cluster (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) sequencing. The mean viable fungal counts of allopurinol obtained from wards and pharmacy were 4.22 × 103 CFU/g of tablet (range, 3.07 × 103 to 5.48 × 103) and 3.24 × 103 CFU/g of tablet (range, 2.68 × 103 to 3.72 × 103), respectively, which were much higher than the mean count of 2 × 102 CFU/g of food. Phylogenetic analysis by ITS sequencing showed multiple clones from isolates of contaminated allopurinol tablets and ready-to-eat food, of which some were identical to patients' isolates, and with one isolate in the cornstarch used as an excipient for manufacture of this drug. We attempted to type the isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, with limited evidence of clonal distribution. The primary source of the contaminating fungus was likely to be the cornstarch used in the manufacturing of allopurinol tablets or ready-to-eat food. Rhizopus microsporus is thermotolerant and can multiply even at 50

  18. Acute HIV infection - New York City, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-11-27

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) is a highly infectious phase of disease that lasts approximately 2 months and is characterized by nonspecific clinical symptoms. AHI contributes disproportionately to HIV transmission because it is associated with a high level of viremia, despite negative or indeterminate antibody (Ab) tests. Diagnosis of AHI with individual or pooled nucleic acid amplification tests (p-NAAT) can enable infected persons to adopt behaviors that reduce HIV transmission, facilitate partner referral for counseling and testing, and identify social networks of persons with elevated rates of HIV transmission. The national HIV surveillance case definition does not distinguish AHI from other stages of HIV infection, and the frequency of AHI among reported HIV cases is unknown. In 2008, to increase detection of AHI and demonstrate the feasibility of AHI surveillance, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) initiated p-NAAT screening at four sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enhanced citywide HIV surveillance (using a standard case definition) to differentiate AHI among newly reported cases. Seventy cases of AHI (representing 1.9% of all 3,635 HIV diagnoses reported in New York City) were identified: 53 cases from enhanced surveillance and 17 cases from p-NAAT screening (representing 9% of 198 HIV diagnoses at the four clinics). Men who have sex with men (MSM) constituted 81% of AHI cases. Screening STD clinic patients, especially MSM, with p-NAAT can identify additional cases of HIV infection. Surveillance for AHI is feasible and can identify circumstances in which HIV prevention efforts should be intensified. PMID:19940835

  19. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    REINA, Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues; RIBEIRO, Camila Aparecida; de ARAÚJO, Ronalda Silva; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; CASTANHO, Roberto Esteves Pires; TANAKA, Ioshie Ibara; VIGGIANI, Ana Maria Ferreira Sornas; MARTINS, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2016-01-01

    We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment. PMID:27007564

  20. Micro array analysis of the intestinal host response in Giardia duodenalis assemblage E infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals. However, little is known about the host-parasite interaction in its natural hosts. The objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, us...

  1. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection Among Inhabitants and Tribes of Chelgerd, Iran, 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Pestehchian, Nader; Haghighi, Ali; Salehi, Mansour; Yosefi, Hosein Ali; Khosravi, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although a notable development in treating and controlling of parasitic infections in recent years has occurred but, these infections are still counted as important problems in many countries. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the inhabitant and tribe populations who were referred to central health care of Chelgerd, Iran. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2008 to October 2009 in Chelgerd, Iran. A total of 655 samples of feces from inhabitants and tribes were collected and each sample was examined by Direct smear, formol- ethyl acetate concentration and Trichorom staining. Results Out of 655 stool samples, 367(56%) patients revealed at least one intestinal parasite (pathogenic /non-pathogenic protozoa/helminth), 233(67.7%) in tribes and 134(43%) in inhabitants. There was significant difference between infected inhabitants and infected tribes (p=0.001). Although the intestinal parasitic infections were more in female than male it was not statistically significant (p=0.52). There was no significant difference in various age groups. Common intestinal parasitic infections which were detected in both the populations were Giardia intestinalis (28.2%) and Blastocystis hominis (27.5%). Conclusions We found that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was higher in the tribe than inhabitant populations. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections was much higher than the helminthic infections. These findings reflect poor sanitary conditions in this region. They should be educated and provided better facilities to get rid of intestinal parasitic infections. PMID:26155498

  2. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients. PMID:26755265

  3. A new in vitro model using small intestinal epithelial cells to enhance infection of Cryptosporidium parvum

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand and study the infection of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, a more sensitive in vitro assay is required. In vivo, this parasite infects the epithelial cells of the microvilli layer in the small intestine. While cell infection models using colon,...

  4. Treatment of Acute HIV Infection and the Potential Role of Acutely HIV-Infected Persons in Cure Studies.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan J

    Diagnosis of acute HIV infection is important for accurate estimation of HIV incidence, identifying persons who are unaware of their HIV infection, and offering immediate treatment and risk-reduction strategies. The higher viral loads associated with acute HIV infection are associated with an increased risk of transmission. Current treatment recommendations are the same for acute and established infections. Studies of acute HIV infection indicate that initiation of antiretroviral therapy during this period may allow greater recovery of CD4+ T-cell count and function and may result in a smaller latent viral reservoir and a skewing of infection away from central memory CD4+ T cells toward shorter-lived transitional memory CD4+ T cells. This article summarizes a presentation by Susan J. Little, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Los Angeles, California, in April 2015. PMID:27398768

  5. Neuralgic amyotrophy complicating acute hepatitis E infection: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Theochari, Evangelia; Vincent-Smith, Lisa; Ellis, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that is under-recognised in developed countries. Preceding infection manifested by acute transaminitis has been associated with neurological manifestations, predominately involving the peripheral nervous system, even in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of a 65-year-old previously fit and well Caucasian man with bilateral neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) and acute transaminitis. Serology testing for immunoglobulin (Ig) M and G established the diagnosis of acute HEV infection. The patient received immunomodulatory treatment with an excellent long-term outcome. The temporal association of the clinical presentation of bilateral NA and acute transaminitis from HEV infection suggested the causal association of HEV to NA. We propose screening for HEV in patients presenting with NA and acute hepatitis. PMID:25739795

  6. Adaptive response of growing rat small intestine to acute Adriamycin injury.

    PubMed

    Buts, J P; De Meyer, R; Van Craynest, M P; Maldague, P

    1983-01-01

    The response of the intestinal mucosa to Adriamycin (ADR) was studied in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of 25-day-old rats. A single injection of ADR resulted in decreases in mucosal DNA per centimeter of length and in sucrase activity, which were proportional to the doses given (2, 5, and 8 mg/kg). ADR at 2 mg/kg had no significant effect on body weight, gut length, epithelial structure, or mucosal protein content per unit length. The morphological modifications occurred mostly in the proximal intestine and consisted of villous atrophy and degenerative changes of villus and crypt cells. A single dose of 5 mg ADR/kg acutely affected the gut. At 48 and 96 h the changes were characterized by marked decreases in mucosal weight, DNA per centimeter, sucrase activity, and villous shortening. At 144 h, the ADR-treated intestine entered a highly proliferative state and showed increased villous height, mucosal weight, and DNA per centimeter. Although villous hyperplasia was observed at 144 and 192 h, the mucosal weight and DNA concentrations did not exceed the corresponding levels in the control. During the period of active epithelial proliferation, sucrase activity remained depressed. We conclude that in the growing rat: (a) the acute intestinal injury of ADR is short-lived, dose dependent, and predominates in the proximal small intestine; (b) the enteric mucosa reacts to cytotoxic injury by excessive proliferation of immature enterocytes; and (c) the hyperplastic response to ADR is confined to the mucosal epithelium. PMID:6886938

  7. Mini-FLOTAC, an Innovative Direct Diagnostic Technique for Intestinal Parasitic Infections: Experience from the Field

    PubMed Central

    Barda, Beatrice Divina; Rinaldi, Laura; Ianniello, Davide; Zepherine, Henry; Salvo, Fulvio; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini–FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). Conclusion/Significance We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings — particularly for helminth diagnosis. PMID:23936577

  8. Intestinal Bacteria — The Role They Play in Normal Physiology, Pathologic Physiology, and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Finegold, Sydney M.

    1969-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria predominate in the normal human fecal flora, out-numbering aerobes at least 100 to one. The two most prevalent organisms are Bacteroides fragilis and Bifidobacterium. Ileostomy flora is, on the other hand, chiefly aerobic and the total count is lower (108 per ml of fluid, compared to 1010 per gram for feces). In normal people, small bowel bacterial counts are generally 105 per ml or less. The upper small bowel consists primarily of Gram-positive aerobes in small numbers. In the terminal ileum, counts are higher and aerobes and anaerobes are present in equal numbers. In the presence of acute obstruction and certain bowel stasis or other syndromes, the small bowel flora may become relatively profuse and fecal in type. The stomach normally has less than 103 organisms per ml but counts are higher in gastric samples with pH above 4.0. Intestinal bacteria are important in such processes as conversion of bilirubin to urobilinogen, supply of vitamin K to the host, defense against infection, bile acid deconjugation and conversion, infections related to the bowel, the malabsorption of blind loop and other bacterial overgrowth syndromes, and hepatic coma. PMID:5789139

  9. Intestinal Parasitoses in HIV Infected Children in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Oninla, Samuel Olorunyomi; Akindele, Abiodum Akeem; Adedokun, Samuel Adeyinka

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitoses are common amongst people living in developing countries. They may impact negatively on the growth and health of immune competent children. There is paucity of information on the association between HIV and intestinal parasitoses in African children. Objective To identify the intestinal infections responsible for infections in HIV infected children and document characteristics of HIV infected children at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods Consecutive children attending a Paediatric anti-retroviral clinic were studied. Information such as socio-demographics and clinical characteristics elicited from clinical examination were recorded in the proforma. Stool samples of the children were obtained and examined for intestinal parasites. Data was analysed with the SPSS 18 software. Results A total 52 children were studied and their age ranged between 6 months and 14 years, with a mean of 6.5 years ± 3.93. The 52 were made up of 27 boys and 25 girls, giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. 10 (19.2%) of the 52 children were infected with cryptosporidium spp, while 1(1.9%) had Ascaris lumbricoides infestation. Anti-helminthics had previously been administered to 86.5% of children studied. Those who previously received anti-helminthics had lower prevalence estimates of cryptosporidium infections. (p<0.01, RR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.20 – 0.90). Children on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis had lower prevalence estimates of cryptosporidium infections. (P<0.01, RR = 0.35, 95%CI = 0.14 – 0.91). Use of highly active antiretroviral drugs was also associated with lower prevalence estimates of intestinal cryptosporidium. (p=0.04, RR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.31 – 1.10). Eight of the 10 children infected with cryptosporidium had recurrent abdominal pain in comparison with the six with recurrent abdominal pain amongst the 42 without cryptosporidial infections. (p<0.01, RR=5.6, 95%CI= 2.51 – 12.1). Conclusion Cryptosporidial infection is the most

  10. Stability of Reference Gene Expression After Porcine Sapelovirus Infection in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Chen, Yabing; Sun, Huan; Lan, Daoliang

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells, which serve as the first physical barrier to protect intestinal tract from external antigens, have an important role in the local innate immunity. Screening of reference genes that have stable expression levels after viral infection in porcine intestinal epithelial cells is critical for ensuring the reliability of the expression analysis on anti-infection genes in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, nine common reference genes in pigs, including ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, SDHA, HPRT1, TBP, YWHAZ, and RPL32, were chosen as the candidate reference genes. Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) was used as a model virus to infect porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The expression stability of the nine genes was assessed by the geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software. Moreover, RefFinder program was used to evaluate the analytical results of above three softwares, and a relative expression experiment of selected target gene was used to verify the analysis results. The comprehensive results indicated that the gene combination of TBP and RPL32 has the most stable expression, which could be considered as an appropriate reference gene for research on gene expression after PSV infection in IPEC-J2cells. The results provided essential data for expression analysis of anti-infection genes in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:27092424

  11. The Intestinal Microbiota Interferes with the microRNA Response upon Oral Listeria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Archambaud, Cristel; Sismeiro, Odile; Toedling, Joern; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Lechat, Pierre; Lebreton, Alice; Ciaudo, Constance; Cossart, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intestinal tract is the largest reservoir of microbes in the human body. The intestinal microbiota is thought to be able to modulate alterations of the gut induced by enteropathogens, thereby maintaining homeostasis. Listeria monocytogenes is the agent of listeriosis, an infection transmitted to humans upon ingestion of contaminated food. Crossing of the intestinal barrier is a critical step of the infection before dissemination into deeper organs. Here, we investigated the role of the intestinal microbiota in the regulation of host protein-coding genes and microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression during Listeria infection. We first established the intestinal miRNA signatures corresponding to the 10 most highly expressed miRNAs in the murine ileum of conventional and germfree mice, noninfected and infected with Listeria. Next, we identified 6 miRNAs whose expression decreased upon Listeria infection in conventional mice. Strikingly, five of these miRNA expression variations (in miR-143, miR-148a, miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-378) were dependent on the presence of the microbiota. In addition, as is already known, protein-coding genes were highly affected by infection in both conventional and germfree mice. By crossing bioinformatically the predicted targets of the miRNAs to our whole-genome transcriptomic data, we revealed an miRNA-mRNA network that suggested miRNA-mediated global regulation during intestinal infection. Other recent studies have revealed an miRNA response to either bacterial pathogens or commensal bacteria. In contrast, our work provides an unprecedented insight into the impact of the intestinal microbiota on host transcriptional reprogramming during infection by a human pathogen. PMID:24327339

  12. Intestinal spirochete infections of chickens: a review of disease associations, epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Stephens, C P; Hampson, D J

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of intestinal spirochete infections of chickens. It focuses particularly on studies in Australia, where recent surveys of 136 layer and broiler breeder flocks have revealed a high rate of infection (>40%) with intestinal spirochetes. Infection was not detected in broiler flocks. Approximately 50% of isolates from infected flocks were Brachyspira (Serpulina) intermedia or B. pilosicoli, with the other isolates being B. innocens, B. murdochii or the proposed species 'B. pulli'. No isolates of B. alvinipulli were found. Intestinal spirochetes were significantly associated with wet litter problems and/or reduced egg production. Experimental infection of point-of-lay birds with either B. intermedia or B. pilosicoli caused reduced egg production, and, with B. intermedia, a significant increase in fecal moisture content. Infection with B. innocens caused no significant changes. In-water treatment of a flock with a mixed spirochete infection using lincospectin resulted in a slimy diarrhea lasting for 2-3 weeks, followed by absence of spirochetes for 3 months. Birds treated with tiamulin remained healthy, and had a reduced level of infection with intestinal spirochetes (30%) for 3 months. Trials are under way to test the efficacy of antimicrobials in point-of-lay chickens experimentally infected with either B. intermedia or B. pilosicoli. PMID:11708751

  13. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study Finds Share: © ... of three groups: a mindfulness meditation group, an exercise group, or a wait-list control group. Participants ...

  14. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile town, eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Ephrem; Mohammed, Jemal; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal helminthic infections are important public health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. There are several areas in Ethiopia from which epidemiological information is lacking including Babile town. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among students of Babile town. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from May 14 to June 08, 2012. Stool samples collected from 644 students were examined by the McMaster method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test to check for presence or absence of association between exposure and the presence of infection and odds ratios with 95% CI were computed to measure the strength of association. Logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of helminthic infection. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.2% respectively. Intestinal helminthic infection was significantly associated with grade and sex of the school children. Conclusion The prevalence of intestinal helminths was low. Health information dissemination is recommended. Since infection by Hymenolepis nana is a long term health problem in the area, provision of regular treatment by anthelminthic drug of choice for hymenolepiasis is also recommended PMID:26090008

  15. Acute tubular nephropathy in a patient with acute HIV infection: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Datta, Anandita A; Fletcher, James Lk; Townamchai, Natavudh; Chomchey, Nitiya; Kroon, Eugene; Sereti, Irini; Valcour, Victor; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    We report a 57-year old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with acute HIV infection. Routine blood tests showed an elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular nephropathy, which has not been reported to occur during acute HIV infection, in the absence of rhabdomyolysis or multiple organ system failure. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. His renal failure gradually resolved without further intervention. At one year of follow-up his HIV RNA was undetectable, and his renal function was normal. The case illustrates a rare manifestation of acute HIV infection - acute renal failure - in an older man with diabetes and hypertension. In this setting acute kidney injury might mistakenly have been attributed to his chronic comorbidities, and this case supports early HIV-1 testing in the setting of a high index of suspicion. PMID:25745498

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Sidhu, Anju; Ma, Zhenhua; McClain, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxemia is a contributing cofactor to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability is one of the mechanisms of endotoxin absorption. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in ALD. Although it is highly possible that some common molecules secreted by probiotics contribute to this action in IBD, the effect of probiotic culture supernatant has not yet been studied in ALD. We examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGG-s) on the acute alcohol-induced intestinal integrity and liver injury in a mouse model. Mice on standard chow diet were supplemented with supernatant from LGG culture (109 colony-forming unit/mouse) for 5 days, and one dose of alcohol at 6 g/kg body wt was administered via gavage. Intestinal permeability was measured by FITC-FD-4 ex vivo. Alcohol-induced liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and liver steatosis was evaluated by triglyceride content and Oil Red O staining of the liver sections. LGG-s pretreatment restored alcohol-induced reduction in ileum mRNA levels of claudin-1, intestine trefoil factor (ITF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), which play important roles on intestinal barrier integrity. As a result, LGG-s pretreatment significantly inhibited the alcohol-induced intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and subsequently liver injury. Interestingly, LGG-s pretreatment increased ileum mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α, an important transcription factor of ITF, P-gp, and CRAMP. These results suggest that LGG-s ameliorates the acute alcohol-induced liver injury by promoting HIF signaling, leading to the suppression of alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. The use of bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant provides a novel

  17. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Individuals with Mental Retardation in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schupf, Nicole; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…

  18. An increase in epithelial cell apoptosis is associated with chronic intestinal nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Laura J; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine E; Grencis, Richard K

    2007-04-01

    It is well established that homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium becomes dysregulated during gastrointestinal helminth infection and is under immune control. An increase in both enterocyte proliferation and the subsequent generation of crypt hyperplasia are hallmarks of chronic infection with Trichuris muris, a large intestinal dwelling nematode. The effect of this parasitic infection on apoptosis induction in the large intestine and its regulation has been neglected. To address this, mice of resistant and susceptible phenotypes were infected with different doses of T. muris, and the levels of epithelial cell apoptosis were determined. It is clear that apoptosis is induced during chronic T. muris infection. This occurs mainly at the base of the cecal crypt, within the stem cell region. The level of apoptosis induced is independent of worm number, suggesting that it is not a consequence of worm-induced damage but rather a mechanism for controlling cell number within the crypt. Neutralization of both gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha caused a significant reduction in the levels of apoptosis, showing that proinflammatory cytokines generated in response to chronic infection play an important role in apoptosis induction in this system. It is proposed that the generation of proinflammatory cytokines during chronic T. muris infection may play a positive role, by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, to counter infection-induced epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:17242061

  19. Models of intestinal infection by Salmonella enterica: introduction of a new neonate mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Marc; Hensel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen causing inflammatory disease in the intestine following diarrhea and is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide. Many in vitro investigations using cell culture models are available, but these do not represent the real natural environment present in the intestine of infected hosts. Several in vivo animal models have been used to study the host-pathogen interaction and to unravel the immune responses and cellular processes occurring during infection. An animal model for Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation relies on the pretreatment of mice with streptomycin. This model is of great importance but still shows limitations to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in the small intestine in vivo. Here, we review the use of mouse models for Salmonella infections and focus on a new small animal model using 1-day-old neonate mice. The neonate model enables researchers to observe infection of both the small and large intestine, thereby offering perspectives for new experimental approaches, as well as to analyze the Salmonella-enterocyte interaction in the small intestine in vivo. PMID:27408697

  20. Models of intestinal infection by Salmonella enterica: introduction of a new neonate mouse model.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Marc; Hensel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen causing inflammatory disease in the intestine following diarrhea and is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide. Many in vitro investigations using cell culture models are available, but these do not represent the real natural environment present in the intestine of infected hosts. Several in vivo animal models have been used to study the host-pathogen interaction and to unravel the immune responses and cellular processes occurring during infection. An animal model for Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation relies on the pretreatment of mice with streptomycin. This model is of great importance but still shows limitations to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in the small intestine in vivo. Here, we review the use of mouse models for Salmonella infections and focus on a new small animal model using 1-day-old neonate mice. The neonate model enables researchers to observe infection of both the small and large intestine, thereby offering perspectives for new experimental approaches, as well as to analyze the Salmonella-enterocyte interaction in the small intestine in vivo. PMID:27408697

  1. Wastewater quality and the risk of intestinal nematode infection in sewage farming families in hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Blumenthal, Ursula J; Brooker, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Use of sewage or wastewater in agriculture is becoming increasingly common as a result of a global water scarcity. Intestinal nematode infections have been identified as the main health risk associated with this practice. To protect consumer and farmer health, the World Health Organization (WHO) has established an intestinal nematode water quality standard. However, because of a lack of well-designed studies, the validity of this guideline is questioned. This report presents the findings of a study on the risk of intestinal nematode infections in farming families occupationally exposed to untreated and partially treated wastewater in Hyderabad, India. The study found an increased risk of hookworm (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-5.5), Ascaris lumbricoides (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.0-14), and Trichuris trichiura (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.8-18) infection when untreated wastewater (150 intestinal nematode ova/liter) was used for crop production. Use of partially treated wastewater (28 intestinal nematode ova/liter) was only associated with an increased risk (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.2-8.6) of A. lumbricoides infection. The findings of the study suggest that the current WHO intestinal nematode guideline of 1 ova/liter is sufficient to protect farmer health. PMID:18840745

  2. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  3. Acute Legionella pneumophila infection masquerading as acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jonathan Michael; Chan, Julian; Reid, Angeline Louise; Tan, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged man had deteriorated rapidly in hospital after being misdiagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis. Acute Legionnaires disease (Legionellosis) was subsequently diagnosed on rapid antigen urinary testing and further confirmed serologically. This led to appropriate antibiotic treatment and complete clinical resolution. Physicians caring for patients with alcohol-related liver disease should consider Legionella pneumophila in their differential diagnosis even with a paucity of respiratory symptoms. PMID:23355576

  4. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

    1987-01-01

    Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

  5. Bacteriotherapy for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis caused by Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Blessing O; Lawley, Trevor D

    2013-10-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used for more than five decades to treat a variety of intestinal diseases associated with pathological imbalances within the resident microbiota, termed dysbiosis. FMT has been particularly effective for treating patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection who are left with few clinical options other than continued antibiotic therapy. Our increasing knowledge of the structure and function of the human intestinal microbiota and C. difficile pathogenesis has led to the understanding that FMT promotes intestinal ecological restoration and highlights the microbiota as a viable therapeutic target. However, the use of undefined faecal samples creates a barrier for widespread clinical use because of safety and aesthetic issues. An emerging concept of bacteriotherapy, the therapeutic use of a defined mixture of harmless, health-associated bacteria, holds promise for the treatment of patients with severe C. difficile infection, and possibly represents a paradigm shift for the treatment of diseases linked to intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:23866975

  6. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran.

    PubMed

    Badparva, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azami, Mehdi; Badparva, Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren't any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds' species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether concentration technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Culture in RPMI 1640 medium, sporulation with potassium dichromate and Trichrome and Giemsa staining. Out of 451 birds' species, 157 (34.8 %), were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. We identified two nematode, two cestoda species and five protozoan parasites species. No trematodes were found in the samples studied. The parasites identified among birds involved Raillietina spp. (4.2 %) and Eimeria spp. (7.1 %) were the most common helminthes and protozoa respectively. From total of birds study, 12 (2.7 %) and 6 (1.3 %) have two and three mixed infections respectively. Intestinal parasitic infections are common in birds in west Iran. The future studies are needed in order to determine to which extent the infections influence mortality and performance of the birds. PMID:26688641

  7. Acute hemiplegia with lacunar infarct after varicella infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Eda, I; Takashima, S; Takeshita, K

    1983-01-01

    We report 4 cases of acute hemiplegia and a small low-density lesion on computerized tomography (CT) after varicella infection. In 3 of them, CT in the acute hemiplegic stage, and later, reveals the development of lacunar infarct around the internal capsule. Focal low density may be caused by occlusive vascular lesions of the penetrating arteries. Varicella infection may play an important role as one of the causes of acute hemiplegia in childhood producing lacunar infarct, as well as delayed hemiplegia, reported previously in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:6660422

  8. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Songer, J Glenn

    2008-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens produces enteric diseases, generically called enterotoxemias, in sheep, goats, and other animals. This microorganism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species, including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates and produces potent toxins that act locally or are absorbed into the general circulation with usually devastating effects on the host. History, clinical signs, and gross postmortem findings are useful tools for establishing a presumptive diagnosis of clostridial enterotoxemia in sheep and goats. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation. Isolation of some types of C. perfringens (e.g., B and C) can be of diagnostic value, but other types (e.g., A) are so commonly found in the intestine of normal animals that isolation is meaningless from a diagnostic point of view. The most accepted criterion in establishing a definitive diagnosis of enterotoxemia is detection of C. perfringens toxins in intestinal contents. Also, histopathological examination of brain is very useful for diagnosis of type D disease, as lesions produced by epsilon toxin in the brains of sheep and goats are pathognomonic for type D enterotoxemia. Ancillary tests, such as measuring urine glucose or observing Gram-stained smears of intestinal mucosa, can be used. However, although such tests have a presumptive diagnostic value when positive, they cannot be used to rule out a diagnosis of enterotoxemia when negative. PMID:18460610

  9. Intestinal hypoperfusion contributes to gut barrier failure in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sakhawat H; Ammori, Basil J; Holmfield, John; Larvin, Michael; McMahon, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal barrier failure and subsequent bacterial translocation have been implicated in the development of organ dysfunction and septic complications associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Splanchnic hypoperfusion and ischemia/reperfusion injury have been postulated as a cause of increased intestinal permeability. The urinary concentration of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) has been shown to be a sensitive marker of intestinal ischemia, with increased levels being associated with ischemia/reperfusion. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between excretion of IFABP in urine, gut mucosal barrier failure (intestinal hyperpermeability and systemic exposure to endotoxemia), and clinical severity. Patients with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were studied within 72 hours of onset of pain. Polyethylene glycol probes of 3350 kDa and 400 kDa were administered enterally, and the ratio of the percentage of retrieval of each probe after renal excretion was used as a measure of intestinal macromolecular permeability. Collected urine was also used to determine the IFABP concentration (IFABP-c) and total IFABP (IFABP-t) excreted over the 24-hour period, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The systemic inflammatory response was estimated from peak 0 to 72-hour plasma C-reactive protein levels, and systemic exposure to endotoxins was measured using serum IgM endotoxin cytoplasmic antibody (EndoCAb) levels. The severity of the attack was assessed on the basis of the Atlanta criteria. Sixty-one patients with acute pancreatitis (severe in 19) and 12 healthy control subjects were studied. Compared to mild attacks, severe attacks were associated with significantly higher urinary IFABP-c (median 1092 pg/ml vs. 84 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and IFABP-t (median 1.14 microg vs. 0.21 microg; P = 0.003). Furthermore, the control group had significantly lower IFABP-c (median 37 pg/ml; P = 0.029) and IFABP-t (median

  10. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-08

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  11. Intestinal FoxO signaling is required to survive oral infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fink, C; Hoffmann, J; Knop, M; Li, Y; Isermann, K; Roeder, T

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal immune system is tailored to fight pathogens effectively while tolerating the indigenous microbiota. Impairments of this homeostatic interaction may contribute to the etiology of various diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the molecular architecture underlying this complex regulatory interaction is not well understood. Here, we show that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a multilayered intestinal immune system that ensures strictly localized antimicrobial responses. Enterocytes, a major cell population of the intestine, produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in a FoxO- but not NF-κB-dependent manner. Consequently, animals impaired in FoxO-mediated signaling had a significantly lowered resistance to intestinal infections; they were unable to increase the expression of AMP genes and males showed an increased bacterial load in response to an infection. Conventional innate immune signaling converging onto NF-κB activation was operative in only a few regions of the intestine, comprising the proventriculus, copper cells, and intestinal stem cells. Taken together, our results imply that danger-mediated as well as conventional innate immune signaling constitute modules that contribute to the fruit fly's intestinal immune system. We propose that this special architecture ensures localized and efficient antimicrobial responses against invasive pathogens while preserving the microbiota. PMID:26627459

  12. Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan) does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax. PMID:25309052

  13. Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

  14. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  15. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Fang, Hui; Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D; Patel, Nayana; Murray, Patrick R; Snoy, Philip J; Frucht, David M

    2012-01-01

    A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs). Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis. PMID:22438953

  16. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota of mice infected with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Ras, Refaat; Huynh, Kevin; Desoky, Enas; Badawy, Ahmed; Widmer, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the interaction between the intestinal microbiota (microbiome) and enteric pathogens is of interest in the development of alternative treatments that do not rely on chemotherapy and do not lead to drug resistance. We undertook research in a rodent model of cryptosporidiosis to assess whether the bacterial gut microbiota is impacted by infection with the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. The profile of the faecal bacterial microbiota in infected and uninfected animals was compared using 16S amplicon sequencing. In four independent experiments, the intestinal microbiota of infected mice differed from that of uninfected animals, regardless of the C. parvum isolate used to infect mice. The use of replicated treatment groups demonstrated that microbiota divergence between treatments was driven by the infection and did not result from spontaneous changes in the intestinal ecosystem unrelated to the infection. Microbiota perturbation induced by C. parvum appeared to be reversible, as we observed a tendency for the phylogenetic distance between infected and uninfected mice to diminish after mice cleared the infection. As mice infected with C. parvum do not develop diarrhoea, these observations indicate that microbiota perturbation results from other mechanisms than an accelerated movement of gut content. PMID:25913477

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ahlee; Moon, Jin Soo; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of demonstrated stones. AAC is frequently associated with severe systemic inflammation. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of AAC still remain unclear. Acute infection with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in childhood is usually aymptomatic, whereas it often presents as typical infectious mononucleosis symptoms such as fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. AAC may occur during the course of acute EBV infection, which is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. AAC complicating the course of a primary EBV infection is usually associated with a favorable outcome. Most of the patients recover without any surgical treatment. Therefore, the detection of EBV in AAC would be important for prediction of better prognosis. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child who presented with AAC during the course of primary EBV infection, the first in Korea, and review the relevant literature. PMID:24749090

  18. Epstein-barr virus infection with acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ahlee; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung

    2014-03-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of demonstrated stones. AAC is frequently associated with severe systemic inflammation. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of AAC still remain unclear. Acute infection with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in childhood is usually aymptomatic, whereas it often presents as typical infectious mononucleosis symptoms such as fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. AAC may occur during the course of acute EBV infection, which is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. AAC complicating the course of a primary EBV infection is usually associated with a favorable outcome. Most of the patients recover without any surgical treatment. Therefore, the detection of EBV in AAC would be important for prediction of better prognosis. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child who presented with AAC during the course of primary EBV infection, the first in Korea, and review the relevant literature. PMID:24749090

  19. [Intestinal parasite infections in rural students of Chiloé archipelago, X Region, Chile].

