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Sample records for acute irritant contact

  1. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  2. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. PMID:24112695

  3. Acute toxicity and primary irritancy of alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Leung, H W

    1996-12-01

    The acute handling hazards of several alkylalkanolamines were determined by investigating their potential acute toxicity and primary irritancy. Materials studied were N-methylethanolamine (MEA), N, N, -dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), N, N, -dimethylisopropanolamine (DMIPA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and tertbutyldiethanolamine (BDEA). All these alkylalkanolamines were of comparable acute peroral toxicity in the rat (LD50 range 1.48-2.83 ml/kg). By 24 h occluded epicutaneous contact in the rabbit, MEA, DMEA and DMIPA were of moderate acute percutaneous toxicity (LD50 range 1.13-2.0 ml/kg), MDEA was of slight acute percutaneous toxicity (LD50 male 9.85 ml/kg, female 10.90 ml/kg), and BDEA of intermediate toxicity (LD50 6.4 ml/kg). Due to differences in vapor pressure the acute vapor exposure toxicity of the alkylalkanolamines to rats varied; MEA, MDEA and BDEA were of a low order of acute toxicity, and DMIPA was moderately toxic with an LT50 of 3.2 h for a saturated vapor atmosphere exposure. A 4 h-LC50 (rat combined sex) of 1461 ppm was determined for DMEA. All alkylalkanolamines studied, except MDEA, were moderately to markedly irritating and caused variable degrees of skin corrosivity; MDEA caused only transient minor skin irritation. In accord with the skin irritancy results, the eye irritancy from 0.005 ml MEA, DMEA, DMIPA and BDEA was severe, and that from MDEA was slight. Exposure to these compounds has implications for occupational health procedures. PMID:8948072

  4. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part I. Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in dermatology. It compromises the majority of all occupational skin diseases in most countries. It develops as a result of the environmental or work-related exposure to irritants. Cutaneous reaction depends on the intrinsic properties of the irritant, individual skin susceptibility and environmental conditions. A great morphological variety of irritant contact dermatitis and difficulties in diagnosis may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. The prognosis is variable. Preventive measures, including education, individual skin protection and proper skin care may contribute to the reduced incidence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:19227886

  5. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  6. The effect of damaged skin barrier induced by subclinical irritation on the sequential irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yan-yu, Wu; Xue-min, Wang; Yi-Mei, Tan; Ying, Cheng; Na, Liu

    2011-12-01

    Skin damage caused by a single specific stimulus has been extensively studied. However, many additional mild skin irritants are experienced every day before obvious irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) appears. The effect that these previously experienced mild irritations have on the incidence and severity of sequential ICD remains undefined. The purpose of this work was to explore whether the effects of skin barrier damage induced by either the open patch test with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), tape stripping test (TAP) (10×), or irradiation with 0.75 median erythemal dose UVB (MED) will affect the severity of sequential irritant dermatitis induced by a 0.5% SLS occlusive patch test (PT). Nine treatments were applied to nine different locations of the ventral forearm of each subject at random. The nine treatment types were as follows: open patch test with 1% SLS; 10× TAP; UVB irradiation with 0.75 MED; open patch test with 1% SLS + PT with 0.5% SLS (SLSPT); 10× TAP + PT with 0.5% SLS (TAPPT); UVB irradiation with 0.75 MED + PT with 0.5% SLS (UVPT); PT with distilled water (DISPT); PT with 0.5% SLS (PT); and the CONTROL (no treatment). After 5 days of subclinical irritation, the PT was applied on day 6. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance (CAP), and skin color (a*) were measured at baseline and on days 6, 7, and 8. After the PT, indices of irritancy of PT, UVPT, SLSPT, and TAPPT were 60, 80, 87 and 100%, respectively. The index of irritancy of TAPPT and SLSPT were significantly higher than that of PT (p < 0.05). Clinical scores of SLSPT and TAPPT were also significantly higher than PT (p < 0.05). After 5 days of irritation, TEWL of SLS, TAP, SLSPT, and TAPPT were increased significantly compared to that of baseline. After the PT, D-value of TEWL between day 8 and day 6 ((≥6-8)TEWL) of SLSPT and TAPPT were greater than that of PT, and D-value of TEWL between day 8 and day 7 ((≥7-8)TEWL) of SLSPT and TAPPT were less than that of PT values. After the

  7. Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Birinder J; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

    2002-02-01

    Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment. PMID:11853045

  8. Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Birinder J.; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment. PMID:11853045

  9. Inhibition of irritation and contact hypersensitivity by phenoxyacetic acid methyl ester in mice.

    PubMed

    Wille, J J; Kydonieus, A; Kalish, R S

    2000-01-01

    New anti-irritant treatments are required to prevent irritation and sensitization reactions to consumer medicines and dermatological drugs. We report here that phenoxyacetic acid methyl ester (PAME) is an effective agent to prevent and treat irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Balb/c mice skin-treated with 1% PAME do not lose weight relative to vehicle-treated mice, nor is it irritating to mouse skin. Topical PAME prevents skin irritation to a wide variety of irritants including: arachidonic acid, capsaicin, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), disodium laureth sulfosuccinate and tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Histological studies showed that 1% PAME greatly diminished dermal neutrophilic infiltration and dermal capillary vessel dilation, and prevented epidermal hyperproliferation and hyperkeratosis that accompanies detergent (SLS)-induced skin irritation. Topical PAME inhibited ear swelling following ear challenge during the elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity in mice sensitized with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), oxazolone and the hair coloring dye rho-phenylenediamine (PPD). Finally, topical administration of 1% PAME prior to PPD or DNCB sensitization prevented the induction phase of contact hypersensitivity. These results indicate that PAME represents a potential new category of potent topical anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:10754454

  10. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles.

    PubMed

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described. PMID:17680869

  11. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  12. Role of protective gloves in the causation and treatment of occupational irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonyou; Campbell, Lauren S; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-11-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis of the hands is a significant occupational problem. Management primarily involves cessation of exposure to hazardous substances. Protective gloves can reduce or eliminate exposure of the hands to hazardous substances if used correctly, but if not selected and used correctly, protective gloves can actually cause or worsen irritant contact dermatitis of the hands by increasing exposure of the hands to hazardous chemicals. We present two cases of occupational irritant contact dermatitis of the hands caused by incorrect use of protective gloves. Glove failure can occur by penetration, permeation, or contamination, and all 3 mechanisms were operative in these cases. These cases demonstrate that correct use of gloves is at least as important as selection of gloves made of the appropriate material. By understanding mechanisms of glove failure, clinicians can make more appropriate recommendations for the selection and use of protective gloves in the workplace. PMID:17052501

  13. Characterization of Spatial Repellent, Contact Irritant and Toxicant Chemical Actions of Standard Vector Control Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously described modular high-throughput screening system (HITTS) was used to characterize the spatial repellent, contact irritant and toxicant chemical actions of 14 compounds with a history of use in vector control. The response of F1-F4 Aedes aegypti to various concentrations of four organo...

  14. Comparative acute toxicity and primary irritancy of the ethylidene and vinyl isomers of norbornene.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Myers, R C; Klonne, D R

    1997-01-01

    The acute toxicity and primary irritancy of the industrial chemicals 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) and 5-vinyl-2-norbornene (VNB) were studied. They are of moderate acute peroral toxicity in the rat, with LD50 values for ENB of 2.54 (male) and 5.66 (female) ml kg(-1), and for VNB of 5.90 (male) and 11.9 (female) ml kg(-1). Percutaneous toxicity is slight in the rabbit by 24-h occluded contact, with no mortalities for ENB up to 8.0 ml kg(-1) and only one mortality (male) at 16.0 ml kg(-1) VNB. Dynamically generated saturated vapor atmosphere LT50 values for ENB in the rat were 75 (male) and 125 (female) min, and for VNB they were 28 (male) and 37 (female) min. The 4-h LC50 values for ENB were 2717 (male) and 3015 (female) ppm, and for VNB they were 2231 (male) and 2518 (female) ppm. Intravenously, the ENB LD50 ranged from 0.09 (male rabbit) to 0.11 ml kg(-1) (female); corresponding LD50 values for VNB were 0.10-0.05 mg kg(-1). Acute neurotoxic signs were seen by the intravenous and inhalation routes of exposure, including tremors, ataxia and convulsions; the latter were sufficient to cause vertebral column luxation or fracture, producing spinal cord compression and resultant hindlimb paralysis. Both ENB and VNB are moderately irritating to the skin (rabbit), causing erythema and edema, but not necrosis. Both materials cause slight conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis in rabbits, but not corneal injury. PMID:9285533

  15. Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Methods Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Results Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Conclusions/Significance Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human–vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown

  16. Resident Rounds: Part III - Case Report: Betel Quid Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Regine J; Cheraghi, Nikoo; Russo, Marian A

    2016-06-01

    Betel quid is a drug used in Far East Asia, India, and the South Pacific. The habit of betel quid chewing is widely reported to cause oral cancer and tooth and gum disease. However, skin disease due to betel quid use is underreported. We report a case of irritant contact dermatitis to betel quid components in a 35-year-old male betel quid user who presented for evaluation of a persistent rash on his fingertips. PMID:27272092

  17. The influence of hard water (calcium) and surfactants on irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Warren, R; Ertel, K D; Bartolo, R G; Levine, M J; Bryant, P B; Wong, L F

    1996-12-01

    Although the induction of irritant contact dermatitis has been extensively studied for surfactants, the role of the environmental factor water hardness (i.e., calcium content) on the induction process has not received attention. Our objective was to investigate differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to 3 different personal cleansing agents and determine whether the irritation potential can be affected by the hardness of the water. 2 commonly used exaggerated washing procedures were variously employed to evaluate representative sodium soap, triethanolamine-soap, or synthetic detergent cleansers under conditions where the water hardness varied from 0-grain to 11-grain (gr). Subjects were clinically evaluated for skin dryness, skin redness, and instrumentally for hydration. Soap binding to skin was quantified using Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Using the more mild wash procedure, skin sites treated under conditions of hard, 11 gr water were significantly drier, had more erythema, and were less hydrated than corresponding sites treated with deionized 0 gr water. All 3 surfactant cleanser behaved similarly. We also found the hardness of the rinse water to be the more significant factor versus that of the wash water. Effect of water hardness on soap binding to skin revealed a similar outcome. Under a more exaggerated wash condition the relationship between water hardness and irritation broke down. PMID:9118628

  18. Acute inhalation toxicity and sensory irritation of dimethylamine. [Rats, mice

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhagen, W.H.; Swenberg, J.A.; Barrow, C.S.

    1982-06-01

    The sensory irritation potential of dimethylamine (DMA) inhalation on male Fischer-344 rats and male Swiss-Webster mice was evaluated by measuring the reflex decrease in respiratory rate. In addition, the six hour LC/sub 50/ for rats exposed to dimetylamine was established. Groups of 3 or 4 rats and mice were exposed for 10 minutes to concentrations of DMA ranging from 49 to 1576 ppm during which time the respiratory rate was monitored and recorded. Sensory irritation concentration-response curves were obtained and RD/sub 50/ values (concentration which elicits a 50% decrease in respiratory rate) were determined to be 573 and 511 ppm for rats and mice, respectively. In another set of experiments seven groups of male rats were exposed to concentrations of DMA ranging from 600 to 6119 ppm for six hours. Mortality counts were made during and for 48 hours post exposure. The six hour LC/sub 50/ was determined to be 4540 ppm. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tract revealed concentration related changes ranging from ulceration and necrosis to rhinitis, tracheitis, and emphysema. Overall, DMA was found to be less potent as a sensory irritant than other airborne irritants.

  19. Evaluation of acute skin irritation and phototoxicity by aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to assess whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei induce acute skin irritation and phototoxicity, acute skin irritancy and phototoxicity tests were performed. The skin of rabbits or guinea pigs was treated with these fractions (100 mg/dose) and whether the animals sustained significant skin damage was determined. The data demonstrated that the aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei did not induce acute toxicity in the skin of the animals, as assessed by anatomical and pathological observations. The results from the present study suggest that these aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei have promising potential uses as cosmetic ingredients that do not induce significant levels of skin irritation or phototoxicity. PMID:23251240

  20. Prevention of sodium lauryl sulfate irritant contact dermatitis by Pro-Q aerosol foam skin protectant.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S E; Williams, J V; Marks, J G

    1999-05-01

    Eczematous skin disease is a serious work-related illness. Since 1995, reimbursement by insurance companies for treatment of skin diseases has become the largest cost source in some countries. This study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 20) of the efficacy of Pro-Q, a skin protectant product, in the prevention of contact dermatitis from sodium lauryl sulfate and urushiol, the resinous sap of poison ivy and poison oak. Pro-Q was significantly effective in reducing the irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate but did not prevent the allergic reaction to urushiol. PMID:10321615

  1. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant. PMID:24395402

  2. Topical application of silymarin reduces chemical-induced irritant contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Mi Hwa; Yoon, Won Kee; Lee, Hyunju; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Kiho; Park, Song-Kyu; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Hwan Mook; Kang, Jong Soon

    2007-12-15

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a non-allergic local inflammatory reaction of a skin and one of the most frequent occupational health problems. Silymarin has been clinically used in Europe for a long time to treat liver diseases and also known to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we report that topical application of silymarin reduces chemical-induced ICD. Topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced an ear swelling in BALB/c mice and silymarin suppressed DNCB-induced increase in ear thickness. Prophylactic and therapeutic application of silymarin showed similar effect on DNCB-induced increase in ear thickness and skin water content. In addition, phobor ester- or croton oil-induced increase in ear thickness was also inhibited by silymarin treatment. Silymarin also blocked neutrophil accumulation into the ear induced by these irritants. Further study demonstrated that DNCB-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in mouse ear was suppressed by silymarin. DNCB-induced expression of KC, one of the main attractors of neutrophil in mice, and adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin in mouse ear were also inhibited by silymarin. Moreover, TNF-alpha-induced expression of cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and a chemokine, IL-8, were suppressed by silymarin treatment in human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Silymarin also blocked TNF-alpha- and DNCB-induced NF-kappaB activation in HaCaT. Collectively, these results demonstrate that topically applied silymarin inhibits chemical-induced ICD in mice and this might be mediated, at least in part, by blocking NF-kappaB activation and consequently inhibiting the expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules. PMID:17996674

  3. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis from synthetic mineral fibres according to Finnish statistics.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, Riitta; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Suuronen, Katri; Alanko, Kristiina; Estlander, Tuula

    2002-12-01

    Synthetic mineral fibres (i.e. man-made vitreous fibres, MMVF) are classified into glass filament, mineral wool (glass wool, rock wool and slag wool), refractory ceramic fibres, and fibres for special purposes. This paper analyses the data on occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) caused by MMVF during 1990-99 in Finland according to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD). A total of 63 cases from MMVF were reported. 56 were diagnosed as ICD, and 2 as allergic contact dermatitis, both from rock wool. 53 out of 63 cases were due to mineral wool or glass filaments; half of the cases, according to a rough estimate, were due to mineral wool and a half due to glass filaments used in lamination work. Carpenters, building workers and insulation workers have the highest risk of ICD from mineral wool. 4 cases in carpenters, 4 in building workers and 2 in insulation workers were reported from MMVF. For every 100 000 employed workers, only 1.6 cases of ICD in carpenters, 2.7 in building workers and 9.1 in insulation workers were annually due to MMVF, respectively. Mineral wool used in construction work, insulation, etc., cannot be considered to be a common cause of occupationally induced ICD. However, information on harmful skin effects of MMVF is useful to exposed persons in the prevention of the effects. PMID:12581277

  4. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  5. Facial contact dermatitis and the irritant potential of mobile phone screens.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Rommel; Heras-Mendaza, Felipe; Conde-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A teenager with atopic dermatitis presented with a 12-month history of recurrent, pruritic, round and polygonal patches on her face. Patch tests using the European standard series (including nickel, chromium, and cobalt chloride), a plastic and glue series of allergens, polyester components, and personal and environmental products in contact with the patient were conducted. For the patient and 3 of 14 healthy volunteers, positive reactions were observed to the patient's mobile phone touchscreen (TS), an extract solution from the TS, and a non-TS phone of another brand. Accordingly, the patient's dermatitis disappeared when contact with mobile phone screens was avoided. PMID:23025548

  6. Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Seawright, Alan A; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Background Freshwater cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of recreational waterbodies throughout the world; some cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton and form blooms, many of which are toxic. Numerous reports in the literature describe pruritic skin rashes after recreational or occupational exposure to cyanobacteria, but there has been little research conducted on the cutaneous effects of cyanobacteria. Using the mouse ear swelling test (MEST), we sought to determine whether three toxin-producing cyanobacteria isolates and the purified cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin produced delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions. Methods Between 8 and 10 female Balb/c mice in each experiment had test material applied to depilated abdominal skin during the induction phase and 10 or 11 control mice had vehicle only applied to abdominal skin. For challenge (day 10) and rechallenge (day 17), test material was applied to a randomly-allocated test ear; vehicle was applied to the other ear as a control. Ear thickness in anaesthetised mice was measured with a micrometer gauge at 24 and 48 hours after challenge and rechallenge. Ear swelling greater than 20% in one or more test mice is considered a positive response. Histopathology examination of ear tissues was conducted by independent examiners. Results Purified cylindrospermopsin (2 of 9 test mice vs. 0 of 5 control mice; p = 0.51) and the cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (8 of 10 test mice vs. 0 of 10 control mice; p = 0.001) were both shown to produce hypersensitivity reactions. Irritant reactions were seen on abdominal skin at induction. Two other toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena circinalis) did not generate any responses using this model. Histopathology examinations to determine positive and negative reactions in ear tissues showed excellent agreement beyond chance between both examiners (κ = 0.83). Conclusion The irritant properties and cutaneous sensitising potential of

  7. Evaluation of contact irritant and spatial repellent behavioral responses of male Aedes aegypti to vector control compounds.

    PubMed

    Said, Sukhaynah H; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contact irritant (CI) and spatial repellent (SR) behaviors of male Aedes aegypti upon exposure to standard chemicals currently used for vector control under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that male Ae. aegypti test populations exhibited significant (P < 0.01) escape responses upon contact to varying doses of alphacypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and DDT. Analysis of data generated from the SR assays indicated that only DDT elicited a significant (P < 0.01) SR response, while alphacypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin elicited no directional movement in the assay system. These findings are consistent with data generated previously using female Ae. aegypti of the same strain. It is hoped that information from this study will be used to stimulate additional research of male vector behavior in response to chemical stimuli. Determining the CI and SR responses of male vectors against chemicals used in current intervention strategies is important in understanding the impact these chemical actions will have on overall vector population dynamics and therefore disease transmission. PMID:20099590

  8. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    PubMed Central

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  9. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of "Zapote" Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist.

    PubMed

    Dutok, Carlos M S; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, "Mamey or Zapote," in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S; Pimpinelli, N

    2001-11-01

    Disturbances of skin barrier function occur in several skin diseases, e.g., atopic dermatitis (AD), irritant/allergic contact dermatitis (ICD, ACD). Skin barrier damage triggers the production of cytokines that stimulate lipogenesis which may also cause inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical skin lipid mixture in the treatment of ICD, ACD and AD. 580 consecutive patients suffering from ICD, ACD or AD were treated with a skin lipid mixture containing ceramide-3 and patented nanoparticles. Patients received the lipid mixture alone or in combination with topical corticosteroids until clearance or for 8 weeks. Both treatment groups statistically improved all parameters considered at week 4 and 8 as compared to baseline. Between the 2 treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of combined therapy for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): erythema, pruritus and overall disease severity; erythema and pruritus; erythema, pruritus, fissuring and overall disease severity. No statistically significant difference was found for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): dryness, scaling and fissuring; scaling, fissuring and overall disease severity; dryness and scaling. Between the 2 ACD treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skin lipid mixture for dryness. In conclusion, the study shows that balanced lipid mixtures are effective in improving barrier properties and the clinical condition of the skin in contact dermatitis. PMID:11722487

  11. Eruptive cherry angiomas and irritant symptoms after one acute exposure to the glycol ether solvent 2-butoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Raymond, L W; Williford, L S; Burke, W A

    1998-12-01

    Seven clerical workers were evaluated in 1993, 8 months after exposure to vaporized 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE; also called butyl cellosolve or ethylene glycol monobutyl ether [EGMBE or EGBE]), which had been applied overnight to strip the floor of their file room. At the time of exposure, they had noted intense eye and respiratory irritation, marked dyspnea, nausea, and faintness, suggesting a concentration of 2-BE in the air of 200-300 parts per million (ppm). All seven workers later experienced recurrent eye and respiratory irritation, dry cough, and headache. Four months after the exposure, cherry angiomas began to appear on the arms, trunk, and thighs of six workers, who voiced concerns about the possibility of cancer. Our evaluation found no evidence of hematologic, liver, lung, or renal toxicity, but elevations in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood pressure of each subject were found. Workplace air sampling found no detectable 2-BE, but traces (0.1-0.2 ppm) of formaldehyde were identified. Irritant symptoms abated after the group was moved to a room with better ventilation, and the mild hypertension gradually cleared, but new cherry angiomas have continued to appear 5 years after the acute exposure, as the initial ones persisted. These angiomas occur in healthy persons as they age but in this instance appear to have resulted from a single overexposure to 2-BE. We felt confident in reassuring the workers that they would suffer no serious consequences from this exposure. PMID:9871882

  12. Identification of potential biomarkers for predicting acute dermal irritation by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qihao; Dai, Taoli; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Minjing; Xiao, Xue; Hu, Hao; Zou, Ping; Liu, Xia; Xiang, Qi; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; He, Qing-Yu

    2011-11-01

    In vitro alternative tests aiming at replacing the traditional animal test for predicting the irritant potential of chemicals have been developed, but the assessment parameters or endpoints are still not sufficient for analysis. To discover novel endpoints for skin irritation responses, a proteomics approach was used to analyze the protein expression in human keratinocytes exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate in the present study. Among the 20 identified proteins with altered expression, small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] were down-regulated while cofilin-1 was up-regulated significantly in response to the chemical challenge. Keratinocytes were exposed to acid and basic chemicals for further validation of the proteins. HSP27 displayed the most significant alteration both in mRNA and protein levels, accompanied by nuclear translocation. The irritation also induced an increased production of interleukin-1α in keratinocytes. These findings suggest that these proteins may be combinational biomarkers or additional endpoints for skin hazard assessment. Further investigation into the protein alterations would be helpful for the mechanistic understanding of skin irritation. PMID:21469165

  13. Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Marutzky, Rainer; Kevekordes, Sebastian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Bürger, Werner; Hauschke, Dieter; Ebner, Winfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-01

    Due to the reduction of air change rates in low-energy houses, the contribution to indoor air quality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from oriented strand boards (OSB) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory irritations, pulmonary effects and odor annoyance of emissions from OSB in healthy human volunteers compared to clean air. Twenty-four healthy non-smokers were exposed to clean air and OSB emissions for 2 h under controlled conditions in a 48 m(3) test chamber at three different time points: to fresh OSB panels and to the same panels after open storage for 2 and 8 weeks. Chemosensory irritation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, eye blink frequency, lung function and subjective perception of irritation of eyes, nose and throat were examined before, during and after exposure. Additionally, olfactory perception was investigated. Total VOC exposure concentrations reached 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/m(3) for the fresh OSB panels. Emissions consisted predominantly of α-pinene, Δ(3)-carene and hexanal. Two-hour exposure to high VOC concentrations revealed no irritating or pulmonary effects. All the subjective ratings of discomfort were at a low level and the medians did not exceed the expression 'hardly at all.' Only the ratings for smell of emissions increased significantly during exposure in comparison to clean air. In conclusion, exposure of healthy volunteers to OSB emissions did not elicit sensory irritations or pulmonary effects up to a VOC concentration of about 9 mg/m(3). Sensory intensity of OSB emissions in the chamber air was rated as 'neutral to pleasant.' PMID:21071553

  14. Combined tar-anthralin versus anthralin treatment lowers irritancy with unchanged antipsoriatic efficacy. Modifications of short-contact therapy and Ingram therapy.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H J; Schauder, S; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-07-01

    In 44 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis anthralin therapy was used as high-strength short-contact therapy in a bilateral comparison of anthralin versus 5% crude coal tar-anthralin combination. These two trials were undertaken with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation immediately after anthralin therapy. The combined tar-anthralin therapy was significantly less of an irritant during the first 3 weeks of treatment than anthralin alone, and it did not decrease the antipsoriatic efficacy. The use of UV irradiation, either with anthralin or tar-anthralin combination, did not produce an additional therapeutic effect. These findings lead us to prefer combined tar-anthralin therapy because of its lower irritancy in comparison with anthralin alone and they show the ineffectiveness of additional UV irradiation under the conditions of this study. PMID:3611453

  15. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the acute toxicity, the genotoxicity, and the irritation potency of two hexachloroethane-based pyrotechnic smokes.

    PubMed

    Hemmilä, Matti; Hihkiö, Maija; Kasanen, Jukka-Pekka; Turunen, Mari; Hautamäki, Merja; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Linnainmaa, Kaija

    2007-07-01

    The two hexachloroethane (HC)-based smoke formulations studied consisted of HC/Zn/2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and HC/Zn. In the in vitro tests, human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to the smokes at various concentrations. The responses studied were acute toxicity (viability of cells, trypan blue exclusion method) and genotoxicity (DNA single-strand breaks, COMET assay). The tests were conducted in a laboratory-scale chamber (V = 150 L) and in a container (V = 55 m3). Both smoke formulations appeared to be acutely toxic and genotoxic. For the 0.5- and 1-g burning experiments the responses were more pronounced with HC/Zn/TNT than with HC/Zn smoke. To study the irritation potency of the smokes, the mouse bioassay according to ASTM E 981-84 was applied. The respiratory parameters measured were tidal volume (VT), airflow during expiration at 0.5 VT (VD), time of pause after expiration (TP), time of breaking after inspiration (TB), and the respiratory frequency (BPM; breaths per minute). In the single-exposure experiments, HC/Zn/TNT smoke induced concentration-dependent sensory irritation in mice and the occupational exposure limit (TLV) was estimated to be 4 mg/m3. In the repeated-exposure experiments, HC/Zn/TNT smoke induced sensory irritation at the beginning of the exposure. Pulmonary irritation tended to dominate when the exposures were repeated. With HC/Zn smoke we were unable to generate sufficient high exposure concentrations. In the repeated-exposure experiments, indications of sensory and pulmonary irritation were seen at concentrations used. No evidence of apoptotic cell death was found in caspase-3-like protease activity assay. PMID:17573631

  16. Irritants and corrosives.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Richard; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews toxic chemicals that cause irritation and damage to single and multiple organ systems (corrosion) in an acute fashion. An irritant toxic chemical causes reversible damage to skin or other organ system, whereas a corrosive agent produces irreversible damage, namely, visible necrosis into integumentary layers, following application of a substance for up to 4 hours. Corrosive reactions can cause coagulation or liquefaction necrosis. Damaged areas are typified by ulcers, bleeding, bloody scabs, and eventual discoloration caused by blanching of the skin, complete areas of alopecia, and scars. Histopathology should be considered to evaluate questionable lesions. PMID:25455665

  17. Understanding irritant napkin dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Atherton, David J

    2016-07-01

    Irritant napkin dermatitis (IND, often referred to as irritant diaper dermatitis) is an exceedingly common problem in the first 2 years of life. It is now established that a number of factors are considered important in the etiology of IND. The principal irritants are fecal enzymes, which damage infant skin and are further amplified by a number of factors, including skin maceration and friction, high pH, the presence of urine, and the duration of contact with feces. In recent years, the decreasing incidence and severity of IND reflects improvements in the design and performance of diapers, diaper skin care products, and overall awareness about maintaining infant skin health. PMID:27311779

  18. Pre-administration of PepFect6-microRNA-146a nanocomplexes inhibits inflammatory responses in keratinocytes and in a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Urgard, Egon; Lorents, Annely; Klaas, Mariliis; Padari, Kärt; Viil, Janeli; Runnel, Toomas; Langel, Kent; Kingo, Külli; Tkaczyk, Eric; Langel, Ülo; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar; Pooga, Margus; Rebane, Ana

    2016-08-10

    The skin is a difficult to access tissue for efficient delivery of large and/or charged macromolecules, including therapeutic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. Cell-penetrating peptide PepFect6 (PF6) has been shown to be suitable transport vehicle for siRNAs in cell culture and systemically in vivo in mice. MiR-146a is known as anti-inflammatory miRNA that inhibits multiple factors from the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in various cell types, including keratinocytes. In this study, PF6 was shown to form unimodal nanocomplexes with miR-146a mimic that entered into human primary keratinocytes, where miR-146a inhibited the expression of its direct targets from the NF-κB pathway and the genes known to be activated by NF-κB, C-C motif ligand (CCL)5 and interleukin (IL)-8. The transfection of miR-146a mimic with PF6 was more efficient in sub-confluent keratinocyte cultures, affected keratinocyte proliferation less and had similar effect on cell viability when compared with a lipid based agent. Subcutaneous pre-administration of PF6-miR-146a nanocomplexes attenuated ear-swelling and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, CCL11, CCL24 and C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) in a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis. Our data demonstrates that PF6-miR-146a nanoparticles might have potential in the development of therapeutics to target inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27269729

  19. Acute effects of exposure to vapours of standard and dearomatized white spirits in humans. 2. Irritation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, Lena; Iregren, Anders; Juran, Stephanie; Sjögren, Bengt; van Thriel, Christoph; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    Low aromatic and dearomatized white spirits (deWS) are often considered less hazardous to health than 'standard' or aromatic white sprit (stdWS, 15-20% aromatics). However, data on health effects of deWS in humans are sparse and controlled exposure studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare deWS and stdWS with respect to irritation and inflammation. Six female and six male healthy volunteers were exposed on five occasions in balanced order to 100 or 300 mg m(-3) deWS (0.002% aromatics) or stdWS (19% aromatics), or to clean air, for 4 h at rest. Discomfort in the eyes, nose and throat and breathing difficulty were assessed by ratings on visual analogue scales. The only significant increases in ratings (compared to clean air) were seen for eye irritation at the high stdWS exposure and for solvent smell at all but the low deWS exposure. Excluding smell, all average ratings were at the lower end of the 0-100 mm scale, and did not exceed the verbal expression 'somewhat'. Ratings during stdWS exposure tended to be higher than during deWS exposure. No exposure-related effects on pulmonary function, nasal swelling, nasal airway resistance, breathing frequency, blinking frequency, plasma inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6) or biochemical variables (sodium, potassium, amylase, creatine kinase, urate) were seen. In conclusion, stdWS appears to be slightly more irritating than deWS. This could, however, not be confirmed by objective measurements. PMID:19086013

  20. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  1. [Irritable colon].

    PubMed

    Madsen, J R

    2001-08-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic, relapsing functional bowel disorder of unknown aetiology. Methods of studying intestinal motor function, nociception, and interactions of the central nervous system and enteric nervous system are not applicable for clinical use. The diagnosis is therefore made on the symptoms, but it is necessary to exclude relevant organic disease. Establishment of the diagnosis, information about the disorder, elimination of foods and other factors that provoke the symptoms, and a change in life-style are sufficient in most cases. Treatment is hampered by the lack of effective treatment and the psychological aspects. The therapeutic gain of drug administration is modest and the rate of response to placebo is high. Fibre supplementation, magnesium oxide or cisapride may be tried for constipation, diphenoxylate or loperamide for diarrhoea, and low dose tricyclic antidepressants or serotonin reuptake blockers for severe pain. The introduction of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists seems promising. PMID:11530562

  2. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  3. Irritant exposure, bronchial reactivity and asthma.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S B; Morice, A H

    1997-10-01

    The role of irritant exposure in the pathogenesis of bronchial reactivity and asthma is uncertain. This paper reviews the evidence from environmental epidemiological surveys, studies of occupationally exposed populations and chamber studies of asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects exposed to irritant fumes. The reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and occupational asthma due to irritant exposure are considered in the context of these results. Although several irritants cause acute bronchoconstriction by a number of mechanisms in chamber studies, there is little convincing evidence to suggest that irritant exposure without pulmonary injury is a risk factor for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This is the case both in relatively intense concentrations, such as those experienced in industrial or chamber exposure, and at the levels experienced by the general population. PMID:9510667

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be a lifelong condition. You may be suffering from cramping and loose stools, diarrhea, ... Ferri FF. Irritable bowel syndrome. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's ... . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:pages 669-70. What I ...

  5. Acute Compartment Syndrome after Non-Contact Peroneus Longus Muscle Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Jarrad; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis; Romano, Russ; Hatch, George F. Rick

    2015-01-01

    This case demonstrates a rare variation in the pattern of injury and the presentation of acute lateral compartment syndrome of the leg. Although uncommon, lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after an ankle inversion leading to peroneus longus muscle rupture has been previously documented. This case was unusual because there was no overt ankle injury and the patient was able to continue physical activity, in spite of a significant rupture of the peroneus longus muscle that was determined later. This case highlights the necessary vigilance clinicians must maintain when assessing non-contact injuries in patients with possible compartment syndrome. PMID:26640640

  6. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; Pallotti, Francesca; De Giorgio, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2009-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, not sustained by structural changes. There is now consistent evidence indicating that IBS may be the adverse outcome of an acute episode of infectious gastroenteritis, the so-called postinfectious (PI) IBS. The infectious agents involved in the development of PI-IBS include pathogenic bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Abdominal pain and diarrhea are the most common symptoms of PI-IBS. Several studies identified a number of risk factors increasing the susceptibility for PI-IBS development. These include the virulence of the pathogen, the severity, and duration of the acute enteritis, younger age, female sex, and psychological disturbances. Several mucosal abnormalities in the colon or ileum of patients who develop PI-IBS have been described. These changes include increased mucosal permeability, an increased amount of intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria T cells, and mast cells, as well as serotonin-containing enteroendocrine cells. The mediators released by these activated cells may evoke enteric nervous system responses, excite sensory afferent pathways, and induce visceral hyperalgesia. Little is known about the prognosis of PI-IBS, although it is likely better than that of nonspecific IBS. There is little evidence about a specific treatment for PI-IBS. Although probiotics and antibiotics may be promising in the prevention of PI-IBS, the efficacy of these treatments should be assessed in an ad hoc designed study. PMID:19300138

  7. Understanding the Acute Skin Injury Mechanism Caused by Player-Surface Contact During Soccer

    PubMed Central

    van den Eijnde, Wilbert A.J.; Peppelman, Malou; Lamers, Edwin A.D.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C.M.; van Erp, Piet E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Superficial skin injuries are considered minor, and their incidence is probably underestimated. Insight into the incidence and mechanism of acute skin injury can be helpful in developing suitable preventive measures and safer playing surfaces for soccer and other field sports. Purpose: To gain insight into the incidence and severity of skin injuries related to soccer and to describe the skin injury mechanism due to player-surface contact. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The prevention model by van Mechelen et al (1992) combined with the injury causation model of Bahr and Krosshaug (2005) were used as a framework for the survey to describe the skin injury incidence and mechanism caused by player-surface contact. Results: The reviewed literature showed that common injury reporting methods are mainly based on time lost from participation or the need for medical attention. Because skin abrasions seldom lead to absence or medical attention, they are often not reported. When reported, the incidence of abrasion/laceration injuries varies from 0.8 to 6.1 injuries per 1000 player-hours. Wound assessment techniques such as the Skin Damage Area and Severity Index can be a valuable tool to obtain a more accurate estimation of the incidence and severity of acute skin injuries. Conclusion: The use of protective equipment, a skin lubricant, or wet surface conditions has a positive effect on preventing abrasion-type injuries from artificial turf surfaces. The literature also shows that essential biomechanical information of the sliding event is lacking, such as how energy is transferred to the area of contact. From a clinical and histological perspective, there are strong indications that a sliding-induced skin lesion is caused by mechanical rather than thermal injury to the skin. PMID:26535330

  8. Irritant-induced asthma in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Irritant-induced asthma in the workplace has been the focus of several articles in the past few years, and reviewed here. A clinical case definition is most readily associated with a single acute/accidental exposure to a presumed high concentration of an agent or agents expected to be irritant to the airways, as was initially reported with the subgroup Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS). When most but not all criteria for RADS are met, then a diagnosis of irritant-induced asthma may also be considered to be "more probable than not". However, in addition, there is evolving understanding from epidemiological studies that chronic exposures may be associated with an increased risk of developing asthma. Despite this recognition, the mechanisms and clinical case definitions of work-related asthma that might be caused by chronic exposures to irritants (vs. new-onset asthma that begins coincidentally to work exposures), remain unclear at present. PMID:24343122

  9. Professors' Irritating Behavior Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the irritating behaviors of professors as experienced and reported by 232 Le Moyne College students. In this study, "irritating behavior" was understood as "actions that vex, annoy, bother, pester, frustrate, or provoke anger." The survey used in this study was developed by Larry M. Ludewig, Ph.D.,…

  10. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next: Symptoms and Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Digestive Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients and medical professionals. View the full list of Digestive Disease Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Contact Us Health ...

  11. Immunologic reactions triggered during irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J

    1998-06-01

    This article discusses a novel approach to the understanding of human skin barrier function with particular emphasis on the immunologic consequences of barrier perturbation. Clearly, the most important homeostatic function of the skin is to restrict the ebb and flow of water molecules to maintain a physiological balance with respect to hydration between the inside of the body and the external environment. The early investigators of barrier function initially focused on defining the biophysical properties of the stratum corneum and integrating the concepts of Singer and Nicholson1 into various models such as the brick and mortar concept by Elias2 and the domain mosaic model by Forslind.3 Rather than examining lipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the stratum corneum, the authors have been interested in characterizing the types of specialized proteins termed cytokines that are intimately linked to the barrier structure and function of human and rodent skin.4 Cytokines are key mediators of inflammatory and immunologic reactions throughout the body; how these cytokines are modulated in response to changes in barrier function provides new insights that pass beyond the physical/mechanical protective nature of skin into the immunologic sphere of influence for barrier function and cutaneous homeostasis. PMID:9601898

  12. [Ulcerative contact dermitis caused by premixed concrete (cement burns)].

    PubMed

    Ancona Alayón; Aranda Martínez, J G

    1978-01-01

    Cement dermatitis manifests clinically as a chronic dermatitis of irritative character, due to its alkaline nature and as allergic contact dermatitis produced by sensitization to chromium and cobalt occurring as trace elements. the present report deals with a mason without previous dermatitis, presenting bullae, ulcers and necrosis in lower limbs, short time after incidental contact at work, with premixed concrete. The clinical manifestations, such as short evolution, clear limitation to sites in close contact with concrete, negativity to standard patch testing and good prognosis with early treatment, are mentioned. The acute irritant nature of the disease is clear, in opposition to the classical manifestations of cement dermatitis. The need of studies of the chemical properties of this material including pH, alkalinity and the possible roll of additives employed, is part of the strategy for prevention of occupational dermatitis in the building trade, which should include also, information of hazards and proper training in their trade. PMID:162070

  13. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics. PMID:8115841

  14. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  15. Increased Immunoendocrine Cells in Intestinal Mucosa of Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients 3 Years after Acute Shigella Infection - An Observation in a Small Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sang In

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. Recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of PI-IBS patients even after complete resolution of infection. We aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of PI-IBS subjects after long term period of infection. Materials and Methods We recruited PI-IBS subjects who had been diagnosed IBS after complete resolution of enteritis caused by shigellosis outbreak 3 years earlier. We compared unmatched four groups, PI-IBS (n = 4), non PI-IBS (n = 7), D-IBS (n = 7, diarrhea predominant type) and healthy controls (n = 10). All of them underwent colonoscopic biopsy at three areas, including descending colon (DC), sigmoid colon (SC) and rectum, which were assessed for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)/peptide YY (PYY)-containing enterochromaffin (EC) cell, intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria T lymphocyte (CD3), CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells and CD68/calprotectin+ macrophages. Results All subjects had no structural or gross abnormalities at colonoscopy. In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, CD3 lymphocytes, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68 + macrophages were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In D-IBS, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, and CD3 lymphocytes were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells tended to increase and PYY containing EC cells, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68+ macrophages were increased compared to non PI-IBS (p < 0.05). Calprotectin + marcrophages were decreased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and IBS compared to control. Conclusion The immunoendocrine cells were sporadically increased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and D-IBS compared with control. Our findings in a very small number of patients suggest that mucosal inflammation may play a role in long-term PI-IBS, and that other sub-groups of IBS and larger scale studies are

  16. Irritant-induced airway disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stuart M; Bernstein, I Leonard

    2011-11-01

    Thousands of persons experience accidental high-level irritant exposures each year but most recover and few die. Irritants function differently than allergens because their actions proceed nonspecifically and by nonimmunologic mechanisms. For some individuals, the consequence of a single massive exposure to an irritant, gas, vapor or fume is persistent airway hyperresponsiveness and the clinical picture of asthma, referred to as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Repeated irritant exposures may lead to chronic cough and continual airway hyperresponsiveness. Cases of asthma attributed to repeated irritant-exposures may be the result of genetic and/or host factors. PMID:21978855

  17. Analysis of the Effects of Normal Walking on Ankle Joint Contact Characteristics After Acute Inversion Ankle Sprain.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji Yong; Park, Kyung Soon; Seon, Jong Keun; Jeon, Insu

    2015-12-01

    To show the causal relationship between normal walking after various lateral ankle ligament (LAL) injuries caused by acute inversion ankle sprains and alterations in ankle joint contact characteristics, finite element simulations of normal walking were carried out using an intact ankle joint model and LAL injury models. A walking experiment using a volunteer with a normal ankle joint was performed to obtain the boundary conditions for the simulations and to support the appropriateness of the simulation results. Contact pressure and strain on the talus articular cartilage and anteroposterior and mediolateral translations of the talus were calculated. Ankles with ruptured anterior talofibular ligaments (ATFLs) had a higher likelihood of experiencing increased ankle joint contact pressures, strains and translations than ATFL-deficient ankles. In particular, ankles with ruptured ATFL + calcaneofibular ligaments and all ruptured ankles had a similar likelihood as the ATFL-ruptured ankles. The push off stance phase was the most likely situation for increased ankle joint contact pressures, strains and translations in LAL-injured ankles. PMID:26077988

  18. [Irritable colon and constipation].

    PubMed

    Meyenberger, C

    1993-04-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a very common clinical problem with a broad spectrum of severity. The management includes a combination of positive diagnosis of typical symptoms with limited investigations to exclude underlying structural or biochemical disorders. Therapeutic trials focus on the relief of predominant symptoms. Identification and modification of factors exacerbating symptoms, behavioural techniques and pharmacologic agents directed to the presumed gastrointestinal motor dysfunction are required. Psychological support by the physician is the most important part of treatment. Chronic constipation may be the predominant symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying organic disorders must be excluded by clinical examination and endoscopy. Severe chronic constipation requires further investigation of colonic motility and defecation. High fibre diet, osmotic laxatives and procinetic agents may lead to an improvement. In rare cases surgery may be indicated. PMID:8488351

  19. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected. PMID:20233551

  20. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits. PMID:18669179

  1. Chemosensory irritation and the lung.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dennis

    2002-06-01

    Airway irritation involves a variety of reflex mechanisms. Tracheal and bronchial C fibres and rapidly adapting fibres mediate cough, bronchoconstriction, and mucosal vasodilation. Workplace respiratory irritants can have a variety of effects in relation to asthma. Very high exposures can cause new-onset asthma, clinically presenting as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome or irritant-induced asthma. Symptoms after exposure to irritants depend on aggregate characteristics, water solubility and dose. Measurement of pulmonary function in response to irritants includes baseline spirometry, monitoring of across-shift changes and changes in non-specific bronchial responsiveness as well as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled allergens. Following irritant exposure, inflammatory changes within the airways are monitored by bronchoalveolar lavage or - less invasively - by sputum markers. A completely non-invasive approach not limited in repeatability is the investigation of inflammatory markers in exhaled air. However, the diagnostic and prognostic values of these novel markers have still to be demonstrated. PMID:11981671

  2. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  3. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  4. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment.

    PubMed

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-02-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beck, E; Hurwitz, B

    1992-12-01

    1. Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional disorder of the lower intestinal tract affecting approximately 10% of the population and causing a wide range of symptoms. 2. Most cases of irritable bowel syndrome can be diagnosed in general practice on the basis of the presenting history and clinical examination but some patients may need to be referred to a gastro-enterologist for further assessment including sigmoidoscopy and barium enema. 3. The clinical picture may include symptoms of abdominal pain and/or distension and altered bowel habit. Nausea, dyspepsia, gynaecological or bladder symptoms are also common. About a third of patients may give a family history of recurrent abdominal pain. 4. Clinical signs include general anxiety, scars on the abdomen (from previous laparotomies for severe abdominal pain), a palpable and tender left colon or generalized abdominal tenderness, and loud borborygmi. 5. Absolute indications for a specialist assessment are: weight loss rectal bleeding onset of symptoms after the age of 40 a mass. Even in the absence of any of these findings referral is frequently necessary to allay patient anxiety and reinforce the diagnosis. 6. Blood tests are usually non-contributory. Stool specimens should be sent if diarrhoea is a feature. 7. A full explanation emphasizing the benign and often recurrent nature of the condition should be given to help patients understand the nature of their symptoms. Only after review of lifestyle and advice about diet have been provided should drug therapy be tried. PMID:1345152

  6. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH AND ITS CONSTITUENTS ON SENSORY IRRITATION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sensory irritation caused by fly ash from oil-fired (OF), fluidized bed coal (FB) combustion and conventional coal (CC) combustion power plants, and from Mt. St. Helens volcano (VA) was studied in mice. The irritating sensation due to contact with fly ash or its constituents was ...