    PubMed

    Mejías, G

    1993-01-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge of intestinal parasite infection a survey was performed in 462 primary school children from eight rural localities sited in two islands of the Chiloe archipelago. Stool samples and perianal scotch tape scrapings for intestinal protozoa and helminths were microscopically examined. The prevalence rates of the main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides 43.3%, Trichuris trichiura 26.8%, Enterobius vernicularis 20.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.6%, Giardia intestinalis 20.6% and Blastocystis hominis 63.2%. Poverty, deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections found. A health education program, improvement of basic sanitary conditions and eventual treatment of infected people may contribute to control this undesirable situation. PMID:8110371

  20. Microarray Analysis of the Intestinal Host Response in Giardia duodenalis Assemblage E Infected Calves

    PubMed Central

    Dreesen, Leentje; Rinaldi, Manuela; Chiers, Koen; Li, Robert; Geurden, Thomas; Van den Broeck, Wim; Goddeeris, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite Giardia duodenalis being one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals, little is known about the host-parasite interactions in its natural hosts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, using a bovine high-density oligo microarray to analyze global gene expression in the small intestine. The resulting microarray data suggested a decrease in inflammation, immune response, and immune cell migration in infected animals. These findings were examined in more detail by histological analyses combined with quantitative real-time PCR on a panel of cytokines. The transcription levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ showed a trend of being downregulated in the jejunum of infected animals compared to the negative controls,.No immune cell recruitment could be seen after infection, and no intestinal pathologies, such as villus shortening or increased levels of apoptosis. Possible regulators of this intestinal response are the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα), and gamma (PPARγ) and the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA), all for which an upregulated expression was found in the microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. PMID:22848418

  1. Nitric oxide mediates intestinal pathology but not immune expulsion during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C E; Paterson, J C; Wei, X Q; Liew, F Y; Garside, P; Kennedy, M W

    2000-04-15

    The relationship between intestinal pathology and immune expulsion of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes remains controversial. Although immune expulsion of GI helminth parasites is usually associated with Th2 responses, the effector mechanisms directly responsible for parasite loss have not been identified. We have previously shown that while the intestinal pathology accompanying the expulsion of the GI parasite Trichinella spiralis may be dependent on IL-4 and mediated by TNF, parasite loss is independent of TNF. In contrast, intestinal pathology in other disease models has been attributed to Th1 cytokines, although it closely resembles that seen in helminth infections. Whereas production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the gut is important for both homeostasis of the epithelial layer and in protection against pathogenic microorganisms, overproduction of NO has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory conditions. We therefore investigated the role of NO in T. spiralis infection using iNOS-deficient mice. iNOS-/- and iNOS-/+ mice were infected with T. spiralis, and parasite expulsion and intestinal pathology were followed. Parasite expulsion proceeded similarly in both groups of animals, but significant intestinal pathology was only observed in the heterozygous mice. Thus it appears that, although the protective effects of Th2 responses in GI helminth infection do not require NO, this mediator contributes substantially to the associated enteropathy. NO may therefore be an important mediator of enteropathy in both Th1- and Th2-inducing conditions. PMID:10754319

  2. Changes in intestinal microflora of Caenorhabditis elegans following Bacillus nematocida B16 infection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei; Hui, Fengli; Kan, Yunchao; Yao, Lunguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of pathogenic bacteria on a host and its symbiotic microbiota is vital and widespread in the biotic world. The soil-dwelling opportunistic bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 uses a "Trojan horse" mechanism to kill Caenorhabditis elegans. The alterations in the intestinal microflora that occur after B16 infection remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the intestinal bacteria presented in normal and infected worms. The gut microbial community experienced a complex change after B16 inoculation, as determined through marked differences in species diversity, structure, distribution and composition between uninfected and infected worms. Regardless of the worm's origin (i.e., from soil or rotten fruits), the diversity of the intestinal microbiome decreased after infection. Firmicutes increased sharply, whereas Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria decreased to different degrees. Fusobacteria was only present 12 h post-infection. After 24 h of infection, 1228 and 1109 bacterial species were identified in the uninfected and infected groups, respectively. The shared species reached 21.97%. The infected group had a greater number of Bacillus species but a smaller number of Pediococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Shewanella species (P < 0.01). Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by pathogenic bacteria on symbiotic microbiota using C. elegans as the model species. PMID:26830015

  3. Changes in intestinal microflora of Caenorhabditis elegans following Bacillus nematocida B16 infection

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei; Hui, Fengli; Kan, Yunchao; Yao, Lunguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of pathogenic bacteria on a host and its symbiotic microbiota is vital and widespread in the biotic world. The soil-dwelling opportunistic bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 uses a “Trojan horse” mechanism to kill Caenorhabditis elegans. The alterations in the intestinal microflora that occur after B16 infection remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the intestinal bacteria presented in normal and infected worms. The gut microbial community experienced a complex change after B16 inoculation, as determined through marked differences in species diversity, structure, distribution and composition between uninfected and infected worms. Regardless of the worm’s origin (i.e., from soil or rotten fruits), the diversity of the intestinal microbiome decreased after infection. Firmicutes increased sharply, whereas Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria decreased to different degrees. Fusobacteria was only present 12 h post-infection. After 24 h of infection, 1228 and 1109 bacterial species were identified in the uninfected and infected groups, respectively. The shared species reached 21.97%. The infected group had a greater number of Bacillus species but a smaller number of Pediococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Shewanella species (P < 0.01). Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by pathogenic bacteria on symbiotic microbiota using C. elegans as the model species. PMID:26830015

  4. Human Intestinal Enteroids: a New Model To Study Human Rotavirus Infection, Host Restriction, and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kapil; Blutt, Sarah E.; Ettayebi, Khalil; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Broughman, James R.; Crawford, Sue E.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Conner, Margaret E.; Opekun, Antone R.; Graham, David Y.; Qureshi, Waqar; Sherman, Vadim; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Donowitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human gastrointestinal tract research is limited by the paucity of in vitro intestinal cell models that recapitulate the cellular diversity and complex functions of human physiology and disease pathology. Human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures contain multiple intestinal epithelial cell types that comprise the intestinal epithelium (enterocytes and goblet, enteroendocrine, and Paneth cells) and are physiologically active based on responses to agonists. We evaluated these nontransformed, three-dimensional HIE cultures as models for pathogenic infections in the small intestine by examining whether HIEs from different regions of the small intestine from different patients are susceptible to human rotavirus (HRV) infection. Little is known about HRVs, as they generally replicate poorly in transformed cell lines, and host range restriction prevents their replication in many animal models, whereas many animal rotaviruses (ARVs) exhibit a broader host range and replicate in mice. Using HRVs, including the Rotarix RV1 vaccine strain, and ARVs, we evaluated host susceptibility, virus production, and cellular responses of HIEs. HRVs infect at higher rates and grow to higher titers than do ARVs. HRVs infect differentiated enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells, and viroplasms and lipid droplets are induced. Heterogeneity in replication was seen in HIEs from different patients. HRV infection and RV enterotoxin treatment of HIEs caused physiological lumenal expansion detected by time-lapse microscopy, recapitulating one of the hallmarks of rotavirus-induced diarrhea. These results demonstrate that HIEs are a novel pathophysiological model that will allow the study of HRV biology, including host restriction, cell type restriction, and virus-induced fluid secretion. IMPORTANCE Our research establishes HIEs as nontransformed cell culture models to understand human intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the epithelial response, including host restriction of

  5. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value <0.05). Co-infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. PMID:24123072

  6. Characteristics of catheter-related bloodstream infections in children with intestinal failure: implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Drews, Barbara B; Sanghavi, Rinarani; Siegel, Jane D; Metcalf, Pat; Mittal, Naveen K

    2009-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the intestinal-failure population. This study reports characteristics of CRBSI with implications for clinical management in parenteral nutrition-dependent children with intestinal failure. The researchers report the rate of central catheter infections, and the causative organisms, as well as identify risk factors in our intestinal-failure patients that would be amenable to preventive measures.The study is a retrospective review of the medical records of 101 patients with intestinal failure (IF), seen in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Clinic at Children's Medical Center of Dallas from May 2005 to March 2007. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) were categorized as nosocomial or community-acquired. Data collected for each episode include microorganisms isolated from blood and potential risk factors. Z test was done to compare the infection rates.There were 92 episodes of CRBSIs in 45 parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent patients with central venous catheters (CVC) in place for a total of 13,978 days. Eighty-three percent (n = 76) of CRBSIs developed in the community at a rate of 7.0 per 1,000 days. Seventeen percent (n = 16) nosocomial CRBSIs were observed at a rate of 5.5 per 1,000 catheter days. CRBSI rate was not statistically different between the two groups (7.0 vs. 5.5, p = .378).CRBSI in the intestinal-failure population is due to a wide variety of organisms with numerous risk factors. Education of CVC management with the practice of consistent guidelines may reduce CRBSI incidence, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality in the intestinal-failure patients. PMID:20010229

  7. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary. PMID:27313923

  8. Multi-detector CT features of acute intestinal ischemia and their prognostic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Acute intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency occurring in nearly 1% of patients presenting with acute abdomen. The causes can be occlusive or non occlusive. Early diagnosis is important to improve survival rates. In most cases of late or missed diagnosis, the mortality rate from intestinal infarction is very high, with a reported value ranging from 60% to 90%. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a fundamental imaging technique that must be promptly performed in all patients with suspected bowel ischemia. Thanks to the new dedicated reconstruction program, its diagnostic potential is much improved compared to the past and currently it is superior to that of any other noninvasive technique. The increased spatial and temporal resolution, high-quality multi-planar reconstructions, maximum intensity projections, vessel probe, surface-shaded volume rending and tissue transition projections make MDCT the gold standard for the diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, with reported sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 64%-93%, 92%-100%, 90%-100% and 94%-98%, respectively. MDCT contributes to appropriate treatment planning and provides important prognostic information thanks to its ability to define the nature and extent of the disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the diagnostic and prognostic role of MDCT in bowel ischemia with special regard to the state of art new reconstruction software. PMID:24876917

  9. The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: risk factors for cases of infectious intestinal disease with Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L. C.; Cowden, J. M.; Wheeler, J. G.; Sethi, D.; Wall, P. G.; Cumberland, P.; Tompkins, D. S.; Hudson, M. J.; Roberts, J. A.; Roderick, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a case-control study aimed at identifying risk factors for intestinal infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Cases were defined as subjects with diarrhoea occurring in community cohorts or presenting to General Practitioners (GPs) with Campylobacter jejuni in stools. Controls were selected from GP lists or cohorts, matched by age, sex, and GP practice. Travel abroad and consumption of chicken in a restaurant were statistically significantly associated with being a case. There was no statistically significant risk associated with consumption of chicken other than in restaurants nor with reported domestic kitchen hygiene practices. Consumption of some foods was associated with a lower risk of being a case. Most cases remained unexplained. We suggest that infection with low numbers of micro-organisms, and individual susceptibility may play a greater role in the causation of campylobacter infection than previously thought. It is possible that in mild, sporadic cases infection may result from cross contamination from kitchen hygiene practices usually regarded as acceptable. Chicken may be a less important vehicle of infection for sporadic cases than for outbreaks, although its role as a source of infection in both settings requires further clarification in particular in relation to the effect of domestic hygiene practices. The potential effect of diet in reducing the risk of campylobacteriosis requires exploration. PMID:11693495

  10. Effects of acute intra-abdominal hypertension on multiple intestinal barrier functions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yuxin; Yi, Min; Fan, Jie; Bai, Yu; Ge, Qinggang; Yao, Gaiqi

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a common and serious complication in critically ill patients for which there is no well-defined treatment strategy. Here, we explored the effect of IAH on multiple intestinal barriers and discussed whether the alteration in microflora provides clues to guide the rational therapeutic treatment of intestinal barriers during IAH. Using a rat model, we analysed the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs), mucins, chemotactic factors, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by immunohistochemistry. We also analysed the microflora populations using 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that, in addition to enhanced permeability, acute IAH (20 mmHg for 90 min) resulted in significant disturbances to mucosal barriers. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota was also induced, as represented by decreased Firmicutes (relative abundance), increased Proteobacteria and migration of Bacteroidetes from the colon to the jejunum. At the genus level, Lactobacillus species and Peptostreptococcaceae incertae sedis were decreased, whereas levels of lactococci remained unchanged. Our findings outline the characteristics of IAH-induced barrier changes, indicating that intestinal barriers might be treated to alleviate IAH, and the microflora may be an especially relevant target. PMID:26980423

  11. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  12. Acute hantavirus infection induces galectin-3-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Klingström, Jonas; Sane, Jussi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Lundkvist, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-11-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause life-threatening diseases when transmitted to humans. Severe hantavirus infection is manifested by impairment of renal function, pulmonary oedema and capillary leakage. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we showed that galectin-3-binding protein (Gal-3BP) was upregulated as a result of hantavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Gal-3BP is a secreted glycoprotein found in human serum, and increased Gal-3BP levels have been reported in chronic viral infections and in several types of cancer. Our in vitro experiments showed that, whilst Vero E6 cells (an African green monkey kidney cell line) constitutively expressed and secreted Gal-3BP, this protein was detected in primary human cells only as a result of hantavirus infection. Analysis of Gal-3BP levels in serum samples of cynomolgus macaques infected experimentally with hantavirus indicated that hantavirus infection induced Gal-3BP also in vivo. Finally, analysis of plasma samples collected from patients hospitalized because of acute hantavirus infection showed higher Gal-3BP levels during the acute than the convalescent phase. Furthermore, the Gal-3BP levels in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome correlated with increased complement activation and with clinical variables reflecting the severity of acute hantavirus infection. PMID:25013204

  13. Pediatric Infection and Intestinal Carriage Due to Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuan; Oron, Assaf P.; Adler, Amanda L.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Berry, Jessica E.; Hoffman, Lucas; Weissman, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of intestinal carriage with extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children with index infections with these organisms. Patients with resistant Escherichia coli or Klebsiella bacteria isolated from the urine or a normally sterile site between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in this study. Available infection and stool isolates underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization. Clinical data relevant to the infections were collected and analyzed. Overall, 105 patients were identified with 106 extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (n = 92) or Klebsiella (n = 14) strains isolated from urine or a sterile site. Among the 27 patients who also had stool screening for resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 17 (63%) had intestinal carriage lasting a median of 199 days (range, 62 to 1,576). There were no significant differences in demographic, clinical, and microbiological variables between those with and those without intestinal carriage. Eighteen (17%) patients had 37 subsequent resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections identified: 31 urine and 6 blood. In a multivariable analysis, antibiotic intake in the 91 days prior to subsequent urine culture was significantly associated with subsequent urinary tract infection with a resistant organism (hazard ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 130.6). Intestinal carriage and reinfection were most commonly due to bacterial strains of the same sequence type and with the same resistance determinants as the index extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, but carriage and reinfection with different resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains also occurred. PMID:24798269

  14. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection alters intestinal immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangwu; Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Fen; Chen, Shuai; Tang, Wuliang; Zhang, Decai; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and piglets. However, research regarding alterations of intestinal immunity following ETEC infection remains limited and the results controversial. The present study investigated the effects of ETEC on the expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and innate immune regulators from plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells, and the activation of toll‑like receptor 4-nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, in a mouse model infected with a porcine isolated ETEC strain. ETEC infection significantly reduced the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the mouse jejunum (P<0.05). Additionally, ETEC infection significantly affected the expression of immune regulators of plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells in the mouse intestine (P<0.05). ETEC influenced the intestinal immunity via the NF‑κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, ETEC colonization affects intestinal immunity as observed in a mouse model. This study provides a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27221777

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Normal and SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Diganta; Das, Arpita; Liu, David; Veazey, Ronald S.; Pahar, Bapi

    2012-01-01

    Impairment of intestinal epithelial barriers contributes to the progression of HIV/SIV infection and leads to generalized HIV-induced immune-cell activation during chronic infection. Rhesus macaques are the major animal model for studying HIV pathogenesis. However, detailed characterization of isolated rhesus epithelial cells (ECs) from intestinal tissues is not well defined. It is also not well documented whether isolated ECs had any other cell contaminants from intestinal tissues during the time of processing that might hamper interpretation of EC preparations or cultures. In this study, we identify and characterize ECs based on flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry methods using various enzymatic and mechanical isolation techniques to enrich ECs from intestinal tissues. This study shows that normal healthy ECs differentially express HLA-DR, CD23, CD27, CD90, CD95 and IL-10R markers. Early apoptosis and upregulation of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR in intestinal ECs are thought to be the key features in SIV mediated enteropathy. The data suggest that intestinal ECs might be playing an important role in mucosal immune responses by regulating the expression of different important regulatory and adhesion molecules and their function. PMID:22291924

  16. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Coyne G; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and encounters the

  17. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Coyne G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and

  18. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  19. Observations on the intestinal protozoa infecting man in Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Goldsmid, J M; Rogers, S; Mahomed, K

    1976-09-18

    Humans in Rhodesia harbour a wide range of intestinal protozoa. Of the species included, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia have previously been recorded. Other species which are either rarely reported or which have previously never been reported from this country, include Trichomonas hominis, Chilomastix mesnili, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Balantidum coli,Entamoeba hartmanni,Entamoeba histolytica Laredo. Endolimax nana, Dientamoeba fragilis and Isospora belli. The importance in Rhodesia of these species, and especially of E. histolytica, is discussed. PMID:988643

  20. Mesenteric lymph duct drainage attenuates acute lung injury in rats with severe intraperitoneal infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Shukun; Tsui, Naiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the hypothesis that the mesenteric lymphatic system plays an important role in acute lung injury in a rat model induced by severe intraperitoneal infection. Male Wistar rats weighing 250∼300 g were randomly divided into 3 groups and subjected to sham operation, intraperitoneal infection, or mesenteric lymphatic drainage. The activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured by enzymatic assay. The endotoxin levels in plasma, lymph, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated using the limulus amoebocyte lysate reagent. The cytokines, adhesion factors, chemokines, and inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. TLR-4, NF-kB, and IRAK-4 were analyzed by Western blotting. Compared with sham-operated rats, rats with intraperitoneal infection had increased MPO and decreased DAO activity in intestinal tissues. Mesenteric lymph drainage reduced the alterations in MPO and DAO activity induced by intraperitoneal infection. The MPO activity in pulmonary tissue and the permeability of pulmonary blood vessels were also increased, which were partially reversed by mesenteric lymph drainage. The endotoxin levels in lymphatic fluid and alveolar perfusion fluid were elevated after intraperitoneal infection but decreased to control levels after lymph drainage. No alterations in the levels of plasma endotoxin were observed. The number of neutrophils was increased in BALF and lymph in the infected rats, and was also reduced after drainage. Lymph drainage also decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion factors in the plasma, lymph, and BALF, as well as the levels of TLR-4, NF-kB, and IRAK-4 in pulmonary and intestinal tissues. The mesenteric lymphatic system is the main pathway involved in early lung injury caused by severe intraperitoneal infection, in which activation of the TLR-4 signal pathway may play a role. PMID:25537798

  1. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  2. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Balarak, Davoud; Modrek, Mohammad Jafari; Bazrafshan, Edris; Ansari, Hossein; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73%) of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69%) were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3%) were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P = 0.0044). But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people. PMID:27127643

  4. Correlation study and histopathological description of intestinal alterations in dogs infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diogo Tiago; Neves, Maria Francisca; Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta de; Spada, Julio Cesar Pereira; Alves, Maria Luana; Flóro E Silva, Marina; Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Panosso, Alan Rodrigo; Noronha Junior, Antonio Carlos Faconti; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was a correlation study and histopathological description of alterations associated with the presence of Leishmania infantumamastigote in the intestinal wall of dogs infected with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Three groups were used: G1 (n = 8), comprising naturally infected dogs with CVL with amastigotes of L. infantum in the small and large intestines; G2 (n = 9), infected dogs with CVL, without intestinal amastigotes; and G3 (n = 3), uninfected dogs. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry methods were used for histopathology and amastigotes identification. 47.1% (8/17) of dogs from G1 group had amastigotes in the mucosa, submucosa and muscle layers of the small and large intestines and it was observed a prominent inflammatory reaction characterized by chronic infiltration of mononuclear cells: macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Comparison between the groups showed only a significant difference in relation to mucosal microscopic structural alterations in dogs from G1 in relation to G2 and G3. Parasite burden showed significant correlations with the microscopic alterations and clinical status of dogs in G1. By the conclusion, the inflammatory reactions caused by the parasites in the intestines might have contributed towards alterations in digestive processes, worsening the dogs' clinical status of CVL. PMID:26982556

  5. Effects of Yersinia enterocolitica infection on rabbit intestinal and colonic goblet cells and mucin: morphometrics, histochemistry, and biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, M; Atkins, E; Kelly, J; Thakore, E; Buret, A; Gall, D G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Yersinia enterocolitica on intestinal goblet cells were investigated in New Zealand white rabbits. Animals infected with Y enterocolitica were compared with weight matched and pair fed controls. Goblet cell hyperplasia developed in the distal small intestine of infected rabbits on day 1, in the mid small intestine on day 3, and in the upper small intestine on day 6. In all regions hyperplasia persisted throughout the 14 day study. The degree of hyperplasia was greater in the distal small intestine than the upper and mid regions. Goblet cells in the proximal colon of infected animals seemed to respond as those in the distal small intestine. Thus goblet cell hyperplasia developed more rapidly and to a greater extent in the ileocaecal region where mucosal injury was most severe. These changes resulted directly from Y enterocolitica infection since goblet cell numbers did not increase in pair fed controls. Histochemically, goblet cell mucins from infected rabbits were unchanged at either six or 14 days. Biochemical analysis, however, established that purified mucins from animals on day 6 after infection were less sialylated (in the small intestine) and more sulphated (in the small intestine and proximal colon). In addition, mucins from the distal small intestine and the proximal colon seemed to contain fewer but longer oligosaccharide chains. PMID:1955167

  6. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites. PMID:17985574

  8. Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Aaron D.; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth–giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager–horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions. PMID:23986108

  9. Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn’s disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain

  10. Bacteriocin from epidemic Listeria strains alters the host intestinal microbiota to favor infection.

    PubMed

    Quereda, Juan J; Dussurget, Olivier; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Ghozlane, Amine; Volant, Stevenn; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Regnault, Béatrice; Kennedy, Sean; Mondot, Stanislas; Villoing, Barbara; Cossart, Pascale; Pizarro-Cerda, Javier

    2016-05-17

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for gastroenteritis in healthy individuals and for a severe invasive disease in immunocompromised patients. Among the three identified L. monocytogenes evolutionary lineages, lineage I strains are overrepresented in epidemic listeriosis outbreaks, but the mechanisms underlying the higher virulence potential of strains of this lineage remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Listeriolysin S (LLS), a virulence factor only present in a subset of lineage I strains, is a bacteriocin highly expressed in the intestine of orally infected mice that alters the host intestinal microbiota and promotes intestinal colonization by L. monocytogenes, as well as deeper organ infection. To our knowledge, these results therefore identify LLS as the first bacteriocin described in L. monocytogenes and associate modulation of host microbiota by L. monocytogenes epidemic strains to increased virulence. PMID:27140611

  11. Bacteriocin from epidemic Listeria strains alters the host intestinal microbiota to favor infection

    PubMed Central

    Quereda, Juan J.; Dussurget, Olivier; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Ghozlane, Amine; Volant, Stevenn; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Regnault, Béatrice; Kennedy, Sean; Mondot, Stanislas; Villoing, Barbara; Cossart, Pascale; Pizarro-Cerda, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for gastroenteritis in healthy individuals and for a severe invasive disease in immunocompromised patients. Among the three identified L. monocytogenes evolutionary lineages, lineage I strains are overrepresented in epidemic listeriosis outbreaks, but the mechanisms underlying the higher virulence potential of strains of this lineage remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Listeriolysin S (LLS), a virulence factor only present in a subset of lineage I strains, is a bacteriocin highly expressed in the intestine of orally infected mice that alters the host intestinal microbiota and promotes intestinal colonization by L. monocytogenes, as well as deeper organ infection. To our knowledge, these results therefore identify LLS as the first bacteriocin described in L. monocytogenes and associate modulation of host microbiota by L. monocytogenes epidemic strains to increased virulence. PMID:27140611

  12. Considering the antimicrobial sensitivity of the intestinal botulism agent Clostridium butyricum when treating concomitant infections.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Ferrini, Anna Maria; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Mannoni, Veruscka; Aureli, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    In Italy, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum has been reported as a new agent of intestinal toxemia botulism, and most of the cases have been associated with enterocolitis. Although infections concomitant with botulism must be treated with antibiotics, this can increase the severity of botulism. We discuss the sensitivity of this agent to certain antibiotics, compared to findings on the sensitivity of C. botulinum. PMID:14758873

  13. Intestinal Infections Among Febrile Hospitalized Patients in the Republic of Armenia: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Zardaryan, Eduard; Paronyan, Lusine; Bakunts, Vahe; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi; Asoyan, Vigen; Apresyan, Hripsime; Hovhannisyan, Alvard; Palayan, Karo; Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Rivard, Robert G; Bautista, Christian T

    2016-10-01

    In the past, several enteric outbreaks in 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2003 caused by Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium, have occurred in Armenia. This study describes the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of febrile hospitalized patients with intestinal infections in Armenia. Using a chart review study design, medical data from adult patients who were hospitalized at the Nork hospital during 2010-2012 were reviewed. A total of 600 medical charts were reviewed. Of these, 51 % were diagnosed with intestinal infections. Among these patients, 59 % had an intestinal infection of known etiology, with three main pathogens identified: Salmonella sp. (32 %), Shigella sp. (32 %), and Staphylococcus aureus (18 %). After controlling for the calendar year, age in years, and gender, patients detected with Salmonella sp. were more likely to reported the presence of a family member with similar signs or symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 9.0; 95 % CI 2.4-33.7] and the lack of a water tap at home (OR 3.9; 95 % CI 1.7-9.5). Evidence indicates that Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and S. aureus as the most common etiologies reported among febrile hospitalized patients. A high percentage of patients had intestinal infections of unknown etiology; thus, improvement in laboratory capacity (enabling more advanced tests, such as polymerase chain reaction) would increase the identification of the enteropathogens causing disease in Armenia. PMID:26992893

  14. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL), therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate that mucosal immune

  15. Parasite Proximity Drives the Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Peyer's Patches following Intestinal Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Ilaria; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Volpe, Beatrice; Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Zaiss, Mario M.; Lebon, Luc; Massacand, Joanna C.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth infections are typically chronic in nature; however, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these parasites promote or thwart host immunity remain unclear. Worm expulsion requires the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th2 cells, while regulatory T cells (Tregs) act to dampen the extent of the Th2 response. Priming of T cells requires drainage or capture of antigens within lymphoid tissues, and in the case of intestinal helminths, such sites include the mucosa-associated Peyer's patches (PPs) and the draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). To gain insight into when and where the activation of the adaptive T cell response takes place following intestinal helminth infection, we analyzed Th2 and Treg responses in the PPs and MLN following infection with the murine intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Protective Th2 responses were observed to be largely restricted to the MLN, while a greater expansion of Tregs occurred within the PPs. Interestingly, those PPs that formed a contact with the parasite showed the greatest degree of Treg expansion and no evidence of type 2 cytokine production, indicating that the parasite may secrete products that act in a local manner to selectively promote Treg expansion. This view was supported by the finding that H. polygyrus bakeri larvae could promote Treg proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these data indicate that different degrees of Treg expansion and type 2 cytokine production occur within the PPs and MLN following infection with the intestinal helminth H. polygyrus bakeri and indicate that these organs exhibit differential responses following infection with intestinal helminths. PMID:26150538

  16. Piscidins in the intestine of European perch, Perca fluviatilis, naturally infected with an enteric worm.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Lui, Alice; Giari, Luisa; Pironi, Flavio; Manera, Maurizio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Noga, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This study set out to determine how an enteric parasite, the thorny-headed worm Acanthocephalus lucii, affected the expression of antimicrobial peptides (piscidins) in its host population, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from Lake Piediluco in Central Italy. A total of 87 perch were examined; 44 (50.5%) were infected with A. lucii (1-18 worms fish(-1)). Pathological changes and immune response were assessed using histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The acanthocephalans only penetrated the surficial zone of the intestinal wall and induced only slight inflammation. The main damage was destruction of the mucosal epithelium covering the villi adjacent to the parasite's attachment site, and included necrosis and degeneration. Infected intestine had numerous mast cells (MCs), often in close proximity to, and within, the capillaries, and were associated with fibroblasts of the submucosal layer. Mast cells were irregular in shape with a cytoplasm filled by numerous electron-dense, membrane-bounded granules. Immunostaining of intestine with antibodies against the antimicrobial peptides piscidin 3 and piscidin 4 showed subpopulations of MCs that were positive. Piscidin-positive MCs were mainly observed among the epithelial cells of the intestine, but also within the submucosa. In both uninfected and parasite-infected perch, the number of MCs positive for piscidin 4 was higher than those immunoreactive with piscidin 3 (p < 0.05). For both piscidins, there was no significant difference in the number of positive MCs between parasite-infected and uninfected intestine (p > 0.05). However, uninfected fish showed higher immunostaining intensity for piscidin 3 than infected conspecifics (p < 0.05). PMID:24012748

  17. Acute Infection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan Carlos; Maculé-Beneyto, Francisco; Suso-Vergara, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Infection is one of the most serious complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The current incidence of prosthetic knee infection is 1-3%, depending on the series. For treatment and control to be more cost effective, multidisciplinary groups made up of professionals from different specialities who can work together to eradicate these kinds of infections need to be assembled. About the microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were among the most frequent microorganisms involved (74%). Anamnesis and clinical examination are of primary importance in order to determine whether the problem may point to a possible acute septic complication. The first diagnosis may then be supported by increased CRP and ESR levels. The surgical treatment for a chronic prosthetic knee infection has been perfectly defined and standardized, and consists in a two-stage implant revision process. In contrast, the treatment for acute prosthetic knee infection is currently under debate. Considering the different surgical techniques that already exist, surgical debridement with conservation of the prosthesis and polythene revision appears to be an attractive option for both surgeon and patient, as it is less aggressive than the two-stage revision process and has lower initial costs. The different results obtained from this technique, along with prognosis factors and conclusions to keep in mind when it is indicated for an acute prosthetic infection, whether post-operative or haematogenous, will be analysed by the authors. PMID:23919094

  18. Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine on the sensitivity of rat intestine to agonists and on intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine levels during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, S. G.; Laniyonu, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Infection of rats with the nematode N. brasiliensis caused non-specific increases in maximum response of isolated intestine to acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and a specific subsensitivity to 5-HT. Intestinal levels of 5-HT, measured fluorimetrically, increased approximately 2 fold during infection. Treatment of infected rats with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) depleted the gut of 5-HT, and prevented the specific subsensitivity to the amine but not the increases in maximum response. Depletion of intestinal 5-HT did not prevent the immune expulsion of the parasites. It is concluded that the specific subsensitivity of the gut is due to the elevated levels of 5-HT during infection, but that the increased maximum responses are due to some other factor. Further, the lack of effect of PCPA on parasite rejection casts doubt on the proposed role of 5-HT in this process. PMID:6236863

  19. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  20. Oxymatrine Prevents NF-κB Nuclear Translocation And Ameliorates Acute Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Javier Rivera; Koo, Ja Seol; Goldsmith, Jason R.; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Narula, Acharan; Jobin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Oxymatrine is a traditional Chinese herbal product that exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in models of heart, brain and liver injury. We investigated the impact of oxymatrine in an acute model of intestinal injury and inflammation. Oxymatrine significantly decreased LPS-induced NF-κB-driven luciferase activity, correlating with diminished induction of Cxcl2, Tnfα and Il6 mRNA expression in rat IEC-6 and murine BMDC. Although oxymatrine decreased LPS-induced p65 nuclear translocation and binding to the Cxcl2 gene promoter, this effect was independent of IκBα degradation/phosphorylation. DSS-induced weight loss and histological damage were ameliorated in oxymatrine-treated C57BL/6-WT-mice. While this effect correlated with reduced colonic Il6 and Il1β mRNA accumulation, global NF-κB activity as measured in NF-κBEGFP mice was unaffected. Our data demonstrate that oxymatrine reduces LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and activity independently of IκBα status, prevents intestinal inflammation through blockade of inflammatory signaling and ameliorates overall intestinal inflammation in vivo. PMID:23568217

  1. [Acute intestinal occlusion caused by phytobezoar in Israel. Role of oranges and persimmons].

    PubMed

    Serour, F; Dona, G; Kaufman, M; Weisberg, D; Krispin, M

    1985-05-01

    Forty-one patients were operated upon for acute intestinal obstruction secondary to the presence of phytobezoars, 34 of these patients (83%) having a history of previous gastric surgery for ulcer. The etiologic factor in 44% of cases was oranges and in 56% persimmons (Kakis). Treatment was by enterotomy in 27 patients (65,85%) and by "milking" in 14 (34,15%). Postoperative mortality was 2,44% (1 case). Recurrence was noted in three cases (7,3%) including one with an ileocutaneous fistula, treatment being by enterotomy in 2 cases and "milking" in the third patient. First intention intestinal resection was never required. Five patients required several admissions for subacute obstruction treated conservatively. These findings suggest that gastric surgery predisposes to intestinal obstruction by phytobezoar. Careful exploration of the digestive tube and particularly the stomach should avoid postoperative relapse, while prevention depends on a dietary regimen avoiding excessive intake of foods rich in cellulose, particularly oranges and persimmon fruit. PMID:4044688

  2. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-07-14

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  3. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  4. Immunochromatography-based Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection in Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Thacker, Sandeep; Namjoshi, Gajanan Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Documentation of rotavirus diarrhea in a rural, resource-poor setting is a difficult task. We analyzed stool samples of 103 children admitted for acute diarrhea in a pediatric hospital in Bijnor, UP, India, using a simple bedside immunochromatography kit. Rotavirus infection was detected in 47 out of total of 103 children (45.6%). PMID:27508549

  5. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    PubMed

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  6. Acute Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding in Morocco: What Have Changed?