  7. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously. PMID:20557579

  8. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  9. Contact dermatitis from Larrea (creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Leonforte, J F

    1986-02-01

    Six men suffering from acute dermatitis had positive patch tests to Larrea (creosote bush). The lesions preferentially involved sun-exposed sites, simulating a photodermatitis, but also were on the legs and scrotum. Our findings were more consistent with contact allergy than with a primary irritant or a phototoxic response. The patch tests were also positive to Zuccagnia punctata. In two cases the exposure to the creosote bush occurred as a result of casual occupations, in two because of household remedies (moist compresses and baths), and in the other two as a result of burning the bush and resorting to household remedies. Attention should be drawn to this contact dermatitis because the creosote bush grows abundantly all over the American continent. PMID:3950120

  10. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  11. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Daniel N; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B

    2011-12-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities. PMID:21903934

  12. Assessment of skin and eye irritation of 14 products under the stepwise approach of the OECD.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Axel; Hernández, Osvaldo; González, Yana; Aldana, Lizet; Carballo, Onelio

    2008-01-01

    The determination of acute eye and skin irritation is included in international regulatory requirements for the testing of chemicals, because of the possibility of exposure during the production, transport, marketing, and disposal of products. Although there have been some advances in the areas of refinement and reduction, no single battery of tests has emerged as being acceptable as a complete replacement for the conventional Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Currently, dermal irritation and ocular irritation are generally evaluated in a sequential manner in the context of tiered assessment strategies. In this work, we show how 14 products, mostly designed to be used in agriculture, were evaluated in the Center of Experimental Toxicology of the Center for the Production of Laboratory Animals (Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio; CENPALAB) in order to assess their acute dermal and ocular effects. The performed studies include the acute dermal toxicity test, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test, the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method, and the acute eye irritation/corrosion test. In general, it could be concluded that of the 14 products assessed, none of them showed systemic effects, but local reactions mainly to the eyes. The most significant effects were apparently related to the effects of azadirachtin, an active principle of 2 tested neem derivatives. PMID:18988087

  13. Workplace respiratory irritants and asthma.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    2000-01-01

    Workplace respiratory irritants can have a variety of effects in relation to asthma. Very high exposures can cause new-onset asthma (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome or irritant-induced asthma) with or without concurrent sensitization, e.g., to diisocyanate. Aggravation of underlying asthma can result from moderate exposures. Adjuvant or other effects enhancing the risk of sensitization to high molecular weight allergens have occurred with chronic low-moderate exposures. Enhancement of airway responsiveness on a short-term basis can be produced by ozone and biological irritants such as endotoxin and beta 1-3 glucans. Production of nonasthmatic responses such as hyperventilation and vocal cord dysfunction can mimic asthma symptoms. Controversy exists as to whether moderate irritant exposures can cause asthma or long-term worsening of underlying asthma. PMID:10769351

  14. Irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enck, Paul; Aziz, Qasim; Barbara, Giovanni; Farmer, Adam D; Fukudo, Shin; Mayer, Emeran A; Niesler, Beate; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Schemann, Michael; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Simren, Magnus; Zipfel, Stephan; Spiller, Robin C

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy. Although the underlying pathogenesis is far from understood, aetiological factors include increased epithelial hyperpermeability, dysbiosis, inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, epigenetics and genetics, and altered brain-gut interactions. IBS considerably affects quality of life and imposes a profound burden on patients, physicians and the health-care system. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of functional bowel disorders such as IBS that will be summarized in this Primer. PMID:27159638

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Aziz, Qasim; Barbara, Giovanni; Farmer, Adam D.; Fukudo, Shin; Mayer, Emeran A.; Niesler, Beate; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Schemann, Michael; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Simren, Magnus; Zipfel, Stephan; Spiller, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy. Although the underlying pathogenesis is far from understood, aetiological factors include increased epithelial hyperpermeability, dysbiosis, inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, epigenetics and genetics, and altered brain–gut interactions. IBS considerably affects quality of life and imposes a profound burden on patients, physicians and the health-care system. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of functional bowel disorders such as IBS that will be summarized in this Primer. PMID:27159638

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%. IBS is associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function and enhanced visceral perception, as well as psychosocial and genetic factors. People with IBS often have other bodily and psychiatric symptoms, and have an increased likelihood of having unnecessary surgery compared with people without IBS. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with IBS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron and ramosetron); 5HT4 receptor agonists (tegaserod); antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]); antispasmodics (including peppermint oil); cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); hypnotherapy; soluble and insoluble fibre supplementation; and loperamide. PMID:21718578

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) varies depending on the criteria used to diagnose it, but it ranges from about 5% to 20%. IBS is associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function and enhanced visceral perception, as well as psychosocial and genetic factors. People with IBS often have other bodily and psychiatric symptoms, and have an increased likelihood of having unnecessary surgery compared with people without IBS. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with IBS? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron and ramosetron), 5HT4 receptor agonists (tegaserod), antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]), antispasmodics (including peppermint oil), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), hypnotherapy, loperamide, and soluble and insoluble fibre supplementation. PMID:22296841

  18. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  19. Unmet diagnostic needs in contact oral mucosal allergies.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Paolino, Giovanni; Vacca, Maddalena; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Nettis, Eustachio

    2016-01-01

    The oral mucosa including the lips is constantly exposed to several noxious stimuli, irritants and allergens. However, oral contact pathologies are not frequently seen because of the relative resistance of the oral mucosa to irritant agents and allergens due to anatomical and physiological factors. The spectrum of signs and symptoms of oral contact allergies (OCA) is broad and a large number of condition can be the clinical expression of OCA such as allergic contact stomatitis, allergic contact cheilitis, geographic tongue, oral lichenoid reactions, burning mouth syndrome. The main etiological factors causing OCA are dental materials, food and oral hygiene products, as they contain flavouring agents and preservatives. The personal medical history of the patient is helpful to perform a diagnosis, as a positive history for recent dental procedures. Sometimes histology is mandatory. When it cannot identify a direct cause of a substance, in both acute and chronic OCA, patch tests can play a pivotal role in the diagnosis. However, patch tests might have several pitfalls. Indeed, the presence of metal ions as haptens and specifically the differences in their concentrations in oral mucosa and in standard preparation for patch testing and in the differences in pH of the medium might result in either false positive/negative reactions or non-specific irritative reactions. Another limitation of patch test results is the difficulty to assess the clinical relevance of haptens contained in dental materials and only the removal of dental materials or the avoidance of other contactant and consequent improvement of the disease may demonstrate the haptens' responsibility. In conclusion, the wide spectrum of clinical presentations, the broad range of materials and allergens which can cause it, the difficult interpretation of patch-test results, the clinical relevance assessment of haptens found positive at patch test are the main factors that make sometimes difficult the diagnosis

  20. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands. PMID:6204812

  1. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  2. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods. PMID:11083109

  3. [Contact dermatitis due to dimethyl fumarate].

    PubMed

    Silvestre, J F; Mercader, P; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2010-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate is a fumaric acid ester. It been used for some years to treat psoriasis and also as a preservative in desiccant sachets in the transport of furniture and footwear. Its irritant properties and sensitizing potential in contact with the skin were recently highlighted when it was implicated as the causative agent in 2 epidemics of severe acute eczema: sofa dermatitis in northern Europe and shoe dermatitis in Spain. The present article aims to guide dermatologists in the diagnosis and management of patients allergic to dimethyl fumarate. We review the clinical manifestations, results of patch tests, possible cross-reactions, and sources of exposure to dimethyl fumarate responsible for these skin reactions. PMID:20398596

  4. Efficacy of 4 commercially available protective creams in the repetitive irritation test (RIT).

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Wigger, W; Elsner, P

    1996-04-01

    Protective creams (PCs) play their part in the prevention of occupational contact dermatitis, even though efficacy data are frequently lacking. 4 different commercially-available PCs were evaluated against a set of 4 standard irritants (10% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 30% lactic acid (LA) and undiluted toluene (TOL)) in the repetitive irritation test (RIT) in humans described by Frosch and Kurte. 20 subjects were tested on the paravertebral skin on the mid-back. Irritation was assessed by visual scoring, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an indicator of epidermal barrier function, and colorimetry as a parameter of inflammation. Very different protective effects of the PCs on irritation by chemical substances were detectable. All products were very effective against SLS irritation. No PC provided significant protection against toluene. 3 products showed a partially protective effect against all ionic irritants, while the 4th showed less protection against SLS and NaOH, and even amplification of inflammation by TOL. Considering the range of PC effects from good protection to increased irritation, depending on the irritant, the need for careful selection of PCs for specific workplaces is stressed. PMID:8730167

  5. Tandem repeated application of organic solvents and sodium lauryl sulphate enhances cumulative skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Sibylle; Schmidt, Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the tandem irritation potential of two organic solvents with concurrent exposure to the hydrophilic detergent irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). A tandem repeated irritation test was performed with two undiluted organic solvents, cumene (C) and octane (O), with either alternating application with SLS 0.5% or twice daily application of each irritant alone in 27 volunteers on the skin of the back. The cumulative irritation induced over 4 days was quantified using visual scoring and non-invasive bioengineering measurements (skin colour reflectance, skin hydration and transepidermal water loss). Repeated application of C/SLS and O/SLS induced more decline of stratum corneum hydration and higher degrees of clinical irritation and erythema compared to each irritant alone. Our results demonstrate a further example of additive harmful skin effects induced by particular skin irritants and indicate that exposure to organic solvents together with detergents may increase the risk of acquiring occupational contact dermatitis. PMID:24457469

  6. Sensitizing and irritant properties of 3 environmental classes of diesel oil and their indicator dyes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Bjarnason, B

    1996-05-01

    3 dyes, Solvent Yellow 124 and Solvent Blue 79 or Solvent Blue 98, were added to diesel oils in Sweden for identification of their particular use and taxation bracket in late 1993. Health concern regarding the toxicity of the dyes resulted in several reports to the Worker Inspection Bureau. 36 men reporting skin disease supposedly caused by dyes were diagnosed to have irritant reactions, irritant contact dermatitis or exacerbation of other skin disease. Tests on 15 individuals from this group, and 20 healthy volunteers, failed to demonstrate contact allergy or contact urticaria to the dyes or dyed diesel oil. Patch tests with dyes (10% v/v) in pet. did not cause irritation. Tests of irritant properties of the diesel oils showed that the old type of oil, with high viscosity, high content or aromatic compounds and moderately high sulfur content, caused little irritation, whereas newer, lighter qualities of diesel oil, with low concentrations of aromatic compounds and low sulfur content, which cause less pollution to the environment when burnt, were significantly more irritant to the skin and probably a cause of the skin problems. PMID:8807221

  7. Allergen and irritant control: importance and implementation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H S

    1998-01-01

    The Expert Panel Report 2. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (1) begins its section on controlling factors that precipitate or worsen asthma with the statement: "For successful long-term asthma management, it is essential to identify and reduce exposures to relevant allergens and irritants and to control other factors that have been shown to increase asthma symptoms and/or precipitate asthma exacerbations." The presence of allergy to indoor allergens and certain seasonal fungal spores has been found to be a risk factor for asthma in epidemiologic studies around the world. Generally between 70% and 85% of asthmatic populations studied have been reported to have positive skin-prick tests. Exposure of allergic patients to inhalant allergens increases airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, asthma symptoms, need for medication, severe attacks, and even death due to asthma. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure has been shown to increase the prevalence of childhood asthma and to increase asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness while reducing pulmonary function in children chronically exposed. Exposure to other indoor irritants, largely products of unvented combustion, has also been found to increase asthma symptoms. Outdoor air pollution increases asthma symptoms; levels of specific pollutants correlate with emergency room visits and hospitalization for asthma. Rhinitis/sinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux are commonly associated with asthma, and treatment of these conditions has been shown to improve asthma. In patients sensitive to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or metabisulfites, exposure to these agents can precipitate severe attacks of asthma. Viral infections are common causes for exacerbations of asthma. Infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae contribute to acute exacerbations and perhaps to long-term morbidity, as well. This chapter will discuss preventive and therapeutic measures

  8. [Irritable bowel syndrome in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Shimada, A; Takano, M

    1992-11-01

    We studied seventy patients, 23 males and 47 females with irritable bowel syndrome in adolescence aged 13-19 yrs, who visited the department of psychosomatic medicine in Takano Hospital during about six year period of April, 1986-July, 1992. Takano Hospital is a coloproctological center in Kumamoto. In the clinical pattern of adolescent patients with irritable bowel syndrome the "gas" pattern was dominant (51.4%). Patients with the gas pattern have severe symptoms of flatus, fullness, rumbling sound and abdominal pain as well as bowel dysfunction, constipation and diarrhea in a classroom. Next, the diarrheal pattern occurred in 20.0%. Diarrheal patients complained of frequent bowel movements and retention feelings before attending school. Recurrent abdominal pain-like pattern was found in 7.1% patients. Clinical symptoms in the adolescent patients seem to derived from a mental tension and stress in a close classroom or before attending school. Many adolescenct patients (67.1%) with irritable bowel syndrome are embarrassed in school-maladjustment; leaving class early, late coming, a long absence, and a withdrawal. PMID:1363122

  9. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  10. Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

  11. Evaluation of dermal and eye irritation and skin sensitization due to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Matsuda, Akitaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Naya, Masato; Nakanishi, Junko

    2011-12-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of our studies on dermal and eye irritation and skin sensitization due to carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whose potential applications and uses are wide and varied, including CNT-enhanced plastics, electromagnetic interference/radio-frequency (EMI/RFI) shielding, antistatic material, flexible fibers and advanced polymers, medical and health applications, and scanning probe microscopy. Skin and eyes have the highest risk of exposure to nanomaterials, because deposition of nanomaterials to the surficial organs has the potential to be a major route of exposure during the manufacturing, use, and disposal of nanomaterials. Two products composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and two products composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were tested regarding acute dermal and acute eye irritation using rabbits, and skin sensitization using guinea pigs. The concentrations of the CNTs in the substances were the maximum allowable for administration. The two products of SWCNTs and one of the products of MWCNTs were not irritants to the skin or eyes. The other product of MWCNTs caused very slight erythema at 24h, but not at 72h, after patch removal in the dermal irritation experiments and conjunctival redness and blood vessel hyperemia at 1h, but not at 24h, in eye irritation experiments. These findings showed that one product of MWCNTs was a very weak acute irritant to the skin and eyes. No products of SWCNTs and MWCNTs exhibited skin-sensitization effects. Our knowledge of the toxicological effects of CNTs is still limited. Further information is needed to clarify the potential for irritation and sensitization given the complex nature of CNTs. PMID:21893152

  12. Nappy (diaper) rash: what else besides irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Presa, Juliana Gomes Loyola

    2015-08-01

    Nappy (diaper) rash is a common cutaneous disorder of infancy, and diverse dermatoses may affect this region. To perform a differential diagnosis can be challenging. We present four cases to emphasise the importance of clinical diagnosis. PMID:25368136

  13. Pathologic response of the lung to irritant gases

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, F.R.; Runnels, L.J.; Conrad, D.A.; Teclaw, R.F.; Thacker, H.L. )

    1990-12-01

    The pathologic response of the lung to irritant gases ranges from the acute exudative phase through the subacute proliferative phase to the chronic fibrosing phase. These responses are based on damage to the Type I cells, and possibly endothelial cells, and the subsequent proliferative and repair processes in the surviving animals. Responses to high dose exposures appear at the microscopic level as exudation of protein rich fluids into alveoli (alveolar edema) and subsequent death due to anoxia. Physiologically, this could be described as a mismatch of ventilation with perfusion, resulting in impaired gas exchange. Animals surviving this acute exudative phase resolve the alveolar edema to fibrin, and Type II cells become hypertrophic and hyperplastic in the process of replacing the damaged Type I cells. The acute and subacute responses also elicit inflammatory changes in the interstitium of the lung that may progress to fibrosis in the chronic stage of a survivable exposure. Diagnostic cases in livestock involving irritant gases reflect similar toxic injuries to the lung.

  14. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  15. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  16. [Irritable colon and psychosomatic disease].

    PubMed

    Morini, A; Mauceri, P; Pallotta, P; Pelliccia, G

    1984-08-25

    The authors, after having considered the close likeness between the collateral clinical picture described by others in regard to the irritable colon syndrome and the outstanding one pointed out by them in many cases of psychosomatic disorders, have analyzed again a large number of personal cases diagnosed as "psychosomatic" in order to find possible relations between these two unwholesome conditions. At the end of their examination, after having ascertained that the "Irritable colon" has not to be considered an isolated disease but a syndrome caused by many factors, hinged on a predisposing condition likely of constitutional nature, the authors remark how it may nest in the folds of a psychosomatic disorder and sometimes be its outbreaking feature. The authors by this way, don't want to conclude identifying the I.C. with a psychosomatic disorder and suggest that in such cases one may take this syndrome as the main manifestation of a condition marked by an impairment of the digestive tract motility inside a psychosomatic disorder with a somatic expression of this apparatus. PMID:6483246

  17. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Sara; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance. Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated papers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions according to the method described by WHO. Number of take-offs were counted during 15 minutes of exposure time. Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group. Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended. PMID:27308276

  18. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse

    PubMed Central

    MATSUKAWA, Takehisa; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; ITOH, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site—warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers’ ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health. PMID:25327297

  19. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  20. Genetics of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Henström, Maria; D'Amato, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition with a complex and largely unknown etiology. There is no cure, and treatment options are mainly directed to the amelioration of symptoms. IBS causes reduced quality of life and poses considerable repercussions on health and socioeconomic systems. There is a heritable component in IBS, and genetic research is a valuable tool for the identification of causative pathways, which will provide important insight into the pathophysiology. However, although some gene-hunting efforts have been conducted and a few risk genes proposed, IBS genetic research is lagging behind compared to other complex diseases. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize existing genetic studies, discuss the main challenges in IBS genetic research, and propose strategies to overcome these challenges for IBS gene discovery. PMID:26873717

  1. Association of MHC region SNPs with irritant susceptibility in healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Michael Barmada, M; Johnson, Victor J; Kashon, Michael L; Baron, Elma; Wilson, Nevin W; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Fluharty, Kara; Gharib, Rola; Meade, Jean; Germolec, Dori; Luster, Michael I; Nedorost, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common work-related skin disease, especially affecting workers in "wet-work" occupations. This study was conducted to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and skin irritant response in a group of healthcare workers. 585 volunteer healthcare workers were genotyped for MHC SNPs and patch tested with three different irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). Genotyping was performed using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels. A number of SNPs within the MHC Class I (OR2B3, TRIM31, TRIM10, TRIM40 and IER3), Class II (HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1) and Class III (C2) genes were associated (p < 0.001) with skin response to tested irritants in different genetic models. Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations identified two SNPs in the TRIM40 (rs1573298) and HLA-DPB1 (rs9277554) genes, with a potential impact on gene regulation. In addition, SNPs in PSMB9 (rs10046277 and ITPR3 (rs499384) were associated with hand dermatitis. The results are of interest as they demonstrate that genetic variations in inflammation-related genes within the MHC can influence chemical-induced skin irritation and may explain the connection between inflamed skin and propensity to subsequent allergic contact sensitization. PMID:27258892

  2. Evaulation of irritation potential of surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, M; Sakr, A

    1999-12-01

    Irritation potential of sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) alone, and in combination with lauryl glucoside (LG), polysorbate 20 (PS) and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) was tested in 13 human subjects. Four main and six sub-formulations were prepared and evaluated. Formulations were applied to the forearm as a 24 h close patch study. Irritation was scored by two different methods using an in vivo clinical protocol based on visual scoring and on the stratum corneum capacitance measurement. Irritation was found to be dose dependent. At 2 mg/patch level ten subjects did not show any skin reaction. At 20 mg/patch level eleven subjects showed a broad range of skin irritation. The highest irritation was observed with the formula that contained SLES, LG, and cocamide DEA together. Among the sub-formulations, cocamide DEA showed the highest irritation grade. A statistically significant correlation was observed between visual, clinical and corneometer scores. It was concluded that the irritation potential of surfactants was related to the total surfactant concentration, application mode, and the thermodynamic activity of molecules in the solution as well as the chemical structure of the surfactant molecules. PMID:18503452

  3. Effects of Orchard Pesticides on Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Repellency and Irritancy.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A

    2015-02-01

    The effects of repellency or irritancy in Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) were studied for three rates of 16 pesticides commonly used in apple production. Adult female mites were exposed to residues in a series of choice bioassays (treated and untreated half of bean leaf disks). Novaluron, carbaryl, mancozeb+copper hydroxide, and sulfur were the most repellent materials to G. occidentalis, with females consistently avoiding the treated side of the leaf disk. Spirotetramat, flubendiamide, and cyantriniliprole caused an intermediate or inconsistent degree of repellency; azinphosmethyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, imidacloprid, spinetoram, spinosad, and chlorantriniliprole caused little to no repellency. Irritancy (running off of the disk, as opposed to resting on the untreated half) was the most pronounced in the acetamiprid and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments. Acute toxicity (within the 6 h test period) was highest in the lambda-cyhalothrin and spinetoram treatments; in the former case, the mortality at all rates tested was substantial enough to interfere with the measurement of behavioral effects. Although irritancy may be considered the more extreme form of repellency, there were several pesticides (carbaryl, cyantraniliprole, mancozeb+copper hydroxide, novaluron) where a moderate to high degree of repellency did not correspond to a high degree of irritancy. Similarly, repellency was not consistently related to acute toxicity; one of the most repellent materials (novaluron) was not acutely toxic. Behavioral effects may help explain instances where lethal or sublethal bioassays do not fully predict the effects of pesticides seen in orchard use. PMID:26470128

  4. Irritability in Pediatric Patients: Normal or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Usman; Dellasega, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe the concept of irritability in children and youth, which has been revisited in the DSM-5. Traditionally, this behavior has been more commonly associated with mood disorders, which may account for the rising incidence of bipolar disorder diagnosis and overuse of mood-stabilizing medications in pediatric patients. While not predictive of mania, persistent nonepisodic irritability, if undetected, may escalate to violent behavior with potentially serious outcomes. It is therefore important to educate clinicians about how to accurately assess irritability in pediatric patients. PMID:27486529

  5. Triclocarban: evaluation of contact dermatitis potential in man.

    PubMed

    Maibach, H; Bandmann, H J; Calnan, C D; Cronin, E; Fregert, S; Hjorth, N; Magnusson, B; Malten, K E; Meneghini, C L; Pirilä, V; Wilkinson, D S; Johannsen, F R

    1978-10-01

    Triclocarban was subjected to a profiling of its dermatitis producing potential including irritancy (21-day cumulative irritancy potential and application to 213 normal controls), phototoxicity (method of Marzulli), predictive contact sensitization (modified Draize method), predictive phototesting and battery screening in 2200 dermatitis patients, in an effort to define its relative dermatitis potential. The allergic contact dermatitis potential of triclocarban following bar soap use appears minimal. PMID:743875

  6. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  7. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ...

  8. Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how improve living with these conditions . Publication Library How Your Digestive System Works Words to Know About IFFGD About IFFGD Our Mission Awareness Activities Advocacy Activities Research Leadership Industry Council Contact us IBS Treatment Working With Your ...

  9. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease. PMID:1636360

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  11. Can a positive photopatch test be elicited by subclinical irritancy or allergy plus suberythemal UV exposure?

    PubMed

    Beattie, P E; Traynor, N J; Woods, J A; Dawe, R S; Ferguson, J; Ibbotson, S H

    2004-01-01

    Photopatch test (PhPT) interpretation is difficult and clinical relevance is not always apparent. A positive PhPT may reflect photocontact allergy or phototoxicity. We hypothesized that it may also reflect the additive or synergistic effects of a suberythemal reaction to a contact irritant [e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] or allergen (e.g. nickel) and suberythemal UV exposure. 10 nickel allergic volunteers had duplicate SLS and nickel series applied on either side of the back for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. After removal, one side was irradiated with 5 J/cm(2) UVA or the dose below the minimal erythema dose for solar-simulated radiation (SSR). The minimal irritancy dose (MID) for SLS and the minimal allergenic dose (MAD) for nickel were determined visually and objectively by erythema meter. While photoaugmentation of subclinical contact allergy or irritancy occurred in some subjects, photosuppression occurred in roughly an equal number. UVA changed the nickel MAD at 48 h in 2 of 5 volunteers but not the SLS MID. SSR changed the nickel MAD in 4 of 5 and the SLS MID in 3 of 5. 2 subjects (none after UVA) showed erythema only in the irradiated set of patches, which could have been interpreted as a positive PhPT. We have demonstrated photoaugmentation and photosuppression of contact allergy and irritancy, which could result in false-positive or false-negative interpretation of PhPTs. PMID:15606647

  12. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS. PMID:27598274

  13. Focus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scalera, A; Loguercio, C

    2012-09-01

    The Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic abdominal dis-comfort associated with changes in bowel habits and these symptoms can't be explained by any biochemical or organic abnormalities. The review summarizes the relevant findings that have emerged in recent years on the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The most important mechanisms recently implicated in the genesis of IBS symptoms are the abnormal intestinal motility, the incongruous intestinal gas production and the enhanced intestinal nociception. A lot evidence confirms the presence of dysfunction of the intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS) as demonstrated by the presence of altered expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3), putinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3r), tetrodoxin-sensitive receptor 2 (TTRX2), protease activated receptors (PPARs) and others. There are different assumption that explain these phenomena, and the impairment of the immune system is one of the most reliable. In IBS subjects it was found that the immune system is altered in both the cellular composition and its activation. Many studies have shown that inflammation and immune dysregulation affect the sensitivity of nerve fibers so it is vital to build on this argument for the development of effective therapies to control the symptoms of this syndrome. PMID:23047498

  14. Irritable bowel syndrome: aeromedical considerations.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B

    2011-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder diagnosed in accordance with the Rome III criteria. The pathophysiology of this illness is not well defined and there are no known structural abnormalities, biomedical markers, nor inflammatory causes to explain the symptoms. There are a number of serious illnesses, such as colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease that mimic IBS. If the Rome III criteria are satisfied and there are no alarm features of more serious illness, an in-depth workup is not necessary. There are numerous treatment regimens for IBS, none of which are curative nor offer universal relief. Some of the treatment regimens, such as antispasmodics and antidiarrheals, are not suitable for aviators because of anticholinergic effects and sedation. The aeromedical disposition decision is always challenging because of the vagaries of this illness. In general, a more liberal policy for pilots in civil aviation would be in order as long as symptoms are not frequent nor severe and not requiring antispasmodics or antidiarrheals while flying. A more conservative policy is in order for military pilots, possibly requiring restriction to multiseat aircraft. PMID:22097642

  15. Management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torii, Akira; Toda, Gotaro

    2004-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. The prevalence rate is 10-20% and women have a higher prevalence. IBS adversely affects quality of life and is associated with health care use and costs. IBS comprises a group of functional bowel disorders in which abdominal discomfort or pain is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit, and with features of disordered defecation. The consensus definition and criteria for IBS have been formalized in the "Rome II criteria". Food, psychiatric disorders, and gastroenteritis are risk factors for developing IBS. The mechanism in IBS involves biopsychosocial disorders; psychosocial factors, altered motility, and heightened sensory function. Brain-gut interaction is the most important in understanding the pathophysiology of IBS. Effective management requires an effective physician-patient relationship. Dietary treatment, lifestyle therapy, behavioral therapy, and pharmacologic therapy play a major role in treating IBS. Calcium polycarbophil can benefit IBS patients with constipation or alternating diarrhea and constipation. PMID:15206545