    PubMed Central

    Timraz, A.; Khannoussi, W.; Ajana, F. Z.; Essamri, W.; Benelbarhdadi, I.; Afifi, R.; Benazzouz, M.; Essaid, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In the present study, we aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2008. It concerned all cases of acute upper gastroduodenal bleeding benefited from an urgent gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our department in Morocco. Characteristics of patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, medical history, presenting symptoms, results of rectal and clinical examinations, and endoscopy findings. Results. 1389 cases were registered. As 66% of the patients were male, 34% were female. Mean age was 49. 12% of patients had a history of previous hemorrhage, and 26% had a history of NSAID and aspirin use. Endoscopy was performed in 96%. The gastroduodenal ulcer was the main etiology in 38%, followed by gastritis and duodenitis in 32.5%. Conclusion. AUGIB is still a frequent pathology, threatening patients' life. NSAID and aspirin are still the major risk factors. Their impact due to peptic ulcer remains stable in our country. PMID:21991509

  7. Administration of Reconstituted Polyphenol Oil Bodies Efficiently Suppresses Dendritic Cell Inflammatory Pathways and Acute Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Elisabetta; Vadrucci, Elisa; Delvecchio, Francesca Romana; Addabbo, Francesco; Bettini, Simona; Liou, Rachel; Monsurrò, Vladia; Huang, Alex Yee-Chen; Pizarro, Theresa Torres

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are natural compounds capable of interfering with the inflammatory pathways of several in vitro model systems. In this study, we developed a stable and effective strategy to administer polyphenols to treat in vivo models of acute intestinal inflammation. The in vitro suppressive properties of several polyphenols were first tested and compared for dendritic cells (DCs) production of inflammatory cytokines. A combination of the polyphenols, quercetin and piperine, were then encapsulated into reconstituted oil bodies (OBs) in order to increase their stability. Our results showed that administration of low dose reconstituted polyphenol OBs inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion, including IL-6, IL-23, and IL-12, while increasing IL-10 and IL-1Rα production. Mice treated with the polyphenol-containing reconstituted OBs (ROBs) were partially protected from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and associated weight loss, while mortality and inflammatory scores revealed an overall anti-inflammatory effect that was likely mediated by impaired DC immune responses. Our study indicates that the administration of reconstituted quercetin and piperine-containing OBs may represent an effective and potent anti-inflammatory strategy to treat acute intestinal inflammation. PMID:24558444

  8. Synergy Between Intraepithelial Lymphocytes and Lamina Propria T Cells Drives Intestinal Inflammation During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Egan, C. E.; Maurer, K. J.; Cohen, S. B.; Mack, M.; Simpson, K. W.; Denkers, E. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Oral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii triggers severe necrosis in the ileum within 7–10 days of infection. Lesion development is mediated by Th-1 cytokines, CD4+ T cells, and sub-epithelial bacterial translocation. As such, these features share similarity to Crohn’s disease. Recently, we uncovered a role for intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in mediating pathology after Toxoplasma infection. We show here that αβ and not γδ T cell IELs mediate intestinal damage. By adoptive transfer of mucosal T cells into naive Rag1−/− mice, we demonstrate that IEL do not function alone to cause inflammatory lesions, but act with CD4+ T lymphocytes from the lamina propria. Furthermore, recipient mice pretreated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to eliminate intestinal flora resisted intestinal disease after transfer of IEL and lamina propria lymphocytes. Our data provide valuable new insight into mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, findings that have important implications for understanding human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21796113

  9. An In Vitro Model of the Human Colon: Studies of Intestinal Biofilms and Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Grace S; Wilcox, Mark H; Chilton, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro gut model is an invaluable research tool to study indigenous gut microbiota communities, the behavior of pathogenic organisms, and the therapeutic and adverse effect of antimicrobial administration on these communities. The model has been validated against the intestinal contents of sudden death victims to reflect the physicochemical and microbiological conditions of the proximal to distal colon, and has been extensively used to investigate the interplay between gut microbiota populations, antibiotic exposure, and Clostridium difficile infection. More recently the gut model has been adapted to additionally model intestinal biofilm. Here we describe the structure, assembly, and application of the biofilm gut model. PMID:27507345

  10. Treatment of radiation-induced acute intestinal injury with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, KAI; WU, WEIZHEN; YANG, SHUNLIANG; HUANG, LIANGHU; CHEN, JIN; GONG, CHUNGUI; FU, ZHICHAO; LIN, RUOFEI; TAN, JIANMING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to repair radiation-induced acute intestinal injury, and to elucidate the underlying repair mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to whole abdominal irradiation using a single medical linear accelerator (12 Gy) and randomly assigned to two groups. Rats in the BMSC-treated group were injected with 1 ml BMSC suspension (2×106 cells/ml) via the tail vein, while the control group rats were injected with normal saline. BMSCs were identified by detecting the expression of CD29, CD90, CD34 and CD45 using flow cytometry. The expression of the cytokines stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin (IL)-2 was detected using immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma citrulline concentrations were evaluated using an ELISA kit. Rat general conditions, including body weight, and changes in cellular morphology were also recorded. The results suggested that BMSCs exerted a protective effect on radiation-induced acute intestinal injury in rats. The histological damage was rapidly repaired in the BMSC-treated group. In addition, the BMSC-treated group showed significantly reduced radiation injury scores (P<0.01), mildly reduced body weight and plasma citrulline levels, significantly more rapid recovery (P<0.01), significantly reduced expression of the cytokines PGE2 and IL-2 (P<0.05) and significantly increased SDF-1 expression (P<0.01) compared with the control group. In summary, the present results indicate that BMSCs are able to effectively reduce inflammation and promote repair of the structure and function of intestinal tissues damaged by radiation exposure, suggesting that they may provide a promising therapeutic agent. PMID:27284330

  11. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  12. Polyphasic innate immune responses to acute and chronic LCMV infection

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian A.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Price, Aryn A.; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Summary Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers, and stimulated anti-viral CD8+ T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after infection, there was an increase in Ly6Chi monocytic and Gr-1hi neutrophilic cells in lymphoid organs and blood. This expansion in cell numbers was enhanced and sustained in C13 infection, whereas it occurred only transiently with ARM infection. These cells resembled myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and potently suppressed T cell proliferation. The reduction of monocytic cells in Ccr2−/− mice or after Gr-1 antibody depletion enhanced anti-viral T cell function. Thus, innate cells have an important immunomodulatory role throughout chronic infection. PMID:23438822

  13. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  14. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  15. Early increase in intestinal permeability in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: correlation with endotoxemia, organ failure, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ammori, B J; Leeder, P C; King, R F; Barclay, G R; Martin, I G; Larvin, M; McMahon, M J

    1999-01-01

    Sepsis accounts for 80% of deaths from acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to investigate early changes in intestinal permeability in patients with acute pancreatitis, and to correlate these changes with subsequent disease severity and endotoxemia. The renal excretion of enterally administered polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and PEG 400 was measured within 72 hours of onset of acute pancreatitis to determine intestinal permeability. Severity was assessed on the basis of APACHE II scores and C-reactive protein measurements. Serum endotoxin and antiendotoxin antibodies were measured on admission. Eight-five patients with acute pancreatitis (mild in 56, severe in 29) and 25 healthy control subjects were studied. Urinary excretion of PEG 3350 (median) was significantly greater in patients who had severe attacks (0.61%) compared to those with mild disease (0.09%) and health control subjects (0.12%) (P <0. 0001), as was the permeability index (PEG 3350/400 excretion) (P <0. 00001). The permeability index was significantly greater in patients who subsequently developed multiple organ system failure and/or died compared with other severe cases (0.16 vs. 0.04) (P = 0.0005). The excretion of PEG 3350 correlated strongly with endotoxemia (r = 0.8; P = 0.002). Early increased intestinal permeability may play an important role in the pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis. Therapies that aim to restore intestinal barrier function may improve outcome. PMID:10481118

  16. Motile invaded neutrophils in the small intestine of Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice reveal a potential mechanism for parasite spread

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Janine L.; Charsar, Brittany A.; Han, Seong-Ji; Halkias, Joanna; Chan, Shiao Wei; Koshy, Anita A.; Striepen, Boris; Robey, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection occurs through the oral route, but we lack important information about how the parasite interacts with the host immune system in the intestine. We used two-photon laser-scanning microscopy in conjunction with a mouse model of oral T. gondii infection to address this issue. T. gondii established discrete foci of infection in the small intestine, eliciting the recruitment and transepithelial migration of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. Neutrophils accounted for a high proportion of actively invaded cells, and we provide evidence for a role for transmigrating neutrophils and other immune cells in the spread of T. gondii infection through the lumen of the intestine. Our data identify neutrophils as motile reservoirs of T. gondii infection and suggest a surprising retrograde pathway for parasite spread in the intestine. PMID:23650399

  17. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among children from a shanty town in Tucuman, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dib, J R; Fernández-Zenoff, M V; Oquilla, J; Lazarte, S; González, S N

    2015-06-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in children living in a poor area next to a drainage channel, in Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 115 children were collected and samples were analyzed by direct microscopy examination and concentration techniques. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites infection was high (78.3%) and Blastocystis hominis was the most frequent protozoan parasite found (68.9%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (33.3%), Entamoeba coli (24.4%), Endolimax nana (12.2%), Chilomastix mesnili (5.6%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (2.2%). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent intestinal helminth, with an infection frequency of 38.9%, followed by Trichuris trichiura (13.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (13.3%), Hymenolepis nana (7.8%) and Enterobius vermicularis (3.3%). Multiple parasitic infections were also high, affecting 71.1% of infected population. These results indicate that sanitary policies, including health care and sanitary education have been inadequate for the control of intestinal parasitism in this high-risk population. Implementation of sanitation programs is a basic need and a joint collaboration between public servant and health professionals should be a priority. PMID:26691248

  19. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Small Intestinal Immune Responses Following Murine Arcobacter Butzleri Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Karadas, Gül; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Gölz, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10–/– control animals, TLR-4–/– IL-10–/– mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN-γ secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions. PMID:26716022

  20. Influenza Virus Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Secondary Salmonella Infection in the Gut through Type I Interferons.

    PubMed

    Deriu, Elisa; Boxx, Gayle M; He, Xuesong; Pan, Calvin; Benavidez, Sammy David; Cen, Lujia; Rozengurt, Nora; Shi, Wenyuan; Cheng, Genhong

    2016-05-01

    Human influenza viruses replicate almost exclusively in the respiratory tract, yet infected individuals may also develop gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Using an influenza mouse model, we found that influenza pulmonary infection can significantly alter the intestinal microbiota profile through a mechanism dependent on type I interferons (IFN-Is). Notably, influenza-induced IFN-Is produced in the lungs promote the depletion of obligate anaerobic bacteria and the enrichment of Proteobacteria in the gut, leading to a "dysbiotic" microenvironment. Additionally, we provide evidence that IFN-Is induced in the lungs during influenza pulmonary infection inhibit the antimicrobial and inflammatory responses in the gut during Salmonella-induced colitis, further enhancing Salmonella intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination. Thus, our studies demonstrate a systemic role for IFN-Is in regulating the host immune response in the gut during Salmonella-induced colitis and in altering the intestinal microbial balance after influenza infection. PMID:27149619

  1. Influenza Virus Affects Intestinal Microbiota and Secondary Salmonella Infection in the Gut through Type I Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Deriu, Elisa; Boxx, Gayle M.; He, Xuesong; Pan, Calvin; Benavidez, Sammy David; Cen, Lujia; Rozengurt, Nora; Shi, Wenyuan; Cheng, Genhong

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza viruses replicate almost exclusively in the respiratory tract, yet infected individuals may also develop gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Using an influenza mouse model, we found that influenza pulmonary infection can significantly alter the intestinal microbiota profile through a mechanism dependent on type I interferons (IFN-Is). Notably, influenza-induced IFN-Is produced in the lungs promote the depletion of obligate anaerobic bacteria and the enrichment of Proteobacteria in the gut, leading to a “dysbiotic” microenvironment. Additionally, we provide evidence that IFN-Is induced in the lungs during influenza pulmonary infection inhibit the antimicrobial and inflammatory responses in the gut during Salmonella-induced colitis, further enhancing Salmonella intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination. Thus, our studies demonstrate a systemic role for IFN-Is in regulating the host immune response in the gut during Salmonella-induced colitis and in altering the intestinal microbial balance after influenza infection. PMID:27149619

  2. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID

  3. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  4. Shigella infection of Henle intestinal epithelial cells: role of the bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T L; Bonventre, P F

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial cell infection by Shigella flexneri 2a was studied in an in vitro model system. Using the Henle 407 human intestinal epithelial cell line as host cells, a standardized experimental protocol which allowed quantitative measurement of infection was developed. Intravellular residence of infecting organisms was confirmed by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining of unfixed and methanol-fixed (Henle 407) cells and by quantitative bacteriological culture of disrupted host cells after infection. The process of shigella entry into cells was evaluated by chemical or physical modulation of the bacterium under controlled experimental conditions. Shigella were subjected to mild heat, ultraviolet radiation aminoglycoside antibiotics, and immunoglobulins raised against S. flexneri 2a. The data show that heat-stable antigens on the bacterial surface are not solely responsible for infectivity of S. flexneri 2a. Furthermore, it was shown that physiological and synthetic functions of shigellae are required for entry into host cells. PMID:381204

  5. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  6. Mucosal and systemic immunity to intestinal reovirus infection in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Jonathan R; Cuff, Christopher F

    2004-09-01

    Systemic immunity is progressively impaired in aging, predisposing to morbidity and mortality from neoplasia and infectious disease. However, the effect of aging on mucosal immunity is controversial. To assess intestinal immunity in aging, young and aged mice were orally exposed to reovirus or cholera toxin (CT) and specific antibody and reovirus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses were assessed. As previously reported, aged mice immunized orally with CT mounted diminished intestinal IgA responses to CT compared to young mice. In contrast, aged mice yielded two to three-fold more reovirus-specific IgA-producing cells in the Peyers's patches (PP) compared to young mice, and higher titers of reovirus-specific IgA in fragment culture supernatants. Cytotoxicity and CTL frequencies from aged mice were not different from those of young mice. Together, these results suggest a diminished potential for systemic and intestinal immunity to orally applied protein antigens in aging, but an intact ability to respond to intestinal virus infection. Infection with a replicating virus may induce inflammatory mediators and innate immune factors that potentiate the priming of mucosal immunity; overcoming aging related deficits otherwise observed following oral immunization with non-replicating antigens, and suggests the importance of antigen replication to antigen-specific immunotherapy strategies in the elderly. PMID:15489051

  7. A rare presentation of midgut malrotation as an acute intestinal obstruction in an adult: Two case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailendra; Das, Anupam; Chawla, A.S.; Arya, S.V.; Chaggar, Jasneet

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Midgut malrotation is a congenital anomaly presenting mainly in the childhood. Its presentation as an acute intestinal obstruction is extremely rare in adults usually recognized intra-operatively, therefore a high index of suspicion is always required when dealing with any case of acute intestinal obstruction. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report two cases of young adults who presented with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction and were diagnosed intra-operatively as cecal volvulus and paraduodenal hernia, respectively, caused by midgut malrotation. Post-operative CT scan confirmed these findings. DISCUSSION Malrotation of the intestinal tract is a product of an aberrant embryology. The presentation of intestinal malrotation in adults is rare (0.2–0.5%). Contrast enhanced CT can show the abnormal anatomic location of a right sided small bowel, a left-sided colon and an abnormal relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) situated to the left of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) instead of to the right. CONCLUSION Anomalies like midgut malrotation can present as an operative surprise and awareness regarding these anomalies can help surgeons deal with these conditions. PMID:23123419

  8. PPARγ Agonists as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment Inhibiting Rotavirus Infection of Small Intestinal Villi

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Dory; Muñoz, Natalia; Guerrero, Rafael; Acosta, Orlando; Guerrero, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus infection has been reported to induce an inflammatory response in the host cell accompanied by the increased expression or activation of some cellular molecules including ROS, NF-κB, and COX-2. PPARγ stimulation and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment have been found to interfere with viral infections including rotavirus infection. Small intestinal villi isolated from in vivo infected mice with rotavirus ECwt were analyzed for the percentage of ECwt-infected cells, the presence of rotavirus antigens, and infectious virion yield following treatment with pioglitazone. Isolated villi were also infected in vitro and treated with PPARγ agonists (PGZ, TZD, RGZ, DHA, and ALA), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and NAC. After treatments, the expression of cellular proteins including PPARγ, NF-κB, PDI, Hsc70, and COX-2 was analyzed using immunochemistry, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. The results showed that rotavirus infection led to an increased accumulation of the cellular proteins studied and ROS. The virus infection-induced accumulation of the cellular proteins studied and ROS was reduced upon pioglitazone treatment, causing also a concomitant reduction of the infectious virion yield. We hypothesized that rotavirus infection is benefiting from the induction of a host cell proinflammatory response and that the interference of the inflammatory pathways involved leads to decreased infection. PMID:27382365

  9. Cutting Edge: the BTLA-HVEM regulatory pathway interferes with protective immunity to intestinal Helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Breloer, Minka; Hartmann, Wiebke; Blankenhaus, Birte; Eschbach, Marie-Luise; Pfeffer, Klaus; Jacobs, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    Helminths exploit intrinsic regulatory pathways of the mammalian immune system to dampen the immune response directed against them. In this article, we show that infection with the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti induced upregulation of the coinhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) predominantly on CD4(+) T cells but also on a small fraction of innate leukocytes. Deficiency of either BTLA or its ligand herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) resulted in reduced numbers of parasitic adults in the small intestine and reduced larval output throughout infection. Reduced parasite burden in BTLA- and HVEM-deficient mice was accompanied by accelerated degranulation of mucosal mast cells and increased Ag-specific production of the mast cell-activating cytokine IL-9. Our combined results support a model whereby BTLA on CD4(+) T cells and additional innate leukocytes is triggered by HVEM and delivers negative signals into BTLA(+) cells, thereby interfering with the protective immune response to this intestinal parasite. PMID:25595777

  10. [Decreased intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa in children with malnutrition and parasitic infections].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, D; Richard-Lenoble, D; Kombila, M; Nardou, M; Gahouma, D; Barbet, J P; Walter, P

    1992-02-01

    In Gabon, 15 children aged 13 to 36 months admitted for malnutrition with chronic diarrhea underwent a small bowel biopsy for detection of parasites in the duodenal contents and histologic evaluation of the intestinal mucosa. In every case, intraepithelial lymphocyte counts (IELC) were under the lower limit of normal for children and adults, regardless of whether or not parasites were found. Partial villous atrophy was a consistent finding. Proportion of lymphocytes among intraepithelial cells was 7.4% in the 6 children with no parasitic infection, 7.9% in the children with giardiasis, and 8.1% in the children with strongyloidiasis. Appropriate treatment of the parasitic infections was quickly followed by resolution of the diarrhea in the nine patients with demonstrable intestinal parasites. These data should be compared with the well documented lymphocyte function anomalies associated with protein-calory malnutrition. The fall in IELC and lack of response to local anigenic stimulations are features of malnutrition. PMID:1580534

  11. The role of selenium in intestinal motility and morphology in a murine model of Typanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Andréa Pereira; Sieberg, Ryan; Li, Hua; Cahill, Hannah R.; Zhao, Dazhi; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi causes mega-syndromes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans and animals. In the present study, we employed magnetic resonance imaging to non-invasively monitor the effect of selenium supplementation on alterations in the GI tract of T. cruzi-infected mice. CD1 mice infected with T. cruzi (Brazil strain) exhibited dilatation of the intestines similar to that we recently reported in infected C57Bl/6 mice. The average intestine lumen diameter increased by 65% and the increase was reduced to 29% in mice supplemented with 2 ppm selenium in the drinking water. When supplemented with 3 ppm selenium in chow the lumen diameter was also significantly reduced although the difference between the infected and infected supplemented mice was smaller. Intestinal motility in infected mice fed with selenium-enriched chow was increased compared with infected mice fed with normal unsupplemented chow and was not significantly different from intestinal motility in uninfected mice. We suggest that Se may be used to modulate the inflammatory, immunological, and/or antioxidant responses involved in intestinal disturbances caused by T. cruzi infection. PMID:20195635

  12. Intestinal establishment and reproduction of adult Trichinella spp. in single and mixed species infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Webster, Pia; Kapel, Christian M O

    2005-06-30

    Intestinal establishment and reproduction of adult Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis were examined as single species or mixed species infections in foxes. This is the first study of intestinal dynamics of Trichinella spp. in a carnivore model and the results suggest that the intestinal phase is relatively short as only very few worms were recovered 10 days post-inoculation (dpi). In mixed species infection with equal doses of T. nativa and T. spiralis, molecular typing demonstrated that 64% of the intestinal worms and 78% of the muscle larvae were T. nativa. Conversely, T. spiralis dominated in the mixed species infections with T. pseudospiralis, constituting 66% of the intestinal worms and 94% of the muscle larvae. Although, the individual recoveries of intestinal worms were only up to 5.6% on day 1, and up to 1.5% on day 4 post-infection, the muscle larvae establishment was comparable to other fox studies. Infectivity, measured as muscle larvae burden did not differ among the four species of Trichinella, which is in contrast to other models with mice, rats, pigs or herbivores. Although statistically significant differences in intestinal worm burdens were found for some days, no distinct species were recovered in consistently higher numbers than the others. PMID:15925724

  13. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the major causes of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. Causes of paralytic ileus may include: Bacteria or viruses that cause intestinal infections ( gastroenteritis ) Chemical, electrolyte, or mineral imbalances (such as decreased ...

  14. [Intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria aggravates pulmonary immune pathological injury of mice infected with influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Sha; Yan, Yuqi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Jiang, Zhenyou

    2016-04-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria and influenza virus infection, and the effect on pulmonary inflammatory cytokines in mice. Methods Totally 36 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, virus-infected group and metronidazole treatment group (12 mice in each group). Mice in the metronidazole group were administrated orally with metronidazole sulfate for 8 days causing anaerobic bacteria flora imbalance; then all groups except the normal control group were treated transnasally with influenza virus (50 μL/d FM1) for 4 days to establish the influenza virus-infected models. Their mental state and lung index were observed, and the pathological morphological changes of lung tissues, caecum and intestinal mucosa were examined by HE staining. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17 in the lung homogenates were determined by ELISA. Results Compared with the virus control group, the metronidazole group showed obviously increased lung index and more serious pathological changes of the lung tissue and appendix inflammation performance. After infected by the FM1 influenza virus, IFN-γ and IL-17 of the metronidazole group decreased significantly and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were raised, but there was no statistically difference between the metronidazole and virus control groups. Conclusion Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection. PMID:27053604

  15. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  16. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  17. Current Perspectives of Prophylaxis and Management of Acute Infective Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Tranos, Paris; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Vakalis, Athanasios N; Asteriadis, Solon; Stavrakas, Panagiotis; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2016-05-01

    Endophthalmitis is an intraocular inflammatory condition which may or may not be caused by infective agents. Noninfectious (sterile) endophthalmitis may be attributable to various causes including postoperative retained soft lens matter or toxicity following introduction of other agents into the eye. Infectious endophthalmitis is further subdivided into endogenous and exogenous. In endogenous endophthalmitis there is hematogenous spread of organisms from a distant source of infection whereas in exogenous endophthalmitis direct microbial inoculation may occur usually following ocular surgery or penetrating eye injury with or without intraocular foreign bodies. Acute infective endophthalmitis is usually exogenous induced by inoculation of pathogens following ocular surgery, open-globe injury and intravitreal injections. More infrequently the infective source is internal and septicemia spreads to the eye resulting in endogenous endophthalmitis. Several risk factors have been implicated including immunosuppression, ocular surface abnormalities, poor surgical wound construction, complicated cataract surgery with vitreous loss and certain types of intraocular lens. Comprehensive guidelines and recommendations on prophylaxis and monitoring of surgical cases have been proposed to minimize the risk of acute endophthalmitis. Early diagnosis and prompt management of infective endophthalmitis employing appropriately selected intravitreal antibiotics are essential to optimize visual outcome. PMID:26935830

  18. ANA testing in the presence of acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Christine M; Binder, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibody testing is performed to help diagnose patients who have clinical symptoms suggestive of possible autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present in many systemic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, a positive ANA test may also be seen with non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including both acute and chronic infections. When the ANA test is used as an initial screen in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, myalgias, fatigue, rash, or anemia, the likelihood of a positive result due to infection will increase, especially in children. This article identifies acute and chronic infectious diseases that are likely to produce a positive ANA result and summarizes recent literature addressing both the causes and consequences of these findings. PMID:27050929

  19. Acute abdomen due to intestinal angioedema induced by ACE inhibitors: not so rare?

    PubMed

    Dobbels, P; Van Overbeke, L; Vanbeckevoort, D; Hiele, M

    2009-01-01

    During the last 5 years we identified 7 patients with a history of episodic acute abdominal pain and subobstruction due to intestinal angioedema secondary to the use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These cases were all diagnosed in one gastroenterology department. This is thereby the largest single centre case series of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema that has been published until now. Our findings suggest that this syndrome is far more frequent than international literature would let us believe. We also describe one of the first male cases diagnosed with this entity for which there is a significant female predominance. In the presence of an appropriate history and suggestive findings on CT scan, this diagnosis can relatively easily be made if one is sufficiently intent on it. An appropriate diagnosis can save these patients a lot of unnecessary diagnostic procedures and discomfort. PMID:20163043

  20. Divergent Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Correlate with Kinome Responses at the Site of Intestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID

  1. Divergent immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection correlate with kinome responses at the site of intestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID

  2. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Tyrosine Kinase 2 Transduces IL-22 Signals To Protect from Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Hainzl, Eva; Stockinger, Silvia; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Berry, David; Lassnig, Caroline; Schwab, Clarissa; Rosebrock, Felix; Milinovich, Gabriel; Schlederer, Michaela; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Kenner, Lukas; Han, Xiaonan; Decker, Thomas; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

    2015-11-15

    In the intestinal tract, IL-22 activates STAT3 to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis and tissue healing. The mechanism has remained obscure, but we demonstrate that IL-22 acts via tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), a member of the Jak family. Using a mouse model for colitis, we show that Tyk2 deficiency is associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease. Colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice have less p-STAT3 in colon tissue and their IECs proliferate less efficiently. Tyk2-deficient primary IECs show reduced p-STAT3 in response to IL-22 stimulation, and expression of IL-22-STAT3 target genes is reduced in IECs from healthy and colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice. Experiments with conditional Tyk2(-/-) mice reveal that IEC-specific depletion of Tyk2 aggravates colitis. Disease symptoms can be alleviated by administering high doses of rIL-22-Fc, indicating that Tyk2 deficiency can be rescued via the IL-22 receptor complex. The pivotal function of Tyk2 in IL-22-dependent colitis was confirmed in Citrobacter rodentium-induced disease. Thus, Tyk2 protects against acute colitis in part by amplifying inflammation-induced epithelial IL-22 signaling to STAT3. PMID:26432894

  3. Acute lupus pneumonitis followed by intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JI, CAIHONG; YU, XING; WANG, YONG; SHI, LUFENG

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IpsO) and acute lupus pneumonitis (ALP) are uncommon severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study reports the case of a 26-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting as initial symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed the jejunal wall was thickened and streaky, mimicking the presentation of intestinal obstruction. Following emergency surgery, the patient's general condition was aggravated, with evident limb erythematous rashes. A series of laboratory examinations revealed SLE, and combined with patient's medical history IpsO was diagnosed, with a disease Activity Index score of 10. During the therapeutic period, high fever, dyspnea and oxygen saturation (SaO2) reductions were detected, and CT scans indicated lung infiltration, excluding other causes through a comprehensive infectious work-up and a bronchoalveolar lavage examination. ALP was confirmed and treated with high-dose methylprednisolone and gamma globulin supplement. The patient responded well and was discharged in 2 weeks. In the one-year tapering period and after stopping corticosteroids, the patient recovered well with no relapse detected. In conclusion, the manifestation of IpsO in SLE is rare and represents a challenge for the surgeon to establish the correct diagnosis and avoid inappropriate surgical intervention. ALP may be the consequence of emergency surgery, and immediate high-dose glucocorticoid therapy is recommended. PMID:27347044

  4. Telomere shortening in enterocytes of patients with uncontrolled acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Sebastian; Ventura Ferreira, Mónica S; Heudobler, Daniel; Huber, Elisabeth; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Gremse, Felix; Schmid, Karin; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Ziegler, Patrick; Jost, Edgar; Blasco, Maria A; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Holler, Ernst; Beier, Fabian

    2015-11-26

    Acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) refractory to immunosuppressive treatment is a serious complication after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The underlying mechanisms of refractory aGVHD of the gut are not fully understood. Although telomere length (TL) reflects the replicative history of a cell, critically short telomeres have been associated with replicative exhaustion and tissue failure. In this study, we demonstrate that enterocytes of patients with refractory intestinal aGVHD show significantly increased proliferation, which translates into significant and critical telomere attrition following HSCT as compared with unaffected patients undergoing HSCT. Calculated telomere loss in aGVHD patients is 190 bp/wk, thereby massively exceeding physiological steady-state TL shortening rates such as in lymphocytes (∼50 bp/y). Our data support the hypothesis that increased compensatory proliferation following continued tissue damage can result in massive telomere loss in enterocytes of aGVHD patients. The present study introduces aGVHD-triggered increased cellular turnover and telomere loss with subsequent replicative exhaustion as a mechanism for refractory gut GVHD that is compatible with the long-term clinical aspect of the disease and provides a basis for stem cell protective therapies in the treatment of aGVHD. PMID:26486788

  5. The assessment of recovery of the intestine after acute radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Baer, A R; Cheeseman, C I; Thomson, A B

    1987-02-01

    Several aspects of intestinal function and morphology are affected by acute radiation damage, including changes in the activity of proliferative cells in the crypts, immune cell populations, and the transport of various substrates. This study was designed to compare the time course of the recovery of intestinal proliferation, transport, and leukocyte population following radiation injury. Rats received a single dose of 6 Gy to the abdomen from a 137Cs source and were studied 3, 7, and 14 days later. No changes in the passive uptake of L-glucose or D-leucine were observed in the jejunum. Active transport of D-glucose and maximal water uptake were reduced at 3 days but had returned to normal by 7 days, whereas L-leucine uptake required more than 7 days to return to control levels. Mucosal permeability, assessed by an in vivo potential difference technique, remained increased 7 days after irradiation. Ornithine decarboxylase, an indicator of DNA synthetic activity, was elevated following radiation treatment and remained so even after 14 days. By comparison, myeloperoxidase activity, used as a quantitative monitor of granulocyte numbers, was still reduced after 7 days. These data indicate that while certain parameters of gut function may return to normal soon after radiation injury, the recovery of other factors is more prolonged. Thus the return of transport function to normal values post irradiation may be viewed as an adaptive change rather than simply the recovery of the tissue. PMID:3027742

  6. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Tyrosine Kinase 2 Transduces IL-22 Signals To Protect from Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hainzl, Eva; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Berry, David; Lassnig, Caroline; Schwab, Clarissa; Rosebrock, Felix; Milinovich, Gabriel; Schlederer, Michaela; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Kenner, Lukas; Han, Xiaonan; Decker, Thomas; Strobl, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    In the intestinal tract, IL-22 activates STAT3 to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis and tissue healing. The mechanism has remained obscure, but we demonstrate that IL-22 acts via tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), a member of the Jak family. Using a mouse model for colitis, we show that Tyk2 deficiency is associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease. Colitic Tyk2−/− mice have less p-STAT3 in colon tissue and their IECs proliferate less efficiently. Tyk2-deficient primary IECs show reduced p-STAT3 in response to IL-22 stimulation, and expression of IL-22–STAT3 target genes is reduced in IECs from healthy and colitic Tyk2−/− mice. Experiments with conditional Tyk2−/− mice reveal that IEC-specific depletion of Tyk2 aggravates colitis. Disease symptoms can be alleviated by administering high doses of rIL-22–Fc, indicating that Tyk2 deficiency can be rescued via the IL-22 receptor complex. The pivotal function of Tyk2 in IL-22–dependent colitis was confirmed in Citrobacter rodentium–induced disease. Thus, Tyk2 protects against acute colitis in part by amplifying inflammation-induced epithelial IL-22 signaling to STAT3. PMID:26432894

  7. Ferret hepatitis E virus infection induces acute hepatitis and persistent infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; Asanuma, Hideki; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-02-01

    Ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel hepatitis E virus, has been identified in ferrets. However, the pathogenicity of ferret HEV remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the HEV RNA-positivity rates and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 63 ferrets between before and after import from the US to Japan. We found that the ferret HEV-RNA positivity rates were increased from 12.7% (8/63) to 60.3% (38/63), and ALT elevation was observed in 65.8% (25/38) of the ferret HEV RNA-positive ferrets, indicating that ferret HEV infection is responsible for liver damage. From long term-monitoring of ferret HEV infection we determined that this infection in ferrets exhibits three patterns: sub-clinical infection, acute hepatitis, and persistent infection. The ALT elevation was also observed in ferret HEV-infected ferrets in a primary infection experiment. These results indicate that the ferret HEV infection induced acute hepatitis and persistent infection in ferrets, suggesting that the ferrets are a candidate animal model for immunological as well as pathological studies of hepatitis E. PMID:26790932

  8. Transient acute adrenal insufficiency associated with adenovirus serotype 40 infection

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Birendra; Ali, Muhammad; Kumar, Varun; Krebit, Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    We present an instance of a 6-year-old boy who was admitted with adenovirus infection and developed transient acute adrenal insufficiency, which required supplementation with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids for 8 weeks. Adenovirus has got adrenotropic potential and can cause adrenal insufficiency. We could not find any similar reported case in medical literature. We hope our case would add to the existing knowledge of adenoviral complications in paediatric patients. PMID:24928932

  9. Regulation of toll like receptors in intestinal epithelial cells by stress and Toxoplasma gondii infection

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, R.; Birdsell, D.; Monroy, F. P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a barrier between invading microorganisms and the underlying host tissues. IECs express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize specific molecular signatures on microbes which activate intracellular signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Stress hormones play an important role in modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and downregulation of immune responses. Here we demonstrated that expression levels of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-9 and TLR-11 were significantly increased in mouse IECs following infection with Toxoplasma gondii on day 8 post infection. In contrast, expression of TLRs was significantly decreased in infected mice subjected to cold water stress (CWS+INF). Expression of TLR-9 and TLR-11 in the mouse MODE-K cell line was significantly increased after infection. Expression of TLR-9 and TLR-11 in cells exposed to norepinephrine (NE) and parasites was significantly decreased when compared to cells exposed to parasites only. A significant increase was observed in SIGIRR, a negative regulator of TLRs in the CWS+INF group when compared to the INF group. Stress components were able to decrease expression levels of TLRs in IECs, decrease parasite load, and increase expression of a negative regulator thereby ameliorating intestinal inflammatory responses commonly observed during per oral T. gondii infection in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19067837

  10. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26106066

  11. A Child with Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Quadruple Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Keiko; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Masuda, Midori; Shigehara, Seiji; Oba, Chizu; Murata, Shinya; Kase, Tetsuo; Komano, Jun A.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric acute encephalopathy (AE) was sometimes attributed to virus infection. However, viral infection does not always result in AE. The risk factors for developing infantile AE upon virus infection remain to be determined. Here, we report an infant with AE co-infected with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and three picornaviruses, including coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), and human parechovirus (HPeV). EV-D68 was vertically transmitted to the infant from his mother. CVA6 and HPeV were likely transmitted to the infant at the nursery school. HHV-6 might be re-activated in the patient. It remained undetermined, which pathogen played the central role in the AE pathogenesis. However, active, simultaneous infection of four viruses should have evoked the cytokine storm, leading to the pathogenesis of AE. Conclusion: an infant case with active quadruple infection of potentially AE-causing viruses was seldom reported partly because systematic nucleic acid-based laboratory tests on picornaviruses were not common. We propose that simultaneous viral infection may serve as a risk factor for the development of AE. PMID:25883930

  12. Infection in acute leukemia patients receiving oral nonabsorable antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D M; Schimpff, S C; Fortner, C L; Smyth, A C; Young, V M; Wiernik, P H

    1978-06-01

    During a 20-month period all acute nonlymphocytic patients (87 patient trials) receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were placed on an oral nonabsorbable antibiotic regimen consisting of gentamicin, vancomycin, and nystatin in addition to an intensive program of infection prevention aimed at reducing exogenously acquired and body-surface potential pathogens. Although side effects of anorexia, diarrhea, and nausea were common, gentamicin-vancomycin-nystatin was ingested 80% of the study time. Microbial growth in gingival and rectal cultures was substantially reduced. The incidence of bacteremias and other serious infections was low. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other gram-negative bacilli, and Candida species caused few infections along the alimentary canal, whereas infections of the skin (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were not reduced compared with those occurring in former years. A total of the 104 acquired gram-negative bacilli were gentamicin resistant; 5 subsequently caused infection. Thus, despite certain definite drawbacks, the use of oral nonabsorbable antibiotics to suppress alimentary tract microbial flora in combination with other infection prevention techniques in granulocytopenic cancer patients has proven feasible and tolerable and has been associated with a low order of life-threatening infections. PMID:98107

  13. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  14. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69%) were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (< 2%) gradually falling even further in the elderly. In contrast the prevalence of non-pathogenic amoebae (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii) peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A

  15. The requirements of protein & amino acid during acute & chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Kurpad, Anura V

    2006-08-01

    Nutrition and infection interact with each other in a synergistic vicious cycle, leading to an adverse nutritional status and increased susceptibility to infection. Infectious episodes result in hypermetabolism and a negative nitrogen balance which is modulated by hormones, cytokines and other pro-inflammatory mediators, and is compounded by a reduced food intake. The extent of the negative nitrogen balance varies with the type of infection and its duration; however, it is reasonable to suggest that the loss of body protein could be minimized by the provision of dietary nitrogen, although anorexia will limit this. Further, distinctions need to be made about the provision of nutrients or protein during the catabolic and anabolic or recovery phase of the infection, since the capacity of the body to retain protein is enhanced in the anabolic recovery phase. Meeting the increased requirement for protein (and other nutrients) in infection does not imply a complete therapeutic strategy. Infections need to be treated appropriately, with nutrition as an adjunct to the treatment. Prior undernutrition could also impair the body's response to infection, although the weight of the evidence would suggest that this happens more particularly in oedematous undernutrition. In general, the amount of extra protein that would appear to be needed is of the order of 20-25 per cent of the recommended intake, for most infections. In acute infections, this is particularly relevant during the convalescence period. Community trials have suggested that lysine supplementation to the level required for normal daily nutriture, in predominantly wheat eating or potentially lysine deficient communities, improves immune function among other functional nutritional parameters; however, there is as yet insufficient evidence to suggest a specific requirement for amino acids in infections over and above the normal daily requirement as based on recent evidence. Some clinical studies that have showed

  16. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  17. Host immunity and pathogen strain contribute to intestinal disaccharidase impairment following gut infection1

    PubMed Central

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Singer, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Infection or other inflammatory insults in the small intestine often result in reduced disaccharidase enzyme levels. Using a mouse model of giardiasis, we examined the role of host immunity and pathogen virulence in mediating disaccharidase deficiency following infection. C57BL/6J mice were infected with two strains, WB and GS, of the human parasite Giardia duodenalis. The levels of sucrase, maltase, and lactase decreased in WT mice after infection with the GS strain but not with the WB strain. Both CD4 deficient and SCID mice failed to eliminate the infection and did not exhibit disaccharidase deficiency. β2microglobulin knockout animals controlled infections similar to WT-type mice but exhibited no decrease in disaccharidase activity. Analysis of cytokine production by spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells showed production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, TNF-α and IFN-γ following infection with both WB and GS, with IFN-γ being the dominant cytokine for both parasite strains. Mesenteric lymph node cells produced lower levels of cytokines compared with splenocytes in responses to parasite extract, although the overall pattern was similar. These data suggest that T cell responses mediate parasite clearance while also contributing to pathogenesis. They also demonstrate that differences in pathogen strain can also determine the outcome of infection and further our understanding of the clinical variation seen in human giardiasis. PMID:21873528

  18. Bone and Joint Infections in Children: Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N

    2016-08-01

    Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is one of the commonest bone infection in childhood. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest organism causing AHO. With use of advanced diagnostic methods, fastidious Kingella kingae is increasingly becoming an important organism in etiology of osteoarticular infections in children under the age of 3 y. The diagnosis of AHO is primarily clinical. The main clinical symptom and sign in AHO is pain and tenderness over the affected bone especially in the metaphyseal region. However, in a neonate the clinical presentation may be subtle and misleading. Laboratory and radiological investigations supplement the clinical findings. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently elevated. Ultrasonography and MRI are key imaging modalities for early detection of AHO. Determination of infecting organism in AHO is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management and therefore, organism isolation using blood cultures and site aspiration should be attempted. Several effective antibiotics regimes are available for managing AHO in children. The choice of antibiotic and its duration and mode of delivery requires individualization depending upon severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and child's presentation and the clinical and laboratory response to the treatment. If pus has been evidenced in the soft tissues or bone region, surgical decompression of abscess is mandatory. PMID:26096866

  19. A prospective comparison of acute intestinal toxicity following whole pelvic versus small field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Park, Jin-hong; Yun, In-Ha; Kim, Young Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the acute intestinal toxicity of whole pelvic (WP) and small field (SF) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer using dosimetric and metabolic parameters as well as clinical findings. Methods Patients who received IMRT in either a definitive or postoperative setting were prospectively enrolled. Target volume and organs at risk including intestinal cavity (IC) were delineated in every patient by a single physician. The IC volume that received a 10–50 Gy dose at 5-Gy intervals (V10–V50) and the percentage of irradiated volume as a fraction of total IC volume were calculated. Plasma citrulline levels, as an objective biological marker, were checked at three time points: baseline and after exposure to 30 Gy and 60 Gy. Results Of the 41 patients, only six experienced grade 1 acute intestinal toxicity. Although all dose–volume parameters were significantly worse following WP than SF IMRT, there was no statistically significant relationship between these dosimetric parameters and clinical symptoms. Plasma citrulline levels did not show a serial decrease by radiotherapy volume difference (WP versus SF) and were not relevant to the irradiated doses. Conclusion Given that WP had comparable acute intestinal toxicities to those associated with SF, WP IMRT appears to be a feasible approach for the treatment of prostate cancer despite dosimetric disadvantages. PMID:27022287

  20. Host-microbiome interactions in acute and chronic respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven L; Wesselingh, Steve; Rogers, Geraint B

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory infection is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Understanding the factors that influence risk and outcome of these infections is essential to improving care. We increasingly understand that interactions between the microbial residents of our mucosal surfaces and host regulatory systems is fundamental to shaping local and systemic immunity. These mechanisms are most well defined in the gastrointestinal tract, however analogous systems also occur in the airways. Moreover, we now appreciate that the host-microbiota interactions at a given mucosal surface influence systemic host processes, in turn, affecting the course of infection at other anatomical sites. This review discusses the mechanisms by which the respiratory microbiome influences acute and chronic airway disease and examines the contribution of cross-talk between the gastrointestinal and respiratory compartments to microbe-mucosa interactions. PMID:26972325

  1. Contemporary management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213

  2. Ascaridia galli infection of pullets and intestinal viscosity: consequences for nutrient retention and gut morphology.

    PubMed

    Danicke, S; Moors, E; Beineke, A; Gauly, M

    2009-07-01

    1. Pullets were given a control diet or a diet supplemented with a non-starch-polysaccharide hydrolysing enzyme preparation (NSP-enzyme) from weeks 6 to 14 of age to induce differences in the viscosity of the small intestinal ingesta. Half of each feeding group (n = 25) was infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at an age of 6 weeks. 2. At 14 weeks of age, before the pullets were slaughtered, a balance experiment was conducted, to sample ingesta for viscosity measurements. Also, tissue samples of jejunum and ileum were taken for morphometrical and histopathological studies. 3. An infection of pullets with A. galli reduced the viscosity of the jejunal ingesta at high initial levels of viscosity after feeding the NSP-enzyme unsupplemented diet. 4. The faecal A. galli egg output by the pullets expressed as eggs per g excrement (EpG) was significantly reduced in infected pullets given the NSP-enzyme supplemented diet. Also, the number and length of worms was less in these pullets. 5. The tunica muscularis of the jejunum was significantly thickened, this effect being more pronounced at a low intestinal viscosity. 6. NSP-enzyme addition resulted in an increased length of jejunal villus and was paralleled by a decrease in jejunal viscosity. 7. Histopathology of jejunal and ileal sections revealed no pathological alterations. 8. The apparent retention of organic matter was increased after enzyme addition while parasite infection exerted no effect. PMID:19735021

  3. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz, Alina; Smoleń, Agata; Lass, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their species in Afghan school children and to establish appropriate treatment methods for detected pathogens. Methods: Parasitological examination of stool samples collected from 1369 children aged 8-18, students of the Jahan Malika High School in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan, was conducted in the period November 2013-April 2014. Three stool samples were collected from each patient every second day; the samples were fixed in 10% formalin and tested by light microscopy using the methods of direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water, and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results: Of 535 examined children (39.1% of the study group) were infected with nematodes (n=324), cestodes (n=118), trematodes (n=12), and protozoa (n=228), 132 were diagnosed with co-infections (mainly ascariasis+giardiasis, ascariasis+hymenolepiasis) and received single or combined therapy. Conclusions: The Afghan community is an example of population characterized by a high rate of parasitic infections. Owing to high prevalence of multiple infections among inhabitants of Afghanistan, it seems that a mass deworming campaign with a single-dose chemotherapy may prove ineffective in eradicating intestinal parasites in the local population. PMID:26870108

  4. Effects of BmCPV Infection on Silkworm Bombyx mori Intestinal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Dhiraj; Liu, Bo; Gong, Yongchang; Zhu, Min; Zhu, Liyuan; Liang, Zi; Kuang, Sulan; Chen, Fei; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has a crucial role in the growth, development and environmental adaptation in the host insect. The objective of our work was to investigate the microbiota of the healthy silkworm Bombyx mori gut and changes after the infection of B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV). Intestinal contents of the infected and healthy larvae of B. mori of fifth instar were collected at 24, 72 and 144 h post infection with BmCPV. The gut bacteria were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. 147(135) and 113(103) genera were found in the gut content of the healthy control female (male) larvae and BmCPV-infected female (male) larvae, respectively. In general, the microbial communities in the gut content of healthy larvae were dominated by Enterococcus, Delftia, Pelomonas, Ralstonia and Staphylococcus, however the abundance change of each genus was depended on the developmental stage and gender. Microbial diversity reached minimum at 144 h of fifth instar larvae. The abundance of Enterococcus in the females was substantially lower and the abundance of Delftia, Aurantimonas and Staphylococcus was substantially higher compared to the males. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal contents decreased after post infection with BmCPV, whereas the abundance of both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus which belongs to Gram-positive were increased. Therefore, our findings suggested that observed changes in relative abundance was related to the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. Relevance analysis of plenty of the predominant genera showed the abundance of the Enterococcus genus was in negative correlation with the abundance of the most predominant genera. These results provided insight into the relationship between the gut microbiota and development of the BmCPV-infected silkworm. PMID:26745627

  5. SHP-2 Mediates Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Eunice A.; Kasper, Susan; Anneken, Emily M.; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, induces human gastroenteritis through infection of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. During the initial stage of infection, C. parvum is reported to engage host mechanisms at the host cell-parasite interface to form a parasitophorous vacuole. We determined that upon infection, the larger molecular weight proteins in human small intestinal epithelial host cells (FHs 74 Int) appeared to globally undergo tyrosine dephosphorylation. In parallel, expression of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) increased in a time-dependent manner. SHP-2 co-localized with the C. parvum sporozoite and this interaction increased the rate of C. parvum infectivity through SH2-mediated SHP-2 activity. Furthermore, we show that one potential target that SHP-2 acts upon is the focal adhesion protein, paxillin, which undergoes moderate dephosphorylation following infection, with inhibition of SHP-2 rescuing paxillin phosphorylation. Importantly, treatment with an inhibitor to SHP-2 and with an inhibitor to paxillin and Src family kinases, effectively decreased the multiplicity of C. parvum infection in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our study reveals an important role for SHP-2 in the pathogenesis of C. parvum. Furthermore, while host proteins can be recruited to participate in the development of the electron dense band at the host cell-parasite interface, our study implies for the first time that SHP-2 appears to be recruited by the C. parvum sporozoite to regulate infectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHP-2 and its down-stream target paxillin could serve as targets for intervention. PMID:26556238

  6. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538). Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3%) and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms) after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important implications for the health

  7. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. PMID:24612255

  8. Gastric cancer risk in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection and subtypes of intestinal metaplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. S.; Shun, C. T.; Lee, W. C.; Chen, C. J.; Wang, H. P.; Lee, W. J.; Lin, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are each associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). To explore further the influences of H. pylori and IM on GC, H. pylori and subtypes of IM were evaluated in 135 sex and age-matched case and control pairs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals of developing GC were calculated for each risk factor using multiple logistic regression analysis. ORs for H. pylori infection and IM were 2.43 (1.29-4.65) and 4.59 (2.58-8.16), respectively, and those for different IM subtypes gave values of 0.82 (0.28-2.36) for type I, 2.03 (0.95-4.34) for type II and 39.75 (14.34-110.2) for type III. Stratification analysis by histological subtype and stage of GC showed a particularly high OR for IM in intestinal type (12.8, 4.73-34.83) and early GC (6.40, 2.25-18.18). Our data indicate that both H. pylori and IM are related to GC risk. Type III IM is a more specific marker of premalignancy, with relevance, in particular, to the early and intestinal type of GC. PMID:9662262

  9. 17β-estradiol protects the lung against acute injury: possible mediation by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Sayyed A; Dickman, Kathleen G; Berisha, Hasan; Said, Sami I

    2011-12-01

    Beyond their classical role as a class of female sex hormones, estrogens (e.g. 17β-estradiol) exert important biological actions, both protective and undesirable. We have investigated the ability of estradiol to protect the lung in three models of acute injury induced by 1) oxidant stress due to the herbicide paraquat; 2) excitotoxicity, caused by glutamate agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate; and 3) acute alveolar anoxia. We also assessed the role of estrogen receptors (ER) ERα and ERβ and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating this protection. Isolated guinea pig or rat lungs were perfused in situ at constant flow and mechanically ventilated. The onset and severity of lung injury were monitored by increases in pulmonary arterial and airway pressures, wet/dry lung weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein content. Estradiol was infused into the pulmonary circulation, beginning 10 min before induction of injury and continued for 60-90 min. Lung injury was marked by significant increases in the above measurements, with paraquat producing the most severe, and excitotoxicity the least severe, injury. Estradiol significantly attenuated the injury in each model. Both ER were constitutively expressed and immunohistochemically demonstrable in normal lung, and their selective agonists reduced anoxic injury, the only model in which they were tested. As it protected against injury, estradiol rapidly and significantly stimulated VIP mRNA expression in rat lung. Estradiol attenuated acute lung injury in three experimental models while stimulating VIP gene expression, a known mechanism of lung protection. The up-regulated VIP expression could have partially mediated the protection by estrogen. PMID:22009726

  10. 17β-Estradiol Protects the Lung against Acute Injury: Possible Mediation by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Sayyed A.; Dickman, Kathleen G.; Berisha, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Beyond their classical role as a class of female sex hormones, estrogens (e.g. 17β-estradiol) exert important biological actions, both protective and undesirable. We have investigated the ability of estradiol to protect the lung in three models of acute injury induced by 1) oxidant stress due to the herbicide paraquat; 2) excitotoxicity, caused by glutamate agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate; and 3) acute alveolar anoxia. We also assessed the role of estrogen receptors (ER) ERα and ERβ and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating this protection. Isolated guinea pig or rat lungs were perfused in situ at constant flow and mechanically ventilated. The onset and severity of lung injury were monitored by increases in pulmonary arterial and airway pressures, wet/dry lung weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein content. Estradiol was infused into the pulmonary circulation, beginning 10 min before induction of injury and continued for 60–90 min. Lung injury was marked by significant increases in the above measurements, with paraquat producing the most severe, and excitotoxicity the least severe, injury. Estradiol significantly attenuated the injury in each model. Both ER were constitutively expressed and immunohistochemically demonstrable in normal lung, and their selective agonists reduced anoxic injury, the only model in which they were tested. As it protected against injury, estradiol rapidly and significantly stimulated VIP mRNA expression in rat lung. Estradiol attenuated acute lung injury in three experimental models while stimulating VIP gene expression, a known mechanism of lung protection. The up-regulated VIP expression could have partially mediated the protection by estrogen. PMID:22009726

  11. Molecular Testing for Clinical Diagnosis and Epidemiological Investigations of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stensvold, C. Rune

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Over the past few decades, nucleic acid-based methods have been developed for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. Advantages of nucleic acid-based methods are numerous; typically, these include increased sensitivity and specificity and simpler standardization of diagnostic procedures. DNA samples can also be stored and used for genetic characterization and molecular typing, providing a valuable tool for surveys and surveillance studies. A variety of technologies have been applied, and some specific and general pitfalls and limitations have been identified. This review provides an overview of the multitude of methods that have been reported for the detection of intestinal parasites and offers some guidance in applying these methods in the clinical laboratory and in epidemiological studies. PMID:24696439

  12. The role of type I interferons in intestinal infection, homeostasis, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyeseon; Kelsall, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Type I interferons are a widely expressed family of effector cytokines that promote innate antiviral and antibacterial immunity. Paradoxically, they can also suppress immune responses by driving production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and dysregulation of these cytokines can contribute to host-mediated immunopathology and disease progression. Recent studies describe their anti-inflammatory role in intestinal inflammation and the locus containing IFNAR, a heterodimeric receptor for the type I interferons has been identified as a susceptibility region for human inflammatory bowel disease in a genome-wide association study. This review focuses on the role of type I IFNs in the gut in health and disease and their emerging role as immune modulator. Clear understanding of type I IFN-mediated immune responses may provide revenue for fine-tuning existing IFN treatment for infection and intestinal inflammation. PMID:24942688

  13. Methionine deficiency reduces autophagy and accelerates death in intestinal epithelial cells infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Li, Fengna; Ren, Wenkai; Kong, Xiangfeng; Qiu, Wei; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

    2015-10-01

    Infections by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) result in large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Dietary supplementation with amino acids has been considered as a potential mechanism to improve host defenses against infection. The goal of this study was to determine whether methionine deprivation alters ETEC interactions with porcine intestinal epithelial cells. IPEC-1 cells were cultured in media with or without L-methionine. Methionine deprivation resulted in enhanced ETEC adhesion and increased both the cytotoxicity and apoptotic responses of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. Methionine deprivation inhibited IPEC-1 cell autophagic responses, suggesting that the increased cytotoxicity of ETEC to methionine-deprived IPEC-1 cells might be due to defects in autophagy. PMID:24965529

  14. Mouse intestinal innate immune responses altered by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Xiaoping; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Wang, Shengping; Tang, Yulong; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2014-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of human and porcine morbidity and mortality. The current study was conducted to identify intestinal immunity that is altered in a mouse model of ETEC infection. Innate immune responses and inflammation were analyzed. The activation of signal transduction pathways, including toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), was analyzed using immunoblotting and PCR array analyses. We found that ETEC infection promoted the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, ETEC infection affected sIgA transportation and Paneth cell function. These data improve our understanding of how ETEC causes disease in animals. PMID:25267358

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

  16. Feconomics®; a new and more convenient method, the routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Koltas, Ismail Soner; Akyar, Isın; Elgun, Gullu; Kocagoz, Tanıl

    2014-07-01

    Direct wet mount examination and concentration are the most commonly used methods for detecting intestinal parasites from fecal samples. Concentration methods are used when there are fewer protozoan cyst, coccidian oocyst, microsporidial spore, helminth egg, and larvae in the fecal samples. Early detection of the causative intestinal parasites plays a significant role in implementing timely and correct treatment, which relieves the patients' symptoms and also prevents recurrences. Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration (FEAC) is believed to be a gold standard method to detect most intestinal parasites. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of Feconomics® [manufactured by Salubris Inc, Boston, USA. Patent application number (TR): 2010/07549] which is a simple, new, and rapid fecal concentration method for the detection of the intestinal parasites in human beings. We also compared the FEAC with Feconomics® and direct wet mount examination. A total of 918 fecal samples were collected from the patients suspected to have intestinal parasitic infection. Samples were examined with the direct wet mount, FEAC, and Feconomics® methods. Different parasite species 15.9% (146/918) with Feconomics®, 13.3% (122/918) with FEAC, and 9.8% (90/918) with direct wet mount examination, Feconomics® > FEAC > direct wet mount examinations were detected. They were statistically compared considering FEAC as the gold standard for parasitological diagnosis; the sensitivity and specificity of Feconomics® were calculated as 96 and 97%, respectively. Blastocystis hominis was found to be the most common parasite, followed by Giardia lamblia with direct wet mount examination, FEAC, and Feconomics® methods. Feconomics® proved to be better than not only FEAC in concentrating parasite egg and cyst forms as well as in maintaining characteristic morphology but it is also better in direct wet mount examination. Feconomics® eliminates the need for centrifugation by using

  17. Comparing the Bacterial Diversity of Acute and Chronic Dental Root Canal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana L.; Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Jesus, Ederson C.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-01-01

    This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections. PMID:22132218

  18. Comparing the bacterial diversity of acute and chronic dental root canal infections.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adriana L; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Jesus, Ederson C; Rosado, Alexandre S; Tiedje, James M

    2011-01-01

    This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections. PMID:22132218

  19. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  20. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the small intestine of Eimeria acervulina-infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis is a major disease of poultry caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria acervulina mainly infects the duodenum, causing lesions in epithelial tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of E. acervulina infection on the expression of 18 nutrient transport...

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  2. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  3. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  4. Intestinal spirochetosis as a cause of chronic diarrhoea in patients with HIV infection: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ena, J; Simón-Aylón, A; Pasquau, F

    2009-11-01

    We describe a 77-year-old patient with HIV infection suffering from chronic diarrhoea whose colonoscopy findings showed normal appearance mucosa and tissue samples revealed the presence of a dense layer of spirochetes attached to the apical cell membrane. A literature search from 1996 to April 2009 identified 19 additional cases of intestinal spirochetosis in patients with HIV infection. Analysis of cases showed that intestinal spirochetosis causes chronic diarrhoea in men who have sex with men (92% of patients with reported HIV infection risk factors) who are not severely immunosuppressed (70% with CD4 lymphocyte cells >200/microL). Colonoscopy examination often revealed normal appearance mucosa. Haematoxylin and eosin stain of biopsy samples showed the presence of spirochetes, but Warthin-Starry silver staining makes organisms easier to detect. Patients promptly responded to metronidazole or penicillin therapy. In summary, invasive intestinal spirochetosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with HIV infection and chronic diarrhoea. PMID:19843615

  5. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kareem D.; Stromberg, Paul E.; Woolsey, Cheryl A.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Dunne, W. Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G.; Karl, Irene E.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury (ALI) on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Design Randomized, controlled study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Genetically inbred mice. Interventions Following induction of ALI, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis was assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild type and C3H/HeJ mice, that lack functional toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, n=17), b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or control antibody (n=22) and c) C57Bl/6 wild type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n=21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n=24) as well as in a timecourse analysis following a fixed injury (n=18). Measurements and Main Results ALI caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-TNFα antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe ALI. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hours, but proliferation was decreased 36 hours following ALI while apoptosis returned to normal. Conclusions ALI causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving TLR4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the gut

  6. A Nationwide Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Huh, Sun; Kong, Yoon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Oh, Dae-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai. PMID:19290090

  7. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections). Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals. PMID:22839737

  8. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  9. Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

  10. Acute prevertebral abscess secondary to infected pancreatic pseudocyst

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Pillai, Suresh; Venkitachalam, Shruti; Anand, Aishwarya

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a middle aged, man with diabetes who presented with dysphagia and odynophagia. On evaluation, he was diagnosed to have an acute prevertebral abscess with an unusual aetiology, an infected pseudocyst of pancreas. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed an enhancing collection in the prevertebral space extending to the retrogastric space and communicating with the body of the pancreas via the oesophageal hiatus. Transoral incision and drainage of the prevertebral abscess were performed. Nasogastric tube was placed in the prevertebral space for continuous drainage and daily irrigation. Supportive intravenous broad spectrum antibiotic therapy along with the surgical intervention led to the resolution of the prevertebral abscess and the infected pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:24408943

  11. Cerebral aspergillus infection in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gaurav; Thulkar, Sanjay; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    Angioinvasive pulmonary infection from filamentous fungi is not an uncommon occurrence in immunocompromised patients like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Rarely, these lesions can spread via the hematogenous route and involve multiple visceral organs. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy with ALL who developed angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis early in the course of induction therapy, which was followed by hematogenous dissemination and formation of multiple brain abscesses. The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B. There was no response to the therapy and the patient succumbed to disseminated infection. Postmortem lung biopsy confirmed angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Poor penetration of amphotericin B across the blood-brain barrier could be one of the contributory factors for poor response to antifungal therapy. We discuss the various antifungal agents with respect to their penetration in brain. PMID:23580827

  12. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    PubMed

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed. PMID:26184291

  13. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed. PMID:26184291

  14. Intestinal Infarction Caused by Thrombophlebitis of the Portomesenteric Veins as a Complication of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis After Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed. PMID:26091450

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  16. Occurrence of immune cells in the intestinal wall of Squalius cephalus infected with Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; DePasquale, Joseph A; Bosi, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    A sub-population of 34 specimens of chub, Squalius cephalus, was sampled from the River Brenta (Northern Italy) and examined for ecto- and endo-parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) was the only enteric helminth encountered. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of chub. Near the site of parasite's attachment, mucous cells, mast cells (MCs), neutrophils and rodlet cells (RCs) were found to co-occur within the intestinal epithelium. The numbers of mucous cells, MCs and neutrophils were significantly higher in infected fish (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Dual immunofluorescence staining with the lectin Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) and the macrophage-specific MAC387 monoclonal antibody, with parallel transmission electron microscopy, revealed that epithelial MCs often made intimate contact with the mucous cells. Degranulation of a large number of MCs around the site of the acanthocephalan's attachment and in proximity to mucous cells was also documented. MCs and neutrophils were abundant in the submucosa. Immune cells of the intestinal epithelium have been described at the ultrastructural level and their possible functions and interactions are discussed. PMID:26434712

  17. [Circulating immune complexes in acute and prolonged hepatitis A infection].

    PubMed

    Dautović-Krkić, Sajma; Gribajcević, Mehmed

    2002-01-01

    Level and dynamics activity of circulating immune complexes (CiC) and persistence CiC in the sera in the acute and prolonged HAV-infection was examined. In the same time we explored the relation of level and dynamics CiC compared with level, dynamics and persistence length ALT and IgM anti-HAV in sera, longitude excretion HAV Ag in stool and intensity patohistological damage in liver. Research have been undertaken in the prospected study on two groups with 90 patients in total: 60 patients with prolonged form of the hepatitis A, and 30 patients with HAV-infection with normal development. CiC was prescribe with fotometer in sediment of poliethilenglicol, and IgM anti HAV with ELISA technique. Ag-HAV in stool was prescribe with methodImmuno/electro/osmophoresis. Results of examination showed that high level values of CiC had present in all patients with HAV-infection, bat yet middle values of CiC had significantly higher in prolonged forms (p < 0.01). In a case of patients with PTHA CiC persistence almost three times longer than in HAV infection with normal development. The highest value of CiC have been found from one to two weeks after e peak ALT in HAV and in PTHA 4-6 weeks later. Persistence of elevated values CiC responded to the middle length persistence of Igm anti HAV-in the sera. PMID:12378858

  18. Finding those at risk: Acute HIV infection in Newark, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Eugene G.; Salaru, Gratian; Mohammed, Debbie; Coombs, Robert W.; Paul, Sindy M.; Cadoff, Evan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A screening strategy combining rapid HIV-1/2 (HIV) antibody testing with pooled HIV-1 RNA testing increases identification of HIV infections, but may have other limitations that restrict its usefulness to all but the highest incidence populations. Objective By combining rapid antibody detection and pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) testing, we sought to improve detection of early HIV-1 infections in an urban Newark, NJ hospital setting. Study design Pooled NAAT HIV-1 RNA testing was offered to emergency department patients and out-patients being screened for HIV antibodies by fingerstick-rapid HIV testing. For those negative by rapid HIV and agreeing to NAAT testing, pooled plasma samples were prepared and sent to the University of Washington where real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification was performed. Results Of 13,226 individuals screened, 6381 had rapid antibody testing alone, and 6845 agreed to add NAAT HIV screening. Rapid testing identified 115 antibody positive individuals. Pooled NAAT increased HIV-1 case detection by 7.0% identifying 8 additional cases. Overall, acute HIV infection yield was 0.12%. While males represent only 48.1% of those tested by NAAT, all samples that screened positive for HIV-1 RNA were obtained from men. Conclusion HIV-1 RNA testing of pooled, HIV antibody-negative specimens permits identification of recent infections. In Newark, pooled NAAT increased HIV-1 case detection and provided an opportunity to focus on treatment and prevention messages for those most at risk of transmitting infection. Although constrained by client willingness to participate in testing associated with a need to return to receive further results, use of pooled NAAT improved early infection sensitivity. PMID:23953941

  19. MicroRNA signature of intestinal acute cellular rejection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mucosal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, T; Sotolongo, B; Island, E R; Tryphonopoulos, P; Selvaggi, G; Moon, J; Tekin, A; Amador, A; Levi, D M; Garcia, J; Smith, L; Nishida, S; Weppler, D; Tzakis, A G; Ruiz, P

    2012-02-01

    Despite continuous improvement of immunosuppression, small bowel transplantation (SBT) is plagued by a high incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) that is frequently intractable. Therefore, there is a need to uncover novel insights that will lead to strategies to achieve better control of ACR. We hypothesized that particular miRNAs provide critical regulation of the intragraft immune response. The aim of our study was to identify miRNAs involved in intestinal ACR. We examined 26 small intestinal mucosal biopsies (AR/NR group; 15/11) obtained from recipients after SBT or multivisceral transplantation. We investigated the expression of 384 mature human miRNAs and 280 mRNAs associated with immune, inflammation and apoptosis processes. We identified differentially expressed 28 miRNAs and 58 mRNAs that characterized intestinal ACR. We found a strong positive correlation between the intragraft expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-142-3p, miR-886-3p and miR-132) and 17 mRNAs including CTLA4 and GZMB. We visualized these miRNAs within cells expressing CD3 and CD14 proteins in explanted intestinal allografts with severe ACR. Our data suggested that miRNAs have a critical role in the activation of infiltrating cells during intestinal ACR. These differences in miRNA expression patterns can be used to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for immunosuppressive agents. PMID:22026534

  20. Recurrent intestinal volvulus in midgut malrotation causing acute bowel obstruction: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Fayed; Balarajah, Vickna; Ayantunde, Abraham Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation occurs when there is a disruption in the normal embryological development of the bowel. The majority of patients present with clinical features in childhood, though rarely a first presentation can take place in adulthood. Recurrent bowel obstruction in patients with previous abdominal operation for midgut malrotation is mostly due to adhesions but very few reported cases have been due to recurrent volvulus. We present the case of a 22-year-old gentleman who had laparotomy in childhood for small bowel volvulus and then presented with acute bowel obstruction. Preoperative computerised tomography scan showed small bowel obstruction and features in keeping with midgut malrotation. Emergency laparotomy findings confirmed midgut malrotation with absent appendix, abnormal location of caecum, ascending colon and small bowel. In addition, there were small bowel volvulus and a segment of terminal ileal stricture. Limited right hemicolectomy was performed with excellent postoperative recovery. This case is presented to illustrate a rare occurrence and raise an awareness of the possibility of dreadful recurrent volvulus even several years following an initial Ladd’s procedure for midgut malrotation. Therefore, one will need to exercise a high index of suspicion and this becomes very crucial in order to ensure prompt surgical intervention and thereby preventing an attendant bowel ischaemia with its associated high fatality. PMID:23556060

  1. Hydroclimatic variables and acute gastro-intestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada: A time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.; Parkes, M. W.; Li, L.; Takaro, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Using epidemiologic time series analysis, we examine associations between three hydroclimatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and waterborne acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) in two communities in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The communities were selected to represent the major hydroclimatic regimes that characterize BC: rainfall-dominated and snowfall dominated. Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime, and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatology plays a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI in these settings. Further, this study highlights that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic variability on AGI are different in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime versus a rainfall-dominated regimes. We conclude by proposing that the watershed may be an appropriate context for enhancing our understanding of the complex linkages between hydroclimatic variability and waterborne illness in the context of a changing climate.

  2. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AND ATOPIC DISEASES IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY.