  16. [Contemporary dietotherapy of the irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pilipenko, V I; Burliaeva, E A; Isakov, V A

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional disease of the gastrointestinal tract. This highly prevalent condition is best diagnosed by assessing the constellation of symptoms with which patients present to their physicians. Because some critics have previously questioned whether irritable bowel syndrome and other functional gastrointestinal disorders truly exist because they do not have defining structural features, the Rome Foundation fostered the use of symptom-based criteria for universal use. In most cases treatment is reduced to symptomatic therapy because a lot of unknown in pathogenesis by irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome leads to decrease of quality of life of the patients and could be one of the reasons of patients' disability. Food is believed by patients promotes symptoms and the diet or avoiding specific food can reduce symptoms. Possible role of different food and microbiota in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome, as well as the data from randomized, controlled clinical trials dedicated to the effects of diet in irritable bowel syndrome are summarized and discussed in this review. The efficacy of the diet, enriched by fiber, prebiotics, probiotics, peppermint oil, curcumin and vitamin B6 in irritable bowel syndrome patients was shown in numerous studies. In some studies restriction in consumption of fermented carbohydrates, coffee and alcohol, as well as diet with elimination IgG-sensed food was also shown to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome. Food intolerances, defined as non-toxic non-immune adverse reactions to food, include reactions to bioactive chemicals in foods and metabolic reactions to poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates. New dietary approaches like polyunsaturated fatty acids intake correction and the low tryptophan intake are discussed. PMID:23808281

  17. Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; Larosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-01-11

    The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed using the rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) assay. In the current study, we investigated whether the organotypic, highly differentiated EpiVaginal™ tissue could be used as a non-animal alternative to the RVI test. The EpiVaginal tissue was exposed to a single application of ingredients commonly found in feminine hygiene products and the effects on tissue viability (MTT assay), barrier disruption (measured by transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) leakage), and inflammatory cytokine release (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) patterns were examined. When compared to untreated controls, two irritating ingredients, nonoxynol 9 and benzalkonium chloride, reduced tissue viability to <40% and TEER to <60% while increasing NaFl leakage by 11-24% and IL-1α and IL-1β release by >100%. Four other non-irritating materials had minimal effects on these parameters. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by testing the chemicals using three different tissue production lots and by using tissues reconstructed from cells obtained from three different donors. Coefficients of variation between tissue lots reconstructed with cells obtained from the same donor or lots reconstructed with cells obtained from different donors were less than 10% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increases in IL-1α and IL-1β release appear to be useful endpoints for preclinical screening of topically applied

  18. Review of skin irritation/corrosion Hazards on the basis of human data: A regulatory perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jírova, Dagmar; Kandárová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory classification of skin irritation has historically been based on rabbit data, however current toxicology processes are transitioning to in vitro alternatives. The in vitro assays have to provide sufficient level of sensitivity as well as specificity to be accepted as replacement methods for the existing in vivo assays. This is usually achieved by comparing the in vitro results to classifications obtained in animals. Significant drawback of this approach is that neither in vivo nor in vitro methods are calibrated against human hazard data and results obtained in these assays may not correspond to situation in human. The main objective of this review was to establish an extended database of substances classified according to their human hazard to serve for further development of alternative methods relevant to human health as well as resource for improved regulatory classification. The literature has been reviewed to assemble all the available information on the testing of substances in the human 4 h human patch test, which is the only standardized protocol in humans matching the exposure conditions of the regulatory accepted in vivo rabbit skin irritation test. A total of 81 substances tested according to the defined 4 h human patch test protocol were found and collated into a dataset together with their existing in vivo classifications published in the literature. While about 50% of the substances in the database are classified as irritating based on the rabbit skin test, on using the 4 h HPT test, less than 20% were identified as acutely irritant to human skin. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the rabbit skin irritation test largely over-predicts human responses for the evaluated chemicals. Correct classification of the acute skin irritation hazard will only be possible if newly developed in vitro toxicology methods will be calibrated to produce results relevant to man. PMID:23118595

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it “irritable brain” or “irritable bowel”?

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Mahajan, Sonali; Sinha, Saroj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26752904

  20. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients. PMID:25880820

  1. The Brief Irritability Test (BITe): a measure of irritability for use among men and women.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; O'Connor, Brian P; Barata, Paula C; Stewart, Donna E

    2015-02-01

    Elevated levels of irritability have been reported across a range of psychiatric and medical conditions. However, research on the causes, consequences, and treatments of irritability has been hindered by limitations in existing measurement tools. This study aimed to develop a brief, reliable, and valid self-report measure of irritability that is suitable for use among both men and women and that displays minimal overlap with related constructs. First, 63 candidate items were generated, including items from two recent irritability scales. Second, 1,116 participants (877 university students and 229 chronic pain outpatients) completed a survey containing the irritability item pool and standardized measures of related constructs. Item response theory was used to develop a five-item scale (the Brief Irritability Test) with a strong internal structure. All five items displayed minimal conceptual overlap with related constructs (e.g., depression, anger), and test scores displayed negligible gender bias. The Brief Irritability Test shows promise in helping to advance the burgeoning field of irritability research. PMID:24830513

  2. The Brief Irritability Test (BITe): A Measure of Irritability for Use Among Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Susan; O’Connor, Brian P.; Barata, Paula C.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of irritability have been reported across a range of psychiatric and medical conditions. However, research on the causes, consequences, and treatments of irritability has been hindered by limitations in existing measurement tools. This study aimed to develop a brief, reliable, and valid self-report measure of irritability that is suitable for use among both men and women and that displays minimal overlap with related constructs. First, 63 candidate items were generated, including items from two recent irritability scales. Second, 1,116 participants (877 university students and 229 chronic pain outpatients) completed a survey containing the irritability item pool and standardized measures of related constructs. Item response theory was used to develop a five-item scale (the Brief Irritability Test) with a strong internal structure. All five items displayed minimal conceptual overlap with related constructs (e.g., depression, anger), and test scores displayed negligible gender bias. The Brief Irritability Test shows promise in helping to advance the burgeoning field of irritability research. PMID:24830513

  3. Amantadine Effect on Perceptions of Irritability after Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the Amantadine Irritability Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherer, Mark; Malec, James F.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Whitney, Marybeth; Bell, Kathleen; Dikmen, Sureyya; Bogner, Jennifer; Mysiw, Jerry; Pershad, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the effect of amantadine on irritability in persons in the post-acute period after traumatic brain injury (TBI). There were 168 persons ≥6 months post-TBI with irritability who were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial receiving either amantadine 100 mg twice daily or equivalent placebo for 60 days. Subjects were assessed at baseline and days 28 (primary end-point) and 60 of treatment using observer-rated and participant-rated Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-I) Most Problematic item (primary outcome), NPI Most Aberrant item, and NPI-I Distress Scores, as well as physician-rated Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Observer ratings between the two groups were not statistically significantly different at day 28 or 60; however, observers rated the majority in both groups as having improved at both intervals. Participant ratings for day 60 demonstrated improvements in both groups with greater improvement in the amantadine group on NPI-I Most Problematic (p<0.04) and NPI-I Distress (p<0.04). These results were not significant with correction for multiple comparisons. CGI demonstrated greater improvement for amantadine than the placebo group (p<0.04). Adverse event occurrence did not differ between the two groups. While observers in both groups reported large improvements, significant group differences were not found for the primary outcome (observer ratings) at either day 28 or 60. This large placebo or nonspecific effect may have masked detection of a treatment effect. The result of this study of amantadine 100 mg every morning and noon to reduce irritability was not positive from the observer perspective, although there are indications of improvement at day 60 from the perspective of persons with TBI and clinicians that may warrant further investigation. PMID:25774566

  4. Sensitization of the Trigeminovascular System following Environmental Irritant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kunkler, Phillip Edward; Zhang, LuJuan; Pellman, Jessica Joan; Oxford, Gerry Stephen; Hurley, Joyce Harts

    2016-01-01

    Background Air pollution is linked to increased emergency room visits for headache and migraine patients frequently cite chemicals or odors as headache triggers, but the association between air pollutants and headache is not well-understood. We previously reported that nasal administration of environmental irritants acutely increases meningeal blood flow via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism, involving the trigeminovascular system. Here, we examine whether chronic environmental irritant exposure sensitizes the trigeminovascular system. Methods Male rats were exposed to acrolein, a TRPA1 agonist, or room air by inhalation for 4 days prior to meningeal blood flow measurements. Some animals were injected daily with a TRPA1 antagonist, AP-18 or vehicle prior to inhalation exposure. Trigeminal ganglia were isolated following blood flow measurements for immunocytochemistry and/or qPCR determination of TRPV1, TRPA1 and CGRP levels. Results Acrolein inhalation exposure potentiated blood flow responses to both TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonists compared to room air. Acrolein exposure did not alter TRPV1 or TRPA1 mRNA levels or TRPV1 or CGRP immunoreactive cell counts in the trigeminal ganglion. Acrolein sensitization of trigeminovascular responses to a TRPA1 agonist was attenuated by pre-treatment with AP-18. Interpretation These results suggest trigeminovascular sensitization as a mechanism for enhanced headache susceptibility after chemical exposure. PMID:25724913

  5. A superfusion apparatus for ex vivo human eye irritation investigations.

    PubMed

    Elbadawy, Hossein Mostafa; Salvalaio, Gianni; Parekh, Mohit; Ruzza, Alessandro; Baruzzo, Mattia; Cagini, Carlo; Ponzin, Diego; Ferrari, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    A superfusion apparatus (SA) was developed to maintain isolated human corneas ex vivo under conditions which mimic the natural eye environment in vivo, including controlled temperature, tear flow and intraocular pressure. The SA was designed, developed and tested for use in ophthalmic pre-clinical research and to test new pharmaceutical formulations. Corneas undergo an equilibration process in the new physiological environment for one day. The test was then initiated by the application of the test substance, incubation, and temporal assessment of corneal damage using various parameters. The effects of mild and severe irritant concentrations of NaOH (2% and 8%, respectively) on corneal opacity, swelling and epithelial integrity were studied, and the inflammatory status assessed using F4/80 and MPO as macrophages and neutrophils markers, respectively. The SA was then used to test new artificial tear formulations supplemented with silver ions as an active constituent, showing different degrees of inflammatory responses as indicated by the migration of MPO and F4/80 positive cells towards the epithelium. The human cornea superfusion apparatus was proposed as a model for acute eye irritation research. PMID:26100225

  6. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  7. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  8. A shortened psychophysical task to quantify irritability: the Reactive Irritability Scale II (RIS-II).

    PubMed

    Faraday, Martha M; Scheufele, Peter M; Vander Ley, Kelly J; Grunberg, Neil E

    2005-02-01

    The Reactive Irritability Scale (RIS) uses magnitude estimation to measure reactive irritability. Respondents rate target sounds in comparison to a neutral reference sound. The RIS proved more sensitive than self-report measures to detect irritability associated with withdrawal from cigarette smoking and with exposure to a stressful environment, but was too long (30 min) for routine use. We report here on a shortened version (13 min)--RIS-II. The RIS-II exhibited robust test-retest reliability and correlated strongly with the original RIS (Study 1). In Study 2, the RIS-II was administered to subjects who experienced psychological stress and then were exposed to progressive relaxation, music, cognitive tasks, or silence; the Progressive Relaxation group was the most irritable. In Study 3, the RIS-II was administered to chronic pain patients. Pain patients found the sounds less irritating than did controls with the exception of the reference sound; repeated presentation of the reference sound increased irritability. These studies indicate that the RIS-II is a reliable instrument that may have utility for the measurement of irritability in laboratory and clinical settings. In addition, these studies indicate that the RIS-II is understandable by individuals of different ages who are from educationally- and culturally-diverse backgrounds and individuals who are healthy as well as individuals suffering from chronic medical conditions who are on multiple medications. PMID:15887872

  9. Effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating intestinal hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Long, Yanqin; Liu, Ying; Tong, Jingjing; Qian, Wei; Hou, Xiaohua

    2010-06-25

    Trimebutine maleate, which modulates the calcium and potassium channels, relieves abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, its effect on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome is not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating colonic hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Mice infected up to 8 weeks with T. spiralis underwent abdominal withdrawal reflex to colorectal distention to evaluate the visceral sensitivity at different time points. Tissues were examined for histopathology scores. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared in the organ bath under basal condition or to be stimulated by acetylcholine and potassium chloride, and consecutive concentrations of trimebutine maleate were added to the bath to record the strip responses. Significant inflammation was observed in the intestines of the mice infected 2 weeks, and it resolved in 8 weeks after infection. Visceral hyperalgesia and colonic muscle hypercontractility emerged after infection, and trimebutine maleate could effectively reduce the colonic hyperreactivity. Hypercontractility of the colonic muscle stimulated by acetylcholine and high K(+) could be inhibited by trimebutine maleate in solution with Ca(2+), but not in Ca(2+) free solution. Compared with 8-week postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, 2-week acute infected strips were much more sensitive to the stimulators and the drug trimebutine maleate. Trimebutine maleate was effective in reducing the colonic muscle hypercontractility of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome mice. The findings may provide evidence for trimebutine maleate to treat postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients effectively. PMID:20371236

  10. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. PMID:27233534

  11. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  12. IL-6 deficiency exacerbates skin inflammation in a murine model of irritant dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric G; Mickle-Kawar, Bethany M; Gallucci, Randle M

    2013-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is the second most reported occupational injury associated with workers compensation. Inflammatory cytokines are closely involved with the development of dermatitis, and their modulation could exacerbate skin damage, thus contributing to increased irritancy. IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine paradoxically associated with both skin healing and inflammation. To determine what role this pleiotropic cytokine plays in chemically-induced irritant dermatitis, IL-6 deficient (KO), IL-6 over-expressing transgenic (TgIL6), and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to acetone or the irritants JP-8 jet fuel or benzalkonium chloride (BKC) daily for 7 days. Histological analysis of exposed skin was performed, as was tissue mRNA and protein expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines via QPCR and multiplex ELISA. The results indicated that, following JP-8 exposure, IL-6KO mice had greatly increased skin IL-1β, TNFα, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL1 mRNA and corresponding product protein expression when compared to that of samples from WT counterparts and acetone-exposed control mice. BKC treatment induced the expression of all cytokines examined as compared to acetone, with CCL2 significantly higher in skin from IL-6KO mice. Histological analysis showed that IL-6KO mice displayed significantly more inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to WT and TgIL6 mice in response to jet fuel. Analysis of mRNA for the M2 macrophage marker CD206 indicated a 4-fold decrease in skin of IL-6KO mice treated with either irritant as compared to WT. Taken together, these observations suggest that IL-6 acts in an anti-inflammatory manner during irritant dermatitis, and these effects are dependent on the chemical nature of the irritant. PMID:22966985

  13. Encapsulation of Mentha Oil in Chitosan Polymer Matrix Alleviates Skin Irritation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Sinha, Priyam; Kanaujia, Archana; Chanda, Debabrata; Jakhmola, Apurva; Saikia, Dharmendra; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Mentha spicata L. var. viridis oil (MVO) is a potent antifungal agent, but its application in the topical treatment is limited due to its irritancy and volatility. It was aimed to develop more efficient, chitosan-incrusted MVO microspheres with reduced volatility and lesser irritancy and to dispense it in the form of ointment. Simple coacervation technique was employed to microencapsulate MVO in chitosan matrix. Morphological properties and polymer cross-linking were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Optimization was carried out on the basis of entrapment efficiency (EE) using response surface methodology. Well-designed microspheres having smooth surface and spherical shape were observed. EE (81.20%) of optimum batch (R21) was found at 1.62% w/v of cross-linker, 5.4:5 of MVO to chitosan ratio and at 1000 rpm. R21 showed 69.38 ± 1.29% in vitro MVO release in 12 h and 96.92% retention of MVO in microspheres even after 8 week. Ointments of PEG 4000 and PEG 400 comprising MVO (F1) and R21 (F2) were developed separately. F2 showed comparatively broader zone of growth inhibition (13.33 ± 1.76-18.67 ± 0.88 mm) and less irritancy (PII 0.5833, irritation barely perceptible) than that of F1. F2 was able to avoid the direct contact of mild irritant MVO with the skin and to reduce its rapid volatility. Controlled release of MVO helped in lengthening the duration of availability of MVO in agar media and hence improved its therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, a stable and non-irritant formulation with improved therapeutic potential was developed. PMID:26248538

  14. Corn contact urticaria in a nurse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendy; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-05-01

    A 33-year-old nurse presented with persistent hand dermatitis. Radioallergosorbent tests showed moderate to strong reactions to latex, avocado and banana. Despite avoidance of latex gloves, she failed to improve. Patch testing was negative. Prick testing showed a negative reaction to latex, but a strong reaction to corn, with relevance to cornstarch powder present in many medical examination gloves. She was diagnosed with corn contact urticaria, irritant contact dermatitis and type I hypersensitivity to latex fruits. PMID:17535205

  15. Effects of glycerol on human skin damaged by acute sodium lauryl sulphate treatment.

    PubMed

    Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Romagny, Céline; Padois, Karine; Denis, Alain; Haftek, Marek; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-08-01

    Glycerol, widely used as humectant, is known to protect against irritants and to accelerate recovery of irritated skin. However, most studies were done with topical formulations (i.e. emulsions) containing glycerol in relatively high amounts, preventing drawing conclusions from direct effects. In this study, acute chemical irritations were performed on the forearm with application of a 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) aqueous solution under occlusion for 3 h. Then, glycerol aqueous solutions from 1 to 10% were applied under occlusion for 3 h. After elimination of moist excess consecutive to occlusive condition, in ambient air for 15 and 30 min, skin barrier function was investigated by dual measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatments with SLS solution under occlusion significantly increased TEWL and decreased skin hydration as assessed by capacitance measurements. The SLS irritant property was raised by the occlusion and the water barrier function as well as water content appeared impaired. Recovery with glycerol at low doses was remarkable through a mechanism that implies its hygroscopic properties and which is saturable. This precocious effect acts through skin rehydration by enhancing water-holding capacity of stratum corneum that would facilitate the late physiological repair of impaired skin barrier. Thus, glycerol appears to substitute for natural moisturizing factors that have been washed out by the detergent action of SLS, enhancing skin hydration but without restoring skin barrier function as depicted by TEWL values that remained high. Thus, irritant contact dermatitis treated with glycerol application compensate for skin dehydration, favouring physiological process to restore water barrier function of the impaired skin. Empirical use of glycerol added topical formulations onto detergent altered skin was substantiated in the present physicochemical approach. PMID:20043170

  16. NEUROPEPTIDE MODULATION OF CHEMICALLY INDUCED SKIN IRRITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to demonstrate that the early symptoms of chemically-induced skin irritation are neurally mediated. everal approaches were used to affect nerve transmission in adult Balb/c female mice. hese included general anesthesia (i.e., sodium pentobarbital), systemi...

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Female Patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lucinda A; Umar, Sarah B; Baffy, Noemi; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is probably the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder and is characterized by abdominal pain along with altered bowel function. It is a disorder of female predominance. This article focuses on how being female influences the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of this common disorder and discusses the evidence and important controversies related to these areas. PMID:27261893

  18. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  19. Comparison of in vitro predictive tests for irritation induced by anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1995-07-01

    Skin compatibility of anionic surfactants may often but not always be predicted by in vitro tests. For instance, the correlation between in vivo and in vitro data is classically hampered in the presence of magnesium. This ion is known to interfere with in vitro skin irritation predictive tests based on protein denaturation. This study was conducted to compare a recently introduced assay, corneosurfametry, with other in vitro tests including the pH-rise of bovine serum albumin, collagen swelling, and zein solubilization tests. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants, followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reflectance colorimetry. Data show that irritation potentials predicted by corneosurfametry agree with those obtained by established in vivo and in vitro irritation tests. Moreover, corneosurfametry data are not artificially lowered by addition of magnesium in surfactant solutions. In conclusion, corneosurfametry should be viewed as one of the realistic predictive tests for surfactant irritancy. PMID:7493460

  20. Quaternary ammonium derivatives as spasmolytics for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, S

    2004-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium derivatives such as cimetropium, n-butyl scopolammonium, otilonium and pinaverium bromide have been discovered and developed as potent spasmolytics of the gastrointestinal tract. Their pharmacological activity has been proven in both "in vivo" and "in vitro" studies of hypermotility. "In vitro" experiments showed that they possess antimuscarinic activity at nM level but only pinaverium and otilonium are endowed with calcium channel blocker properties. These latter compounds relaxed the gastrointestinal smooth muscle mainly through a specific inhibition of calcium ion influx through L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Molecular pharmacology trials have indicated that pinaverium and otilonium can bind specific subunits of the calcium channel in the external surface of the plasma membrane and in this way they block the machinery of the contraction. Recent evidence showed that otilonium is able to bind tachykinin NK(2) receptors and not only inhibits one of the major contractile agents but can reduce the activation of afferent nerves devoted to the passage of sensory signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thanks to their typical physico-chemical characteristics, they are poorly absorbed by the systemic circulation and generally remain in the gastrointestinal tract where they exert the muscle relaxant activity by a local activity. Some differences exists in the absorption among these compounds: both n-butyl scopolammonium and cimetropium are partially taken up in the bloodstream, pinaverium has a low absorption (8-10 %) but is endowed with an excellent hepato-biliary excretion and otilonium, which has the lowest absorption (3 %), is almost totally excreted by faeces. Quaternary ammonium derivatives are widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and recent meta-analyses have supported their efficacy in this disease. Due to its therapeutic index, the use of n-butyl scopolammonium is more indicated to treat acute

  1. Acute toxicity of 2-butyne-1,4-diol in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, R A; Czajkowska, T; Stetkiewicz, J; Stetkiewicz, I

    1992-04-01

    Acute toxicity of 2-butyne-1,4-diol (BYD) was evaluated in laboratory animals. The evaluation involved acute oral and dermal toxicity in rats, dermal and ocular irritation in rabbits and skin sensitization in guinea pigs. The oral LD50 values for BYD were 132 mg kg-1 in male rats and 176 mg kg-1 in female rats. Post-mortem histology showed severe damage in lungs, liver and kidneys. In surviving rats, moderate to severe degenerative changes were observed in the liver but only mild lesions in the kidneys. In acute dermal toxicity studies the test chemical was applied either as a solid substance or as 40% aqueous solution at a dose of 5 g kg-1 for 24 h. Within 48 h of application of the diluted test material, half of the rats died. Liver and kidneys were the primary targets and different stages of degeneration, including necrosis, were observed. No deaths occurred after application of the solid substance. In rabbits, BYD was slightly irritant to skin and eyes. No allergic contact dermatitis was observed in guinea pigs. PMID:1556377

  2. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye. PMID:24137288

  3. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029

    PubMed Central

    SON, HYEONG-U; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye. PMID:24137288

  4. Contact sensitization in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728

  5. Irritative symptoms and exposure to mineral wool.

    PubMed

    Petersen, R; Sabroe, S

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study undertaken in 1981 using a postal questionnaire, the prevalence of irritative symptoms was investigated among 2,654 Danish construction workers working with mineral wool. An evaluation was undertaken in a multivariate logit analysis of the relationship between exposure level (measured by hours of exposure to mineral wool per month) and prevalence of symptoms. The analysis controlled for the confounders of age, smoking habits, and exposure to organic solvents. With greater exposure to mineral wool, there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of irritative symptoms from the eyes, the skin, and the upper respiratory tract. Among construction workers working with mineral wool 160-180 hours per month, two-thirds had these symptoms once a week or oftener. The occurrence was 2-3 times higher compared with the construction workers not working with mineral wool. The relationship between exposure to mineral wool and skin and mucous membrane symptoms may be explained by the irritative action of the fibers that are given off during insulation work. PMID:1831004

  6. Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation

    PubMed Central

    Pisetpackdeekul, Pimolphan; Supmuang, Piyapan; Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Limcharoen, Benchaphorn; Kokpol, Chayada; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-01-01

    Despite many potent biological activities, retinoids such as retinoic acid (RA) and retinal possess dose-related broad side effects. In this study, we show that this problem, which has been unsolvable for a long time, can be tackled through a controlled release strategy in which retinal is continuously delivered to the skin via sustained release from proretinal nanoparticles. The water dispersible proretinal nanoparticles are stable when kept in water at neutral pH and at room temperature for 8 months under light-proof conditions, and show sustained release of retinal into human synthetic sebum at a pH of 5. In the daily topical application tests performed for 4 weeks on rats’ skin, the nanoparticles showed superior ability to increase epidermal thickness compared to RA and retinal, with no skin irritation observed for the proretinal particles, but severe skin irritation observed for RA and free retinal. When tested under occlusion conditions in human volunteers, insignificant skin irritation was observed for the proretinal nanoparticles. The 12-week, double-blind, split-face study on human volunteers indicates better antiaging efficacy of the particles as compared to the free RA. PMID:27499622

  7. Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation.