    PubMed

    Al Ghwass, Mohamed Me; El Dash, Hanaa H; Amin, Sayed A; Hussin, Shimaa S

    2015-08-01

    Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy depending on the timing of the exposure. A meta-analysis of many of studies reported the association between the presence of geohelminth eggs in stool samples and asthma provided some evidence for parasite-specific effects. This study evaluated the occurrence of allergy among different intestinal parasitic infected patients. A cross sectional study was carried out from June, 2013 to October, 2013 in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Al-Fayoum University Hospitals among 55 children aged 2 years to 13 years. The data were collected using ISSAC questionnaire of allergy (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) also laboratory analysis of complete blood picture, stool analysis and measurement of total serum IgE were performed for the patients. Among the patients 27 suffered from allergy and 28 had no allergic complain. Stool examinations showed Entrobius vernicularis (15), Trichostrongylus species (9), Hymenolepis nana (8), Entameba histolytica (8), Giardia lamblia (6), and mixed infections (9). The allergic group by parasitological examination 7 children (25.9%) had Entrobius vermicularis; 6 children (22.2%) Entameba histolytica; and 2 children (7.4 %) Giardia lamblia, with eosinophilic count was higher in the enterobiasis infected children than in protozoa infected ones. There were significantly high IgE levels in mixed parasitic infection (P= 0.006) and with Entrobius vermicularis infections (P=0.04). Also statistically significant difference between allergic groups by ISAAC score and the non allergic group regarding Ig E levels (P= 0.03). There was no significant difference between numbers of children with allergy and those without allergy among different parasitic infections. However, a marked significant association between the allergy and parasitic infected children was not declaimed. PMID:26485861

  3. Intestinal nematode infections in Turkish military dogs with special reference to Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Karabacak, A

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence and potential zoonotic risk factors of intestinal nematodes of military working dogs, which are used for different military purposes, were assessed. Faecal samples from 352 defined-breed Turkish military dogs were investigated and 107 (30.4%) dogs were found to be infected with one or two nematode species. The following nematodes, with their respective prevalences, were diagnosed in the faecal samples: Toxascaris leonina (21.8%), Toxocara canis (13.3%), Trichuris vulpis (2.9%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (1.2%). Toxocara canis infections were more frequently seen in puppies (0-6 months old). The prevalence of T. canis was significantly higher in male than in female dogs and also higher in dogs which were exercised daily than in those without exercise. The highest prevalence was found in Belgian malinois breed dogs. Toxocara canis infections were not influenced by the floor type of the kennels (i.e. concrete or soil floor). There was no difference in the occurrence of T. canis infection when the last anthelmintic treatment was carried out less or more than 3 months prior to sampling. It is suggested that T. canis infected military dogs would be a threat not only for dog trainers but also for military personnel, notably during national and international operations. PMID:16923275

  4. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T J; Zizza, C A; Leche, G M; Scott, M E; Solomons, N W

    1993-01-01

    Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 5-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described. PMID:8246757

  5. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Opara, Kenneth N.; Udoidung, Nsima I.; Opara, Dominic C.; Okon, Okpok E.; Edosomwan, Evelyn U.; Udoh, Anietie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Methods This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. Results The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (P<0.001). The prevalence of stunting (HAZ < -2), underweight (WAZ < -2) and wasting (WHZ < -2) for rural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were each significantly (P<0.05) associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Since intestinal parasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  6. Microbiota and pathogen 'pas de deux': setting up and breaking down barriers to intestinal infection.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Elizabeth S; Kendall, Melissa M

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiota plays essential roles in human health and disease. In this review, we focus on the role of the intestinal microbiota in promoting resistance to infection by bacterial pathogens as well as how pathogens overcome this barrier. We discuss how the resident microbiota restricts growth and colonization of invading pathogens by limiting availability of nutrients and through generation of a hostile environment. Additionally, we examine how microbiota-derived signaling molecules interfere with bacterial virulence. In turn, we discuss how pathogens exploit non-competitive metabolites to replicate in vivo as well as to precisely control virulence and cause disease. This bacterial two step of creating and overcoming challenges important in preventing and establishing infection highlights the complexities of elucidating interactions between the commensal bacteria and pathogens. Better understanding of microbiota-pathogen interplay will have significant implications for developing novel therapeutics to treat infectious diseases. PMID:27252177

  7. Risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal fluke infections in Lao PDR, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Ki, Moran; Eom, Keeseon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal fluke (Ov/MIF) in Lao People's Democratic Republic according to different regions and evaluate the effect of ingestion of raw freshwater fish on the infection. Demographic data, behavioral data, and symptoms were obtained, and the Kato-Katz method was used for the diagnosis of Ov/MIF. In total, 3,046 individuals were enrolled. The risk factors associated with acquisition of Ov/MIF were raw fish consumption and province. Khong Island showed the highest prevalence (odds ratio = 80.1, 95% confidence interval = 47.9-133.9, P < 0.001) compared with other districts, and raw fish consumption was related to Ov/MIF infection. Administration of praziquantel to entire populations, education (avoiding consumption of raw food dishes and improved hygiene), and access to clean water and sanitation should be considered. PMID:24980495

  8. Utility of urgent colonoscopy in acute lower gastro-intestinal bleeding: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Albeldawi, Mazen; Ha, Duc; Mehta, Paresh; Lopez, Rocio; Jang, Sunguk; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R.; Vargo, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The role of urgent colonoscopy in lower gastro-intestinal bleeding (LGIB) remains controversial. Over the last two decades, a number of studies have indicated that urgent colonoscopy may facilitate the identification and treatment of bleeding lesions; however, studies comparing this approach to elective colonoscopy for LGIB are limited. Aims. To determine the utility and assess the outcome of urgent colonoscopy as the initial test for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute LGIB. Methods. Consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy at our institution for the initial evaluation of acute LGIB between January 2011 and January 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Patients were grouped into urgent vs. elective colonoscopy, depending on the timing of colonoscopy after admission to the ICU. Urgent colonoscopy was defined as being performed within 24 hours of admission and those performed later than 24 hours were considered elective. Outcomes included length of hospital stay, early re-bleeding rates, and the need for additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with increased transfusion requirements. Results. Fifty-seven patients underwent colonoscopy for the evaluation of suspected LGIB, 24 of which were urgent. There was no significant difference in patient demographics, co-morbidities, or medications between the two groups. Patients who underwent urgent colonoscopy were more likely to present with hemodynamic instability (P = 0.019) and require blood transfusions (P = 0.003). No significant differences in length of hospital stay, re-bleeding rates, or the need for additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions were found. Patients requiring blood transfusions (n = 27) were more likely to be female (P = 0.016) and diabetics (P = 0.015). Fourteen patients re-bled at a median of 2 days after index colonoscopy. Those with hemodynamic

  9. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards. PMID:26987643

  10. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths. PMID:24000977

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and intestinal infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Xiao Lin; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Ge Ge; Zhang, Xi; Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-10-01

    The critical step for Trichinella spiralis infection is that muscle larvae (ML) are activated to intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and invade intestinal epithelium to further develop. The IIL is its first invasive stage, surface proteins are directly exposed to host environment and are crucial for larval invasion and development. In this study, shotgun LC-MS/MS was used to analyze surface protein profiles of ML and IIL. Totally, 41 proteins common to both larvae, and 85 ML biased and 113 IIL biased proteins. Some proteins (e.g., putative scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein and putative onchocystatin) were involved in host-parasite interactions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that proteins involved in generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process were enriched in IIL at level 4. Some IIL biased proteins might play important role in larval invasion and development. qPCR results confirmed the high expression of some genes in IIL. Our study provides new insights into larval invasion, host-Trichinella interaction and for screening vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:26184560

  12. Effect of immunologic reactions on rat intestinal epithelium. Correlation of increased permeability to chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ovalbumin during acute inflammation and anaphylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramage, J.K.; Stanisz, A.; Scicchitano, R.; Hunt, R.H.; Perdue, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    In these studies we compared jejunal permeability to two probes--chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) (mol wt, 360) and ovalbumin (mol wt, 45,000)--under control conditions, during acute intestinal inflammation, and in response to systemic anaphylaxis. Acute inflammation was produced after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and rats were studied at day 0 (control), day 4 (early), day 10 (acute), and day 35 (postinfection). At the latter stage, immune rats were also studied during anaphylaxis induced by i.v. N. brasiliensis antigen. In each study, blood and urine were sampled over 5 h after the probes were simultaneously injected into ligated loops in anesthetized rats. In controls, small quantities (less than 0.04% and 0.002% of the administered dose for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively) appeared in the circulation and plateaued at 1 h. During acute inflammation, the appearance of both probes continued to increase with time. Compared with controls, 5-h values for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin were (a) significantly elevated at day 4 (p less than 0.005), (b) increased approximately 20-fold at day 10 (p less than 0.005 and less than 0.01, respectively), and (c) normal at day 35. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA followed the same pattern. During anaphylaxis, appearance of the probes in the circulation increased at 1 h to values approximately 10-fold those in controls (p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01, for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively), and then declined. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA over 5 h was also significantly increased. We conclude that epithelial barrier function becomes impaired during both acute inflammation and anaphylaxis. In this rat model, gut permeability changes to 51Cr-EDTA reflect gut permeability changes to macromolecular antigens.

  13. Intestinal Expression of Genes Encoding Inflammatory Mediators and Gelatinases During Arcobacter Butzleri Infection of Gnotobiotic Il-10 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Gölz, Greta

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that Arcobacter butzleri induces intestinal, extra-intestinal, and systemic immune responses in perorally infected gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice in a strain-dependent fashion. Here, we present a comprehensive survey of small and large intestinal expression profiles of inflammatory and regulatory mediators as well as of the matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 following murine A. butzleri infection. Gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice were infected with A. butzleri strains CCUG 30485 or C1 of human and chicken origin, respectively. At day 6 following A. butzleri infection, mucin-2 mRNA, an integral part of the intestinal mucus layer, was downregulated in the colon, whereas TNF and IL-23p19 mRNA were upregulated in the ileum. Furthermore, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-1β, and IL-22 mRNA were upregulated in both colonic and ileal ex vivo biopsies at day 6 post strain CCUG 30485 infection. These changes were accompanied by downregulated colonic MMP-9 levels, whereas both MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA were upregulated in the ileum. In conclusion, these data indicate that A. butzleri infection induces changes in the expression of genes involved in pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses as well as in tissue degradation. PMID:27141315

  14. Apical leptin induces chloride secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and in a rat model of acute chemotherapy-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Raschid M.; Scharl, Michael; Keely, Stephen J.; McCole, Declan F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether luminal leptin alters ion transport properties of the intestinal epithelium under acute inflammatory conditions. Monolayers of human intestinal T84 epithelial cells and a rat model of chemotherapy-induced enterocolitis were used. Cells were treated with leptin and mounted in Ussing chambers to measure basal and secretagogue-induced changes in transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc). Furthermore, the role of MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways in mediating responses to leptin was investigated. Acute colitis in Sprague-Dawley rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg methotrexate. Leptin (100 ng/ml) induced a time-dependent increase in basal Isc in T84 intestinal epithelial cells (P < 0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of T84 cells with leptin for up to 1 h significantly potentiated carbachol- and forskolin-induced increases in Isc. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of MAPK abolished the effect of leptin on basal, carbachol- and forskolin-induced chloride secretion (P < 0.05). However, the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, only blunted the effect of leptin on forskolin-induced increases in Isc. Furthermore, leptin treatment evoked both ERK1/2 and Akt1 phosphorylation in T84 cells. In the rat model, luminal leptin induced significant increases in Isc across segments of proximal and, to a lesser extent, distal colon (P < 0.05). We conclude that luminal leptin is likely an intestinal chloride secretagogue, particularly when present at elevated concentrations and/or in the setting of inflammation. Our findings may provide a mechanistic explanation, at least in part, for the clinical condition of secretory diarrhea both in hyperleptinemic obese patients and in patients with chemotherapy-induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:20203064

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods). PMID:7569635

  16. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  17. Viral PCR positivity in stool before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is strongly associated with acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    van Montfrans, Joris; Schulz, Laura; Versluys, Birgitta; de Wildt, Arianne; Wolfs, Tom; Bierings, Marc; Gerhardt, Corinne; Lindemans, Caroline; Wensing, Anne; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-04-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) can be triggered by inflammatory conditions, including infections and mucositis. We investigated the association between PCR positivity for gastrointestinal (GI) viruses in stool before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and intestinal aGVHD using Cox proportional hazard models. We included 48 consecutive HCT patients (28 with malignancies and 20 with nonmalignancies) without GI symptoms before HCT. Fifteen patients were GI virus positive: 9 adenovirus, 3 norovirus, 2 parechovirus, and 1 astrovirus. Overall survival was 58% ± 8%. The cumulative incidence of aGVHD grade 2 to 4 was 43% ± 8% (n = 18) after a median of 47 days (range, 14 to 140). In univariate analysis, GI virus PCR positivity was the only predictor for aGVHD (P = .008): within the group of GI virus PCR-positive patients, the cumulative incidence of aGVHD 2 to 4 was 70% ± 12% versus 29 ± 8% in the PCR-negative group (P = .004). In conclusion, GI virus PCR positivity before HCT predicted development of intestinal aGVHD. These results may ultimately affect monitoring, aGVHD prophylaxis, and treatment, as well as rescheduling of elective HCTs. PMID:25598276

  18. Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry 16 Kinase Promotes Host Resistance to Oral Infection and Intestinal Inflammation Only in the Context of the Dense Granule Protein GRA15

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kirk D. C.; Hu, Kenneth; Whitmarsh, Ryan J.; Hassan, Musa A.; Julien, Lindsay; Lu, Diana; Chen, Lieping; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission between intermediate hosts is dependent on the ingestion of walled cysts formed during the chronic phase of infection. Immediately following consumption, the parasite must ensure survival of the host by preventing adverse inflammatory responses and/or by limiting its own replication. Since the Toxoplasma secreted effectors rhoptry 16 kinase (ROP16) and dense granule 15 (GRA15) activate the JAK-STAT3/6 and NF-κB signaling pathways, respectively, we explored whether a particular combination of these effectors impacted intestinal inflammation and parasite survival in vivo. Here we report that expression of the STAT-activating version of ROP16 in the type II strain (strain II+ROP16I) promotes host resistance to oral infection only in the context of endogenous GRA15 expression. Protection was characterized by a lower intestinal parasite burden and dampened inflammation. Host resistance to the II+ROP16I strain occurred independently of STAT6 and the T cell coinhibitory receptors B7-DC and B7-H1, two receptors that are upregulated by ROP16. In addition, coexpression of ROP16 and GRA15 enhanced parasite susceptibility within tumor necrosis factor alpha/gamma interferon-stimulated macrophages in a STAT3/6-independent manner. Transcriptional profiling of infected STAT3- and STAT6-deficient macrophages and parasitized Peyer's patches from mice orally challenged with strain II+ROP16I suggested that ROP16 activated STAT5 to modulate host gene expression. Consistent with this supposition, the ROP16 kinase induced the sustained phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STAT5 in Toxoplasma-infected cells. In summary, only the combined expression of both GRA15 and ROP16 promoted host resistance to acute oral infection, and Toxoplasma may possibly target the STAT5 signaling pathway to generate protective immunity in the gut. PMID:23545295

  19. Activation of caspases in intestinal villus epithelial cells of normal and nematode infected rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyoh, Y; Ishizaka, S; Horii, T; Fujiwara, A; Tegoshi, T; Yamada, M; Arizono, N

    2002-01-01

    Background: Small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) show apoptosis in physiological turnover of cells and in certain inflammatory diseases. Aims: To investigate the role of caspases in the progression of IEC apoptosis in vivo. Methods: IEC were separated along the villus-crypt axis from the jejunum of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infected rats at 4°C. Caspases were examined by a fluorometric assay method, histochemistry, and immunoblotting. Results: Villus cell rich IEC from normal rats exhibited a high level of caspase-3-like activity whereas activities of caspase-1, -8, and -9 were negligible. Immunoblotting analysis of villus cell rich IEC revealed partial cleavage of procaspase-3 into a 17 kDa molecule as well as cleavage of a caspase-3 substrate, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas in crypt cell rich IEC, caspase-3 cleavage was less significant. Caspase-3 activity was also observed histochemically in villus epithelium on frozen sections of the normal small intestine. IEC prepared at 4°C did not reveal nuclear degradation whereas subsequent incubation in a suspension at 37°C induced intense nuclear degradation within one hour in accordance with increases in active caspase-3. This apoptosis was partially suppressed by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. Nematode infected animals showed villus atrophy together with significant increases in levels of caspase-3 in IEC but not of caspase-1, -8, or -9. Conclusion: Caspase-3 may have an important role in the physiological replacement of IEC as well as in progression of IEC apoptosis induced by nematode infection. PMID:11772970

  20. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA) specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms. PMID:22136728

  1. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, Barbara; Mecklenburg, Lars; Burrin, Douglas G; Vegge, Andreas; Qvist, Niels; Eriksen, Thomas; Jeppesen, Palle B; Sangild, Per T

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall as a jejunostomy. All pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 7 days and a single daily injection of the following doses of teduglutide: 0.01 (n = 6), 0.02 (n = 6), 0.1 (n = 5), or 0.2 mg · kg · day (n = 6), and compared with placebo (n = 9). Body weight increment was similar for all 4 teduglutide groups but higher than placebo (P < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent increase in weight per length of the remnant intestine (P < 0.01) and fractional protein synthesis rate in the intestine was increased in the 0.2 mg · kg · day group versus placebo (P < 0.001); however, functional and structural endpoints including activity of digestive enzymes, absorption of enteral nutrients, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, villin, FABP2, ChgA, and GLP-2R) were not affected by the treatment. Teduglutide induces trophicity on the remnant intestine but has limited acute effects on functional endpoints. Significant effects of teduglutide on gut function may require a longer adaptation period and/or a more frequent administration of the peptide. In perspective, GLP-2 or its analogues may be relevant to improve intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome. PMID:24399211

  2. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  3. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Mulvenna, Jason P.; Krause, Lutz; Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is a fish-borne trematode endemic in East Asia. Following ingestion, the flukes locate to the biliary treȩ where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The mechanisms by which O. viverrini infection culminates in CCA remain unknown. An unexplored aspect is its influence on the host microbiome. In the hamster, infection with this pathogen reliably leads to CCA. Genomic DNAs of microbiota from colorectal contents and bile of hamsters and from whole O. viverrini were examined in this model of fluke-induced CCA. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of variable regions 7–9 of prokaryotic 16S ribosomal DNA. Of ∼1 million sequences, 536,009 with useable reads were assignable to 29,776 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and, in turn, to 20 phyla and 273 genera of Bacteria or Archaea. Microbial community analyses revealed that fluke infection perturbed the gastrointestinal tract microbiome, increasing Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, while decreasing Porphyromonadaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Eubacteriaceae (P≤0.05). More than 60 OTUs were detected in the biliary system, which confirmed bacteriobilia and a noteworthy community of microbes associated with the parasites. The fluke-associated microorganisms included potential pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae and Listeriaceae and others, including Cyanobacteria and Deinococci, usually found in external environments. Given that opisthorchiasis is distinguished from other helminth infections by a robust inflammatory phenotype with conspicuously elevated IL-6, and that inflammation of the biliary system leads to periductal fibrosis, which is a precursor of CCA, the flukes and their microbiota may together drive this distinctive immune response.—Plieskatt, J. L., Raksawan, D., Mulvenna, J. P., Krause, L., Sripa, B., Bethony, J. M., Brindley, P. J. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini

  4. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alehan, Füsun K; Kahveci, Suat; Uslu, Yasemin; Yildirim, Tülin; Yilmaz, Başak

    2004-06-01

    We describe the case of a 30-month-old boy who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and ultimately died. As far as we know, this is only the second case of HAV-associated ADEM to be reported in the literature. The child was brought to hospital with fever, lethargy and weakness of 2 days duration. He had developed jaundice, abdominal pain and malaise 2 weeks beforehand and these problems had resolved within 2 days. Neurological examination revealed lethargy, generalised weakness and positive Babinski's signs bilaterally. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein and elevated anti-HAV IgM and IgG titres. Serum HAV IgM and IgG titres were also elevated. Despite aggressive treatment with ceftriaxone, acyclovir and anti-oedema measures, he developed papilloedema and coma within 24 hours of admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed diffuse cerebral oedema and multifocal hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, with most lesions in the white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. The diagnosis of ADEM was established and high-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were added to the treatment regimen. However, his clinical condition continued to deteriorate and he died on the 20th day in hospital. This case shows that HAV infection can be linked with ADEM. Patients with HAV infection should be examined carefully for central nervous system symptoms during follow-up. Likewise, the possibility of HAV infection should be investigated in cases of ADEM. PMID:15186542

  5. Low dietary iron intake restrains the intestinal inflammatory response and pathology of enteric infection by food-borne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Mulder, Michelle L M; Richters, Thijs J W; Shanmugam, Nanda K N; Trebicka, Estela; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Roelofs, Rian; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Bolhuis, Albert; Cherayil, Bobby J; Tjalsma, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Orally administrated iron is suspected to increase susceptibility to enteric infections among children in infection endemic regions. Here we investigated the effect of dietary iron on the pathology and local immune responses in intestinal infection models. Mice were held on iron-deficient, normal iron, or high iron diets and after 2 weeks they were orally challenged with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Microbiome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed profound iron- and infection-induced shifts in microbiota composition. Fecal levels of the innate defensive molecules and markers of inflammation lipocalin-2 and calprotectin were not influenced by dietary iron intervention alone, but were markedly lower in mice on the iron-deficient diet after infection. Next, mice on the iron-deficient diet tended to gain more weight and to have a lower grade of colon pathology. Furthermore, survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was prolonged after iron deprivation. Together, these data show that iron limitation restricts disease pathology upon bacterial infection. However, our data also showed decreased intestinal inflammatory responses of mice fed on high iron diets. Thus additionally, our study indicates that the effects of iron on processes at the intestinal host-pathogen interface may highly depend on host iron status, immune status, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26046550

  6. Commensal-pathogen interactions in the intestinal tract: lactobacilli promote infection with, and are promoted by, helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Smith, Katherine A; Filbey, Kara J; Harcus, Yvonne; Hewitson, James P; Redpath, Stephen A; Valdez, Yanet; Yebra, María J; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota are pivotal in determining the developmental, metabolic and immunological status of the mammalian host. However, the intestinal tract may also accommodate pathogenic organisms, including helminth parasites which are highly prevalent in most tropical countries. Both microbes and helminths must evade or manipulate the host immune system to reside in the intestinal environment, yet whether they influence each other's persistence in the host remains unknown. We now show that abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria correlates positively with infection with the mouse intestinal nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as well as with heightened regulatory T cell (Treg) and Th17 responses. Moreover, H. polygyrus raises Lactobacillus species abundance in the duodenum of C57BL/6 mice, which are highly susceptible to H. polygyrus infection, but not in BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant. Sequencing of samples at the bacterial gyrB locus identified the principal Lactobacillus species as L. taiwanensis, a previously characterized rodent commensal. Experimental administration of L. taiwanensis to BALB/c mice elevates regulatory T cell frequencies and results in greater helminth establishment, demonstrating a causal relationship in which commensal bacteria promote infection with an intestinal parasite and implicating a bacterially-induced expansion of Tregs as a mechanism of greater helminth susceptibility. The discovery of this tripartite interaction between host, bacteria and parasite has important implications for both antibiotic and anthelmintic use in endemic human populations. PMID:25144609

  7. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, are the leading cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a 'risk and resilience' model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity and, thereby, decrease ARI incidence and severity in children. PMID:25961472

  8. Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Korman, R M; Cerón, J J; Knowles, T G; Barker, E N; Eckersall, P D; Tasker, S

    2012-08-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemoplasma spp. in cats varies with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) causing subclinical infection while Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) often induces haemolytic anaemia. The aims of this study were to characterise the acute phase response (APR) of the cat to experimental infection with Mhf or CMhm, and to determine whether chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection influences this response. The acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured pre-infection and every 7-14 days up to day 100 post-infection (pi) in cats infected with either Mhf or CMhm. Half of each group of cats (6/12) were chronically and subclinically infected with FIV. Marbofloxacin treatment was given on days 16-44 pi to half of the Mhf-infected cats, and on days 49-77 pi to half of the CMhm-infected cats. FIV-infected animals had significantly lower AGP concentrations, and significantly greater Hp concentrations than non-FIV-infected cats when infected with CMhm and Mhf, respectively. Both CMhm and Mhf infection were associated with significant increases in SAA concentrations, while AGP concentrations were only significantly increased by Mhf infection. Mhf-infected cats had significantly greater SAA concentrations than CMhm-infected animals. Both Mhf and CMhm infections were associated with an APR, with Mhf infection inducing a greater response. Chronic FIV infection appeared to modify the APR, which varied with the infecting Haemoplasma species. PMID:22763129

  9. [Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis following adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection].

    PubMed

    de Suremain, A; Somrani, R; Bourdat-Michel, G; Pinel, N; Morel-Baccard, C; Payen, V

    2015-05-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is responsible for nearly 10% of acute renal failure (ARF) cases in children. It is mostly drug-induced, but in a few cases viruses are involved, probably by an indirect mechanism. An immune-competent 13-month-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe ARF with anuria in a context of fever, cough, and rhinorrhea lasting 1 week. The kidney biopsy performed early brought out tubulointerstitial damage with mild infiltrate of lymphocytes, without any signs of necrosis. There were no virus inclusion bodies, no interstitial hemorrhage, and no glomerular or vascular damage. Other causes of TIN were excluded: there was no biological argument for an immunological, immune, or drug-induced cause. Adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were positive in respiratory multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in nasal aspirate but not in blood, urine, and renal tissue. The patient underwent dialysis for 10 days but the response to corticosteroid therapy was quickly observed within 48 h. The mechanism of TIN associated with virus infection is unknown. However, it may be immune-mediated to be able to link severe renal dysfunction and ADV and/or RSV invasion of the respiratory tract. PMID:25842199

  10. Salmonella Infection Upregulates the Leaky Protein Claudin-2 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-guo; Wu, Shaoping; Xia, Yinglin; Sun, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Tight junctions seal the space between adjacent epithelial cells. Mounting evidence suggests that tight junction proteins play a key role in the pathogenesis of human disease. Claudin is a member of the tight junction protein family, which has 24 members in humans. To regulate cellular function, claudins interact structurally and functionally with membrane and scaffolding proteins via their cytoplasmic domain. In particular, claudin-2 is known to be a leaky protein that contributes to inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. However, the involvement of claudin-2 in bacterial infection in the intestine remains unknown. Methods/Principal Findings We hypothesized that Salmonella elevates the leaky protein claudin-2 for its own benefit to facilitate bacterial invasion in the colon. Using a Salmonella-colitis mouse model and cultured colonic epithelial cells, we found that pathogenic Salmonella colonization significantly increases the levels of claudin-2 protein and mRNA in the intestine, but not that of claudin-3 or claudin-7 in the colon, in a time-dependent manner. Immunostaining studies showed that the claudin-2 expression along the crypt-villous axis postinfection. In vitro, Salmonella stimulated claudin-2 expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell lines SKCO15 and HT29C19A. Further analysis by siRNA knockdown revealed that claudin-2 is associated with the Salmonella-induced elevation of cell permeability. Epithelial cells with claudin-2 knockdown had significantly less internalized Salmonella than control cells with normal claudin-2 expression. Inhibitor assays demonstrated that this regulation is mediated through activation of the EGFR pathway and the downstream protein JNK. Conclusion/Significance We have shown that Salmonella targets the tight junction protein claudin-2 to facilitate bacterial invasion. We speculate that this disruption of barrier function contributes to a new mechanism by which bacteria interact with their host cells and

  11. In Silico Model as a Tool for Interpretation of Intestinal Infection Studies▿

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Peter; Vissers, Marc M. M.; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.

    2007-01-01

    In nutrition research the number of human in vivo experiments is limited because of the many restrictions and the high costs of testing in humans. Up to now predictive computer models aiming to enhance research have been rare or too complex, with many nonmeasurable adjustable parameters. This study aimed to develop a basic physicochemical computer model for a first quantitative interpretation of results obtained from in vivo intestinal experiments with bacteria. This new modeling approach is validated with results obtained from gut infection studies in vivo. The design of the model is described, and its ability to reproduce experimental data is evaluated. The model predictions are compared with new experimental data. The phenomena that take place in the gastrointestinal tract are summarized by model constants for growth, adherence, and release of bacteria. Although the model is far from describing all details and many processes in the intestine are combined, the model calculation results lead to reasonable conclusions and interesting hypotheses. One of these hypotheses concluded from the model outcomes is that Escherichia coli bacteria have a much lower intestinal growth rate in humans than in rats. Extra laboratory validation experiments proved the reliability of this hypothesis predicted by the model. In addition, the known protective effect of dietary calcium and detrimental effect of clindamycin on the growth and adherence of Salmonella bacteria could be quantified. From these results it is clear that the model enhances the interpretation of in vivo gastrointestinal experiments and will facilitate research trajectories towards new functional foods that improve resistance to pathogenic bacteria in humans. PMID:17122404

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Entrance through Systemic or Mucosal Infection Sites Differentially Modulates Regional Immune Response Following Acute Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Meis, Juliana; Barreto de Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva dos Santos, Danielle; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Savino, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is characterized by a systemic infection that leads to the strong activation of the adaptive immune response. Outbreaks of oral contamination by the infective protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi are frequent in Brazil and other Latin American countries, and an increased severity of clinical manifestations and mortality is observed in infected patients. These findings have elicited questions about the specific responses triggered after T. cruzi entry via mucosal sites, possibly modulating local immune mechanisms, and further impacting regional and systemic immunity. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of differential lymphoid organ responses in experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection. PMID:23898334

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p = 0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p = 0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p < 0.0001). Rosacea skin lesions decreased markedly in 6/7 (85.7%) after eradication of SIBO whereas of the two patients who did not eradicate SIBO, one (50%) showed an improvement in rosacea (p = 0.284). Conclusions Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with rosacea than control group, whereas SIBO prevalence was comparable between the two groups. Eradication of H. pylori infection led to a significant improvement of skin symptoms in rosacea patients. PMID:25653855

  14. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; DuPont, Herbert L; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-05-01

    Acute diarrheal infections are a common health problem globally and among both individuals in the United States and traveling to developing world countries. Multiple modalities including antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies have been used to address these common infections. Information on treatment, prevention, diagnostics, and the consequences of acute diarrhea infection has emerged and helps to inform clinical management. In this ACG Clinical Guideline, the authors present an evidence-based approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of acute diarrhea infection in both US-based and travel settings. PMID:27068718

  15. Screening and characterization of early diagnostic antigens in excretory-secretory proteins from Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae by immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Jiang, Peng; Wen, Hui; Duan, Jiang Yang; Wang, Li Ang; Li, Jie Feng; Liu, Chun Ying; Sun, Ge Ge; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but specific IgG antibodies were not detected in early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early diagnostic antigens from ES proteins of intestinal infective larvae (IIL), the first invasive stage of T. spiralis. Six bands (92, 52, 45, 35, 32, and 29 kDa) of IIL ES proteins were recognized by infection sera in Western blotting as early as 10 days post infection. Total of 54 T. spiralis proteins in six bands were identified by shotgun LC-MS/MS, 30 proteins were annotated, and 27 had hydrolase activity. Several proteins (serine protease, putative trypsin, deoxyribonuclease II family protein, etc.) could be considered as the potential early diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis. Our study provides new insights for screening early diagnostic antigens from intestinal worms of T. spiralis. PMID:26468148

  16. Viral Infection in Adults with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Yuly Andrea; Ulloa, María Mercedes; Vargas, Hernán; Díaz, Liliana; Gómez, Sandra Liliana; Saavedra, Alfredo; Sánchez, Edgar; Cortés, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the viral aetiology in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to sentinel surveillance institutions in Bogotá in 2012. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in which microarray molecular techniques for viral identification were used on nasopharyngeal samples of adult patients submitted to the surveillance system, and further descriptions of clinical features and relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, need for critical care, use of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay, were obtained. Setting Respiratory infections requiring hospital admission in surveillance centres in Bogotá, Colombia. Participants Ninety-one adult patients with acute respiratory infection (55% were female). Measurements Viral identification, intensive care unit admission, hospital stay, and mortality. Results Viral identification was achieved for 63 patients (69.2%). Comorbidity was frequently identified and mainly involved chronic pulmonary disease or pregnancy. Influenza, Bocavirus and Adenovirus were identified in 30.8%, 28.6% and 18.7% of the cases, respectively. Admission to the intensive care unit occurred in 42.9% of the cases, while mechanical ventilation was required for 36.3%. The average hospital stay was 9.9 days, and mortality was 15.4%. Antibiotics were empirically used in 90.1% of patients. Conclusions The prevalence of viral aetiology of SARI in this study was high, with adverse clinical outcomes, intensive care requirements and high mortality. PMID:26576054

  17. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  18. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents’ knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents’ knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  19. DOCK2 confers immunity and intestinal colonization resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiping; Man, Si Ming; Zhu, Qifan; Vogel, Peter; Frase, Sharon; Fukui, Yoshinori; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    Food poisoning is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Citrobacter rodentium is an enteric pathogen which attaches itself to enterocytes and induces attachment and effacing (A/E) lesions. The ability of the bacterium to cause infection requires subversion of the host actin cytoskeleton. Rac-dependent actin polymerization is activated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor known as Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2). However, the role of DOCK2 in infectious disease is largely unexplored. Here, we found that mice lacking DOCK2 were susceptible to C. rodentium infection. These mice harbored increased levels of C. rodentium bacteria, showed more pronounced weight loss and inflammation-associated pathology, and were prone to bacterial dissemination to the systemic organs compared with wild-type mice. We found that mice lacking DOCK2 were more susceptible to C. rodentium attachment to intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, our results underscored an important role of DOCK2 for gastrointestinal immunity to C. rodentium infection. PMID:27291827

  20. Cytokine gene expression profiles in chicken spleen and intestinal tissues during Ascaridia galli infection.

    PubMed

    Pleidrup, Janne A; Norup, Liselotte R; Dalgaard, Tina S; Kaiser, Pete; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte Fink; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2014-12-15

    In the poultry production industry, chickens with access to outdoor areas are exposed to a wide range of parasites e.g. the helminth Ascaridia galli. By real-time quantitative RT-PCR, the relative gene expression of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine IFN-γ, the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine IL-13, the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17F were determined over a period of 3 weeks in A. galli and non-A. galli-infected chickens. A characteristic Th2 response was observed in the jejunum of A. galli-infected chickens with increased expression of IL-13 and decreased expression of IFN-γ from day 14 post infection. At the putative time of larvae invasion into the intestinal mucosa (day 7), an increased expression of IFN-γ, IL-10, and TGF-β4 was observed in the spleen. At the putative onset of the innate immune response (day 10), a decreased expression of jejunal IFN-γ and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-γ and TGF-β4 in spleen and IFN-γ in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal tonsils. PMID:25468030

  1. DOCK2 confers immunity and intestinal colonization resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiping; Man, Si Ming; Zhu, Qifan; Vogel, Peter; Frase, Sharon; Fukui, Yoshinori; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    Food poisoning is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Citrobacter rodentium is an enteric pathogen which attaches itself to enterocytes and induces attachment and effacing (A/E) lesions. The ability of the bacterium to cause infection requires subversion of the host actin cytoskeleton. Rac-dependent actin polymerization is activated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor known as Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2). However, the role of DOCK2 in infectious disease is largely unexplored. Here, we found that mice lacking DOCK2 were susceptible to C. rodentium infection. These mice harbored increased levels of C. rodentium bacteria, showed more pronounced weight loss and inflammation-associated pathology, and were prone to bacterial dissemination to the systemic organs compared with wild-type mice. We found that mice lacking DOCK2 were more susceptible to C. rodentium attachment to intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, our results underscored an important role of DOCK2 for gastrointestinal immunity to C. rodentium infection. PMID:27291827

  2. Bloodstream infections in very low birth weight infants with intestinal failure

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Conrad R.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine pathogens and other characteristics associated with late-onset bloodstream infections (BSI) in infants with intestinal failure (IF) as a consequence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Study design Infants 401–1500 grams at birth who survived >72 hours and received care at NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers were studied. Frequency of culture positive BSI and pathogens were compared for infants with medical NEC, NEC managed surgically without IF, and surgical IF. Among infants with IF, duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) and other outcomes were evaluated. Results 932 infants were studied (IF, n=78; surgical NEC without IF, n=452; medical NEC, n=402). The proportion with BSI after NEC diagnosis was higher in infants with IF than with surgical NEC (p=0.007) or medical NEC (p<0.001). Gram positive pathogens were most frequent. Among infants with IF, increased number of infections was associated with longer hospitalization and duration on PN (0, 1, ≥2 infections; median stay (days): 172, 188, 260, p=0.06; median days on PN: 90, 112, 115, p=0.003), and the proportion who achieved full feeds during hospitalization decreased (87%, 67%, 50%, p=0.03). Conclusion Recurrent BSIs are common in VLBW infants with IF. Gram positive bacteria were most commonly identified in these infants. PMID:21840538

  3. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  4. X-ray microanalysis of rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: A new concept of diarrhoeal secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.J.; Osborne, M.P.; Haddon, S.J.; Collins, J.; Starkey, W.G.; Candy, D.C.; Stephen, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Neonatal mice were infected at 7 days of age with rotavirus (epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) virus) and killed at 24-h intervals postinfection (PI). Cytoplasmic concentrations of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca intestinal epithelial cells from infected and age-matched control animals were measured by x-ray microanalysis. In villus tip cells, Ca concentration increased at 24-96 h PI; Na concentration increased at 24-72 h PI; Ca and Na concentrations were near normal by 168 h PI. K concentration decreased 24-72 h PI, and Cl concentration decreased 48-96 h PI. In crypt cells, changes were observed without a discernible pattern: at 96 h PI, Na, Mg, S, and Cl concentrations increased and K concentration decreased; at 120 h PI, the concentrations of all elements except Na and Ca increased. In villus base cells, the mean concentrations of all elements except Ca peaked at 48-72 h PI and at 120 h PI. Na and Cl concentrations increased dramatically in some cells from 48 h PI onward. All the above concentration values were obtained from freeze-dried specimens and expressed in millimoles per kilogram of dry weight. Conversion of a limited number of data, pertaining to villus base cells, from dry weight to wet weight was possible. This conversion revealed that villus base cells in infected animals were more hydrated than corresponding cells from control animals. Also, the Na and Cl concentrations in mmol/kg H2O were significantly higher in villus base cells from infected animals than in those from corresponding controls: 137 +/- 7 versus 38 +/- 4 (Na) and 121 +/- 5 versus 89 +/- 6 (Cl). Wet weight concentrations of other elements were either the same (Mg) or lower (P, S, and K) after infection with virus.