    PubMed

    Pisetpackdeekul, Pimolphan; Supmuang, Piyapan; Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Limcharoen, Benchaphorn; Kokpol, Chayada; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-01-01

    Despite many potent biological activities, retinoids such as retinoic acid (RA) and retinal possess dose-related broad side effects. In this study, we show that this problem, which has been unsolvable for a long time, can be tackled through a controlled release strategy in which retinal is continuously delivered to the skin via sustained release from proretinal nanoparticles. The water dispersible proretinal nanoparticles are stable when kept in water at neutral pH and at room temperature for 8 months under light-proof conditions, and show sustained release of retinal into human synthetic sebum at a pH of 5. In the daily topical application tests performed for 4 weeks on rats' skin, the nanoparticles showed superior ability to increase epidermal thickness compared to RA and retinal, with no skin irritation observed for the proretinal particles, but severe skin irritation observed for RA and free retinal. When tested under occlusion conditions in human volunteers, insignificant skin irritation was observed for the proretinal nanoparticles. The 12-week, double-blind, split-face study on human volunteers indicates better antiaging efficacy of the particles as compared to the free RA. PMID:27499622

  8. Irritant activation of epithelial cells is mediated via protease-dependent EGFR activation.

    PubMed

    White, Kellie J; Maffei, Vincent J; Newton-West, Marvin; Swerlick, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    Although numerous studies have examined in vivo and in vitro effects of irritants, most focused on events developing hours to days after exposure. Molecular events occurring immediately after skin contact remain incompletely defined. Characterization of early events could lead to the identification of key molecular signals necessary for the production of inflammatory mediators responsible for the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). HaCaT cells treated with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a model irritant, were used to examine early molecular events of ICD. Western analysis showed SLS-mediated induction of early growth response-1 (egr-1), a transcription factor capable of regulating hallmarks of ICD such as angiogenesis, hyperproliferation, and inflammation. Additionally, de novo egr-1 expression was commensurate with transcriptional activation of egr-1 mRNA and heteronuclear RNA. Use of pharmacological inhibitors demonstrated that SLS-induced egr-1 was dependent on MEK1/p44/42 ERK, but not on p38 or JNK signaling. The EGFR inhibitor PD168393 and the metalloprotease inhibitor TAPI-2 both inhibited SLS-induced egr-1. Finally, small interfering RNA silencing of the EGFR diminished SLS-induced egr-1 mRNA. These studies suggest a role of the EGFR in SLS signaling as well as a, to our knowledge, previously unreported association between ICD and EGFR induction of egr-1. PMID:20981109

  9. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    PubMed

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants. PMID:11811921

  10. TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkler, Phillip Edward; Ballard, Carrie Jo; Oxford, Gerry Stephen; Hurley, Joyce Harts

    2010-01-01

    The TRPA1 receptor is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels expressed in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 receptors are targeted by pungent compounds from mustard and garlic and environmental irritants such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Ingestion or inhalation of these chemical agents causes irritation and burning in the nasal and oral mucosa and respiratory lining. Headaches have been widely reported to be induced by inhalation of environmental irritants, but it is unclear how these agents produce headache. Stimulation of trigeminal neurons releases CGRP and substance P and induces neurogenic inflammation associated with the pain of migraine. Here we test the hypothesis that activation of TRPA1 receptors are the mechanistic link between environmental irritants and peptide mediated neurogenic inflammation. Known TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants stimulate CGRP release from dissociated rat trigeminal ganglia neurons and this release is blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Further, TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants increase meningeal blood flow following intranasal administration. Prior dural application of the CGRP antagonist, CGRP8–37, or intranasal or dural administration of HC-030031, blocks the increases in blood flow elicited by environmental irritants. Together these results demonstrate that TRPA1 receptor activation by environmental irritants stimulates CGRP release and increases cerebral blood flow. We suggest that these events contribute to headache associated with environmental irritants. PMID:21075522

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Vahedi, H; Ansari, R; Mir-Nasseri, MM; Jafari, E

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder noted in the general population worldwide. Its chronic nature, signs and symptoms which vary periodically from mild to severe have many negative effects on the quality of life for the sufferer; therefore the appropriate treatment of these patients is highly important. Patients should be informed by their doctors that the nature of the disease is benign, and educated on how to deal with and control symptoms of the disease. This article sets out a review of recent studies on the prevalence of IBS in Iran and appropriate methods for management of patients affected by IBS. PMID:25197516

  12. Novel pharmacological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Maura; Whorwell, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder, which represents a major cost to healthcare services. Current pharmacological treatment includes fibre supplements, antispasmodics, laxatives, loperamide and antidepressants. This article reviews the novel pharmacological treatments already or recently approved for patients with IBS-C (lubiprostone, linaclotide) and IBS-D (alosetron, ramosetron, rifaximin, eluxadoline). Furthermore, results for drugs in development (plecanatide, ibudutant and ebastine) or used in chronic constipation or for other indications, with potential application in IBS (prucalopride, elobixibat, mesalazine, ondansetron and colesevelam) are also reviewed. PMID:26907518

  13. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Załęski, Andrzej; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS. PMID:24868283

  14. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Załęski, Andrzej; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS. PMID:24868283

  15. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  16. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  17. Telocyte's contacts.

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles. PMID:26826524

  18. Workplace irritant exposures: do they produce true occupational asthma?

    PubMed

    Banks, D E

    2001-04-01

    The recognition that irritant exposures can cause asthma is not new. Many investigators turn towards the gassings of soldiers in World War I as the first examples of this, while Brooks, in 1985, reported this in detail in workers and called it 'Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)'. There is considerable overlap with RADS and occupational asthma as both share respiratory symptoms which can be described as 'asthmatic', yet RADS is the result of an acute excessive exposure, while occupational asthma occurs due to a series of sensitizing exposures. Yet, a clear understanding of RADS has been limited by the lack of epidemiologic studies; rather the disease has been described by case series. This report contrasts RADS and occupational asthma and finds that although there may be some difference in lung pathology, reports for the past years since Brooks' initial reports have shown that the line separating occupational asthma and RADS has become increasingly blurred, rather than increasingly distinct, with considerable overlap in the clinical symptoms with the perspective that these described entities are a part of a continuum. Perhaps the development of animal models for RADS may hasten further understanding. PMID:11964685

  19. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Emotion Regulation, and Gut Microbiota].

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined as a representative functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain and/or abdominal discomfort associated with abnormal bowel movement. Gut microbiota are related to the pathophysiology of IBS. In the field of IBS, post-infectious etiology, stress-induced alteration of microbiota, increased mucosal permeability, bacterial overgrowth, disease-specific microbiota, microbial products, and brain-gut interactions are being investigated. In some individuals, IBS develops after recovery from acute gastroenteritis known as post-infectious IBS. Gut microbiota in IBS patients differ from those in healthy individuals, and the profiles of gut microbiota in IBS patients also vary among IBS patients with constipation, diarrhea, and mixed subtypes. In Japan, gut microbiota in IBS patients also differ from those observed in healthy individuals, and organic acid by-products observed in the patients correlated with symptoms, quality of life, and alexithymia. Further research on gut microbiota in IBS patients is warranted. PMID:27279158

  20. [Irritable bowel syndrome: a functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Man, Fernando; Bustos Fernández, Luis María

    2013-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a highly prevalent condition responsible for almost one third of visits to the gastroenterologist and huge expenses for diagnosis, treatment and loss of working days. A unique pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated yet and several possibilities have been proposed such as senso-perception and motor disturbances, the effect of stress and anxiety, serotonin receptor failures, activation of abnormal brain areas and pain modulation differences, among others. The absence of a biological marker has led the investigators to consider this syndrome as an exclusion diagnostic condition, once the organic diseases have been discarded The changes in gut microbiota have recently raised great interest among gastroenterologists. The study of the small intestinal bowel overgrowth syndrome, the effect of antibiotics upon the flora, the recognition of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and the action of probiotics, together with the effect of malabsortion of diet carbohydrates have brought some new light in our knowledge. The present update will focus on the published evidence about the subject, bearing in mind that the mechanisms elicited here are only suitable for a subgroup of patients. PMID:24516961

  1. In vitro alternatives for ocular irritation.

    PubMed Central

    Curren, R D; Harbell, J W

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of using animals to test whether new chemicals and products are eye irritants has been questioned with increasing frequency and fervor over the last 20 years. During this time many new nonanimal methods have been proposed as reliable alternatives to the traditional rabbit (Draize) test. To date, however, none of these nonanimal (in vitro) tests have become universally accepted as a complete replacement for the Draize test. To understand why a complete replacement has not been found, one has to first understand the reasonably complex structure of the eye, the standard Draize scoring scale--which is based on a qualitative evaluation of three different tissues--the differences between human and rabbit eyes, the intrinsic variability of the animal test, and the details of the different in vitro tests that have been proposed as replacements. The in vitro tests vary from relatively simple assays using single cells to more sophisticated assays that use discarded animal tissue or artificially constructed human tissue. It is clear that appropriately designed in vitro tests will eventually give more useful mechanistic information about ocular injury from which we can more comfortably predict the risk of human eye irritation from new products and ingredients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9599696

  2. [Neonatal parechovirus infection, fever, irritability and myositis].

    PubMed

    Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Boize, P; Thibault, M; Sarda, H

    2013-07-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is associated with central nervous system infection and sepsis-like illness in newborn infants. The most frequent signs are fever, seizures, irritability, rash, and encephalitis. We report 4 cases of full-term infants with HPeV infection. They were admitted from home to the pediatric emergency unit of our hospital in October 2012. The median age at onset of symptoms was 15 days. They all developed sepsis-like illness with predominantly gastrointestinal disease and irritability. Two patients developed respiratory problems and 2 a skin rash (concerning only the extremities for one). Two patients required hospitalization in an intensive care unit. There was normal or mild inflammatory syndrome, normal white blood cell or mild leukopenia, hepatitis. We describe for the first time elevation of muscular enzymes in 3 of these patients. The diagnosis of HPeV infection was made by positive HPeV real-time PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (including the patient without pleocytosis) and/or blood. HPeV may cause severe disease in the neonatal period and patients presenting with such signs should be evaluated for HPeV. It also should be considered in sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:23742920

  3. Adolescent irritability: phenotypic associations and genetic links with depressed mood

    PubMed Central

    Stringaris, Argyris; Zavos, Helena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia

    2013-01-01

    Objective Irritability has been proposed to underlie the developmental link between oppositional problems and depression. However, little is known about the genetic and environmental influences on irritability and its overlap with depression. This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between irritability and depression is accounted for by genetic factors. As such, it draws on the notion of “generalist genes” i.e., genes of general effect that underlie phenotypic overlap between disorders. Method The G1219 study, a UK-based twin sample (N=2651), was used in a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Irritable and headstrong/hurtful dimensions of oppositional behavior were derived using factor analysis. Regression was used to estimate the association between depression and delinquency. Multivariate genetic analyses were used to estimate the genetic overlap between irritability versus headstrong/hurtful behaviors with depression and delinquency respectively. Results Irritability showed a significantly stronger phenotypic relationship with depression than delinquency, whereas headstrong/hurtful behaviors were more strongly related to delinquency than depression. In multivariate genetic analyses, the genetic correlation between irritability and depression (0.70; CI: 0.59-0.82) was significantly higher than that between irritability and delinquency (0.57; CI: 0.45-0.69); conversely, the genetic correlation between headstrong/hurtful behaviors and delinquency (0.80; CI: 0.72-0.86) was significantly higher than that between headstrong/hurtful behaviors and depression (0.46; CI: 0.36-0.57). In longitudinal models, the phenotypic association between irritability at Time 1 and depression at Time 2 was accounted for by the genetic association between irritability and depression at Time1. Conclusions The findings are consistent with the theory that genes with general effects underlie the relationship between irritability and depression. PMID:22193524

  4. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  5. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Rusch, George M; Bowden, Anthony M; Muijser, Hans; Arts, Josje

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF(3)) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF(3)) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single 4-h period (BF(3)) or a single 1-h period (FSA) and necropsied 1 or 14 days after exposure (BF(3)) or 14 days after exposure (FSA). Measurements consisted of clinical signs, body weight, kidney and lung weight, histopathology (BF(3)), and breathing parameters (FSA) and were used to evaluate the possible irritating effects of these compounds. The results indicated treatment-related findings in the larynx and trachea in the rats exposed to 74.4 mg/m(3) BF(3), consisting of ventral cartilage necrosis, hemorrhage, and an increase in ventral epithelial hyperplasia and ventral inflammatory cell inflammation 24 h postexposure. In the animals sacrificed 14 days postexposure, the only notable observation was ventral cartilage necrosis, present in 2 animals. The next lower level tested, 24.6 mg/m(3) BF, was considered a no-observed-adverse-effects level (NOAEL). A concentration of 4125 mg/m(3) FSA resulted in a clearly decreased breathing rate during and shortly after exposure with 67% (4/6) mortality on days 5-9 after exposure. A concentration of 845 mg/m(3) FSA resulted in only minor signs of irritation, consisting of slight changes in breathing pattern shorlty after exposure. The results of the present 4-h inhalation study with BF(3) indicated that respiratory irritation was present at a level of 74.4 mg/m(3) whereas 24.6 mg/m(3) was a NOAEL. A single 1-h exposure to 845 mg/m(3) FSA resulted in only minor signs of respiratory irritation, indicating that on a mass basis FSA is no more toxic or irritating than hydrogen fluoride (HF) or sulfuric acid. PMID:18464054

  6. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  9. Evaluation and Application of the RD50 for Determining Acceptable Exposure Levels of Airborne Sensory Irritants for the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Yu; Alexeeff, George V.; Broadwin, Rachel; Salmon, Andrew G.

    2007-01-01

    Background The RD50 (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R2) between RD50s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). Objective The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RD50s and human sensory irritation responses in a quantitative manner, particularly for chemicals that produce burning sensation of the eyes, nose, or throat, based on lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) reported for human subjects. Methods We compared RD50s with LOAELs and acute reference exposure levels (RELs). RELs, developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, represent a level at which no adverse effects are anticipated after exposure. We collected RD50s from the published literature and evaluated them for consistency with ASTM procedures. We identified LOAELs for human irritation and found 25 chemicals with a corresponding RD50 in mice. Discussion We found the relationship between RD50s and LOAELs as log RD50 = 1.16 (log LOAEL) + 0.77 with an R2 value of 0.80. This strong correlation supports the use of the RD50 in establishing exposure limits for the public. We further identified 16 chemical irritants with both RD50s and corresponding acute RELs, and calculated the relationship as log RD50 = 0.71 (log REL) + 2.55 with an R2 value of 0.71. This relationship could be used to identify health protective values for the public to prevent respiratory or sensory irritation. Conclusion Consequently, we believe that the RD50 has benefits for use in setting protective levels for the health of both workers and the general population. PMID:18007993

  10. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF THE IRRITATING PROPERTIES OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensory irritant properties of ozone have been considered to be responsible for symptoms that occur in humans after exposure. This assumption has not been studied explicitly. One way to assess the aversive properties of airborne irritants is to give the exposed individual an ...

  11. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500.42 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.42 Test for eye irritants. (a)(1) Six albino rabbits...

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  13. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  14. Contact lenses and the work environment.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, J

    1984-01-01

    Controversial opinions have been presented about the use of contact lenses in industrial environments. Work environments contain few obstacles to the use of contact lenses, but many occupations are associated with the risk of excessive difficulties, spoilation , irritation, or complications. From the radiant energy the shorter (280 nm) ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and the longer (1300 nm) infra-red (IR) wavelengths are absorbed by contact lenses, the absorption increases their temperature and may cause corneal complications. Protective glasses, however, absorb more than 99.5% of the UV and IR energy and thus provide sufficient protection for contact lens wearers exposed to UV or IR radiation. The advantages and risks of contact lenses in industrial work are discussed. PMID:6328841

  15. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed Central

    Warikoo, Radhika; Ray, Ankita; Sandhu, Jasdeep Kaur; Samal, Roopa; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7–11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569887

  16. Rifaximin therapy of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hoonmo L; Sabounchi, Saman; Huang, David B; DuPont, Herbert L

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of specific organic pathology. Although the underlying pathogenesis of IBS is not well-understood, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or other abnormalities in the gut flora is believed to contribute to the development of a subset of IBS cases. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed antimicrobial with activity against enteric pathogens. A number of studies have shown a significant improvement in IBS symptoms with antibiotic therapy including rifaximin. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, in vitro susceptibility profile, and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials of rifaximin treatment of IBS. PMID:24833932

  17. Rifaximin Therapy of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hoonmo L.; Sabounchi, Saman; Huang, David B.; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of specific organic pathology. Although the underlying pathogenesis of IBS is not well-understood, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or other abnormalities in the gut flora is believed to contribute to the development of a subset of IBS cases. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed antimicrobial with activity against enteric pathogens. A number of studies have shown a significant improvement in IBS symptoms with antibiotic therapy including rifaximin. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, in vitro susceptibility profile, and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials of rifaximin treatment of IBS. PMID:24833932

  18. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  19. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. PMID:24582764

  20. Food components and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter R; Varney, Jane; Malakar, Sreepurna; Muir, Jane G

    2015-05-01

    Ingestion of food has long been linked with gut symptoms, and there is increasing interest in using diet in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The West has developed an intense interest in specialized, restrictive diets, such as those that target multiple food groups, avoid gluten, or reduce fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols. However, most gastroenterologists are not well educated about diets or their effects on the gut. It is important to understand the various dietary approaches, their putative mechanisms, the evidence that supports their use, and the benefits or harm they might produce. The concepts behind, and delivery of, specialized diets differ from those of pharmacologic agents. High-quality research is needed to determine the efficacy of different dietary approaches and the place of specific strategies. PMID:25680668

  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  2. Peptic (contact ulcer) granuloma of the larynx.

    PubMed Central

    Miko, T L

    1989-01-01

    Review of published work and analysis of clinical data and pathology of four biopsy specimens from two patients with laryngeal contact granuloma showed that its peptic origin was derived from a gastro-oesophago-laryngeal reflux. It is proposed that the term "peptic granuloma" should be given to this phenomenon. This term is given further support on account of the spectacular recovery of the laryngeal lesion following antacid and antireflux treatment, rather than the traditional method of using vocal rest and speech therapy, assumed to be the best way of treating a result of mechanical irritation, the previously accepted cause of laryngeal contact granuloma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:2768520

  3. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    PubMed

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. PMID:25995013

  4. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this report is to summarize the development and status of the fish acute toxicity syndrome (FATS) research effort. hus far, FATS associated with nonpolar narcotics, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, respiratory membrane irritants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhi...

  5. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  6. Symptoms and Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips for applicants; human subjects research information; grant review and management resources; and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ...

  7. Adherence to clinical practice guidelines among three primary contact professions: a best evidence synthesis of the literature for the management of acute and subacute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G.; Beck, Randy W.; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F.; Lougheed, James; Bremner, Alexandra P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine adherence to clinical practice guidelines in the medical, physiotherapy and chiropractic professions for acute and subacute mechanical low back pain through best-evidence synthesis of the healthcare literature. Methods: A structured best-evidence synthesis of the relevant literature through a literature search of relevant databases for peer-reviewed papers on adherence to clinical practice guidelines from 1995 to 2013. Inclusion of papers was based on selection criteria and appraisal by two reviewers who independently applied a modified Downs & Black appraisal tool. The appraised papers were summarized in tabular form and analysed by the authors. Results: The literature search retrieved 23 potentially relevant papers that were evaluated for methodological quality, of which 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The main finding was that no profession in the study consistently attained an overall high concordance rating. Of the three professions examined, 73% of chiropractors adhered to current clinical practice guidelines, followed by physiotherapists (62%) and then medical practitioners (52%). Conclusions: This review showed that quality papers in this area of research are very limited. Notwithstanding, chiropractors appear to adhere to clinical practice guidelines more so than physiotherapists and medical practitioners, although there is scope for improvement across all three professions. PMID:25202150

  8. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions. PMID:20865268

  9. Is irritable bowel syndrome an organic disorder?

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris; Gilja, Odd Helge; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that is generally considered to be functional because there appears to be no associated anatomical defect. Stress and psychological factors are thought to play an important role in IBS. The gut neuroendocrine system (NES), which regulates all functions of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of endocrine cells that are scattered among the epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the enteric nervous system. Although it is capable of operating independently from the central nervous system (CNS), the gut NES is connected to and modulated by the CNS. This review presents evidence for the presence of an anatomical defect in IBS patients, namely in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. These cells have specialized microvilli that project into the lumen and function as sensors for the luminal content and respond to luminal stimuli by releasing hormones into the lamina propria, which starts a chain reaction that progresses throughout the entire NES. The changes in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells observed in IBS patients are highly consistent with the other abnormalities reported in IBS patients, such as visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and abnormal secretion. PMID:24574708

  10. Diet and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1991-06-01

    Food intake plays a key role in triggering or perpetuating symptoms in patients with IBS. Evaluation of the impact of diet in the individual patient requires a precise dietary history and a 7-day prospective dietary analysis, which should include the quality and quantity of food consumed, chronologic sequence and nature of symptoms, and the frequency and consistency of bowel movements. The caloric density of the meal, total fat intake, the quantity and quality of lactose-containing foods, sorbitol, fructose, and the nature and quantity of soluble and insoluble fiber intake must be noted. Patients with reflux esophageal symptoms should eliminate foods that decrease LES pressure, such as chocolate, peppermint, alcohol, and coffee. Direct esophageal mucosal irritants such as tomatoes, citrus juices, sharp condiments, and alcohol should be limited. Gastric emptying is slowed with the ingestion of fats and soluble fiber. Small bowel motility is slowed by soluble fiber and fatty foods. Gaseous syndromes may be reduced by avoidance of smoking, chewing gum, excessive liquid intake, and carbonated drinks. The reduced intake of large amounts of lactose-containing foods, sorbitol, and fructose may limit postprandial bloating. Flatus production can be lowered by reducing fermentable carbohydrates such as beans, cabbage, lentils, brussel sprouts, and legumes. Soluble and insoluble fiber ingestion will reduce sigmoidal intraluminal pressures and overcome spastic constipation when given in progressive graded doses. Effective dietary manipulations remain a key factor in reducing symptoms in IBS. PMID:2066155

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome: emerging paradigm in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Kyung Sik

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. These symptoms cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and there is no specific laboratory test or biomarker for IBS. Therefore, IBS is classified as a functional disorder with diagnosis dependent on the history taking about manifested symptoms and careful physical examination. Although a great deal of research has been carried out in this area, the pathophysiology of IBS is complex and not completely understood. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the symptoms in IBS patients; altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and the brain-gut interaction are important classical concepts in IBS pathophysiology. New areas of research in this arena include inflammation, postinfectious low-grade inflammation, genetic and immunologic factors, an altered microbiota, dietary factors, and enteroendocrine cells. These emerging studies have not shown consistent results, provoking controversy in the IBS field. However, certain lines of evidence suggest that these mechanisms are important at least a subset of IBS patients, confirming that IBS symptoms cannot be explained by a single etiological mechanism. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that IBS requires a more holistic approach to determining effective treatment and understanding the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24627583

  12. Common gastrointestinal symptoms: irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fashner, Julia; Gitu, Alfred Chege

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) should be considered when patients have had abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, and change in bowel habits for 6 months. Patients may experience variation between periods of constipation and diarrhea. When evaluating patients with IBS, physicians should be alert for red flag symptoms, such as rectal bleeding, anemia, nighttime pain, and weight loss. Physicians also should consider other medical conditions that manifest similarly to IBS. Clinicians who are confident in diagnosing IBS based on symptoms typically do not obtain many tests unless the patient has red flag symptoms. Various etiologic mechanisms have been proposed for IBS, including abnormal bowel motility, inflammation, altered mucosal permeability, genetic predisposition, and visceral hypersensitivity. Lack of certainty about the etiology makes it difficult to develop effective management approaches; thus, management is directed toward symptom relief. Dietary changes, such as avoiding fermentable carbohydrates, may benefit some patients, especially those with bloating. Constipation-dominant IBS can be managed with antispasmodics, lubiprostone, or linaclotide, whereas diarrhea-dominant IBS can be managed with loperamide or alosetron, though the latter drug can cause ischemic colitis. For long-term therapy, tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have good efficacy. Peppermint oil and probiotics also may provide benefit. PMID:24124703

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Passananti, Valentina; De Carlo, Giovanni; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western countries. Despite the high prevalence of this disorders, the therapeutic management of these patients is often unsatisfactory. A number of factors have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS, including impaired motility and sensitivity, increased permeability, changes in the gut microbiome and alterations in the brain-gut axis. Also food seems to play a critical role: the most of IBS patients report the onset or the exacerbation of their symptoms after the meals. Recently, an increasing attention has been paid to the role of food in IBS. In this review we summarize the most recent evidences about the role of diet on IBS symptoms. A diet restricted in fermentable, poorly absorbed carbohydrates and sugar alcohols has beneficial effects on IBS symptoms. More studies are needed to improve our knowledge about the relationship between food and IBS. However, in the foreseeable future, dietary strategies will represent one of the key tools in the therapeutic management of patients with IBS. PMID:25083057

  14. Molecular basis of the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vaiopoulou, Anna; Karamanolis, Georgios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Karatzias, George; Gazouli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder characterized by abdominal pain, discomfort and bloating. The pathophysiology of IBS is poorly understood, but the presence of psychosocial basis is now known. There is an increasing number of publications supporting the role of genetics in IBS. Most of the variations are found in genes associated with the brain-gut axis, revealing the strong correlation of brain-gut axis and IBS. miRNAs, which play critical roles in physiological processes, are not well studied in IBS. However, so far there is found an involvement of alterations in miRNA expression or sequence, in IBS symptoms. IBS phenotype is affected by epigenetic alteration and environment. Changes in DNA and histone methylation are observed in patients who suffered childhood trauma or abuse, resulting in altered gene expression, such as the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Finally, diet is another factor associated with IBS, which may contribute to symptom onset. Certain foods may affect on bacterial metabolism and epigenetic modifications, predisposing to IBS. PMID:24574707

  15. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. PMID:24029448

  16. The Intestinal Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent and the best studied functional gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and the pathogenesis of IBS are still not clear; however, recent studies have implicated a role for alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that the development of IBS symptoms is often preceded by a disruption of the individual's normal intestinal microbiota, and microbiological studies have demonstrated compositional differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with IBS patients and healthy controls. In addition, animal studies and a few recent human clinical studies have demonstrated that compositional changes in the intestinal microbiota in IBS are associated with relevant abnormal gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis functions that are often observed in patients with IBS. This article discusses points of interest from the current research on the microbiota-gut-brain interactions in IBS and highlights the relevance of the emerging data to our understanding of the disorder and the clinical implications for patients' care. PMID:26447966

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: diagnosis and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that considerably reduces the quality of life. It further represents an economic burden on society due to the high consumption of healthcare resources and the non-productivity of IBS patients. The diagnosis of IBS is based on symptom assessment and the Rome III criteria. A combination of the Rome III criteria, a physical examination, blood tests, gastroscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies is believed to be necessary for diagnosis. Duodenal chromogranin A cell density is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS. The pathogenesis of IBS seems to be multifactorial, with the following factors playing a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS: heritability and genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and disturbances in the neuroendocrine system (NES) of the gut. One hypothesis proposes that the cause of IBS is an altered NES, which would cause abnormal GI motility, secretions and sensation. All of these abnormalities are characteristic of IBS. Alterations in the NES could be the result of one or more of the following: genetic factors, dietary intake, intestinal flora, or low-grade inflammation. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease-associated IBS (IBD-IBS) represent a considerable subset of IBS cases. Patients with PI- and IBD-IBS exhibit low-grade mucosal inflammation, as well as abnormalities in the NES of the gut. PMID:23066308

  18. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Beom Jae

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. PMID:21860817

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Passananti, Valentina; De Carlo, Giovanni; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western countries. Despite the high prevalence of this disorders, the therapeutic management of these patients is often unsatisfactory. A number of factors have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS, including impaired motility and sensitivity, increased permeability, changes in the gut microbiome and alterations in the brain-gut axis. Also food seems to play a critical role: the most of IBS patients report the onset or the exacerbation of their symptoms after the meals. Recently, an increasing attention has been paid to the role of food in IBS. In this review we summarize the most recent evidences about the role of diet on IBS symptoms. A diet restricted in fermentable, poorly absorbed carbohydrates and sugar alcohols has beneficial effects on IBS symptoms. More studies are needed to improve our knowledge about the relationship between food and IBS. However, in the foreseeable future, dietary strategies will represent one of the key tools in the therapeutic management of patients with IBS. PMID:25083057

  20. The Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Kirsten; De Lee, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional bowel disorder routinely encountered by healthcare providers. Although not life-threatening, this chronic disorder reduces patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. IBS is no longer considered a diagnosis of exclusion that can only be made after performing a battery of expensive diagnostic tests. Rather, IBS should be confidently diagnosed in the clinic at the time of the first visit using the Rome III criteria and a careful history and physical examination. Treatment options for IBS have increased in number in the past decade and clinicians should not be limited to using only fiber supplements and smooth muscle relaxants. Although all patients with IBS have symptoms of abdominal pain and disordered defecation, treatment needs to be individualized and should focus on the predominant symptom. This paper will review therapeutic options for the treatment of IBS using a tailored approach based on the predominant symptom. Abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea are the four main symptoms that can be addressed using a combination of dietary interventions and medications. Treatment options include probiotics, antibiotics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and agents that modulate chloride channels and serotonin. Each class of agent will be reviewed using the latest data from the literature. PMID:21180545

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome: Diagnosis and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that considerably reduces the quality of life. It further represents an economic burden on society due to the high consumption of healthcare resources and the non-productivity of IBS patients. The diagnosis of IBS is based on symptom assessment and the Rome III criteria. A combination of the Rome III criteria, a physical examination, blood tests, gastroscopy and colonoscopy with biopsies is believed to be necessary for diagnosis. Duodenal chromogranin A cell density is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS. The pathogenesis of IBS seems to be multifactorial, with the following factors playing a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS: heritability and genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and disturbances in the neuroendocrine system (NES) of the gut. One hypothesis proposes that the cause of IBS is an altered NES, which would cause abnormal GI motility, secretions and sensation. All of these abnormalities are characteristic of IBS. Alterations in the NES could be the result of one or more of the following: genetic factors, dietary intake, intestinal flora, or low-grade inflammation. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease-associated IBS (IBD-IBS) represent a considerable subset of IBS cases. Patients with PI- and IBD-IBS exhibit low-grade mucosal inflammation, as well as abnormalities in the NES of the gut. PMID:23066308

  2. [Acute toxic pneumopathies].

    PubMed

    Garnier, R

    1998-06-15

    The nature and extent of the acute injury due to toxic inhalants depend on the inhalant's solubility in water pH and chemical reactivity, on the aerodynamic diameter of particles (when the inhalant is an aerosol), and on the degree of exposure. Initial signs and symptoms indicate upper airways and bronchial irritation. Laryngeal oedema and (or) severe bronchospasm may be rapidly lethal. After cessation of exposure a transient improvement is generally observed; however a delayed pulmonary oedema may occur within the first 48 hours. On the following days, bacterial surinfection is a common complication. Possible long-term sequelae are reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and bronchiolitis obliterans. PMID:9781191

  3. Odor and irritation effects of a volatile organic compound mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hudnell, H.K.; Otto, O.D.; Mohave, L.; House, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds elicits a variety of symptoms, many of which are thought to be mediated by the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The report describes evidence indicating that perceived odor intensity diminishes during prolonged exposure, whereas irritation of the eyes and throat reaches an asymptotic level. Both odor and irritation appear to influence the assessment of air quality. Results of the study will be used in designing future indoor air studies related to sick building syndrome.

  4. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  5. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention. PMID:25194867

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  7. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Koponen, Ismo K

    2016-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 < CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused a significant toxic effect in the airways while TiO2 gave rise to DNA-strand break as shown by the comet assay. PMID:27323801

  8. Patterns of alternation in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    CHIRA, ALEXANDRA; FILIP, MIHAELA; DUMITRAŞCU, DAN LUCIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequent functional gastrointestinal disorders, having its subtypes related to the predominant bowel pattern: IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), IBS with constipation (IBS-C), mixed IBS (IBS-M) or alternating IBS (IBS-A). Some patients alternate between subtypes (IBS-A). We looked for the prevalence of alternation between subtypes in patients with IBS. We also analyzed changes in pharmacological therapy specifically addressed to IBS. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study that included 60 patients diagnosed with IBS according to Rome III criteria. Patients were asked using a detailed structured interview about their stool form changes regarding previous six months. Alternators were defined as patients that changed IBS subtype over time (previous six months). Results Out of the 60 patients diagnosed with IBS, 18 patients (30%) were alternators. Of these, 8 patients (44%) changed twice the subtype. Two patients (66.66%) of the IBS-M subgroup shifted between subtypes. Eight patients (44.44%) changed medication over the six months. Four patients (22.2%) of the alternators were on double association of therapy (antispasmodics) addressed to IBS. Four patients (22.22%) discontinued medication. Conclusions Patients with IBS often change between subtypes even within six months. Alternators in our pilot study represented 30% of IBS patients. IBS-M seems to be the least stable phenotype. The rarest change is the shift between IBS-C and IBS-D. Alternators also often change their pharmacological treatment (antispasmodics). PMID:27152072

  9. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome treatment: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Shani-Zur, Dana; Wolkomir, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects 9-23% of the general population. This diagnosis contributes to more frequent doctor visits and multiple consultations by patients. The current approach to treating IBS is symptomatic and consists of a regimen of first line pharmacological treatment options; the use of anti-depressant drugs is also common. The efficiency of complementary medicine in the treatment of IBS has been studied in the last few years. Qualitative multidisciplinary approach studies, using personalized medicines with complementary therapies are needed. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a diagnosis of IBS since 2009, who complained about gastrointestinal symptoms since the age of 13 and severe episodes of spasmodic stomach aches in the last year self-ranked as 10, on a 0-10 scale; 3-4 episodes a month, which last for 5 days, accompanied by severe flatulence and bloating. In addition, she has constipation (one bowel movement every 10 days), alternating with multiple diarrheic bowel movements (6 times a day). Using a multidisciplinary approach, including medicinal care, Chinese medicine, reflexology and naturopathy resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life, as well as gradual reduction of drugs, approved by her physician. Stomach ache self-ranked now as 1, on a 0-10 scale; and flatulence and bloating self-ranked as mild. Bowel movement frequency increased and is now every other day. She no longer has diarrheic and/or multiple bowel movements. This case report emphasizes the importance of integrative treatment in IBS and its benefit in improving patients' quality of life. PMID:25796677

  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Michael D; Martin, Daniel K; Dhillon, Sonu; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in population studies including chronic abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Patients often have associated gastrointestinal and somatic symptoms suggesting a possible common contributing mechanism, but the heterogeneous symptom patterns of individual patients make generalizations difficult. The pathophysiology of IBS is incompletely understood but includes disturbances of the brain-gut axis. Central mechanisms are: the psychosocial history and environment, dysfunctional brain processing of peripheral signals attributed to the intestine including the enteric nervous system, the microbiome and the innate and adaptive immune system. As a result there is visceral hypersensitivity and disturbed intestinal secretory and motor activity. Some mechanisms of visceral pain hypersensitivity may overlap with other pain syndromes including fibromyalgia (FMS). Central Sensitization (CS) would offer a way to conceptualize an integration of life experience and psychologic response into a biopsychosocial framework of pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of IBS. Corticotropin-releasing factor, a principle regulator in the stress and pain response may contribute to a neuroendocrine mechanism for the brain-gut interaction. The positive diagnostic approach to IBS symptoms to avoid excess testing and enhance the patient-provider therapeutic relationship requires the recognition of the "cluster" of IBS symptoms while identifying "alarm" symptoms requiring specific attention. The severity of the symptoms and other individual psychosocial factors characterize patients who seek medical care. The presence of significant psychosocial comorbidities adds to the complexity of management which often requires a multidisciplinary approach. Several treatment options exist but no single method is effective for all the symptoms of IBS. The therapeutic benefit of the well-executed physician-patient relationship is considered

  11. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosa LS

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a clinical challenge in the 21st century. It’s the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal condition and also the most common reason for referral to gastroenterology clinics. Its can affect up to one in five people at some point in their lives, and has a significantly impact of life quality and health care utilization. The prevalence varies according to country and criteria used to define IBS. Various mechanisms and theories have been proposed about its etiology, but the biopsychosocial model is the most currently accepted for IBS. The complex of symptoms would be the result of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, psychosocial and environmental factors. The diagnosis of IBS is not confirmed by a specific test or structural abnormality. It is made using criteria based on clinical symptoms such as Rome criteria, unless the symptoms are thought to be atypical. Today the Rome Criteria III is the current gold-standard for the diagnoses of IBS. Secure positive evidence of IBS by means of specific disease marker is currently not possible and cannot be currently recommended for routine diagnosis. There is still no clinical evidence to recommend the use of biomarkers in blood to diagnose IBS. However, a number of different changes in IBS patients were demonstrated in recent years, some of which can be used in the future as a diagnostic support. IBS has no definitive treatment but could be controlled by non-pharmacologic management eliminating of some exacerbating factors such certain drugs, stressor conditions and changes in dietary habits.The traditional pharmacologic management of IBS has been symptom based and several drugs have been used. However, the cornerstone of its therapy is a solid patient physician relationship. This review will provide a summary of pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and current and emerging therapies for IBS. PMID:25232249

  13. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H2 breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  14. Relationship of asthma to irritant gas exposures in pulp and paper mills.

    PubMed

    Glindmeyer, H W; Lefante, J J; Freyder, L M; Friedman, M; Weill, H; Jones, R N

    2003-05-01

    The potential of chronic or acute irritant gas exposures to cause asthma or a variant condition, reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) was investigated by observing asthma incidence in a large working population, using person-years at risk (P-YR) to compute relative rates (RR). Health data came from employee examinations at 62 pulp and paper plants. The 39122 workers who denied asthma beginning before the observation period included: 19326 denying irritant exposures, with no gassing exposures; 19349 with self-reported irritant exposures, and no gassing; and 447 with documented gassings. Asthma was defined as self-reported asthma beginning after the start of observation. P-YR accrued from September 29, 1986, for the nonexposed and exposed workers, and from date of first gassing for gassed workers, and ended with disease onset in any who developed asthma. RR of asthma with 95% confidence intervals (CI95) were calculated for the exposed and gassed groups, relative to the nonexposed. Exposed (nongassed) workers had an elevated asthma rate, RR=1.48, CI95=1.17-1.86, after adjustment for effects of gender and number of examinations. The rate in gassed workers was not significantly elevated: RR=1.95, CI95=0.75-5.08. Of the five asthma cases occurring after gassings, none conformed to diagnostic criteria for RADS. Chronic exposures were associated with increased rate of asthma onset, which must be interpreted with caution because self-reported data defined both exposure category and disease. Documented gassings were not associated with significantly increased rate, and none of 447 gassed persons developed RADS. PMID:12735673

  15. Less irritative action of wine and Japanese sake in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2006-02-01

    The ingestion of alcohol, especially in excess, causes acute gastric lesions and gastritis in humans, yet the mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages remains largely unknown. We examined the mucosal irritative action of whiskey, wine and Japanese sake in the rat stomach both ex vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, then superfused with saline, and the transmucosal potential difference (PD) was measured. After the basal PD had stabilized, the mucosa was exposed for 30 min to 2 ml of 15% ethanol, whiskey (containing 15% ethanol), white wine, or Japanese sake (the ethanol concentration of the latter two is 12-15%). In the in vitro study, rat epithelial cells (RGM1) were treated with the alcoholic beverages for 5 min, and the cell viability was determined with crystal violet. Ethanol or whiskey applied to the chamber caused a decrease in PD, while wine or Japanese sake did not. Histologically, surface epithelial damage was observed after exposure to both ethanol and whiskey, yet no damage was induced by white wine and Japanese sake. Likewise, both ethanol and whiskey markedly reduced the viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min of incubation, while neither white wine nor Japanese sake had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose significantly prevented the reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less pronounced than that of ethanol or whiskey and that the less damaging action of Japanese sake and white wine may be, at least partly, accounted for by the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages. PMID:16534671

  16. Genome-wide expression analysis of human in vivo irritated epidermis: differential profiles induced by sodium lauryl sulfate and nonanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Anders; Andersen, Klaus E; Clemmensen, Ole; Tan, Qihua; Petersen, Thomas K; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads

    2010-09-01

    The pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is poorly understood, and genes participating in the epidermal response to chemical irritants are only partly known. It is commonly accepted that different irritants have different mechanisms of action in the development of ICD. To define the differential molecular events induced in the epidermis by different irritants, we collected sequential biopsies ((1/2), 4, and 24 hours after a single exposure and at day 11 after repeated exposure) from human volunteers exposed to either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or nonanoic acid (NON). Gene expression analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (representing 47,000 transcripts) revealed essentially different pathway responses (1/2)hours after exposure: NON transiently induced the IL-6 pathway as well as a number of mitogen-activated signaling cascades including extracellular signal-regulated kinase and growth factor receptor signaling, whereas SLS transiently downregulated cellular energy metabolism pathways. Differential expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 transcripts was confirmed immunohistochemically. After cumulative exposure, 883 genes were differentially expressed, whereas we identified 23 suggested common biomarkers for ICD. In conclusion, we bring new insights into two hitherto less well-elucidated phases of skin irritancy: the very initial as well as the late phase after single and cumulative mild exposures, respectively. PMID:20428187

  17. Effects of Irritant Chemicals on Aedes aegypti Resting Behavior: Is There a Simple Shift to Untreated “Safe Sites”?

    PubMed Central

    Manda, Hortance; Arce, Luana M.; Foggie, Tarra; Shah, Pankhil; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated “safe sites” contribute to overall impact. Methods Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU) were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester) at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC) ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical) under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. Results Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or “safe sites”) in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. Conclusions/Significance When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas) following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated, using

  18. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    PubMed

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results. PMID:15582208

  19. The Influence of Humidity on Assessing Irritation Threshold of Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Monsé, Christian; Sucker, Kirsten; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Bünger, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large number of occupational exposure limit values (OELs) are based on avoiding of sensory irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. In order to investigate the chemosensory effect range of a chemical, odor and sensory irritation thresholds (lateralization thresholds, LTs) can be assessed. Humidity affects olfactory function and thus influences odor thresholds; however, a similar effect has not been shown for sensory irritation thresholds. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether LTs for ammonia vapor vary depending on the water vapor content of the inspired stimulus. Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers were simultaneously exposed to ammonia vapor through one nostril and clean air through the other and were asked to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, ascending ammonia concentrations (60-350 ppm) that were either dry or humidified were administered at fixed time intervals. Geometric mean LTs obtained at wet (181 ppm) or dry (172 ppm) conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0.19) and were within the range of those reported by previous studies. These results suggest that humidity is not a critical factor in determining sensory irritation thresholds for ammonia, and future studies will examine if these findings are transferable to sensory irritation thresholds for other chemicals. PMID:27379250

  20. The Influence of Humidity on Assessing Irritation Threshold of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Sucker, Kirsten; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large number of occupational exposure limit values (OELs) are based on avoiding of sensory irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. In order to investigate the chemosensory effect range of a chemical, odor and sensory irritation thresholds (lateralization thresholds, LTs) can be assessed. Humidity affects olfactory function and thus influences odor thresholds; however, a similar effect has not been shown for sensory irritation thresholds. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether LTs for ammonia vapor vary depending on the water vapor content of the inspired stimulus. Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers were simultaneously exposed to ammonia vapor through one nostril and clean air through the other and were asked to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, ascending ammonia concentrations (60–350 ppm) that were either dry or humidified were administered at fixed time intervals. Geometric mean LTs obtained at wet (181 ppm) or dry (172 ppm) conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0.19) and were within the range of those reported by previous studies. These results suggest that humidity is not a critical factor in determining sensory irritation thresholds for ammonia, and future studies will examine if these findings are transferable to sensory irritation thresholds for other chemicals. PMID:27379250

  1. Meditation over medication for irritable bowel syndrome? On exercise and alternative treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Asare, Fredrick; Störsrud, Stine; Simrén, Magnus

    2012-08-01

    Complimentary alternative treatment regimens are widely used in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the evidence supporting their use varies. For psychological treatment options, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, gut-directed hypnotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy, the evidence supporting their use in IBS patients is strong, but the availability limits their use in clinical practice. Dietary interventions are commonly included in the management of IBS patients, but these are primarily based on studies assessing physiological function in relation to dietary components, and to a lesser degree upon research examining the role of dietary components in the therapeutic management of IBS. Several probiotic products improve a range of symptoms in IBS patients. Physical activity is of benefit for health in general and recent data implicates its usefulness also for IBS patients. Acupuncture does not seem to have an effect beyond placebo in IBS. A beneficial effect of some herbal treatments has been reported. PMID:22661301

  2. Estimation of proinflammatory biomarkers of skin irritation by dermal microdialysis following exposure with irritant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fulzele, Suniket V; Babu, R J; Ahaghotu, E; Singh, Mandip

    2007-07-31

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the release of proinflammatory biomarkers by dermal microdialysis after topical exposure with irritant chemicals, Jet fuel (JP-8) and xylene in rat skin. Occlusive dermal exposure (2h) was carried out with 230microl of JP-8 or xylene using Hill top chambers((R)). Linear microdialysis probes (10mm) were inserted in the dermis under urethane anesthesia. The dialysis fluid was pumped at a flow rate of 2microl/min and the dialysate was collected for 7h following probe insertion. The expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the dialysate following microdialysis was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The effect of pretreatment with an SP antagonist (SR-140333) and a PGE(2) inhibitor (celecoxib), 6 and 18h before the application of JP-8 was also assessed to further establish the sensitivity of the microdialysis set up. On similar lines, untreated and capsaicin treated control experiments were performed to compare with the SP release following JP-8 treatment. Further, we also investigated the SP release following topical application of xylene. The mean concentrations of SP after the application of JP-8 (90.01+/-3.31) and 3h after its removal (58.66+/-9.36) indicated that JP-8 induced significantly higher release of SP as compared to the baseline value (P<0.05). The release of SP following JP-8 treatment (58.66+/-9.36pg/ml) was comparable to capsaicin (58.18+/-11.29pg/ml). JP-8 exposure resulted in a significant increase (P<0.001) in PGE(2) levels over the baseline control at the end of 1 and 2h of exposure. JP-8 treatment also produced significant increase (P<0.001) in PGE(2) levels as compared to the untreated control during occlusion and 1h following its removal. There was a significant drop (P<0.05) in the PGE(2) levels by the end of 3h following exposure. Pretreatment with SR-140333 and celecoxib significantly reduced (P<0.05) SP and PGE(2) release induced

  3. Alcohol Use Disorder Increases the Risk of Irritable Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Yi; He, Guan-Yi; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is considered a possible risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, previous studies investigating the association between AUD and IBS have yielded inconsistent results. The study investigated whether AUD increases the risk of IBS by using a population-based database in Taiwan. This retrospective matched-cohort study included the health insurance claims data of 56,355 AUD inpatients and 225,420 randomly selected controls by frequency-matched for sex, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to measure the risk of IBS among AUD patients compared with non-AUD patients. During the follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IBS had 12.3-fold (95% CI: 11.9–12.7) in the AUD patients than non-AUD patients and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IBS in the AUD patients was 5.51 (95% CI: 4.36–6.96). For several comorbidities, the risk of IBS was significantly higher in the AUD patients than in non-AUD patients, with aHRs of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–3.84), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.06–3.96), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.26–6.72) for sleep disorders, acute pancreatitis, and hepatitis B, respectively. When we stratified the severity of AUD according to the length of hospital stay, the aHRs exhibited a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with severity, yielding aHRs of 3.24 (95% CI: 2.49–4.22), 11.9 (95% CI: 8.96–15.9), and 26.1 (95% CI: 19.4–35.2) for mild, moderate, and severe AUD, respectively. The risk of IBS was higher among AUD patients, and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:26705226

  4. Nutritional Interventions for Gastroesophageal Reflux, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Hypochlorhydria: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kines, Kasia; Krupczak, Tina

    2016-08-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are often treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), antibiotics, and other medications that offer temporary relief of acute symptoms. Although these drugs are prescribed to provide promising results, new research indicates the drug treatments often mask unresolved physiological problems and cause further complications. Complex GI cases require a comprehensive assessment and a multifaceted approach. This case reports on the development of PPI-induced hypochlorhydria secondary to a PPI prescription for unresolved gastritis in a patient with irritable bowel syndrome. The patient's gastritis and hypochlorhydria symptoms resolved with the implementation of a comprehensive functional nutrition approach that incorporated dietary guidelines, lifestyle recommendations, and customized nutritional supplementation and herbs. PMID:27574495

  5. Assessment of phototoxicity, skin irritation, and sensitization potential of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoon-Hee; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Yi, Sang Min; Hyeok Choi, Byeong; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, In-Kyoung; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Son, Sang Wook

    2011-07-01

    The human skin equivalent model (HSEM) is well known as an attractive alternative model for evaluation of dermal toxicity. However, only limited data are available on the usefulness of an HSEM for nanotoxicity testing. This study was designed to investigate cutaneous toxicity of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles using cultured keratinocytes, an HSEM, and an animal model. In addition, we also evaluated the skin sensitization potential of nanoparticles using a local lymph node assay with incorporation of BrdU. Findings from the present study indicate that polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles do not induce phototoxicity, acute cutaneous irritation, or skin sensitization. Results from evaluation of the HSEMs correspond well with those from animal models. Our findings suggest that the HSEM might be a useful alternative model for evaluation of dermal nanotoxicity.