  5. Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the intestine of Salmo trutta trutta naturally infected with an acanthocephalan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in the production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a 36 kd protein involved in protein synthesis, within intestinal epithelia can provide an early indication of deviations to normal functioning. Inhibition or stimulation of cell proliferation and PCNA can be determined through immunohistochemical staining of intestinal tissue. Changes in the expression of PCNA act as an early warning system of changes to the gut and this application has not been applied to the fields of aquatic parasitology and fish health. The current study set out to determine whether a population of wild brown trout, Salmo trutta trutta (L.) harbouring an infection of the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae Sinzar, 1955 collected from Lake Piediluco in Central Italy also effected changes in the expression of PCNA. Methods A total of 29 brown trout were investigated, 19 of which (i.e. 65.5%) were found to harbour acanthocephalans (5–320 worms fish-1). Histological sections of both uninfected and infected intestinal material were immunostained for PCNA. Results The expression of PCNA was observed in the epithelial cells in the intestinal crypts and within the mast cells and fibroblasts in the submucosa layer which is consistent with its role in cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. The number of PCNA-positive cells in both the intestinal epithelium and the submucosa layer in regions close to the point of parasite attachment were significantly higher than the number observed in uninfected individuals and in infected individuals in zones at least 0.7 cm from the point of parasite attachment (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Conclusions An infection of the acanthocephalan D. truttae within the intestinal tract of S. t. trutta effected a significant increase in the number of PCNA positive cells (mast cells and fibroblasts) at the site of parasite attachment when compared to the number of positive cells found in uninfected conspecifics and in tissue zones away from the point

  6. Do intestinal parasites interfere with the seroepidemiologic surveillance of Schistosoma mansoni infection?

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón de Noya, B.; Colmenares, C.; Losada, S.; Fermin, Z.; Masroua, G.; Ruiz, L.; Soto, L.; Noya, O.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the known cross-reactivity of sera from patients with intestinal parasites to some Schistosoma mansoni antigens, field work was conducted in an area of Venezuela non-endemic for schistosomiasis using the routine immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) with soluble egg antigen (SEA). False positive reactions represented 15.3% of the total population as determined by SEA-ELISA. SEA-immunoblotting of the false positive sera indicated that protein fractions of 91 and 80 kDa appear to be responsible for cross-reactivity. Sera from hookworm infected individuals produced a higher frequency and intensity of cross-reaction than other sera. SEA-fractions of 105, 54, 46, 42, 32, 25 and 15 kDa were the most specific. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8666077

  7. Oritavancin for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Julia A.; Fowler, Vance G.; Corey, G. Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inpatient treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) exerts a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Oritavancin is a concentration-dependent, rapidly bactericidal agent approved for the treatment of ABSSSI. Its prolonged half-life with one-time intravenous (IV) dosing offers a potential solution to this burden. In addition, oritavancin represents an alternative therapy for Streptococci and multidrug resistant gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Animal models have also shown promising results with oritavancin for other disease states including those that require long courses of IV therapy. Areas covered This review covers oritavancin’s basic chemistry, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics/ pharmacokinetics, efficacy in clinical trials, and provides expert opinion on future directions. To compose this review, a search of PubMed was performed, and articles written in the English language were selected based on full text availability. Expert Opinion If oritavancin is proven to be a cost-effective strategy for outpatient treatment and prevents complications of prolonged IV therapy, it will be sought as an alternative antibiotic therapy for ABSSSI. In addition, further clinical data demonstrating efficacy in gram-positive infections requiring prolonged therapy such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis could support oritavancin’s success in the current market. PMID:25803197

  8. Interferon-α Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Michael S.; Guo, Kejun; Gibbert, Kathrin; Lee, Eric J.; Dillon, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Bradley S.; McCarter, Martin D.; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Wilson, Cara C.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces and rapidly spreads within the intestinal mucosa during acute infection. The type I interferons (IFNs) likely serve as a first line of defense, but the relative expression and antiviral properties of the 12 IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression of all IFNα subtypes in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells by next-generation sequencing. We then determined the relative antiviral potency of each IFNα subtype ex vivo using the human intestinal Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture model. IFNα subtype transcripts from the centromeric half of the IFNA gene complex were highly expressed in pDCs following HIV-1 exposure. There was an inverse relationship between IFNA subtype expression and potency. IFNα8, IFNα6 and IFNα14 were the most potent in restricting HIV-1 infection. IFNα2, the clinically-approved subtype, and IFNα1 were both highly expressed but exhibited relatively weak antiviral activity. The relative potencies correlated with binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor and the induction levels of HIV-1 restriction factors Mx2 and Tetherin/BST-2 but not APOBEC3G, F and D. However, despite the lack of APOBEC3 transcriptional induction, the higher relative potency of IFNα8 and IFNα14 correlated with stronger inhibition of virion infectivity, which is linked to deaminase-independent APOBEC3 restriction activity. By contrast, both potent (IFNα8) and weak (IFNα1) subtypes significantly induced HIV-1 GG-to-AG hypermutation. The results unravel non-redundant functions of the IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection, with strong implications for HIV-1 mucosal immunity, viral evolution and IFNα-based functional cure strategies. PMID:26529416

  9. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Dillon, S M; Lee, E J; Kotter, C V; Austin, G L; Dong, Z; Hecht, D K; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, D M; Landay, A L; Robertson, C E; Frank, D N; Wilson, C C

    2014-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1-infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared with uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1-infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation, and blood T-cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

  10. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, SM; Lee, EJ; Kotter, CV; Austin, GL; Dong, Z; Hecht, DK; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, DM; Landay, AL; Robertson, CE; Frank, DN; Wilson, CC

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T cell activation, inflammation and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1 infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared to uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1 infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation and blood T cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

  11. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  12. Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Haydont, Valerie; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine |. E-mail: vozenin@igr.fr

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. Method This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Result Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10–12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Conclusions Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa

  14. Gut barrier structure, mucosal immunity and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Tincati, Camilla; Douek, Daniel C; Marchetti, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies. Results from studies addressing the pathogenesis of microbial translocation have improved our knowledge of the damage of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier occurring in HIV infection. However, the extent to which mucosal impairment translates directly to increased gastrointestinal permeability remains an open issue. In this respect, novel work has established a role for IL-17 and IL-22-secreting T cell populations in limiting microbial translocation and systemic T-cell activation/inflammation, thus representing a possible target of immune-therapeutic interventions shown to be promising in the animal model. Further, recent reports have not only confirmed the presence of a dysbiotic intestinal community in the course of HIV infection but have also shown that it may be linked to mucosal damage, microbial translocation and peripheral immune activation. Importantly, technical advances have also shed light on the metabolic activity of gut microbes, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches to correct the function, as well as the composition, of the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:27073405

  15. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Quihui, Luis; Valencia, Mauro E; Crompton, David WT; Phillips, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morales, Gloria; Díaz-Camacho, Silvia P

    2006-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a) "National Deworming Campaign" and b) "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a) presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b) high rates of intestinal parasitism, c) little access to medical examination, and d) a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years) were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child). Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52%) and protozoan infections (65%). The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53%) than in those from Sinaloa (33%) (p < 0.0001). Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR) 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively). Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  16. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Feikin, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    During August 8, 2014–October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case–control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non–EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  17. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Negar; Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M; Robinson, Christine C; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Feikin, Daniel R; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    During August 8, 2014-October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case-control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non-EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  18. Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor M.; Wong, Emily Y.M.; Tsang, Alan K.L.; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K.; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother–calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk. PMID:25989145

  19. Effect of a Clostridium difficile Infection Prevention Initiative in Veterans Affairs Acute Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Rates of clinically confirmed hospital-onset healthcare facility-associated Clostridium difficile infections from July 1, 2012, through March 31, 2015, in 127 acute care Veterans Affairs facilities were evaluated. Quarterly pooled national standardized infection ratios decreased 15% from baseline by the final quarter of the analysis period (P=.01, linear regression). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:720-722. PMID:26864803

  20. SCID mouse models of acute and relapsing chronic Toxoplasma gondii infections.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L L

    1992-01-01

    Lymphodeficient scid/scid (SCID) mice died from acute infection with a strain of Toxoplasma gondii that causes chronic infection with mild symptoms in immunocompetent non-SCID mice. However, most SCID mice reconstituted with spleen cells from immunocompetent mice 1 month prior to T. gondii infection survived in good health after a transient period during which they appeared ill. Unreconstituted SCID mice given sulfadiazine in their drinking water from day 10 of Toxoplasma infection onward survived the acute phase of infection and lived for many weeks without overt symptoms. Histological examination revealed Toxoplasma cysts in their brains. However, if sulfadiazine was withdrawn from the drinking water of these chronically infected SCID mice, the mice died within 1 week with large numbers of trophozoites throughout their brains. These findings establish SCID mice as a potentially useful resource with which to study various aspects of immunological control of T. gondii infection during either its acute or chronic phase. Furthermore, the ability to produce chronic infections with avirulent T. gondii in SCID mice and to cause acute relapsing infections at will suggests that SCID mice may be helpful in evaluating potential therapies for acute and chronic T. gondii infections in immunocompromised patients. Images PMID:1500181

  1. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Intestinal Gene Expression During Arcobacter Butzleri Infection of Gnotobiotic Il-10 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gölz1, Greta; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that Arcobacter butzleri infection induces Toll-like receptor (TLR) -4 dependent immune responses in perorally infected gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. Here, we analyzed TLR-4-dependent expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators and matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in the small and large intestines of gnotobiotic TLR-4-deficient IL-10–/– mice that were perorally infected with A. butzleri strains CCUG 30485 or C1, of human and chicken origin, respectively. At day 6 following A. butzleri infection, colonic mucin-2 mRNA, as integral part of the intestinal mucus layer, was downregulated in the colon, but not ileum, of IL-10–/– but not TLR-4–/– IL-10–/– mice. CCUG 30485 strain-infected TLR-4-deficient IL-10–/– mice displayed less distinctly upregulated IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-1β mRNA levels in ileum and colon, which was also true for colonic IL-22. These changes were accompanied by upregulated colonic MMP-2 and ileal MMP-9 mRNA exclusively in IL-10–/– mice. In conclusion, TLR-4 is essentially involved in A. butzleri mediated modulation of gene expression in the intestines of gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. PMID:27141316

  2. Anguilla anguilla intestinal immune response to natural infection with Contracaecum rudolphii A larvae.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Manera, M; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; D'Amelio, S; Castaldelli, G; Giari, L

    2016-10-01

    The European eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a major warm-water fish species cultured in North and South Europe. Seventy-one A. anguilla collected between 2010 and 2015 from the Comacchio lagoons were examined. Fish were infected and damaged by larvae (L3) of the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii A, which were encapsulated within the thickness of the intestinal wall and within the external visceral peritoneum (serosa). Conspicuous granulomas, visible at sites of infection, were arranged in a trilayer, formed by a series of concentric whorls. The cells involved in the immune response and their distribution in the granuloma layers were assessed by immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and ultrastructural techniques. The outer part of the granuloma contained macrophages, macrophage aggregates, and mast cells (MCs) scattered among fibroblasts. This layer was vascularized, with degranulation of MCs occurring in close proximity to the capillaries. The middle layer was rich in MCs and fibroblasts. The inner layer, closest to the parasite larva, consisted mainly of dark epithelioid cells, some of which were necrotic. Non-necrotic epithelioid cells formed desmosomes between themselves or with fibroblasts. Within the granulomas, numerous cells of different types were positive to proliferative cell nuclear antigen antibody, indicating a high degree of cellular proliferation around the larvae. PMID:26814373

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. Methods In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010–2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. Results Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p < 0.001. Infections with E. histolytica, and G. lamblia were higher among outpatients than inpatients (13.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.001 and 5.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.049) respectively, while infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was higher among inpatients than outpatients (15.3% vs 6.7%) respectively p < 0.001. Other parasites isolated among outpatients included Isospora belli, 19 (1.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides, 26 (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana 12 (0.8%), with the remainder detected in less than ten samples each. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any parasite than uninfected participants, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.04, 95% CI, 1.55-2.67, p < 0.001), and with Cryptosporidium spp. (AOR, 2.96, 95% CI 2.07-4.21, p < 0.001).The inpatients were less likely to be infected with E. histolytica than outpatients (AOR, 0.11, 95% CI, 0.51- 0.24, p < 0.001), but more likely for inpatients to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. than outpatients (AOR, 1

  4. Response to stimulation with recombinant cytokines and synthesis of cytokines by murine intestinal macrophages infected with the Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, N; Young, L S; Bermudez, L E

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the gut is the chief portal of entry for organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in AIDS patients. Bacterial invasion of intestinal mucosa presumably occurs through epithelial cells, and M cells in the Peyer's patches, where the bacteria have contact with immunocompetent cells such as macrophages and T and B lymphocytes. As mucosal macrophages are probably the first line of defense against MAC, we examined their ability to inhibit intracellular growth of MAC when properly stimulated. Mouse intestinal macrophages were purified, infected with MAC 101, serovar 1, and MAC 86-2686, serovar 16, and subsequently stimulated with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Viable intracellular bacteria were quantitated at 24 h after infection and again after 4 days of infection. Stimulation with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and GM-CSF, but not M-CSF, was associated with mycobacteriostatic and/or mycobactericidal activity in macrophages. Treatment with 10(3) U of TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma per ml at 24 h prior to infection with MAC resulted in a significant enhancement in killing of MAC at 4 days after infection, compared with that observed for macrophages exposed to cytokines after infection. When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or live MAC, intestinal macrophages had produced significantly less TNF-alpha and transforming growth factor beta than had splenic and peritoneal macrophages, although the levels of production of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 among the three populations of cells were similar. Intestinal macrophages can be stimulated with cytokines to inhibit the intracellular growth of MAC, but they have differentiated abilities to produce cytokines which can modulate the anti-MAC immune response. PMID:7822018

  5. Ascaridia galli in chickens: intestinal localization and comparison of methods to isolate the larvae within the first week of infection.

    PubMed

    Ferdushy, Tania; Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to observe the localization and to compare methods for isolation of minute Ascaridia galli larvae in chicken intestine. Firstly, six 7-week-old layer pullets were orally infected with 2,000 embryonated A. galli eggs and necropsied either at 3, 5 or 7 days post infection (dpi). More than 95 % of the recovered larvae were obtained from the anterior half of the jejunoileum, suggesting this part as the initial predilection site for A. galli larvae. Secondly, the intestinal wall of one layer pullet infected with 20,000 A. galli eggs 3 days earlier was digested in pepsin-HCl for 90 min. The initial 10 min of digestion released 51 % of the totally recovered larvae and the last 30 min of continuous digestion yielded only 5 %. This indicates that the majority of larvae were located superficially in the intestinal mucosa. Thirdly, 48 7-week-old layer pullets were infected with 500 A. galli eggs and necropsied at 3 dpi to compare three different larval isolation methods from the intestinal wall, viz., EDTA incubation, agar-gel incubation and pepsin-HCl digestion, resulting in mean percentages of the recovered larvae: 14.4, 18.2 and 20.0 %, respectively (P = 0.15). As conclusion, we recommended Pepsin-HCl digestion as the method of choice for larval recovery from the intestinal wall in future population dynamics study due to high efficiency and quick and simple detection. The agar-gel method was considered to be a prerequisite for molecular and immunological investigations as the larvae were more active and fully intact. PMID:22915270

  6. Acute cholecystitis associated with infection of Enterobacteriaceae from gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Yan, Q; Luo, F; Shang, D; Wu, D; Zhang, H; Shang, X; Kang, X; Abdo, M; Liu, B; Ma, Y; Xin, Y

    2015-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is one of the most common surgical diseases. Bacterial infection accounts for 50% to 85% of the disease's onset. Since there is a close relationship between the biliary system and the gut, the aims of this study were to characterize and determine the influence of gut microbiota on AC, to detect the pathogenic microorganism in the biliary system, and to explore the relationship between the gut and bile microbiota of patients with AC. A total of 185 713 high-quality sequence reads were generated from the faecal samples of 15 patients and 13 healthy controls by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Patients' samples were significantly enriched in Akkermansia, Enterobacter and Escherichia/Shigella group. The healthy controls, however, showed significant enrichment of Clostridiales, Coprococcus, Coprobacillaceae, Paraprevotella, Turicibacter and TM7-3 in their faecal samples. Escherichia coli was the main biliary pathogenic microorganism, among others such as Klebsiella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae in the bile of the patients. Additionally, the amount of bile endotoxin significantly correlated with the number of Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli. Our data indicate that Enterobacteriaceae might play essential role in the pathogenesis and/or progress of AC. This was verified in an in vivo model using a pathogenic E. coli isolated from one of the patients in guinea pigs and observed marked gallbladder inflammation and morphologic changes. This study thus provides insight which could be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AC and related diseases by controlling the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to alleviate the infection. PMID:26025761

  7. Incubation periods of acute respiratory viral infections: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lessler, Justin; Reich, Nicholas G; Brookmeyer, Ron; Perl, Trish M; Nelson, Kenrad E; Cummings, Derek A T

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the incubation period is essential in the investigation and control of infectious disease, but statements of incubation period are often poorly referenced, inconsistent, or based on limited data. In a systematic review of the literature on nine respiratory viral infections of public-health importance, we identified 436 articles with statements of incubation period and 38 with data for pooled analysis. We fitted a log-normal distribution to pooled data and found the median incubation period to be 5·6 days (95% CI 4·8–6·3) for adenovirus, 3·2 days (95% CI 2·8–3·7) for human coronavirus, 4·0 days (95% CI 3·6–4·4) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 1·4 days (95% CI 1·3–1·5) for influenza A, 0·6 days (95% CI 0·5–0·6) for influenza B, 12·5 days (95% CI 11·8–13·3) for measles, 2·6 days (95% CI 2·1–3·1) for parainfluenza, 4·4 days (95% CI 3·9–4·9) for respiratory syncytial virus, and 1·9 days (95% CI 1·4–2·4) for rhinovirus. When using the incubation period, it is important to consider its full distribution: the right tail for quarantine policy, the central regions for likely times and sources of infection, and the full distribution for models used in pandemic planning. Our estimates combine published data to give the detail necessary for these and other applications. PMID:19393959

  8. Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens In Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Chidi N.; Barrett, Bruce; Brown, Roger; Vrtis, Rose; Barlow, Shari; Muller, Daniel; Gern, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of bacteria in acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) of adults and interactions with viral infections is incompletely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that bacterial co-infection during ARI adds to airway inflammation and illness severity. Methods Two groups of 97 specimens each were randomly selected from multiplex-PCR identified virus-positive and virus-negative nasal specimens obtained from adults with new onset ARI, and 40 control specimens were collected from healthy adults. All specimens were analyzed for Haemophilus influenza(HI), Moraxella catarrhalis(MC) and Streptococcus pneumonia(SP) by quantitative-PCR. General linear models tested for relationships between respiratory pathogens, biomarkers (nasal wash neutrophils and CXCL8), and ARI-severity. Results Nasal specimens from adults with ARIs were more likely to contain bacteria (37% overall; HI=28%, MC=14%, SP=7%) compared to specimens from healthy adults (5% overall; HI=0%, MC=2.5%, SP=2.5%;p<0.001). Among ARI specimens, bacteria were more likely to be detected among virus-negative specimens compared to virus-positive specimens (46% vs. 27%;p=0.0046). The presence of bacteria was significantly associated with increased CXCL8 and neutrophils, but not increased symptoms. Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria were more often detected in virus-negative ARI, and also associated with increased inflammatory biomarkers. These findings suggest the possibility that bacteria may augment virus-induced ARI and contribute to airway inflammation. Summary We tested whether bacterial pathogens were associated with ARI illness and inflammation. Bacteria were detected more often in nasal secretions during ARI, especially in samples without detectable viruses, and were associated with increased airway inflammation, but not increased symptoms. PMID:24211414

  9. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Benamrouz, Sadia; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Pereira, Bruno; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Pinon, Anthony; Lambert, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delbac, Frederic; Favennec, Loïc; Hamze, Monzer; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. Methodology and Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%), followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%), Giardia duodenalis (28.5%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%). PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa. Conclusions This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was

  11. Profiling Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children from Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farzana; Sarma, Ratna; Debroy, Arup; Kar, Sumit; Pal, Ranabir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%), living in kutcha houses (90.72%) with inadequate ventilation (84.54%), overcrowded living condition (81.44%), with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98%) and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%). ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community. PMID:23599611

  12. Effect of acute cytomegalovirus infection on drug-induced SLE.

    PubMed Central

    Schattner, A.; Sthoeger, Z.; Geltner, D.

    1994-01-01

    A 58 year old woman developed systemic symptoms, interstitial lung disease, splenomegaly, leukopenia and anti-histone and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), while treated with hydralazine for hypertension. Five months after presentation she was admitted with high fever, skin rash and atypical lymphocytosis due to acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Worsening leukopenia and increased ANA were found, and high titres of anti-DNA antibodies, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and rheumatoid factors appeared. Hydralazine was stopped and the patient gradually became asymptomatic. All autoantibodies spontaneously disappeared (over 16 weeks), and the white cell count and spleen size became normal. The patient was found to be a slow acetylator and to have both HLA-DR4 and selective IgA deficiency. Thus, a multifactorial genetic susceptibility to develop drug-induced lupus was brought out in stages first by hydralazine and then by CMV, yet all manifestations and autoantibodies resolved spontaneously, demonstrating the complex interplay of varied environmental factors with a genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:7831173

  13. Nef gene evolution from a single transmitted strain in acute SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Bimber, Benjamin N; Chugh, Pauline; Giorgi, Elena E; Kim, Baek; Almudevar, Anthony L; Dewhurst, Stephen; O'Connor, David H; Lee, Ha Youn

    2009-01-01

    Background The acute phase of immunodeficiency virus infection plays a crucial role in determining steady-state virus load and subsequent progression of disease in both humans and nonhuman primates. The acute period is also the time when vaccine-mediated effects on host immunity are likely to exert their major effects on virus infection. Recently we developed a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation with mathematical analysis of viral evolution during primary HIV-1 infection that enables classification of new HIV-1 infections originating from multiple versus single transmitted viral strains and the estimation of time elapsed following infection. Results A total of 322 SIV nef SIV sequences, collected during the first 3 weeks following experimental infection of two rhesus macaques with the SIVmac239 clone, were analyzed and found to display a comparable level of genetic diversity, 0.015% to 0.052%, with that of env sequences from acute HIV-1 infection, 0.005% to 0.127%. We confirmed that the acute HIV-1 infection model correctly identified the experimental SIV infections in rhesus macaques as "homogenous" infections, initiated by a single founder strain. The consensus sequence of the sampled strains corresponded to the transmitted sequence as the model predicted. However, measured sequential decrease in diversity at day 7, 11, and 18 post infection violated the model assumption, neutral evolution without any selection. Conclusion While nef gene evolution over the first 3 weeks of SIV infection originating from a single transmitted strain showed a comparable rate of sequence evolution to that observed during acute HIV-1 infection, a purifying selection for the founder nef gene was observed during the early phase of experimental infection of a nonhuman primate. PMID:19505314

  14. Acute Scedosporium apiospermum Endobronchial Infection in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Padoan, Rita; Poli, Piercarlo; Colombrita, Domenico; Borghi, Elisa; Timpano, Silviana; Berlucchi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are known pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients. A boy with cystic fibrosis boy presented with acute respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy showed airways obstruction by mucus plugs and bronchial casts. Scedosporium apiospermum was identified as the only pathogen. Bronchoalveolar lavage successfully resolved the acute obstruction. Plastic bronchitis is a new clinical picture of acute Scedosporium endobronchial colonization in cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:26967814

  15. Human infections with liver and minute intestinal flukes in Guangxi, China: analysis by DNA sequencing, ultrasonography, and immunoaffinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Zhang, Hongman; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming; Eom, Keeseon S

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was determined by surveying inhabitants of Hengxuan, Fusui, and Shanglin villages which were known to be endemic for liver flukes in Guangxi, China in May 2010. A total of 718 people were examined for helminth eggs by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique, ultrasonography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and DNA sequencing. The overall egg positive rate was found to be 59.6% (28.0-70.6%) that included mixed infections with liver and intestinal flukes. Cases showing higher than 20,000 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were detected between 1.3% and 16.2%. Ultrasonographic findings exhibited overall 28.2% (72 of 255 cases) dilatation rate of the intrahepatic bile duct. Clonorchis sinensis infection was detected serologically in 88.3% (38 of 43 cases) among C. sinensis egg positive subjects by the immunoaffinity chromatography using a specific antigen for C. sinensis. For differential diagnosis of the liver and intestinal flukes, more precise PCR and nucleotide sequencing for copro-DNA were performed for 46 egg positive cases. Mixed infections with C. sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai were detected in 8 of 46 egg positive cases, whereas 29 specimens were positive for Haplorchis taichui. Ultrasonographic findings and immunoaffinity chromatography results showed usefulness, even in a limited way, in figuring out of the liver fluke endemicity. PMID:23230343

  16. Comparative analysis of intestinal parasitic infections of outpatients in Guangxi medical university affiliated hospital in 2005 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Deng-Yu; Lu, Zuo-Chao; Liu, Xiao-Quan; Zhan, Ting-Zheng; Tang, Li-Li; Liao, De-Jun; Shen, Ji-Qing; He, Shan-Shan; Shi, Huan-Huan; Li, Yan-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the hospital’s status and trends of intestinal parasitic infections and to provide a reference for prevention. Methods: Stool samples were treated by acid-ether centrifugation; iodine staining and direct-smearing were performed; intestinal parasites were examined under a microscope; characteristics of parasitic infections in population were analyzed using the descriptive epidemiological method. Results: 10 kinds of parasites were detected; the infection rate of clonorchissinensis was the highest, followed by B. hominis, hookworm, whipworm and roundworm in order (x2 = 131.188, 1261.928, 129.386, P < 0.01); The overall infection rates in 2013 and 2005 were 37.08% and 41.07% respectively, and the infection rate in 2013 was lower than that in 2005 (x2 = 20.5003, P < 0.01); All the infection rates of clonorchissinensis, hookworm, whipworm and roundworm in 2013 were lower than those in 2005 (x2 = 18.275, 45.449, 34.855, 12.435, P < 0.01); Both in 2005 and 2013, the male infection rate was higher than that in female (x2 = 12.859, 24.924, P < 0.01); For male, the infection rate of clonorchissinensis was the highest, followed by B. hominis (x2 = 313.621, 104.409, P < 0.01); for female, the infection rate of B. hominis was the highest, followed by clonorchissinensis (x2 = 95.293, 43.357, P < 0.01). For male, the age group of 41~ had the highest infection rate of clonorchissinensis in 2005 (x2 = 5.734, P < 0.05), and the age groups of 31~ and 41~ had the highest infection rate of clonorchissinensis in 2013 (x2 = 8.908, P < 0.01); for female, both in 2005 and 2013, the age group of 21~, 31~, 41~ and 51~ had the highest infection rate of clonorchissinensis (x2 = 6.508, 5.145, P < 0.05). There was no difference in male infection rate of B. hominis in 2005 (x2 = 10.134, P > 0.05); in 2013, the age group of 0~ had the highest infection rate (x2 = 3.825, P < 0.05); for women, it was the highest in the age groups of 11~, 21~ and 31~ in 2005 (x2 = 10.459, P

  17. Clinical and laboratory predictive markers for acute dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection during the febrile stage is essential for adjusting appropriate management. This study is to identify the predictive markers of clinical and laboratory findings in the acute stage of dengue infection during a major outbreak of dengue virus type 1 that occurred in southern Taiwan during 2007. A retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted at a university hospital in southern Taiwan from January to December, 2007. Patient who was reported for clinically suspected dengue infection was enrolled. Laboratory-positive dengue cases are confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of specific dengue IgM, fourfold increase of dengue-specific IgG titers in convalescent serum, or by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of dengue virus. Results The suspected dengue cases consist of 100 children (≤ 18 years) and 481 adults. Among the 581 patients, 67 (67%) children and 309 (64.2%) adults were laboratory-confirmed. Patients who had laboratory indeterminate were excluded. Most cases were uncomplicated and 3.8% of children and 2.9% of adults developed dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The overall mortality rate in those with DHF/DSS was 7.1%, and the average duration of hospitalization was 20 days. The most common symptoms/signs at admission were myalgia (46.8%), petechiae (36.9%) and nausea/vomiting (33.5%). The most notable laboratory findings included leukopenia (2966 ± 1896/cmm), thrombocytopenia (102 ± 45 × 103/cmm), prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (45 ± 10 s), and elevated serum levels of aminotransferase (AST, 166 ± 208 U/L; ALT, 82 ± 103 U/L) and low C - reactive protein (CRP) (6 ± 11 mg/L). Based on the clinical features for predicting laboratory-confirmed dengue infection, the sensitivities of typical rash, myalgia, and positive tourniquet test are 59.2%, 46.8%, and 34.2%, while the specificities for

  18. ILC3 GM-CSF production and mobilisation orchestrate acute intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Claire; Thornton, Emily E; McKenzie, Brent; Schaupp, Anna-Lena; Huskens, Nicky; Griseri, Thibault; West, Nathaniel; Tung, Sim; Seddon, Benedict P; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to host defence and tissue repair but can induce immunopathology. Recent work has revealed tissue-specific roles for ILCs; however, the question of how a small population has large effects on immune homeostasis remains unclear. We identify two mechanisms that ILC3s utilise to exert their effects within intestinal tissue. ILC-driven colitis depends on production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which recruits and maintains intestinal inflammatory monocytes. ILCs present in the intestine also enter and exit cryptopatches in a highly dynamic process. During colitis, ILC3s mobilize from cryptopatches, a process that can be inhibited by blocking GM-CSF, and mobilization precedes inflammatory foci elsewhere in the tissue. Together these data identify the IL-23R/GM-CSF axis within ILC3 as a key control point in the accumulation of innate effector cells in the intestine and in the spatio-temporal dynamics of ILCs in the intestinal inflammatory response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10066.001 PMID:26780670

  19. Systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected with Eimeria zuernii.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Bangoura, Berit; Lepik, Triin; Orro, Toomas

    2015-09-15

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are APPs that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against Eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. We investigated the involvement of SAA and HP in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infected with either 150,000 or 250,000 Eimeria zuernii oocysts (group 1 (n=11) and group 2 (n=12), respectively). The calves were monitored for 28 days and data was collected on oocyst excretion, faecal score, animal weight, and SAA and Hp serum concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the clinical symptoms, indicated by an increase in the number of oocysts in the faeces and severe diarrhoea, manifested at patency for group 1 and 2. Serum Hp and SAA levels also increased during this period. Hp appeared to be a more sensitive marker than SAA, and differences between groups 1 and 2 were observed only for Hp. Linear regression models showed a negative association between weight gain and Hp concentrations, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) during the overall experimental period and the patency period. A similar result was seen for SAA only during the patency period. This result supports the assumption that reduced weight gain due to E. zuernii infection is an immunologically driven process that involves an increase in APPs. A random intercept regression model of oocyst shedding groups showed that calves shedding 1-500 oocysts had reduced concentrations of Hp, indicating that a different immunological reaction occurs during mild shedding of E. zuernii oocysts than during more intensive shedding. A similar model was used to examine associations between faecal scores and Hp concentrations for each group. Group 2 calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea displayed

  20. Effects of feed additives and mixed eimeria species infection on intestinal microbial ecology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Hume, M E; Clemente-Hernández, S; Oviedo-Rondón, E O

    2006-12-01

    Evaluation of digestive microbial ecology is necessary to understand effects of growth-promoting feed. In the current study, the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) were examined in broilers fed diets supplemented with a combination of antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and ionophore (Coban 60), and diets containing 1 of 2 essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated uninfected control; 2) unmedicated infected control; 3) feed additives monensin (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) + monensin (Coban 60; AI); 4) EO blend CP; and 5) EO blend CA. Additives were mixed into a basal feed mixture, and EO were adjusted to 100 ppm. Chicks were infected by oral gavage at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before and 7 d after challenge; 2 samples each were pooled to give a final number of 6 samples total; and all pooled samples were frozen until used for DNA extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of PCR amplicon or band patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci challenge. Essential oil blends CP and CA affected MC in all gut sections. Each EO had different effects over MC, and they differed in most instances from the AI group. The cocci challenge caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). Diets supplemented with CP supported higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC (89.9, 83.3, and 76.4%) than AI (81.8., 57.4, and 60.0%). We concluded that mixed coccidia challenge caused drastic shifts in MC. These EO blends modulated MC better than AI, avoiding drastic

  1. Disseminated Neocosmospora vasinfecta infection in a patient with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, O. A.; Chemnitz, J.; Brochhagen, H. G.; Lemmer, K.; Schütt, H.; Söhngen, D.; Staib, P.; Wickenhauser, C.; Diehl, V.; Tintelnot, K.