  6. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories. PMID:26626125

  7. Nondermal irritating hyperosmotic nanoemulsions reduce treatment times in a contamination model of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Connell, Sean; Li, Jianming; Durkes, Abigail; Zaroura, Mohammed; Shi, Riyi

    2016-07-01

    Increased microbial burden within the wound often complicates wound healing and may lead to subsequent infection or delayed healing. Here, we investigate a novel topical for addressing wound contamination that utilizes hyperosmotic saccharides with a cell membrane disrupting emulsion. These hyperosmotic nanoemulsions (HNE) were administered topically in a full-thickness biopsy model of wound healing. Results show that HNE were well tolerated in noninfected animals with no indications of dermal irritation or acute toxicity. Additionally, HNE was able to reduce bacterial bioburden (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) levels by 3 logs within 24 h when wounds were inoculated with 5 × 10(6) total CFU. These bactericidal values were similar to wounds treated with silver sulfadiazine. Wound closure showed HNE wounds closed in 7.6 ± 0.2 days while SSD and control required 10.2 ± 0.4 and 10.4 ± 0.3 days, respectively. HNE maintained a moist wound environment, were well debrided, and exhibited improved hemostatic response. Further histological examination revealed enhanced granulation tissue as compared to silver sulfadiazine and control cohorts. These results were corroborated with 3D topographical imprints of the wounds at day 14 which qualitatively showed a smoother surface. In contrast, silver sulfadiazine appeared to delay wound closure. Finally, dermal sensitization and irritation studies conducted in guinea pig and rabbits did not reveal any acute dermal side effects from HNE exposure. The cumulative data indicates nonantibiotic-based HNEs may be a promising topical treatment for the management of contaminated wounds. PMID:27090977

  8. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  9. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  10. [Contact allergies in medical occupations].

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, T; Pilz, B; Frosch, P J

    1994-12-01

    Based on reports in the literature, data from the information network of German dermatology centres (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) and the authors own findings, a review is presented on prevalence, clinical picture and causative agents of contact allergic dermatoses in health care professions. In 1991 the proportion of suspected occupational diseases in the health care professions (including hairdressers) represented by cases of dermatitis, as reported to the responsible insurance institution, reached 72% of the total for the year (7287 out of 10127). Every 20th to 40th case was recognized as an occupational dermatosis according to German law. Accurate figures on incidence are scarce; for dentists an incidence of 0.11% has been calculated. The risk of developing occupational hand eczema has been shown to be at least three times higher for nurses than for other so-called dry professions. For persons engaged in the personal care of the ill and the elderly, relevant occupational allergens were found to be benzalkonium chloride and aldehydes in disinfectants, as well as rubber accelerators such as thiuram mix. Latex contact urticaria has increasing significance for medical personnel, with prevalence rates of sensitization between 4.5% and 10.7%. Among physicians, contact allergies to thiuram mix were found to be dominant (12.9%). For surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, methyl methacrylate as a constituent of bone cement is of great importance. Various esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid are important sensitizers in the dental professions, particularly in heavily exposed dental laboratory technicians. Only a few gloves protect against these types of sensitizers. Sensitizations by medicaments can be avoided in most cases by reducing direct skin contact, as practiced with penicillin or ispaghula powder. Strategies of prevention include information of atopics regarding the increase in occupational dermatitis, the regular use of barrier creams

  11. [Current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, N V; Chernenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Modern definition, classifications, diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are presented together with results of treatment of 30 patients with irritable bowel syndrome with the new selective calcium-channel blocker dicetel. PMID:11881362

  12. Perceived Informativeness of and Irritation with Local Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1990-01-01

    Surveys mall shoppers to determine the relative informativeness of retail advertising. Finds that newspaper advertisements are considered the most informative with radio commercials next and television commercials least. Finds that newspaper ads are more irritating than radio or television advertising. Finds older and wealthier shoppers more…

  13. Sensitivity to environmental irritants and quality of life in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ternesten-Hasséus, Ewa; Larsson, Sven; Millqvist, Eva

    2011-01-01

    It is a common clinical experience that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complain of airway symptoms provoked by environmental irritants like chemicals and scents, although few studies can confirm such connections. The aim was to study the prevalence of airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents in a group of patients with newly diagnosed CPOD and to analyze any relation to illness severity and quality of life. Eighty-one patients with COPD were recruited to the study. By mail they were asked to answer three questionnaires regarding symptoms, quality of life, and social and emotional influence of airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants. A majority (62%) of the COPD patients claimed to be hyperreactive to chemicals and scents. As a group they scored higher on a questionnaire measuring social and emotional influences of such environmental irritants compared to healthy control subjects. Further, high scores were more common among patients with a very severe form of COPD and among patients with regular use of β2-stimulants. High scores were also associated with significantly more airway symptoms and, in some aspects, with impaired quality of life. In conclusion, the results of this study show that airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants are common in patients with COPD and that this increased airway sensitivity follows the impairment of lung capacity. The mechanisms behind this remain unclear. PMID:22259245

  14. Sensitivity to environmental irritants and quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Ternesten-Hasséus, Ewa; Larsson, Sven; Millqvist, Eva

    2011-01-01

    It is a common clinical experience that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complain of airway symptoms provoked by environmental irritants like chemicals and scents, although few studies can confirm such connections. The aim was to study the prevalence of airway symptoms induced by chemicals and scents in a group of patients with newly diagnosed CPOD and to analyze any relation to illness severity and quality of life. Eighty-one patients with COPD were recruited to the study. By mail they were asked to answer three questionnaires regarding symptoms, quality of life, and social and emotional influence of airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants. A majority (62%) of the COPD patients claimed to be hyperreactive to chemicals and scents. As a group they scored higher on a questionnaire measuring social and emotional influences of such environmental irritants compared to healthy control subjects. Further, high scores were more common among patients with a very severe form of COPD and among patients with regular use of β(2)-stimulants. High scores were also associated with significantly more airway symptoms and, in some aspects, with impaired quality of life. In conclusion, the results of this study show that airway symptoms induced by environmental irritants are common in patients with COPD and that this increased airway sensitivity follows the impairment of lung capacity. The mechanisms behind this remain unclear. PMID:22259245

  15. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500.232. A weight-of-evidence analysis or a validated... interpreting ocular irritation test results, the CPSC animal testing policy Web page at http://www.cpsc.gov.... Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (Available:...

  16. [Introduce a new vitro replacement method of skin irritation test].

    PubMed

    Sun, Likui; Hou, Li; Shi, Yanping

    2011-09-01

    A series of new replacement methods of skin irritation test such as EpiSkin, EpiDermSIT (updated) and SkinEthicRHE have been validated by ECVAM. Due to it, animals are protected to the full extent. These provide more methods for biological evaluation of medical devices. PMID:22242390

  17. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials that might produce eye irritation. Both eyes of each animal in the test group shall be examined... injection of the blood vessels), or if such substance produces in the conjunctivae (excluding the cornea and... in the test group exhibit a positive reaction. If only one animal exhibits a positive reaction,...

  19. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and medical management of symptoms are increasingly based on IBS subtype, so it is important to accurately differentiate patients. Few studies have classified subtypes of pediatric IBS, and conclusions have been challenged by methodologic l...

  20. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intestinal microbiomes of healthy children and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are not well defined. Studies in adults have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota could be involved in IBS. We analyzed 71 samples from 22 children with IBS (pediatric Rome III criteri...

  1. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  2. Urinary proteome analysis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom subgroups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain associated with alterations in bowel function. Given the heterogeneity of the symptoms, multiple pathophysiologic factors are suspected to play a role. We classified women with IBS i...

  3. The simulation of behaviors of photodetectors under pulsed laser irritation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin; Cheng, Xiang-ai; Yu, Xiangyang; Qian, Le; Jiang, Tian

    2013-05-01

    Precise simulation of transient electrical behaviors of photodetectors under laser irradiation is becoming an increasingly concern. It not only can allow a detailed study and analysis of complex phenomena that cannot be carried out by experiments, but gives valuable information about the physical mechanisms which ultimately determine the response of the photodetectors. Finite difference numerical technique is adopted in the simulation to calculate the current response of photodetectors under pulsed laser irritation in this paper. To simulation the behaviors of photodetectors under pulsed laser irritation, the transport and trapping of carries and external circuit effects, including load resistance, junction capacitance, and parasitic capacitance, are considered. The basic equations governing the carrier behaviors are solved, including Poisson's equation, the carrier motion equations, and the carrier continuity equations. The simulated transient carrier density and velocities are present, as well as corresponding transient electric field distributions. The behaviors of electrons and holes and its contributions to the external current response are analyzed. Then a general and brief image of the transient progress of photodetectors under pulsed laser irritation is established. How the carrier is induced, transported, and trapped and whether they make any significant contribution to the external current response are discussed. Besides, bias dependent response is also studied. Higher bias will improver the behaviors of photodetectors under pulsed laser irritation. The simulated results and theory analysis will show valuable clue for future research on the behaviors of photodetectors irradiated by pulsed laser.

  4. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  5. Treatment of Irritability in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement Irritability is a common neuropsychiatric feature of Huntington’s disease (HD), with prevalences varying from 38% to 73%. Similar prevalences of irritability are reported in other neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic brain injury, especially when the frontal lobe is involved. Before therapeutic interventions are initiated, the clinician should analyze the severity and frequency of the irritable behavior. By examining irritability in a broader spectrum, a tailor-made treatment can be provided. In general, I recommend as a first step a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), such as sertraline, or the mood stabilizer valproate; they both have a mild side effect profile. Next, if the result is insufficient, I advise a switch between these two medications. As an alternative, I recommend a switch to a low dose of an atypical antipsychotic, preferably twice daily. Buspirone may be another alternative. Both antipsychotics and buspirone are also used as an add-on. Other mood stabilizers and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists should only be used when earlier treatments are ineffective. The use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of irritability is discouraged, as results are unclear. Synthetic cannabinoids are an interesting new therapeutic option, though their “illicit” compound and side effect profile make them not a first-line option. It is important to identify possible comorbid psychiatric disorders, because irritability may be secondary to a psychiatric condition, and the choice of medication partly depends on the co-occurrence of a specific psychiatric disorder. For example, antipsychotic medication would be the treatment of choice in delusional HD patients with excessive irritability, instead of an SSRI or valproate. Besides psychiatric comorbidity, the choice of medication also depends on the general medical condition, the side effect profile, and drug-drug interactions with other medications in concomitant use

  6. [Current issues on irritable bowel syndrome: diet and irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung

    2014-09-25

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS. PMID:25252862

  7. Management of soft tissue irritation around exposed zygomatic implant in a hemimaxillectomy patient: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Patients missing portions or all of the maxillary alveolar bone who are restored with zygomatic implants frequently have threads exposed that can be a mucosal irritant. If such irritation is reported, covering the threads with a highly polished titanium sleeve is recommended. The technique of placing said custom sleeve is described. This adjunctive treatment method has eliminated mucosal irritation. PMID:25506639

  8. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis due to urethane acrylate in ultraviolet cured inks.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J R; Jakubovic, H R; Pilger, C; Smith, J W

    1983-01-01

    Seven workers exposed to ultraviolet printing inks developed contact dermatitis. Six cases were allergic and one irritant. A urethane acrylate resin accounted for five cases of sensitisation, one of which was also sensitive to pentaerythritol triacrylate and another also to an epoxy acrylate resin. One instance of allergy to trimethylpropane triacrylate accounted for the sixth case of contact dermatitis in this group of workers. An irritant reaction is presumed to account for the dermatitis in the individual not proved to have cutaneous allergy by patch tests. In this instance trimethylpropane triacrylate was thought to be the most likely irritating agent. Laboratory investigation proved urethane acrylate to be an allergen. The results of investigations of the sensitisation potentials of urethane acrylate, methylmethacrylate, epoxy acrylate resins, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, and other multifunctional acrylic monomers in the albino guinea pig are presented. The interpretation of such predictive tests is discussed. Images PMID:6223656

  10. Emulsifiers' composition modulates venous irritation of the nanoemulsions as a lipophilic and venous irritant drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chengwen; Wan, Jiangling; Chen, Huabing; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a nanoemulsion (NE) system was investigated for intravenous delivery of lipophilic and venous irritant drugs. NEs were prepared to deliver diallyl trisulfide (DT) for systemic therapy of bacterial and fungal infection, egg phospholipid was chosen as the main emulsifier, and two co-emulsifiers were also incorporated, including Poloxamer 188 (P188) and Solutol HS 15 (S15). Soybean oil was used as the dispersed phases, forming stable DT NEs with small particle sizes. The venous irritation of DT NEs was evaluated by in vitro human umbilical cord endothelial cells (CRL 1730) compatibility model with the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentrations as the indices. The intracellular ATP and GTP reduction changed with the incorporation of a variety of co-emulsifiers, which varied in a free DT concentration-dependent manner. It was deduced that the free DT concentrations of NEs containing co-emulsifiers were determined by the partition coefficient of DT between oil and surfactant buffer solution. In conclusion, NE was an appropriate delivery system for lipophilic and venous irritant drug, and optimization of the composition of emulsifiers was an effective method to alleviate the venous irritation of DT NEs. PMID:19669895

  11. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naive guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.

  12. Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei leaf using the eye irritancy test

    PubMed Central

    SON, HYEONG-U; YOON, EUN-KYUNG; CHA, YONG-SOO; KIM, MIN-A; SHIN, YONG-KYU; KIM, JONG-MYUNG; CHOI, YONG-HEE; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, induced severe toxic symptoms. Thus, aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei do not appear to induce acute toxicity in the eye lens, as assessed from anatomical and pathological observations in the rabbit eye. Our results collectively suggest that aqueous and ethanol fractions show promise as cosmetic ingredients that do not cause eye toxicity. PMID:23226733

  13. Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei leaf using the eye irritancy test.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Yoon, Eun-Kyung; Cha, Yong-Soo; Kim, Min-A; Shin, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Myung; Choi, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Han

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, induced severe toxic symptoms. Thus, aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei do not appear to induce acute toxicity in the eye lens, as assessed from anatomical and pathological observations in the rabbit eye. Our results collectively suggest that aqueous and ethanol fractions show promise as cosmetic ingredients that do not cause eye toxicity. PMID:23226733

  14. Efficacy of skin barrier creams (II). Ineffectiveness of a popular "skin protector" against various irritants in the repetitive irritation test in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Frosch, P J; Schulze-Dirks, A; Hoffmann, M; Axthelm, I

    1993-08-01

    A popular "skin protector" consisting of an emulsion-like foam of lipophilic and hydrophilic substances (Marly skin) was evaluated in a previously described repetitive irritation guinea pig model. The product failed to inhibit the irritation due to sodium lauryl sulphate and toluene. In striking contrast to the recommended use, the irritant response of sodium hydroxide was aggravated, as demonstrated by significant differences for all test parameters (clinical score for erythema and scaling, transepidermal water loss, blood flow volume). The results show that protection against chemical irritants may be quite specific and that some formulations may actually be harmful. PMID:8365180

  15. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  16. Occupational contact dermatitis in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goossens, An; Hulst, Kim Vander

    2011-01-01

    Occupation-induced skin reactions are not infrequently observed in the pharmaceutical industry. Workers may come in contact with irritant substances and also with chemically reactive intermediates or drugs that may be potential sensitizers. The skin lesions can be located at the site of contact, usually the hands, although airborne reactions on exposed and even nonexposed areas (eg, by particles trapped under clothing) are not uncommon. Generalized reactions may occur due to inhalation or transcutaneous absorption. An accidental exposure to a highly allergenic compound may cause a chemical burn, followed by primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The pharmaceutical contact allergens belong to many different pharmacologic classes. If several cases of contact dermatitis occur in multiple individuals in the same company, then the working conditions are implicated and should be changed to prevent their recurrence. Measures to be taken include dust control, installation of closed filter equipment, and keeping the workers informed about the potential risks associated with the manipulation of the chemicals. PMID:22014988

  17. Instability of the faecal microbiota in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Durbán, Ana; Abellán, Juan J; Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Artacho, Alejandro; Garrigues, Vicente; Ortiz, Vicente; Ponce, Julio; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with a largely unknown aetiology and a wide range of symptoms. Most cross-sectional studies carried out so far suggest subtle alterations in the structure of the intestinal microbiota that are barely reproduced, partly because of the high inter-subject variation in the community composition and disorder-specific features. We performed a longitudinal study to explore the within-subject variation in the faecal microbiota in two patients with IBS classified into the diarrhoea subtype and the healthy spouse of one of them. Faecal communities were monitored over 6-8 weeks and analysed through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. We found a higher temporal instability in the fraction of active microbiota related to the IBS condition and fluctuating symptoms. Strong and quick shifts in the distribution of the active microbiota and changes in the global pattern of gene expression were detected in association with acute diarrhoea, whereas microbial composition and encoded functions were more stable. The specific alterations in the microbiota were barely reproduced within and between patients. Further research is needed to assess whether these changes are a consequence of the abnormal gut function in acute diarrhoeic episodes and the potential usefulness of tackling them. PMID:23889283

  18. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Dooms-Goossens, A.E.; Debusschere, K.M.; Gevers, D.M.; Dupre, K.M.; Degreef, H.J.; Loncke, J.P.; Snauwaert, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously. 84 references.

  19. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with moderate or severe irritable bowel syndrome generally seek medical care, whereas those with milder symptoms may choose self-management. Most patients with irritable bowel syndrome receive outpatient care, but irritable bowel syndrome-related hospitalizations do occur. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome is multifactorial (i.e. genetics, immune components, changes in the gut microbiota, disturbances in physiologic stress response systems, and psychosocial factors). Management of irritable bowel syndrome can include lifestyle changes, dietary interventions, counseling, psychologic medication, and agents that affect gastrointestinal motility. A number of therapies have emerged in recent years with clinical trial data demonstrating efficacy and safety for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, including agents that target gastrointestinal motility (i.e. linaclotide), gastrointestinal opioid receptors (i.e. asimadoline, eluxadoline), and gut microbiota (i.e. rifaximin). Linaclotide has been shown to significantly improve stool frequency and abdominal pain compared with placebo in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (number needed to treat, 5.1). Asimadoline shows efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome-related pain. Rifaximin provided adequate relief of global irritable bowel syndrome symptoms versus placebo for a significantly greater percentage of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0

  20. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E

    2016-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with moderate or severe irritable bowel syndrome generally seek medical care, whereas those with milder symptoms may choose self-management. Most patients with irritable bowel syndrome receive outpatient care, but irritable bowel syndrome-related hospitalizations do occur. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome is multifactorial (i.e. genetics, immune components, changes in the gut microbiota, disturbances in physiologic stress response systems, and psychosocial factors). Management of irritable bowel syndrome can include lifestyle changes, dietary interventions, counseling, psychologic medication, and agents that affect gastrointestinal motility. A number of therapies have emerged in recent years with clinical trial data demonstrating efficacy and safety for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, including agents that target gastrointestinal motility (i.e. linaclotide), gastrointestinal opioid receptors (i.e. asimadoline, eluxadoline), and gut microbiota (i.e. rifaximin). Linaclotide has been shown to significantly improve stool frequency and abdominal pain compared with placebo in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (number needed to treat, 5.1). Asimadoline shows efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome-related pain. Rifaximin provided adequate relief of global irritable bowel syndrome symptoms versus placebo for a significantly greater percentage of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0

  1. Double blind study of ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prior, A; Whorwell, P J

    1987-11-01

    A double blind placebo controlled trial of ispaghula husk in 80 patients with irritable bowel syndrome is reported. Global assessment judged treatment to be satisfactory in 82% of patients receiving ispaghula and 53% of the placebo group (p less than 0.02). Bowel habit was unchanged in the placebo group, while constipation significantly improved in patients taking ispaghula (p = 0.026). Transit time decreased significantly in those taking ispaghula compared with placebo (p = 0.001), especially in patients with initially high transit times. Abdominal pain and bloating improved in both groups, with no significant differences between ispaghula and placebo. Four of the eight withdrawals on ispaghula and 10 of the 15 withdrawals on placebo were because of treatment failure. Ispaghula significantly improves overall well being in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and in those with constipation favourably affects bowel habit and transit time. PMID:3322956

  2. Role of TNF-α polymorphism -308 in neurosensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Visscher, M O; Wickett, R R; Hoath, S B

    2011-04-01

    Neurosensory cutaneous discomfort in response to topical products is common, yet the relationship between symptoms such as stinging and visible irritation is currently unclear. The presence of a polymorphism at position -308 on the TNF-α gene has been associated with skin irritation, i.e., erythema, dryness. Individuals with a G to A transition (AA/GA genotypes) have a lower threshold to experimentally induced irritation than those with the wild type (G allele, GG genotype). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on neurosensory irritation (NSI). DNA genotyping was used to determine the allele type amongst a population of health care workers. The neurosensory response to lactic acid and water on the nasolabial folds and hands was assessed using a quantitative lactic acid sting test. Both genotypes had a more intense response to lactic acid compared with water on the face. The AA/GA genotypes had directionally higher scores from lactic acid (P = 0.1) and significantly higher stinging intensities from water (P = 0.001) on the face. For the hands, stinging intensities were higher for lactic acid and water amongst the AA/GA genotypes (P = 0.03 and 0.006 respectively). NSI to lactic acid was significantly higher on the face than on the hands (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that subjects with the A transition at position -308 on the TNF-α gene experience more intense NSI with common ingredients, i.e., lactic acid and water, than those with the wild type. TNF-α polymorphism -308 may account for some of the inter-individual variability in response to skin care practices. PMID:20646084

  3. [NEWS IN ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Sheptulin, A A; Vize-Khripunova, M A

    2016-01-01

    The concept of irritated bowel syndrome as a complex of functional disorders that can not be explained by organic changes and are totally due to intestinal motility and visceral sensitivity needs revision. The development of this syndrome also depends on a number of pathogenetic and etiological factors, such as inflammation of intestinal mucosa, changes of its permeability, previous infection, altered microflora, gene polymorphism, and food hypersensitivity. PMID:27459756

  4. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary. PMID:25339801

  5. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary. PMID:25339801

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi-Hao A.; Nahas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. MAIN MESSAGE Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. CONCLUSION Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance. PMID:19221071

  7. Synergistic repellent and irritant effect of combined essential oils on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Noosidum, Atirach; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to a single essential oil and to a mixture of two or three essential oils using an excito-repellency test chamber. Mixtures were prepared from essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba (LC), Litsea salicifolia (LS), and Melaleuca leucadendron (ML). In general, the mixture of essential oils produced a much stronger escape response by Ae. aegypti, regardless of the test conditions. No significant difference in escape responses was seen when the mixture of oils was compared with a standard commercial product containing DEET. Greater contact irritancy was seen from mixed oils of LC and LS than with other mixed oils. Mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% showed the highest synergistic action (65.5% escaped) compared to that with unmixed oil alone at the same concentration (LC/20% and LS=32.2%). In addition, mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% demonstrated the highest non-contact repellency (62.7%) and showed a greater effect than the use of LC (20%) or LS (20.3%) alone. We conclude that mixtures of two essential oils show potential as active ingredients for mosquito repellents. PMID:25424258