    2001-01-01

    We report Neocosmospora vasinfecta infection following chemotherapy for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. N. vasinfecta, a plant pathogen, was identified by culture and genetic sequencing. Susceptibility testing revealed in vitro resistance for common antifungals. PMID:11266308

  2. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  3. Enhancing the detection and management of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Marianne; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-10-01

    Acute HCV infection refers to the 6-month period following infection acquisition, although this definition is somewhat arbitrary. While spontaneous clearance occurs in approximately 25%, the majority will develop chronic HCV infection with the potential for development of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Detection of acute HCV infection has been hampered by its asymptomatic or non-specific presentation, lack of specific diagnostic tests and the inherent difficulties in identifying and following individuals at highest risk of transmitting and acquiring HCV infection, such as people who inject drugs (PWID). However, recognition of those with acute infection may have individual and population level benefits and could represent an ideal opportunity for intervention. Despite demonstration that HCV treatment is feasible and successful in PWID, treatment uptake remains low with multiple barriers to care at an individual and systems level. Given the burden of HCV-related disease among PWID, strategies to enhance HCV assessment, treatment and prevention in this group are urgently needed. As the therapeutic landscape of chronic HCV management is revolutionised by the advent of simple, highly effective directly-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, similar opportunities may exist in acute infection. This review will discuss issues surrounding improving the detection and management of acute HCV infection, particularly in PWID. PMID:26254495

  4. Acute Small-Bowel Obstruction From Intestinal Anisakiasis After the Ingestion of Raw Clams; Documenting a New Method of Marine-to-Human Parasitic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Rittenhouse, David W.; Ochoa, Joana E.; Punja, Viren P.; Zubair, Muhammad H.; Baliff, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Enteric anisakiasis is a known parasitic infection. To date, human infection has been reported as resulting from the inadvertent ingestion of the anisakis larvae when eating raw/undercooked fish, squid, or eel. We present a first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis, after the ingestion of raw clams. PMID:25734153

  5. [Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Alves, Jair Rodrigues; Macedo, Heloísa Werneck; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from S o Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piau State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%), Endolimax nana (13.6%), Hymenolepis nana (9.4%), and hookworm (9.4%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years. PMID:12764483

  6. The intestinal immunoendocrine axis: novel cross-talk between enteroendocrine cells and the immune system during infection and inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, John J

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents one of our most important interfaces with the external environment. It must remain tightly balanced to allow nutrient absorption, but maintain barrier function and immune homoeostasis, a failure of which results in chronic infection or debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The intestinal epithelium mainly consists of absorptive enterocytes and secretory goblet and Paneth cells and has recently come to light as being an essential modulator of immunity as opposed to a simple passive barrier. Each epithelial sub-type can produce specific immune modulating factors, driving innate immunity to pathogens as well as preventing autoimmunity. The enteroendocrine cells comprise just 1% of this epithelium, but collectively form the bodies’ largest endocrine system. The mechanisms of enteroendocrine cell peptide secretion during feeding, metabolism and nutrient absorption are well studied; but their potential interactions with the enriched numbers of surrounding immune cells remain largely unexplored. This review focuses on alterations in enteroendocrine cell number and peptide secretion during inflammation and disease, highlighting the few in depth studies which have attempted to dissect the immune driven mechanisms that drive these phenomena. Moreover, the emerging potential of enteroendocrine cells acting as innate sensors of intestinal perturbation and secreting peptides to directly orchestrate immune cell function will be proposed. In summary, the data generated from these studies have begun to unravel a complex cross-talk between immune and enteroendocrine cells, highlighting the emerging immunoendocrine axis as a potential target for therapeutic strategies for infections and inflammatory disorders of the intestine. PMID:26551720

  7. Radiculoplexopathy with conduction block caused by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Steve; Palmer, William; Cros, Didier

    2005-02-01

    The authors report a case of cervicobrachial radiculoplexopathy with proximal conduction block (CB), associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The patient presented with pain, paresthesias, and monomelic weakness in the left C7-8, and T1 myotomes. The illness was monophasic with rapid recovery. Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated CB in the proximal left median and ulnar nerve segments. The authors conclude that this syndrome resulted from a postinfectious process following acute EBV infection. PMID:15699388

  8. Acute Hepatitis as a Manifestation of Parvovirus B19 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hatakka, Aleisha; Klein, Julianne; He, Runtao; Piper, Jessica; Tam, Edward; Walkty, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of parvovirus B19-associated acute hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM) and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in a liver biopsy specimen. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute hepatitis. PMID:21734024

  9. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain PMID:22461879

  10. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  11. Environmental epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis and genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni infections in snails at Bugoigo village, Lake Albert.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Sarah; Standley, Claire J; Adriko, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2013-11-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be hyper-endemic in the fishing community of Bugoigo located on the eastern shore of Lake Albert, Uganda. Our study aimed to identify the factors that determine the local distribution and abundance of Biomphalaria, as well as infection(s) with Schistosoma mansoni inclusive of their genetic diversity. In addition, a DNA barcoding approach was taken to genotype schistosome cercariae, exploring the micro-epidemiology of infections. Over a 3-week period in June-July 2010, several hundred Biomphalaria spp. were collected, together with environmental information, from 10 selected sites, representative of both putative wave-exposed (n=5) and wave-sheltered shorelines (n=5). A Mann-Whitney U-test and a generalized linear model were used to assess associations with snail abundance and parasite infections across the shoreline. Levels of local wave action were recorded over the 19-day period using digital accelerometers. The general absence of wave action on the sheltered shoreline likely helped to raise and focalize other environmental parameters, such as water conductivity by lack of mixing, that foster transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis. Over the study period, a total of 10 infected snails were encountered and a selection of schistosome cercariae from each infected snail was harvested for analysis by DNA barcoding. In total, 91 DNA barcodes were generated with 15 unique barcode types identified. Of these, 4 barcodes had been found previously in Lake Albert and (or) Victoria, the remaining 11 were newly encountered here and described. The distribution of DNA barcodes across infected snails and sampled locations revealed a complicated spatial sub-structuring. By shedding new light on the fine-scale patterning of infections, DNA barcoding has revealed a rather heterogeneous landscape of cercariae, likely inclusive of multi-miracidial infections within the snail, which will in turn interplay with human water contact activities to

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Methods Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient’s condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Results Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. Discussion In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Conclusion Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission. PMID:24180319

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by Women With Tubal Factor Infertility, Normal Fertility, and Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Budrys, Nicole M.; Gong, Siqi; Rodgers, Allison K.; Wang, Jie; Louden, Christopher; Shain, Rochelle; Schenken, Robert S.; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify Chlamydia trachomatis antigens associated with tubal factor infertility and acute infection. Methods A C. trachomatis proteome array was used to compare antibody profiles among women with tubal factor infertility, normal fertility, and acute C. trachomatis infection. Results Thirteen immunodominant antigens reacted with 50% or more sera from all women (N=73). Six C. trachomatis antigens were uniquely recognized by women diagnosed with tubal factor infertility. Combining fragmentation of the six antigens with serum sample dilution, chlamydial antigens HSP60, CT376, CT557, and CT443 could discriminate between women with tubal factor infertility and women with normal fertility with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.91–1), respectively. These antigens were designated as tubal factor infertility-associated antigens. However, these tubal factor antigens were unable to distinguish tubal factor infertility patients from those with acute infection. A combination of CT875 and CT147 distinguished women with acute infection from all other C. trachomatis-exposed women with a detection sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.95–1), respectively. Thus, CT875 and CT147 were designated as acute infection-associated antigens. Conclusion A sequential screening of antibodies against panels of C. trachomatis antigens can be used to identify women with tubal factor infertility and acute C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22525912

  14. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14–18 h after lung infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14–18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, pig major acute phase protein, and transferrin in peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:19236838

  15. Programming of Intestinal Epithelial Differentiation by IL-33 Derived from Pericryptal Fibroblasts in Response to Systemic Infection.

    PubMed

    Mahapatro, Mousumi; Foersch, Sebastian; Hefele, Manuela; He, Gui-Wei; Giner-Ventura, Elisa; Mchedlidze, Tamar; Kindermann, Markus; Vetrano, Stefania; Danese, Silvio; Günther, Claudia; Neurath, Markus F; Wirtz, Stefan; Becker, Christoph

    2016-05-24

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an efficient barrier against the microbial flora. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected function of IL-33 as a regulator of epithelial barrier functions. Mice lacking IL-33 showed decreased Paneth cell numbers and lethal systemic infection in response to Salmonella typhimurium. IL-33 was produced upon microbial challenge by a distinct population of pericryptal fibroblasts neighboring the intestinal stem cell niche. IL-33 programmed the differentiation of epithelial progenitors toward secretory IEC including Paneth and goblet cells. Finally, IL-33 suppressed Notch signaling in epithelial cells and induced expression of transcription factors governing differentiation into secretory IEC. In summary, we demonstrate that gut pericryptal fibroblasts release IL-33 to translate bacterial infection into an epithelial response to promote antimicrobial defense. PMID:27184849

  16. Long-Term Relationships: the Complicated Interplay between the Host and the Developmental Stages of Toxoplasma gondii during Acute and Chronic Infections.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Kelly J; Knoll, Laura J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii represents one of the most common parasitic infections in the world. The asexual cycle can occur within any warm-blooded animal, but the sexual cycle is restricted to the feline intestinal epithelium. T. gondii is acquired through consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat as well as food and water contaminated with oocysts. Once ingested, it differentiates into a rapidly replicating asexual form and disseminates throughout the body during acute infection. After stimulation of the host immune response, T. gondii differentiates into a slow-growing, asexual cyst form that is the hallmark of chronic infection. One-third of the human population is chronically infected with T. gondii cysts, which can reactivate and are especially dangerous to individuals with reduced immune surveillance. Serious complications can also occur in healthy individuals if infected with certain T. gondii strains or if infection is acquired congenitally. No drugs are available to clear the cyst form during the chronic stages of infection. This therapeutic gap is due in part to an incomplete understanding of both host and pathogen responses during the progression of T. gondii infection. While many individual aspects of T. gondii infection are well understood, viewing the interconnections between host and parasite during acute and chronic infection may lead to better approaches for future treatment. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of what is known and unknown about the complex relationship between the host and parasite during the progression of T. gondii infection, with the ultimate goal of bridging these events. PMID:26335719

  17. Elevated IL-23R Expression and Foxp3+Rorgt+ Cells in Intestinal Mucosa During Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND IL-23/IL-23R signaling plays a pivotal role during the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are critical in the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis and therefore are important in preventing the development of IBD. This study was performed to clarify the association between IL-23/IL-23R signaling and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in colitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Acute and chronic mouse colitis models were established by administering mice DSS in drinking water. IL-23R, IL-23, IL-I7, and IFN-γ expression level, as well as regulatory T cell, Th17-, and Th1-related transcription factors Foxp3, RORgt, and T-bet were assayed by real-time PCR. The frequency of Foxp3+ RORγt+ cells in a Foxp3+ cell population in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis was evaluated through flow cytometry. The signaling pathway mediated by IL-23R in the colon mucosa from acute colitis mice and chronic colitis mice was monitored by Western blot analysis. RESULTS We detected elevated IL-23R, IL-23, and IFN-γ expression in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis and found increased IL-17 in acute colitis mice. Transcription factors Foxp3 and T-bet were elevated in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis. Phosphorylation of Stat3 was greatly enhanced, indicating the activation of IL-23R function in colitis mice. The percentage of Foxp3+ T cells in acute and chronic colitis mice was comparable to control mice, but there was a 2-fold increase of Foxp3+ RORγt+ cells among the Foxp3+ cell population in acute and chronic colitis mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that the induction of Foxp3+ RORgt+ T cells could be enhanced during inflammation in the intestine where IL-23R expression is greatly induced. Our study highlights the importance of IL-23R expression level and the instability of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the development of

  18. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes. PMID:25486507

  19. Changes in the Porcine Intestinal Microbiome in Response to Infection with Salmonella enterica and Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Randall S.; Gebhart, Connie J.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Johnson, Timothy; Isaacson, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of food borne illness. Recent studies have shown that S. enterica is a pathogen capable of causing alterations to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. A recent prospective study of French pork production farms found a statistically significant association between Lawsonia intracellularis and carriage of S. enterica. In the current study the composition of the gut microbiome was determined in pigs challenged with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and or L. intracellularis and compared to non-challenged control pigs. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that there was a disruption in the composition of the gut microbiome in the colon and cecum of pigs challenged with either pathogen. The compositions of the microbiomes of challenged pigs were similar to each other but differed from the non-challenged controls. There also were statistically significant increases in Anaerobacter, Barnesiella, Pediococcus, Sporacetigenium, Turicibacter, Catenibacterium, Prevotella, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Xylanibacter in the challenged pigs. To determine if these changes were specific to experimentally challenged pigs, we determined the compositions of the fecal microbiomes of naturally infected pigs that were carriers of S. enterica. Pigs that were frequent shedders of S. enterica were shown to have similar fecal microbiomes compared to non-shedders or pigs that shed S. enterica infrequently. In a comparison of the differentially abundant bacteria in the naturally infected pigs compared to experimentally challenged pigs, 9 genera were differentially abundant and each exhibited the same increase or decrease in abundance between the two groups. Thus, there were similar changes in the GI microbiome associated with carriage of S. enterica regardless of whether the pigs were experimentally challenged with S. enterica or acquired it naturally. PMID:26461107

  20. Changes in the Porcine Intestinal Microbiome in Response to Infection with Salmonella enterica and Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Borewicz, Klaudyna A; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Singer, Randall S; Gebhart, Connie J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Johnson, Timothy; Isaacson, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of food borne illness. Recent studies have shown that S. enterica is a pathogen capable of causing alterations to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. A recent prospective study of French pork production farms found a statistically significant association between Lawsonia intracellularis and carriage of S. enterica. In the current study the composition of the gut microbiome was determined in pigs challenged with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and or L. intracellularis and compared to non-challenged control pigs. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated that there was a disruption in the composition of the gut microbiome in the colon and cecum of pigs challenged with either pathogen. The compositions of the microbiomes of challenged pigs were similar to each other but differed from the non-challenged controls. There also were statistically significant increases in Anaerobacter, Barnesiella, Pediococcus, Sporacetigenium, Turicibacter, Catenibacterium, Prevotella, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Xylanibacter in the challenged pigs. To determine if these changes were specific to experimentally challenged pigs, we determined the compositions of the fecal microbiomes of naturally infected pigs that were carriers of S. enterica. Pigs that were frequent shedders of S. enterica were shown to have similar fecal microbiomes compared to non-shedders or pigs that shed S. enterica infrequently. In a comparison of the differentially abundant bacteria in the naturally infected pigs compared to experimentally challenged pigs, 9 genera were differentially abundant and each exhibited the same increase or decrease in abundance between the two groups. Thus, there were similar changes in the GI microbiome associated with carriage of S. enterica regardless of whether the pigs were experimentally challenged with S. enterica or acquired it naturally. PMID:26461107

  1. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  2. Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma without Helicobacter pylori infection successfully treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Satoshi; Miyaoka, Youichi; Fujiwara, Aya; Tsukano, Kousuke; Ogawa, Sayaka; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-08-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination and for treatment of gastric neoplasia located on the posterior wall of the antrum of the stomach, as revealed by screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The patient had no history of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Her serum H. pylori antibody and urea breath test results were negative, histopathological findings revealed no H. pylori bacteria, and endoscopic findings revealed no chronic gastritis. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Histological examination of the resected tissues revealed the tumor to be composed of a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with a tubular-type adenoma confined to the mucosa. This adenocarcinoma exhibited immunohistochemical expression of CD10, MUC2, and Cdx2, but not MUC5AC or MUC6. This is an extremely rare case of H. pylori infection-negative, intestinal-type, differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by detailed immunohistochemical examination that was treated with ESD. The patient has had no recurrence of adenocarcinoma after ESD. PMID:27259702

  3. Is there a role for lactobacilli in prevention of urogenital and intestinal infections?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A W; McGroarty, J A; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1990-01-01

    This review describes the importance of microbial adhesion in the ecology of the urogenital and intestinal tracts and the influence of host and microbial factors in bacterial interference. In a recent revival of interest in bacterial interference, lactobacillus administration has been studied as a means of treating and preventing disease. Although evidence is conflicting, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to be involved in beneficial antagonistic and cooperative reactions that interfere with establishment of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms of action are believed to involve competitive exclusion and production of inhibitory substances, including bacteriocins. These characteristics, as well as demonstrated adherence abilities in vitro, led to selection of certain Lactobacillus strains for clinical studies of cystitis. Weekly intravaginal Lactobacillus therapy reduced the recurrence rate of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in women. Use of Lactobacillus strains resistant to Nonoxynol-9, a spermicide that kills members of the protective normal vaginal flora, may have potential for use in women with recurrent cystitis using this contraceptive agent. In veterinary studies, bacterial interference by administration of probiotics has also been beneficial in disease prevention in animals. Carefully selected bacterial mixtures integrate with the gastrointestinal flora of the animals and can confer disease resistance and improve physiological function. Additional human and animal trials are needed to determine the practical, long-term usefulness of bacterial interference as a protective mechanism against infectious diseases. Images PMID:2224835

  4. Th17 Cells Coordinate with Th22 Cells in Maintaining Homeostasis of Intestinal Tissues and both are Depleted in SIV-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Th17 and Th22 cells are thought to function as innate regulators of mucosal antimicrobial responses, tissue inflammation and mucosal integrity, yet their role in persistent SIV infection is still unclear. Here we compared Th17 and Th22 cells in their phenotype, effector/cytokine function, and frequency in blood and intestinal mucosal tissues, and correlate levels with mucosal damage in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. We found that Th17/Th22 cells share similar features in that both highly produce TNF-α and IL-2 and express CCR5 in intestinal tissues; yet very few show cytotoxic functions, as evidenced by lack of IFN-γ and granzyme B production. Further, Th17/Th22 cells display distinct tissue-specific distributions. Both Th17 and Th22 cells and cytokine secretion were significantly depleted in both blood and intestine in chronically SIV-infected macaques. The frequency of Th17 and Th22 cells in the intestine positively correlated with percentages of intestinal CD4+ T cells and negatively with damage to intestinal mucosa, and plasma viral loads in SIV infection. These findings indicate Th17 and Th22 cells share considerable functions, and may coordinate in innate mucosal immune responses, and their regional loss in the intestine may be associated with local mucosal immune dysfunction in persistent HIV/SIV infection. PMID:25364618

  5. Colorectal Disorders in Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Panichsillapakit, Theppharit; Patel, Derek; Santangelo, Joanne; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is important in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report a case series of lower GI endoscopic and histopathologic findings of HIV-infected individuals after presentation with acute infection. Methods. We performed a retrospective case review of individuals infected with HIV who enrolled between August 2010 and April 2013 in a primary infection treatment trial. All participants started the trial during acute infection and underwent colonoscopy with biopsies at baseline and after the start of antiretroviral treatment. Results. Twenty acutely infected individuals were included in the study (mean age, 33 years; range, 20–54 years). All participants were male who reported having receptive anal sex as an HIV risk factor. Nine individuals (45%) had at least 1 finding by colorectal pathology; 1 person had 2 diagnoses (diverticulosis and focal active proctitis). The histopathological findings revealed anal dysplasia in 3 cases: 2 had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 1 had low-grade AIN. Two persons had a colorectal polyp, 1 hyperplastic and 1 adenomatous. Three persons were diagnosed with diverticulosis, and 2 persons were diagnosed with proctitis, including 1 with focal active proctitis and 1 with cytomegalovirus proctitis. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first case series report of lower GI disorders in acute HIV-infected individuals. Although the causal relationship remains uncertain, we describe the endoscopic findings that were observed during acute HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Understanding the prevalence of these pathologies may likely shed light on how acute HIV infection damages the lower GI tract. PMID:26925432

  6. Large intestine-targeted nanoparticle-releasing oral vaccine to control genitorectal viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Talton, James; Zhang, Guofeng; Cunningham, Tshaka; Wang, Zijian; Waters, Robert C.; Kirk, James; Eppler, Bärbel; Dennis M, Klinman; Sui, Yongjun; Gagnon, Susan; Belyakov, Igor M.; Mumper, Russell J.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Both rectal and vaginal mucosal surfaces serve as transmission routes for pathogenic microorganisms. Vaccination through large intestinal mucosa, previously proven protective for both mucosal sites in animal studies, can be achieved successfully by direct intra-colorectal (i.c.r.) administration, which is, however, clinically impractical. Oral delivery seems preferable, but risks vaccine destruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we designed a large intestine-targeted oral delivery with pH-dependent microparticles containing vaccine nanoparticles, which induced colorectal immunity in mice comparably to colorectal vaccination and protected against rectal or vaginal viral challenge. Conversely, vaccine targeted to the small intestine induced only small intestinal immunity and provided no rectal or vaginal protection, demonstrating functional compartmentalization within the gut mucosal immune system. Therefore, using this oral vaccine delivery system to target the large intestine, but not the small intestine, may represent a feasible novel strategy for immune protection of rectal and vaginal mucosa. PMID:22797811

  7. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia PMID:27244955

  8. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-07-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of (/sup 35/S) sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the /sup 35/S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans.

  9. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  10. Ukrain (NSC 631570) ameliorates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute lung injury by reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Cengiz; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Akcilar, Raziye; Akcilar, Aydin; Savran, Bircan; Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zulfu; Bayat, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes severe destruction in remote organs. Lung damage is a frequently seen complication after intestinal I/R. Ukrain (NSC 631570) is a synthetic thiophosphate derivative of alkaloids from the extract of the celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) plant. We investigated the effect of Ukrain in animals with lung injury induced by intestinal I/R. Adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Ukrain, I/R, I/R with Ukrain. Before intestinal I/R was induced, Ukrain was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 7.0 mg/body weight. After 1 h ischemia and 2 h reperfusion period, lung tissues were excised. Tissue levels of total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured and oxidative stress indices (OSI) were calculated. Lung tissues were also examined histopathologically. TOS and OSI levels markedly increased and TAS levels decreased in the I/R group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). TOS and OSI levels markedly decreased and TAS levels increased in the I/R with Ukrain group compared with the group subjected to IR only (P < 0.05). Severe hemorrhage, alveolar septal thickening, and leukocyte infiltration were observed in the I/R group. In the I/R with Ukrain group, morphologic changes occurring as a result of lung damage attenuated and histopathological scores reduced compared to the I/R group (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that Ukrain pretreatment could reduce lung injury induced by intestinal I/R induced via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:26773189

  11. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED AND ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL INFECTIVITY, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ANALYSIS, AND ANTIGEN DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detecting infectious virus, nucleic material, and antigen. Persistently infected (PI) and acutely/transiently infected calves with BVDV represent two different manifestations. Diagnostic test results impact on differentiation of PI o...

  12. Mucosal immunisation with novel Streptococcus pneumoniae protein antigens enhances bacterial clearance in an acute mouse lung infection model.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Maha; Kyd, Jennelle M; Cripps, Allan W

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae contains many proteins that have not been evaluated as potential protective vaccine antigens. In this study we isolated proteins from a serotype 3 strain of S. pneumoniae for use in mouse immunisation studies. Separation of the protein mix was achieved by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by electro-elution to isolate individual proteins. This procedure successfully separated 21 fractions from which six proteins were selected based on purity and quantity and were initially denoted by their molecular masses: 14-, 34-, 38-, 48-, 57- and 75-kDa. The immunogenicity of these proteins was investigated in a mucosal immunisation model in mice involving a primary inoculation to the intestinal Peyer's patches followed by an intra-tracheal boost two weeks later. The immune response was assessed by enhancement of pulmonary clearance of infection, recruitment of phagocytes to the lungs and induction of an antibody response. Two of the proteins, the 14-kDa identified as a L7/L12 ribosomal protein, and the 34-kDa identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase resulted in up to 99% and 94%, respectively, enhanced clearance of infection within 5 h following pulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae. This study has shown that novel pneumococcal proteins have the potential to be vaccine candidates to enhance clearance of an acute mucosal S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:15780579

  13. Regulatory T cells promote a protective Th17-associated immune response to intestinal bacterial infection with C. rodentium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Friedrich, C; Hagemann, S C; Korte, W H; Goharani, N; Cording, S; Eberl, G; Sparwasser, T; Lochner, M

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal infection with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induces a strong local Th17 response in the colon. Although this inflammatory immune response helps to clear the pathogen, it also induces inflammation-associated pathology in the gut and thus, has to be tightly controlled. In this project, we therefore studied the impact of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on the infectious and inflammatory processes elicited by the bacterial pathogen C. rodentium. Surprisingly, we found that depletion of Treg by diphtheria toxin in the Foxp3(DTR) (DEREG) mouse model resulted in impaired bacterial clearance in the colon, exacerbated body weight loss, and increased systemic dissemination of bacteria. Consistent with the enhanced susceptibility to infection, we found that the colonic Th17-associated T-cell response was impaired in Treg-depleted mice, suggesting that the presence of Treg is crucial for the establishment of a functional Th17 response after the infection in the gut. As a consequence of the impaired Th17 response, we also observed less inflammation-associated pathology in the colons of Treg-depleted mice. Interestingly, anti-interleukin (IL)-2 treatment of infected Treg-depleted mice restored Th17 induction, indicating that Treg support the induction of a protective Th17 response during intestinal bacterial infection by consumption of local IL-2. PMID:24646939

  14. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  15. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  16. Inflammation-associated alterations to the intestinal microbiota reduce colonization resistance against non-typhoidal Salmonella during concurrent malaria parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jason P; Lokken, Kristen L; Byndloss, Mariana X; George, Michael D; Velazquez, Eric M; Faber, Franziska; Butler, Brian P; Walker, Gregory T; Ali, Mohamed M; Potts, Rashaun; Tiffany, Caitlin; Ahmer, Brian M M; Luckhart, Shirley; Tsolis, Renée M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood malaria is a risk factor for disseminated infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. While hemolytic anemia and an altered cytokine environment have been implicated in increased susceptibility to NTS, it is not known whether malaria affects resistance to intestinal colonization with NTS. To address this question, we utilized a murine model of co-infection. Infection of mice with Plasmodium yoelii elicited infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and T cells into the intestinal mucosa and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. These mucosal responses were also observed in germ-free mice, showing that they are independent of the resident microbiota. Remarkably, P. yoelii infection reduced colonization resistance of mice against S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. Further, 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the intestinal microbiota revealed marked changes in the community structure. Shifts in the microbiota increased susceptibility to intestinal colonization by S. Typhimurium, as demonstrated by microbiota reconstitution of germ-free mice. These results show that P. yoelii infection, via alterations to the microbial community in the intestine, decreases resistance to intestinal colonization with NTS. Further they raise the possibility that decreased colonization resistance may synergize with effects of malaria on systemic immunity to increase susceptibility to disseminated NTS infections. PMID:26434367

  17. Inflammation-associated alterations to the intestinal microbiota reduce colonization resistance against non-typhoidal Salmonella during concurrent malaria parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Jason P.; Lokken, Kristen L.; Byndloss, Mariana X.; George, Michael D.; Velazquez, Eric M.; Faber, Franziska; Butler, Brian P.; Walker, Gregory T.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Potts, Rashaun; Tiffany, Caitlin; Ahmer, Brian M. M.; Luckhart, Shirley; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood malaria is a risk factor for disseminated infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. While hemolytic anemia and an altered cytokine environment have been implicated in increased susceptibility to NTS, it is not known whether malaria affects resistance to intestinal colonization with NTS. To address this question, we utilized a murine model of co-infection. Infection of mice with Plasmodium yoelii elicited infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and T cells into the intestinal mucosa and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. These mucosal responses were also observed in germ-free mice, showing that they are independent of the resident microbiota. Remarkably, P. yoelii infection reduced colonization resistance of mice against S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. Further, 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the intestinal microbiota revealed marked changes in the community structure. Shifts in the microbiota increased susceptibility to intestinal colonization by S. Typhimurium, as demonstrated by microbiota reconstitution of germ-free mice. These results show that P. yoelii infection, via alterations to the microbial community in the intestine, decreases resistance to intestinal colonization with NTS. Further they raise the possibility that decreased colonization resistance may synergize with effects of malaria on systemic immunity to increase susceptibility to disseminated NTS infections. PMID:26434367

  18. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  19. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  20. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water

  2. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  3. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with a negative FL test. The risk of Salmonella infection increased when the age of laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying

  4. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    KIANI, Hamed; HAGHIGHI, Ali; ROSTAMI, Ali; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; TABAEI, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; SOLGI, Abbas; ZEBARDAST, Nozhat

    2016-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted. PMID:27253744

  5. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Hamed; Haghighi, Ali; Rostami, Ali; Azargashb, Eznollah; Tabaei, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; Solgi, Abbas; Zebardast, Nozhat

    2016-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted. PMID:27253744

  6. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Plasmodium Vivax Infection: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Jasmeet; Maheshwari, Anu; Gupta, Raju; Devgan, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) usually occurs after viral infections or vaccination. Its occurrence after Plasmodium vivax infection is extremely uncommon. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who had choreo-athetoid movements and ataxia after recovery from P.vivax infection. Diagnosis of ADEM was made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings. The child responded to corticosteroids with complete neurological recovery. PMID:26266032

  7. Acute Viral Respiratory Infection Rapidly Induces a CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion-like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V

    2015-11-01

    Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. PMID:26401005

  8. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  9. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  10. Acute effects of guar gum on glucose tolerance and intestinal absorption of nutrients in rats.

    PubMed

    Daumerie, C; Henquin, J C

    1982-03-01

    The mechanism by which non-digestible fibres improve oral glucose tolerance is still unclear. We have studied the effects of guar gum on oral carbohydrate tolerance and intestinal absorption of nutrients in anaesthetized rats. Addition of guar to an intragastric glucose load (1 g/kg) markedly delayed the rise in plasma glucose levels when the concentration of the gum was adequate (10 mg/ml). The insulin response was somewhat less marked, but the differences were not significant. When glucose was introduced directly into the duodenum, the gum only slightly reduced the rise in glucose levels, during the first 15 min. If sucrose (1 g/kg) was infused in the duodenum, acarboseR, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, but not guar, slowed the rise in plasma glucose and insulin levels. Intestinal absorption was measured in a tied duodenojejunal loop. Guar decreased active transport of glucose (4 mmol/l) by approximately 20%, but had no significant effect on the passive transport of glucose (100 mmol/l), nor on the absorption of sucrose (40 mmol/l) or leucine (4 mmol/l). At the concentration which improved glucose tolerance (10 mg/ml), but not at lower concentrations, guar gum markedly slowed gastric emptying. These results suggest that guar gum improves tolerance to oral carbohydrates mainly by decreasing the rate of gastric emptying, but inhibition of intestinal absorption may also be involved in the presence of low concentrations of the sugars. PMID:6284563

  11. Pore alterations of the endothelial lining of rat fenestrated intestinal capillaries exposed to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Aosa, Taishi; Chiba, Seiichi; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Ina, Keisuke; Tatsukawa, Shuji; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Wei, Huixing; Gotoh, Koro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka; Fujikura, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    Stress-induced inflammatory responses in the portal system are characterized by elevations in serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS translocation from the intestinal to the capillary lumen occurs via LPS endocytosis by the capillary endothelium. Because the capillary endothelium of the small intestinal submucosa is fenestrated, we determined the role of pore modifications within the fenestrated endothelium in relaying inflammatory stress responses in the portal vein. We evaluated changes in the diameter and density of endothelial pores of the lamina propria of intestinal villi induced by continuous light (CL) exposure for 48 h and the correlation between these changes and serum IL-6 concentration in the portal vein in a rat model. We found significant increases in both the pore diameter and density, accompanied by a significant increase in portal IL-6 concentration; these changes were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with propranolol, a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. In contrast, intravenous noradrenaline administration mimicked CL-induced modifications of the diameter and density of pores and the elevation of portal vein IL-6 concentration. These findings suggested that stress-induced inflammatory responses in the portal system may be a part of the modifications of the endothelial pores triggered by sympathetic activation. PMID:26728293

  12. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  13. Tetherin/BST-2 promotes dendritic cell activation and function during acute retrovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sam X.; Barrett, Bradley S.; Guo, Kejun; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Gibbert, Kathrin; Santiago, Mario L.

    2016-01-01

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that inhibits retrovirus release from infected cells in vitro by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, contradictory data exists on whether Tetherin inhibits acute retrovirus infection in vivo. Previously, we reported that Tetherin-mediated inhibition of Friend retrovirus (FV) replication at 2 weeks post-infection correlated with stronger natural killer, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we further investigated the role of Tetherin in counteracting retrovirus replication in vivo. FV infection levels were similar between wild-type (WT) and Tetherin KO mice at 3 to 7 days post-infection despite removal of a potent restriction factor, Apobec3/Rfv3. However, during this phase of acute infection, Tetherin enhanced myeloid dendritic cell (DC) function. DCs from infected, but not uninfected, WT mice expressed significantly higher MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 compared to Tetherin KO DCs. Tetherin-associated DC activation during acute FV infection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. Furthermore, Tetherin+ DCs from FV-infected mice more strongly stimulated FV-specific CD4+ T cells ex vivo compared to Tetherin KO DCs. The results link the antiretroviral and immunomodulatory activity of Tetherin in vivo to improved DC activation and MHC class II antigen presentation. PMID:26846717

  14. Persistence of intestinal parasitic infections during the national de-worming campaign in schoolchildren of northwestern Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitism remains a public health challenge in northwestern Mexico even when a twice yearly single dose of albendazole (400 mg) is administered to schoolchildren. We aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren of northwestern Mexico. Methods The Faust and Kato Katz techniques were used to detect and identify the intestinal parasite species. One thousand two hundred and seventy eight children from 12 public schools were invited to participate in this study; 312 children participated in September 2003. Results Sixty eight percent of the subjects had intestinal parasites, 63% had protozoan infections, and 29%, 16% and 10% were infected with Giardia duodenalis, Hymenolepsis nana, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii respectively. Fifty children excreted eggs of Hymenolepsis nana. Conclusion Educational strategies should be considered to support the national de-worming campaign, because albendazole alone will not sufficiently improve the health conditions of vulnerable populations. PMID:24714136

  15. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Rollemberg, Carla V V; Silva, Marília M B L; Rollemberg, Karla C; Amorim, Fábio R; Lessa, Nayanna M N; Santos, Marcos D S; Souza, Acácia M B; Melo, Enaldo V; Almeida, Roque P; Silva, Ângela M; Werneck, Guilherme L; Santos, Mario A; Almeida, José A P; Jesus, Amélia R

    2015-01-01

    Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores) in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%), Trichuris trichiura (54.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%), Hookworm (17.6%) and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%). Only 59/500 (11.8%) individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8%) were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections. PMID:26054512

  16. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  17. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  18. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  19. Evaluation of a novel kit (TF-Test) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Dias, Luiz Cândido S; Araujo, Ana Júlia S A; Castilho, Vera L P; Neves, Fátima A M A

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are currently a source of concern for Public Health agencies in developing and developed countries. Since three ovum-and-parasite stool examinations have been demonstrated to provide sensitive results, we designed a practical and economical kit (TF-Test) that is now commercially available (Immunoassay Com. Ind. Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil). This kit allows the separate collection of three fecal specimens into a preservative solution. The specimens are then pooled, double-filtered, and concentrated by a single rapid centrifugation process. The TF-Test was evaluated in four different laboratories in a study using 1,102 outpatients and individuals living in an endemic area for enteroparasitosis. The overall sensitivity found using the TF-Test (86.2-97.8%) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than the sensitivity of conventional techniques such as the Coprotest (NL Comércio Exterior Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil) and the combination of Lutz/Hoffman, Faust, and Rugai techniques (De Carli, Diagnóstico Laboratorial das Parasitoses Humanas. Métodos e Técnicas, 1994), which ranged from 48.3% to 75.9%. When the above combined three specimen technique was repeated with three specimens collected on different days, its sensitivity became similar (P>0.01) to that of the TF-Test. The kappa index values of agreement for the TF-Test were consistent (P<0.01), being higher and ranking in a better position than conventional techniques. The high sensitivity, cost/benefit ratio, and practical aspects demonstrate that the TF-Test is suitable for individual diagnosis, epidemiological inquiries, or evaluation of chemotherapy in treated communities. PMID:15065214

  20. Influenza A Virus Infection of Intestinal Epithelial Cells Enhances the Adhesion Ability of Crohn’s Disease Associated Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Aleandri, Marta; Conte, Maria Pia; Simonetti, Giovanna; Panella, Simona; Celestino, Ignacio; Checconi, Paola; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Longhi, Catia; Goldoni, Paola; Nicoletti, Mauro; Barnich, Nicolas; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Schippa, Serena; Nencioni, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of intestinal glycoreceptors expression, in particular CEACAM6, typically found in ileal Crohn's disease (CD), favor, among the commensal species of microbiota, the enrichment in Escherichia coli. Removal of protein glycosidic residues by neuraminidase, a sialidase typical of influenza virus, increases adhesion ability of Escherichia coli to Caco-2 intestinal cells. In this study we investigated whether influenza virus infection of human intestinal epithelial cells could influence the adhesiveness of different Escherichia coli strains isolated from CD patients by altering surface glycoreceptors. Influenza virus infection of intestinal cells increased exposure of galactose and mannose residues on the cell surface. In particular, glycoreceptors Thomsen-Friedenreich and CEACAM6 were over-expressed in influenza virus infected cells. In the same experimental conditions, a significant increase in bacterial adhesiveness was observed, independently of their own adhesive ability. The increase was reverted by treatment with anti-TF and anti-CEACAM6 antibodies. Interestingly, influenza virus was able to efficiently replicate in human primary intestinal cells leading to TF exposure. Finally, intestinal infected cells produced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to control. Overall these data suggest that influenza virus infection, could constitute an additional risk factor in CD patients. PMID:25706391

  1. Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Intrinsic Deletion of Setd7 Identifies Role for Developmental Pathways in Immunity to Helminth Infection.

    PubMed

    Oudhoff, Menno J; Antignano, Frann; Chenery, Alistair L; Burrows, Kyle; Redpath, Stephen A; Braam, Mitchell J; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Zaph, Colby

    2016-09-01

    The intestine is a common site for a variety of pathogenic infections. Helminth infections continue to be major causes of disease worldwide, and are a significant burden on health care systems. Lysine methyltransferases are part of a family of novel attractive targets for drug discovery. SETD7 is a member of the Suppressor of variegation 3-9-Enhancer of zeste-Trithorax (SET) domain-containing family of lysine methyltransferases, and has been shown to methylate and alter the function of a wide variety of proteins in vitro. A few of these putative methylation targets have been shown to be important in resistance against pathogens. We therefore sought to study the role of SETD7 during parasitic infections. We find that Setd7-/- mice display increased resistance to infection with the helminth Trichuris muris but not Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Resistance to T. muris relies on an appropriate type 2 immune response that in turn prompts intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to alter differentiation and proliferation kinetics. Here we show that SETD7 does not affect immune cell responses during infection. Instead, we found that IEC-specific deletion of Setd7 renders mice resistant to T. muris by controlling IEC turnover, an important aspect of anti-helminth immune responses. We further show that SETD7 controls IEC turnover by modulating developmental signaling pathways such as Hippo/YAP and Wnt/β-Catenin. We show that the Hippo pathway specifically is relevant during T. muris infection as verteporfin (a YAP inhibitor) treated mice became susceptible to T. muris. We conclude that SETD7 plays an important role in IEC biology during infection. PMID:27598373

  2. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. PMID:26342828

  3. Effects of Hygiene and Defecation Behavior on Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Yapi, Richard B.; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A.; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A.; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. Methodology In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d’Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. Principal Findings A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Conclusions/Significance We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central C

  4. AIM2 contributes to the maintenance of intestinal integrity via Akt and protects against Salmonella mucosal infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, G-Q; Song, P-X; Li, N; Chen, W; Lei, Q-Q; Yu, S-X; Zhang, X-J; Du, C-T; Deng, X-M; Han, W-Y; Yang, Y-J

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism regulating the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier remains poorly understood. We herein demonstrate that Absent in melanoma-2 (AIM2) contributes to the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity and defense against bacterial infection. AIM2-deficient mice displayed an increased susceptibility to mucosal but not systemic infection by Salmonella typhimurium, indicating a protective role for AIM2 in the gastrointestinal tract. In a Salmonella colitis model, compared with wild-type mice, AIM2(-/-) mice exhibited more severe body weight loss, intestinal damage, intestinal inflammation, and disruption of basal and activated epithelial cell turnover. In vivo and in vitro data showed that AIM2 restricted the early epithelial paracellular invasion of Salmonella and decreased epithelial permeability. The decreased epithelial barrier in AIM2(-/-) mice might be attributed to the altered expression of tight junction proteins that contribute to epithelial integrity. AIM2 promoted the expression of tight junction proteins through Akt activation. Together, these results suggest that AIM2 is required for maintaining the integrity of the epithelial barrier. PMID:26838050

  5. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  6. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset

    PubMed Central

    Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Casrouge, Armanda; Huot, Nicolas; Passaes, Caroline; Lécuroux, Camille; Essat, Asma; Boufassa, Faroudy; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Angin, Mathieu; Gärtner, Kathleen; Garcia-Tellez, Thalía; Booiman, Thijs; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D.; Roques, Pierre; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Vaslin, Bruno; Dereudre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Ghislain, Mathilde; Rouzioux, Christine; Lambotte, Olivier; Albert, Matthew L.; Goujard, Cécile; Kootstra, Neeltje; Meyer, Laurence; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts). We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT) and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker) gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10. PMID:27509048

  7. Toward an HIV Cure Based on Targeted Killing of Infected Cells: Different Approaches Against Acute Versus Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Barna; Berger, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Current regimens of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) offer effective control of HIV infection, with maintenance of immune health and near-normal life expectancy. What will it take to progress beyond the status quo, whereby infectious virus can be eradicated (a “sterilizing cure”) or fully controlled without the need for ongoing cART (a “functional cure”)? Recent findings Based on therapeutic advances in the cancer field, we propose that targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill HIV-infected cells represents a logical complement to cART for achieving an HIV cure. This concept is based on the fact that cART effectively blocks replication of the virus, but does not eliminate cells that are already infected; targeted cytotoxic therapy would contribute precisely this missing component. We suggest that different modalities are suited for curing primary acute versus established chronic infection. For acute infection, relatively short-acting potent agents such as recombinant immunotoxins might prove sufficient for HIV eradication whereas for chronic infection, a long-lasting (lifelong?) modality is required to maintain full virus control, as might be achieved with genetically modified autologous T cells. Summary We present perspectives for complementing cART with targeted cytotoxic therapy whereby HIV infection is either eradicated or fully controlled, thereby eliminating the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25710815

  8. Parvovirus B19V infection in Israel: prevalence and occurrence of acute infection between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mor, O; Ofir, I; Pavel, R; Bassal, R; Kra-Oz, Z; Cohen, D; Shohat, T; Mendelson, E

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the seroprevalence and unique pattern of parvovirus B19 (B19V) acute infections have been documented around the world. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19V IgG antibodies in the Israeli population and to assess the pattern of acute infection based on data from two laboratories in Israel. The overall IgG prevalence in the 1008 representative sera samples was 61·4% and the age-adjusted prevalence rate was 58·2%. Seropositivity was significantly associated with age, ranging from 25·7% in children aged 20 years. While no significant differences in seropositivity were detected between sexes and population groups, significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in older Jews born in Africa or Asia. Acute infection rates of 4·1% (234 cases) were found based on the positive IgM results identified in samples from 5663 individuals collected between 2008 and 2013. Annual peaks of infection were observed in 2008 and 2011-2012 and major seasonal peak of B19V IgM positivity was identified in June each year. The number of requests for B19V serology was significantly higher for women aged 20-39 years while the majority IgM-positive cases were identified in young children. With more than 30% of the adult population being susceptible to B19V infection, monitoring B19V status should be considered in specific risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:25990962

  9. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510

  10. Difficult case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, Clostridium difficile infection and polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Traussnigg, Stefan; Dolak, Werner; Trauner, Michael; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with heavy diarrhoea, nausea and weight loss accompanied by alopecia and dystrophic fingernails and toenails. The preceding diagnosis of an inflammatory bowel disease, a common pitfall, was excluded by endoscopic work up. Instead, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS), a rare polyposis condition, was identified as the reason for this almost pathognomonic combination of diagnostic findings including various polyps throughout the entire intestine and ectodermal abnormalities. This case exemplifies common risks and complications in terms of gastrointestinal malabsorption, infections and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), including its treatment as well as a hereto unreported association with polymyalgia rheumatica. In CCS, long-term immunosuppressive therapy and close endoscopic cancer screening of the patient is essential. The treatment of vitamin deficiency and recurring SIBO helps to reduce symptoms. PMID:26818813

  11. The effect of cytomegalovirus infection on acute rejection in kidney transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzamani, Boshra; Hami, Maryam; Zolfaghari, Vajihe; Torkamani, Mahtab; Ghorban Sabagh, Mahin; Ahmadi Simab, Saiideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is known that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem among kidney transplant patients. This infection can be increased morbidity and decreased graft survival. This problem has been associated with acute rejection too. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty renal transplant patients were included in a prospective, case-control study. The renal transplant patients were divided into two groups; patients group with CMV infection and control group without CMV infection. Serum CMV-IgG in all patients was positive (donor and recipients). None of patients had received anti-thymocyte-globulin and thymoglobulin. CMV infection was diagnosed by quantitative CMV-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test (more than 500 copies/μg). Rejection episode was defined by kidney isotope scan or biopsy. Results: In the group of 66 CMV infection patients (41 male [62.1%] and 25 female [37.9%]) the incidence of graft rejection was 36%, however in the group of 64 control patients the incidence of graft rejection was 9.4 % (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CMV infection is important predisposing factor for acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The results of this study suggests that the control of CMV infection could decrease episodes of acute kidney rejection. PMID:27471740

  12. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  13. Card9 Mediates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution, T-Helper 17 Responses, and Control of Bacterial Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    SOKOL, HARRY; CONWAY, KARA L.; ZHANG, MEI; CHOI, MYUNGHWAN; MORIN, BRET; CAO, ZHIFANG; VILLABLANCA, EDUARDO J.; LI, CHUN; WIJMENGA, CISCA; YUN, SEOK HYUN; SHI, HAI NING; XAVIER, RAMNIK J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) is an adaptor protein that integrates signals downstream of pattern recognition receptors. CARD9 has been associated with autoinflammatory disorders, and loss-of-function mutations have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the role of CARD9 in intestinal inflammation is unknown. We characterized the role of Card9 in mucosal immune responses to intestinal epithelial injury and infection. METHODS We induced intestinal inflammation in Card9-null mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or Citrobacter rodentium. We analyzed body weight, assessed inflammation by histology, and measured levels of cytokines and chemokines using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell populations were compared between wild-type and Card9-null mice by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS Colon tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes of Card9-null mice had reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-γ, and T-helper (Th)17 cytokines after administration of DSS, compared with wild-type mice. IL-17A and IL-22 expression were reduced in the recovery phase after DSS administration, coincident with decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20). Although Card9-null mice had more intestinal fungi based on 18S analysis, their Th17 responses remained defective even when an antifungal agent was administered throughout DSS exposure. Moreover, Card9-null mice had impaired immune responses to C rodentium, characterized by decreased levels of colonic IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ), as well as fewer IL-22—producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in colon lamina propria. CONCLUSIONS The adaptor protein CARD9 coordinates Th17- and innate lymphoid cell-mediated intestinal immune responses after epithelial injury in mice. PMID:23732773

  14. Adenosine protects Sprague Dawley rats from high-fat diet and repeated acute restraint stress-induced intestinal inflammation and altered expression of nutrient transporters.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated acute restraint stress and high-fat diet (HFD) on intestinal expression of nutrient transporters, concomitant to intestinal inflammation. The ability of adenosine to reverse any change was examined. Six-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: control or non-stressed (C), rats exposed to restraint stress for 6 h per day for 14 days (S), control rats fed with HFD (CHF) and restraint-stressed rats fed with HFD (SHF); four additional groups received the same treatments and were also given 50 mg/l adenosine dissolved in drinking water. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin and corticosterone were measured. Intestinal expression of SLC5A1, SLC2A2, NPC1L1 and TNF-α was analysed. Histological evaluation was conducted to observe for morphological and anatomical changes in the intestinal tissues. Results showed that HFD feeding increased glucose and insulin levels, and repeated acute restraint stress raised the corticosterone level by 22%. Exposure to both stress and HFD caused a further increase in corticosterone to 41%, while decreasing plasma adiponectin level. Restraint stress altered intestinal expression of SLC5A1, SLC2A2 and NPC1L1. These changes were enhanced in SHF rats. Adenosine was found to alleviate HFD-induced increase in glucose and insulin levels, suppress elevation of corticosterone in S rats and improve the altered nutrient transporters expression profiles. It also prevented upregulation of TNF-α in the intestine of SHF rats. In summary, a combination of stress and HFD exaggerated stress- and HFD-induced pathophysiological changes in the intestine, and biochemical parameters related to obesity. Adenosine attenuated the elevation of corticosterone and altered expression of SLC5A1, NPC1L1 and TNF-α. PMID:25196093

  15. AraC-Type Regulator Rsp Adapts Staphylococcus aureus Gene Expression to Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianming; He, Lei; Song, Yan; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Yuanjun; Wang, Yanan; Qin, Juanxiu; Otto, Michael; Li, Min

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that can cause two categories of severe infections. Acute infections are characterized by pronounced toxin production, while chronic infections often involve biofilm formation. However, it is poorly understood how S. aureus controls the expression of genes associated with acute versus biofilm-associated virulence. We here identified an AraC-type transcriptional regulator, Rsp, that promotes the production of key toxins while repressing major biofilm-associated genes and biofilm formation. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis and modeling of regulatory networks indicated that upregulation of the accessory gene regulator (Agr) and downregulation of the ica operon coding for the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) were central to the regulatory impact of Rsp on virulence. Notably, the Rsp protein directly bound to the agrP2 and icaADBC promoters, resulting in strongly increased levels of the Agr-controlled toxins phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and alpha-toxin and reduced production of PIA. Accordingly, Rsp was essential for the development of bacteremia and skin infection, representing major types of acute S. aureus infection. Our findings give important insight into how S. aureus adapts the expression of its broad arsenal of virulence genes to promote different types of disease manifestations and identify the Rsp regulator as a potential target for strategies to control acute S. aureus infection. PMID:26712209

  16. Gene expression analysis during acute hepatitis C virus infection associates dendritic cell activation with viral clearance.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Aintzane; Riezu-Boj, Jose-Ignacio; Larrea, Esther; Villanueva, Lorea; Lasarte, Juan Jose; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Fisicaro, Paola; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Missale, Gabriele; Ferrari, Carlo; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Prieto, Jesús; Sarobe, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Viral clearance during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the induction of potent antiviral T-cell responses. Since dendritic cells (DC) are essential in the activation of primary T-cell responses, gene expression was analyzed in DC from patients during acute HCV infection. By using microarrays, gene expression was compared in resting and activated peripheral blood plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) DC from acute HCV resolving patients (AR) and from patients who become chronically infected (ANR), as well as in healthy individuals (CTRL) and chronically-infected patients (CHR). For pDC, a high number of upregulated genes was found in AR patients, irrespective of DC stimulation. However, for mDC, most evident differences were detected after DC stimulation, again corresponding to upregulated genes in AR patients. Divergent behavior of ANR was also observed when analyzing DC from CTRL and CHR, with ANR patients clustering again apart from these groups. These differences corresponded to metabolism-associated genes and genes belonging to pathways relevant for DC activation and cytokine responses. Thus, upregulation of relevant genes in DC during acute HCV infection may determine viral clearance, suggesting that dysfunctional DC may be responsible for the lack of efficient T-cell responses which lead to chronic HCV infection. PMID:26447929

  17. The Effect of Intestinal Parasitic Infection on the Clinical Outcome of Malaria in Coinfected Children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kwenti, Tebit E.; Nkume, Franklin A.; Tanjeko, Ajime T.; Kwenti, Tayong D. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The interaction between intestinal parasites and malaria is still not clear. Data in published literature are conflicting. We studied the effect of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI) on the clinical outcome of malaria in coinfected children. Methods In a cross sectional study performed between October 2014 and September 2015, children infected with malaria, as demonstrated by the presence of asexual parasites in Giemsa stained blood films, were enrolled. Stool samples were obtained from participants and subjected to the formol-ether concentration technique for the detection of intestinal parasites. The Complete blood count was performed using an automated haematology analyser (Mindray, BC-2800). The risk ratio, Pearson’s chi-square and the student T test were all performed as part of the statistical analyses. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results In all, 405 children successfully took part in the study. The children were between 1 week and 120 months of age (mean ± SD = 41.5 ± 33.5). Coinfection with intestinal parasites was observed in 11.6%. The rate of severe malaria (SM) attack in this study was 10.9%. SM was not observed to be associated with age (p = 0.377) or gender (p = 0.387), meanwhile coinfection with intestinal parasites was associated with age (p = 0.003). Among SM cases, IPI prevalence was higher in children with mild (WHO group 3) severe malaria (p = 0.027). Overall, IPI was not observed to be associated with SM (p = 0.656) or malaria parasite density (p = 0.185) or haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.205). The main clinical features of SM observed were hyperpyrexia (68.2%), severe malarial anaemia (61.4%), and multiple convulsion (52.3%). Conclusion IPI was not observed to be associated with the severity of malaria, the malaria parasite density, and the haemoglobin concentration in coinfected children in Cameroon. The clinical outcome of malaria in children coinfected with intestinal parasites may depend on the

  18. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations in pigs with acute, chronic or subclinical Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Gebhart, Connie J; Lawhorn, Bruce D; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2015-03-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy. The clinical presentation can be acute (i.e. proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy, PHE), chronic (i.e. porcine intestinal adenomatosis, PIA) or subclinical. In humans with chronic enteropathies, low serum folate (vitamin B(9)) and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) concentrations have been associated with increased serum concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), which reflect the availability of both vitamins at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations in serum samples from pigs with PHE, PIA or subclinical L. intracellularis infection, and in negative controls. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations differed significantly among pigs in the PHE, PIA, subclinical and negative control groups. Serum folate concentrations in the PHE and PIA groups were lower than in the subclinical and negative control groups, while serum cobalamin concentrations were lower in the PIA group than in other groups. Serum concentrations of homocysteine were higher in the PHE, PIA and subclinical groups than in the negative control group. Serum concentrations of MMA were higher in the subclinical and PIA groups than in the control group. These data suggest that pigs infected with L. intracellularis have altered serum cobalamin, folate, homocysteine and MMA concentrations. PMID:25618855

  19. IL-17/IFN-γ interactions regulate intestinal inflammation in TNBS-induced acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu; Lin, Yan; Lin, Lianjie; Zheng, Changqing

    2012-11-01

    Colonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced acute colitis in mice and elicited a Th1 immune response. Th17 cells are believed to play a major role in TNBS-induced colitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the pathogenesis of TNBS-induced acute colitis. We assessed the inflammation scores of TNBS-induced acute colitis in wild-type (WT), IL-17 knockout (KO), and IFN-γ KO mice and measured the levels of inflammatory cytokines using real-time PCR and ELISAs. Histology data showed that IL-17 KO mice with TNBS-induced colitis had significantly lower neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory macroscopic scores compared to the IFN-γ KO mice and WT mice. Intraperitoneal injection of anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody confirmed a specific role for IL-17 in TNBS-induced acute colitis in the 3 strains of mice. The severity of colitis was higher in IFN-γ KO mice and lower in IL-17 KO mice compared to WT mice. Our data suggested that IL-17 signaling plays a critical role in the local inflammation of TNBS-induced colitis, while IFN-γ was not an important mediator of the local inflammation response. IL-17 may represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel disease patients. PMID:23030668

  20. Intestinal Cytokine Responses to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Young Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium is one of the most frequently isolated strains in human salmonellosis worldwide, and is commonly found in broilers. Successful prevention and control of Salmonella colonization in poultry require better understanding of intestinal mucosal immune response to ...

  1. Pathological and parasitological characterization of infection by trematodes (Paramphistomatidae) in the large intestine of capybaras.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Isabela de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Patrícia Carvalho; Gardiner, Chris; Santos, Renato de Lima; Lima, Walter Dos Santos; Ecco, Roselene

    2015-01-01

    Gross and histological lesions caused by an intestinal parasite were described in three capybaras. The parasites presented a mean length of 14 mm and width of 7 mm, were round to oval or piriform, reddish and pedunculated, and adhered strongly to the mucosa of the large intestine. The intestinal mucosa at the parasite attachment site presented loss of surface epithelium and most glands, with replacement by fibrovascular proliferation that protruded from the mucosa and was involuted by the ventral sucker of the parasite. The lamina propria presented cellular debris, eosinophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The morphological characteristics, observed using serial histological sections, made it possible to classify the parasite as a trematode (Paramphistomatidae), compatible with Taxorchis schistocotyle. One capybara also harbored many ciliated protozoa in the large intestine (at the site of attachment of the parasite) and inside the caeca of the trematodes. In conclusion, this study described a multifocal necrotizing colitis associated with T. schistocotyle parasitism in capybaras. PMID:26444066

  2. Limited Immunogenicity of HIV CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes in Acute Clade C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Radebe, Mopo; Nair, Kriebashnie; Chonco, Fundisiwe; Bishop, Karen; Wright, Jaclyn K.; van der Stok, Mary; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Mncube, Zenele; Altfeld, Marcus; Walker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–specific CD8+ responses contribute to the decline in acute peak viremia following infection. However, data on the relative immunogenicity of CD8+ T-cell epitopes during and after acute viremia are lacking. Methods. We characterized CD8+ T-cell responses in 20 acutely infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV-1 subtype C infection using the interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Eleven of these had not fully seroconverted at the time of analysis. Viruses from plasma were sequenced within defined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) cell epitopes for selected subjects. Results. At approximately 28 days after estimated initial infection, CD8+ T-cell responses were directed against an average of 3 of the 410 peptides tested (range, 0–6); 2 individuals had no detectable responses at this time. At 18 weeks, the average number of peptides targeted had increased to 5 (range 0–11). Of the 56 optimal Gag CTL epitopes sequenced, 31 were wild-type in the infecting viruses, but only 11 of 31 elicited measurable CD8+ T-cell responses. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that the majority of CD8+ responses are not elicited during acute HIV infection despite the presence of the cognate epitope in the infecting strain. There is a need to define factors that influence lack of induction of effective immune responses and the parameters that dictate immunodominance in acute infection. PMID:21844303

  3. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Elmer; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case–control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower respiratory tract symptoms, or fever and hepatitis, but had negative serologic results for Q fever. Patients with acute Q fever were younger and had higher C-reactive protein levels but lower leukocyte counts. However, a large overlap was found. In patients with an indication for prophylaxis, chronic Q fever did not develop after patients received prophylaxis but did develop in 50% of patients who did not receive prophylaxis. Differentiating acute Q fever from other respiratory infections, fever, or hepatitis is not possible without serologic testing or PCR. If risk factors for chronic Q fever are present, prophylactic treatment is advised. PMID:26196955

  4. Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Iqbal, Kashif; Schillie, Sarah; Britton, James; Kainer, Marion A; Tressler, Stacy; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As many as 2.2 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1), and approximately 15%-25% of persons with chronic HBV infection will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer (2). Since 2006, the overall U.S. incidence of acute HBV infection has remained stable; the rate in 2013 was 1.0 case per 100,000 persons (3). Hepatitis B vaccination is highly effective in preventing HBV infection and is recommended for all infants (beginning at birth), all adolescents, and adults at risk for HBV infection (e.g., persons who inject drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and others). Hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low among adults: 2013 National Health Interview Survey data indicated that coverage with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine was 32.6% for adults aged 19-49 years (4). Injection drug use is a risk factor for both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV. Among young adults in some rural U.S. communities, an increased incidence of HCV infection has been associated with a concurrent increase of injection drug use (5); and recent data indicate an increase of acute HCV infection in the Appalachian region associated with injection drug use (6). Using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2006-2013, CDC assessed the incidence of acute HBV infection in three of the four Appalachian states (Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia) included in the HCV infection study (6). Similar to the increase of HCV infections recently reported, an increase in incident cases of acute HBV infection in these three states has occurred among non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 30-39 years who reported injection drug use as a common risk factor. Since 2009, cases of acute HBV infection have been reported from more non-urban than urban regions. Evidence-based services to prevent HBV infection are needed. PMID:26821369

  5. Effect of Clostridium perfringens infection and antibiotic administration on microbiota in the small intestine of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Yewande O; Newman, Molli M; Stough, Joshua M; Liles, Mark R

    2016-02-01

    The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis (NE) is Clostridium perfringens (CP), which is an economically significant problem for broiler chicken producers worldwide. Traditional use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters to control NE disease have resulted in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in CP strains. Identification of probiotic bacteria strains as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of intestinal CP colonization is crucial. Two experiments were conducted to determine changes in intestinal bacterial assemblages in response to CP infection and in-feed bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in broiler chickens. In each experiment conducted in battery-cage or floor-pen housing, chicks were randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: 1) BMD-supplemented diet with no CP challenge (CM), 2) BMD-free control diet with no CP challenge (CX), 3) BMD-supplemented diet with CP challenge (PCM), or 4) BMD-free control diet with CP challenge (PCX). The establishment of CP infection was confirmed, with the treatment groups exposed to CP having a 1.5- to 2-fold higher CP levels (P < 0.05) compared to the non-exposed groups. Next-generation sequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes, was used to perform intestinal bacterial diversity analyses pre-challenge, and at 1, 7, and 21 d post-challenge. The results indicated that the intestinal bacterial assemblage was dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes in all treatments before and after CP challenge, especially the Lactobacillaceae and Clostridiales families. In addition, we observed post-challenge emergence of members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae in the non-medicated PCX treatment, and emergence of the Enterococcaceae in the medicated PCM treatment. This study highlights the bacterial interactions that could be important in suppressing or eliminating CP infection within the chicken intestine. Future studies should explore the potential to use commensal strains of unknown

  6. Large intestine-targeted, nanoparticle-releasing oral vaccine to control genitorectal viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Talton, James; Zhang, Guofeng; Cunningham, Tshaka; Wang, Zijian; Waters, Robert C; Kirk, James; Eppler, Bärbel; Klinman, Dennis M; Sui, Yongjun; Gagnon, Susan; Belyakov, Igor M; Mumper, Russell J; Berzofsky, Jay A

    2012-08-01

    Both rectal and vaginal mucosal surfaces serve as transmission routes for pathogenic microorganisms. Vaccination through large intestinal mucosa, previously proven protective for both of these mucosal sites in animal studies, can be achieved successfully by direct intracolorectal (i.c.r.) administration, but this route is clinically impractical. Oral vaccine delivery seems preferable but runs the risk of the vaccine's destruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we designed a large intestine-targeted oral delivery with pH-dependent microparticles containing vaccine nanoparticles, which induced colorectal immunity in mice comparably to colorectal vaccination and protected against rectal and vaginal viral challenge. Conversely, vaccine targeted to the small intestine induced only small intestinal immunity and provided no rectal or vaginal protection, demonstrating functional compartmentalization within the gut mucosal immune system. Therefore, using this oral vaccine delivery system to target the large intestine, but not the small intestine, may represent a feasible new strategy for immune protection of rectal and vaginal mucosa. PMID:22797811

  7. Abnormalities in subset distribution, activation, and differentiation of T cells isolated from large intestine biopsies in HIV infection. The Berlin Diarrhoea/Wasting Syndrome Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, T; Ullrich, R; Bergs, C; Schmidt, W; Riecken, E O; Zeitz, M

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal T cells have a unique state of activation and differentiation which might specifically affect or be affected by HIV infection. Lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood are well characterized, but our knowledge about intestinal lymphocytes in HIV infection is incomplete. We therefore analysed lymphocytes isolated from large intestine biopsies of AIDS patients and controls by three-colour cytofluorometry. In the large intestine of HIV-infected patients CD4 T cells were reduced and CD8 T cells were increased compared with controls. Most of the CD8 T cells in the colorectal mucosa of AIDS patients were of the cytotoxic phenotype. Activated and resting CD4 T cells were similarly reduced, the expression of CD25 and HLA-DR of CD8 T cells was unaltered and increased, respectively. In intestinal CD4 T cells the expression of CD29 was decreased, but the expression of CD45RO and HML-1 was normal. CD8 T cells had a decreased expression of all these differentiation markers. Our findings demonstrate substantial alterations in subset distribution, activation, and differentiation of large intestine T cells, which may contribute to the secondary infections and malignancies commonly observed in the gut of AIDS patients. PMID:8137540

  8. Innate immune response to homologous rotavirus infection in the small intestinal villous epithelium at single-cell resolution

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Adrish; Rothenberg, Michael E.; Mukherjee, Gourab; Feng, Ningguo; Kalisky, Tomer; Nair, Nitya; Johnstone, Iain M.; Clarke, Michael F.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    “Bulk” measurements of antiviral innate immune responses from pooled cells yield averaged signals and do not reveal underlying signaling heterogeneity in infected and bystander single cells. We examined such heterogeneity in the small intestine during rotavirus (RV) infection. Murine RV EW robustly activated type I IFNs and several antiviral genes (IFN-stimulated genes) in the intestine by bulk analysis, the source of induced IFNs primarily being hematopoietic cells. Flow cytometry and microfluidics-based single-cell multiplex RT-PCR allowed dissection of IFN responses in single RV-infected and bystander intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). EW replicates in IEC subsets differing in their basal type I IFN transcription and induces IRF3-dependent and IRF3-augmented transcription, but not NF-κB–dependent or type I IFN transcripts. Bystander cells did not display enhanced type I IFN transcription but had elevated levels of certain IFN-stimulated genes, presumably in response to exogenous IFNs secreted from immune cells. Comparison of IRF3 and NF-κB induction in STAT1−/− mice revealed that murine but not simian RRV mediated accumulation of IkB-α protein and decreased transcription of NF-κB–dependent genes. RRV replication was significantly rescued in IFN types I and II, as well as STAT1 (IFN types I, II, and III) deficient mice in contrast to EW, which was only modestly sensitive to IFNs I and II. Resolution of “averaged” innate immune responses in single IECs thus revealed unexpected heterogeneity in both the induction and subversion of early host antiviral immunity, which modulated host range. PMID:23188796

  9. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    PubMed Central

    Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Mutamba, B; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals. Results Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000). HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06). Conclusion Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons. PMID:22096397

  10. Transcriptome Analysis on Chinese Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200–15,094 bp). Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp. PMID:23527000

  11. Acute hepatitis C in an HIV-infected patient: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Driver, Todd H; Terrault, Norah; Saxena, Varun

    2013-05-01

    With the decrease in transmission via transfusions and injection drug use, acute symptomatic hepatitis C is infrequently seen in developed countries. We report a case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult who presented with abdominal pain. His alanine aminotransferase was greater than sixty times the upper limit of normal without any evidence on examination of fulminant hepatic failure. His workup revealed an elevated hepatitis C viral level with a negative hepatitis C antibody. He was discharged once his liver function tests improved. As an outpatient, he had a recurrent bout of symptoms with an elevation of his alanine aminotransferase and hepatitis C viral levels that promoted anti-hepatitis C virus treatment. This case illustrates the importance of considering acute hepatitis C as a cause of acute hepatitis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. While patients with acute symptomatic hepatitis C generally have a higher rate of spontaneous viral clearance compared to those with an insidious acute infection, most still progress to chronic hepatitis C infection, and patients with HIV coinfection carry a higher risk of progression to chronic disease. PMID:23151989

  12. Endoscopic characteristics and causes of misdiagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuncui; Tan, Shiyun; Jiang, Lin; Li, Ming; Sun, Peng; Shen, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and endoscopic manifestations, and pathological characteristics of intestinal schistosomiasis in China, in order to raise awareness of intestinal schistosomiasis and prevent misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. The retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic manifestations, and histopathological characteristics, were conducted for 96 patients with intestinal schistosomiasis. Among these patients, 21 lived in areas that were not infected with Schistosoma and 25 (26%) had no history of schistosome infection or contact with infected water. These patients were mainly hospitalized due to symptoms of diarrhea, mucus and bloody purulent stool. Sixteen cases were of the acute enteritis type, and colonoscopy results determined hyperaemic edema and dispersed small mucosal ulcers. The acute infection in patients was pathologically characterized by the deposition of intact ova with a large quantity of eosinocyte infiltration. Forty‑one cases were of the chronic enteritis type which predominantly manifested with yellow nodules and disorder of the vascular surfaces in the intestines. Thirty‑nine cases were diagnosed with mixed type enteritis, which demonstrated acute and chronic histopathological appearances. In addition, six cases of complicated colorectal cancer were observed. Of the 24 misdiagnosed patients, eight were misdiagnosed with ulcerative colitis, five with colorectal cancer, five with colorectal tuberculosis, four with chronic bacillary dysentery and two with irrit