  8. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Boms, Stefanie; Freitag, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis) due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists), woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists), and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters), include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods) and irritant (physical-chemical noxae) skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin"). Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads") more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological investigations have

  9. The amine-containing cutaneous irritant heptylamine inhibits the volume-regulated anion channel and mobilizes intracellular calcium in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Raoux, Matthieu; Colomban, Cécile; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2007-06-01

    Many amines are skin irritants and cause contact dermatitis. However, little is known about their mechanisms of action in keratinocytes except that they induce the release of the inflammatory mediators cytokines and ATP. Here, we tested whether volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) in primary cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes are modulated by the referenced amine-containing cutaneous irritant heptylamine. Under isotonic conditions, we isolated the VRAC current (I(VRAC)) from other conductances using a high Ca(2+)-buffering internal solution. I(VRAC) ran up after patch rupturing and reached a plateau within 15 min. It was reversibly and dose-dependently inhibited by heptylamine with an IC(50) value of 260 microM. Cell-swelling caused by the application of a hypotonic solution increased 2.7-fold I(VRAC) and reduced the inhibition of VRAC by heptylamine with a dose-response curve shifted approximately 10-fold to the right. In addition, we showed, using cell-attached patch recordings, that adding heptylamine to the bath inhibited VRAC activity. This suggests that heptylamine diffuses into the membrane to inhibit VRAC. Finally, we demonstrated that heptylamine induced Ca(2+)-store depletion and that VRAC inhibition was not caused by the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). Taken together, these results identify heptylamine as a blocker of VRAC and suggest that Ca(2+)-store depletion may be involved in mechanisms of irritant contact dermatitis caused by heptylamine. PMID:17384225

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  11. Dissecting the role of TRPV1 in detecting multiple trigeminal irritants in three behavioral assays for sensory irritation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, CJ

    2013-01-01

    Polymodal neurons of the trigeminal nerve innervate the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity and cornea. Trigeminal nociceptive fibers express a diverse collection of receptors and are stimulated by a wide variety of chemicals. However, the mechanism of stimulation is known only for relatively few of these compounds. Capsaicin, for example, activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. In the present study, wildtype (C57Bl/6J) and TRPV1 knockout mice were tested in three behavioral assays for irritation to determine if TRPV1 is necessary to detect trigeminal irritants in addition to capsaicin. In one assay mice were presented with a chemical via a cotton swab and their response scored on a 5 level scale. In another assay, a modified two bottle preference test, which avoids the confound of mixing irritants with the animal’s drinking water, was used to assess aversion. In the final assay, an air dilution olfactometer was used to administer volatile compounds to mice restrained in a double-chambered plethysmograph where respiratory reflexes were monitored. TRPV1 knockouts showed deficiencies in the detection of benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone and eugenol in at least one assay. However, cyclohexanone was the only substance tested that appears to act solely through TRPV1. PMID:24358880

  12. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  13. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  14. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  15. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  16. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF SKIN IRRITATION POTENTIAL, MELASMA AND SEBUM CONTENT FOLLOWING LONG TERM APPLICATION OF SKIN CARE CREAM IN HEALTHY ADULTS, USING NON-INVASIVE BIOMETROLOGICAL TECHNIQUES.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Atif I; Khan, Shoaib H M; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to evaluate non-invasively, various functional skin parameters i.e., irritation potential, melasma and sebum contents following long term application of topical cream (w/o) loaded with 2% methanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. versus placebo control (base) in healthy adults. Healthy human volunteers (n = 11, aged 20-30 years) were recruited for investigation and written informed consent was taken from each volunteer. In this single blinded study every volunteer applied formulation on one side of face and placebo on the other side of face twice daily for a period of 12 weeks (three months). Different skin parameters i.e., skin irritancy, melasma, and sebum contents were measured on both sides of face at baseline and after two weeks interval, using photometric device Mexameter and Sebumeter in a draught free room with modulated conditions of temperature (22-25°C) and humidity (55-60%). It was evident from the results that no primary skin irritancy was observed with patch test. Besides, statistical interpretation indicates that treatment with formulation is superior to placebo because it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the skin irritancy, melasma and sebum secretions throughout the study and reaching maximum -20.76 ± 0.89, -54.2 ± 0.37 and -40.71 ± 0.75%, respectively, at the end of study period. Antioxidant activity of extract was 92% compared to standard antioxidant. Conclusively, active cream loaded with fruit extract was well tolerated by all the volunteers and suitable to treat contact dermatitis, greasy skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis and augmenting beauty and attraction by depigmentation of human skin. So, in the future, there is need to clinically evaluate these formulations in patients with compromised skin functions i.e., contact dermatitis, melasma, and acne vulgaris in order to explore the actual potential of this fruit. PMID:27008816

  17. Response to Nonallergenic Irritants in Children With Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Eunhae; Kim, Mi Ae; Lee, Seung Won; Kang, Yu Sun; Sheen, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Jung, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nonallergenic irritants can aggravate the symptoms of rhinitis. We investigated the clinical responses of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) to nonallergenic irritants, and identified factors associated with these responses. Methods Children with chronic rhinitis (n=208) were classified as having AR or NAR based on the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE. Healthy controls (n=24) were recruited for comparison. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines were used to classify patients, and their irritant score (0-21 points) and current symptom score (5-35 points) were measured. Subjects with irritant scores ≥3 and <3 were classified as having irritant and nonirritant rhinitis, respectively. Results The mean age of enrolled subjects was 6.8 years (range: 1.8-16.0 years). The AR and NAR groups had similar irritant scores (P=0.394) and proportions of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 (P=0.105). Irritant score correlated positively with symptom score (P=0.005), and the proportion of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 was greater in children with moderate-severe rhinitis than in those with mild rhinitis (P=0.046). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of atopic eczema increased the risk for sensitivity to a nonallergenic irritant (aOR=2.928, 95% CI 1.567-5.473, P=0.001). Conclusions Response to a nonallergenic irritant was useful for gauging the severity of rhinitis, but not for differentiating AR from NAR. AR and NAR patients with atopic eczema may increase nasal sensitivity to nonallergenic irritants. PMID:27126728

  18. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  19. Acute exposure to rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Dire, D J; Wilkinson, J A

    1987-01-01

    Rhodamine B is a red colored dye that is used in cosmetic products. We report a case of 17 patients who were exposed to aerosolized Rhodamine B inside a maintenance shop. The mean duration of exposure was 26 minutes (range 2-65). Sixteen of the patients (94%) complained of acute symptoms including: burning of the eyes (82%), excessive tearing (47%), nasal burning (41%), nasal itching (35%), chest pain/tightness (35%), rhinorhea (29%), cough (29%), dyspnea (29%), burning of the throat (24%), burning/pruritic skin (24%), chest burning (12%), headache (6%), and nausea (6%). All of the patients had resolution of their symptoms within 24 hours (less than 4 hours in 63%). Acute exposure to Rhodamine B resulted in transient mucous membrane and skin irritation without evidence of serious sequellae. PMID:3446824

  20. Safety evaluation of petroleum products using an in vitro eye irritation test battery.

    PubMed

    Martin, S A; Roy, T A; Saladdin, K A; Fleming, B A; Mackerer, C R

    1994-08-01

    An in vitro eye irritation test battery (IVEye) composed of the EYTEX and Modified Agarose Diffusion Method (MADM) assays was evaluated for use as a predictive, economical screen and/or adjunct for the Draize eye test. EYTEX mimics corneal opacification using a synthetic matrix of proteins that is intended to produce measurable opacity on exposure to chemical irritants in proportion to their ocular irritation potential. MADM is a cytotoxicity-based assay consisting of NCTC clone 929 mouse fibroblasts overlayed with 1% agarose in culture medium. Potential eye irritation is measured macroscopically as the area of decolorization (neutral red release) around the area of chemical application and microscopically as the percentage of cell lysis resulting from chemical application. Of the 70 materials tested in the IVEye for which Draize eye test data also exist, the battery correctly identified 38 materials as non-irritants and 30 as irritants, with two false positives and no false negatives. Non-parametric analysis of the data show the battery to have a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 95% and a predictive value of 94%. The irritation class correlation (equivalence; irritation ranking) between EYTEX alone and the Draize data was 85%. These data support the use of IVEye as an accurate, reproducible and cost-effective in vitro method for identifying the eye irritation potential of petroleum products. PMID:20692994

  1. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1 %; 60 mg/day, 3.9 %; and placebo, 8.2 %. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10 % (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1 %) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1 %). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder. PMID:26659550

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome: a concise review of current treatment concepts.

    PubMed

    Wall, Geoffrey C; Bryant, Ginelle A; Bottenberg, Michelle M; Maki, Erik D; Miesner, Andrew R

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders causing patients to seek medical treatment. It is relatively resource intensive and the source of significant morbidity. Recent insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS has given clinicians more options than ever to contend with this disorder. The purpose of our paper is to review older, "classic" treatments for IBS as well as newer agents and "alternative" therapies. We discuss the evidence base of these drugs and provide context to help develop appropriate treatment plans for IBS patients. PMID:25083054

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome: A concise review of current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Geoffrey C; Bryant, Ginelle A; Bottenberg, Michelle M; Maki, Erik D; Miesner, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders causing patients to seek medical treatment. It is relatively resource intensive and the source of significant morbidity. Recent insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS has given clinicians more options than ever to contend with this disorder. The purpose of our paper is to review older, “classic” treatments for IBS as well as newer agents and “alternative” therapies. We discuss the evidence base of these drugs and provide context to help develop appropriate treatment plans for IBS patients. PMID:25083054

  4. Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Sean M.P.; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut microbiota and IBS by discussing the current knowledge of the gut microbiota; it will also illustrate bacterial-host interactions and how alterations to these interactions could exacerbate, induce or even help alleviate IBS. PMID:25918261

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome: a mild disorder; purely symptomatic treatment.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    (1) Patients frequently complain of occasional bowel movement disorders, associated with abdominal pain or discomfort, but they are rarely due to an underlying organ involvement. Even when patients have recurrent symptoms, serious disorders are no more frequent in these patients than in the general population, unless other manifestations, anaemia, or an inflammatory syndrome is also present; (2) There is currently no way of radically modifying the natural course of recurrent irritable bowel syndrome; (3) The effects of antispasmodics on abdominal pain have been tested in about 20 randomised controlled trials. Pinaverium and peppermint essential oil have the best-documented efficacy and only moderate adverse effects. Antispasmodics with marked atropinic effects do not have a favourable risk-benefit balance; (4) Tricylic antidepressants seem to have only modest analgesic effects in this setting. In contrast, their adverse effects are frequent and they have somewhat negative risk-benefit balances. Nor has the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) been demonstrated; (5) Alosetron and tegaserod carry a risk of potentially life-threatening adverse effects and therefore have negative risk-benefit balances; (6) Seeds of plants such as psyllium and ispaghul, as well as raw apples and pears, have a limited impact on constipation and pain. Osmotic laxatives are effective on constipation. Symptomatic treatments for constipation can sometimes aggravate abdominal discomfort; (7) Loperamide has been poorly assessed in patients with recurrent irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. It modestly slows bowel movement but does not relieve pain or abdominal discomfort; (8) Dietary measures have not been tested in comparative trials. Some patients are convinced that certain foods provoke a recurrence of irritable bowel syndrome, but restrictive diets carry a risk of nutritional deficiencies; (9) Various techniques intended to control emotional and

  6. Traditional thoughts on the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hasler, William L

    2011-03-01

    The pathogenesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is multifactorial and varies from patient to patient. Disturbances of motor function in the small intestine and colon and smooth-muscle dysfunction in other gut and extraintestinal regions are prominent. Abnormalities of sensory function in visceral and somatic structures are detected in most patients with IBS, which may relate to peripheral sensitization or altered central nervous system processing of afferent information. Contributions from psychosocial disturbances are observed in patients from tertiary centers and primary practice. Proof of causation of symptom genesis for most of these factors is limited. PMID:21333899

  7. Food: the forgotten factor in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eswaran, Shanti; Tack, Jan; Chey, William D

    2011-03-01

    After years of inattention, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that dietary constituents at least exacerbate symptoms and perhaps contribute to the pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although patients with IBS self-report food allergies more often than the general population, the evidence suggests that true food allergies are relatively uncommon. Less clearly defined food intolerances may be an important contributor to symptoms in IBS patients. This article reviews the literature supporting a causal link between food and the symptoms of IBS as well as the evidence supporting dietary interventions as a means of managing IBS symptoms. PMID:21333905

  8. Gut microbiota as potential orchestrators of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Sean M P; Ohman, Lena; Simren, Magnus

    2015-05-23

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota's composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut microbiota and IBS by discussing the current knowledge of the gut microbiota; it will also illustrate bacterial-host interactions and how alterations to these interactions could exacerbate, induce or even help alleviate IBS. PMID:25918261

  9. When to reconsider the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hammerle, Christopher W; Crowe, Sheila E

    2011-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder characterized by nonspecific symptoms that can mimic other common medical conditions. A careful history and physical examination may reveal clues that suggest a coexisting or alternative diagnosis, such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or celiac disease (CD). Testing for bacterial overgrowth has limitations, but emerging data suggest that antibiotics may be of some benefit in patients with IBS with diarrhea and bloating. CD seems to have a higher prevalence in patients with IBS. Some patients with IBS may have symptomatic improvement on gluten-restricted diets, without histologic or serologic evidence of CD. PMID:21601781

  10. [Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with dicetelium and spasmomen].

    PubMed

    Nedogoda, S V; Parshev, V V

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare clinical efficacy of new spasmolytics--pinaverium bromide (dicetel, Solvay Pharma) and otilonium bromide (spasmomen, Menarini-Berlin-Chemie)--in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Effects appearing during the treatment with anxiolytic drug tofisopam (grandaxin, Egis) after using dicetel and spasmomen were also studied. The results indicate marked clinical efficiency of dicetel and spasmomen which improve vegetative functions and psychoemotional status. Grandaxin provides further improvement of clinical symptoms and additionally corrects psychoemotional status. PMID:11220900

  11. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability, gut microbiota, psychosocial distress, gut inflammation, bile acids, food intolerance, colonic bacterial fermentation, and genetics. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these factors are being actively investigated. In this mini-review, we present updates of these mechanisms and, where possible, relate the findings to childhood IBS. Mechanistic elucidation may lead to the identification of biomarkers as well as personalized childhood IBS therapies. PMID:26883355

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome. Strategy for the family physician.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common reasons for disability and health care seeking. A sensible strategy for management incorporates a confident diagnosis based upon history, physical examination, and pertinent tests. The physician can then reassure the patient, offer dietary and stress management advice, and recommend bran to relieve constipation and to evoke the placebo response. Patients who do not respond could require supportive psychotherapy or a drug for the dominant symptom. A few require careful referral, but overall responsibility should remain with the primary physician. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:8130678

  13. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  14. Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

  15. Oh my aching gut: irritable bowel syndrome, Blastocystis, and asymptomatic infection

    PubMed Central

    Boorom, Kenneth F; Smith, Huw; Nimri, Laila; Viscogliosi, Eric; Spanakos, Gregory; Parkar, Unaiza; Li, Lan-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Ok, Ülgen Z; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Jones, Morris S

    2008-01-01

    Blastocystis is a prevalent enteric protozoan that infects a variety of vertebrates. Infection with Blastocystis in humans has been associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, skin rash, and other symptoms. Researchers using different methods and examining different patient groups have reported asymptomatic infection, acute symptomatic infection, and chronic symptomatic infection. The variation in accounts has lead to disagreements concerning the role of Blastocystis in human disease, and the importance of treating it. A better understanding of the number of species of Blastocystis that can infect humans, along with realization of the limitations of the existing clinical laboratory diagnostic techniques may account for much of the disagreement. The possibility that disagreement was caused by the emergence of particular pathogenic variants of Blastocystis is discussed, along with the potential role of Blastocystis infection in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Findings are discussed concerning the role of protease-activated receptor-2 in enteric disease which may account for the presence of abdominal pain and diffuse symptoms in Blastocystis infection, even in the absence of fever and endoscopic findings. The availability of better diagnostic techniques and treatments for Blastocystis infection may be of value in understanding chronic gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology. PMID:18937874

  16. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: mechanistic insights into chronic disturbances following enteric infection.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Bhargava, Amol; Buret, Andre G

    2014-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a commonly encountered chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Approximately 10% of IBS patients can trace the onset of their symptoms to a previous a bout of infectious dysentery. The appearance of new IBS symptoms following an infectious event is defined as post-infectious-IBS. Indeed, with the World Health Organization estimating between 2 and 4 billion cases annually, infectious diarrheal disease represents an incredible international healthcare burden. Additionally, compounding evidence suggests many commonly encountered enteropathogens as unique triggers behind IBS symptom generation and underlying pathophysiological features. A growing body of work provides evidence supporting a role for pathogen-mediated modifications in the resident intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier integrity, effector cell functions, and innate and adaptive immune features, all proposed physiological manifestations that can underlie GI abnormalities in IBS. Enteric pathogens must employ a vast array of machinery to evade host protective immune mechanisms, and illicit successful infections. Consequently, the impact of infectious events on host physiology can be multidimensional in terms of anatomical location, functional scope, and duration. This review offers a unique discussion of the mechanisms employed by many commonly encountered enteric pathogens that cause acute disease, but may also lead to the establishment of chronic GI dysfunction compatible with IBS. PMID:24744587

  17. PVCM, PVCD, EPL, and irritable larynx syndrome: what are we talking about and how do we treat it?

    PubMed

    Andrianopoulos, M V; Gallivan, G J; Gallivan, K H

    2000-12-01

    Paroxysmal vocal cord movement/motion (PVCM), paroxysmal vocal cord dysfunction (PVCD), episodic paroxysmal laryngospasm (EPL), and irritable larynx syndrome (ILS) are terms used to describe laryngeal dysfunction masquerading as asthma, upper airway obstruction, or functional and organic voice disorders. The differential diagnosis of PVCM, PVCD, EPL, and ILS is critical to successful medical and behavioral management of the patient. During the past 10 years, 27 subjects, ages 15-79 years, were identified to have paroxysms of inspiratory stridor, acute respiratory distress, associated aphonia and dysphonia, resulting in misdiagnosis and unnecessary emergency treatments, including endotracheal intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, massive pharmacotherapy, or tracheostomy. A multifactorial management program is proposed utilizing principles of motor learning, neurolinguistic programming model, respiratory and phonatory synchronization, relaxation techniques, concurrent monitoring of behavioral adjustments, and formal psychological counseling. PMID:11130117

  18. Methylglyoxal Induces Systemic Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS. PMID:25157984

  19. Role of FODMAPs in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Carroccio, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, flatus, and altered bowel habits. The role of dietary components in inducing IBS symptoms is difficult to explore. To date, foods are not considered a cause but rather symptom-triggering factors. Particular interest has been given to the so-called FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols). We aimed to summarize the evidence from the most common approaches to manage suspected food intolerance in IBS, with a particular interest in the role of FODMAPs and the effects of a low FODMAP diet. We reviewed literature, consulting PubMed and Medline by using the search terms FODMAP(s), fructose, lactose, fructans, galactans, polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, xylitol, erythritol, polydextrose, and isomalt), irritable bowel syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal symptoms. FODMAP-restricted diets have been used for a long time to manage patients with IBS. The innovation in the so-called FODMAP concept is that a global restriction should have a more consistent effect than a limited one in preventing abdominal distension. Even though all the potential low FODMAP diets provide good relief of symptoms in many patients, there is just a little relief in others. Several studies highlight the role of low FODMAP diets to improve symptoms in patients with IBS. The evidence on this dietary approach supports the hypothesis that a low FODMAP diet should be the first dietary approach. However, many points remain to be clarified, including the evaluation of possibly significant nutrition concerns. PMID:25694210

  20. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS. PMID:25157984

  1. [Rectoscopy and Hemoccult II in irritable colon. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Hovendal, C P; Kronborg, O; Hem, J; Grinsted, P; Fenger, C

    1990-09-17

    It was investigated whether Hemoccult-II test (H-II) could reduce the number of colonic examinations in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, with normal rigid proctoscopic findings. A negative H-II was obtained in 299 patients from general practice and a positive test in nine. Colonoscopy was done in 157 and double contrast barium enema in 142 after random allocation. The nine patients with positive H-II all had colonoscopy. Among the 299 with negative H-II, colonic adenomas were detected in ten and an early cancer in an adenoma in the sigmoid colon; overlooked rectal adenomas were found in three, rectal cancer in one, rectal carcinoid in another and a coecal cancer, which could be palpated, in a third patient. Two patients with colonic cancer and one with adenoma were detected among those with positive H-II. All patients were followed by clinical examination after one year. In conclusion, colonic examination should carry a low priority in patients with symptoms of irritable bowel, negative Hemoccult-II and normal rigid proctoscopic findings performed by an experienced examiner. The investigation confirmed the recommendation of total colonoscopy in patients with a positive H-II and added support for increasing number of endoscopy services in contrast to those of diagnostic radiology, which should be reduced. PMID:2219505

  2. [Manometric effects of pinaverium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Soifer, L; Varela, E; Olmos, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of pinaverium bromide on colonic motility were investigated in a controlled, controlled, cross-over study in 32 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Constipation was clearly predominant in one group of 16 patients, and diarrhea in the other group of 16. Manometric measurements were taken of the colonic motor response generated by distention of a balloon inserted to the rectosigmoid junction. Measurements were taken before and one hour after ingestion of two tablets containing placebo or two tablets each containing 50 mg of pinaverium bromide. Following intake of placebo the motility index increased from the basal value in patients with constipation, and resistance to distention decreased in the diarrhea group. These changes were attributable to repetition of the mechanical stimulus within a relatively brief time lapse, or more probably to the ingestion of liquid which accompanied intake of tablets. Compared with placebo, pinaverium bromide induced inhibition of both effects. From the therapeutic point of view, the decrease in motility index seen in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation is particularly interesting. PMID:1295286

  3. Skin reactions and irritation potential of four commercial toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Skaare, A; Kjaerheim, V; Barkvoll, P; Rølla, G

    1997-04-01

    Skin reactions to 4 toothpastes were tested in 19 healthy dental students in a double-blind study. The hypothesis was that common toothpaste brands with and without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and triclosan and with different additives/emulgators differ in irritation potential. An occlusion test system on human skin was used. The toothpastes tested were A) Zendium (non-ionic detergent), B) Solidox F (SLS/polyethylene glycol), C) Colgate Total (triclosan/copolymer/SLS/propylene glycol), and D) Solidox G (triclosan/zinc citrate/SLS/polyethylene glycol). Toothpaste C was the greatest irritant, causing skin erythema in 16 of the 19 subjects, whereas toothpaste D gave no reactions. Toothpaste B provoked three reactions (two severe), whereas toothpaste A caused only one mild reaction. Although this study was carried out on skin and hence not directly applicable to the oral cavity, these and previous results may indicate that a toothpaste without propylene glycol and SLS may be preferred by susceptible persons. PMID:9176662

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome: a test of the colonic hyperalgesia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Latimer, P; Campbell, D; Latimer, M; Sarna, S; Daniel, E; Waterfall, W

    1979-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that, patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a primary hyperalgesia of the colon. Previous work, which examined these patients and normals, has not included subjects who provide a control for relevant psychological characteristics. We compared ratings of pain, following varying degrees of distension of the sigmoid colon, in normals, patients with IBS, and patients who were psychologically disturbed but without bowel symptoms. Psychological characteristics were assessed by a psychiatric interview and psychometric inventories; response to distension was tested by placing a tube in the rectosigmoid colon and successively inflating a nd deflating a balloon at its tip at 10 cm3 increments up to 50 cm3. Ratings of pain were recorded at each volume. The results indicated that the two patient groups were psychologically similar and both were more disturbed than normals. A linear relation was found between reports of pain and volume of distension in all three groups. There were no significant differences between the proportions of subjects experiencing pain in each group or the average of the ratings. There were no significant associations between the pain ratings and measures of anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and extraversion. The data do not support the hypothesis that colonic hyperalgesia is an important contributory factor in the etiology of the irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:537039

  5. U.K. standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Adisesh, A; Robinson, E; Nicholson, PJ; Sen, D; Wilkinson, M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is a process that involves fastidious clinical and occupational history taking, clinical examination, patch testing and skin-prick testing. A temporal relationship of work and/or the presence of a rash on the hands only raises suspicion of an occupational cause, and does not necessarily confirm an occupational causation. The identification of allergy by patch or prick tests is a major objective, as exclusion of an offending allergen from the environment can contribute to clinical recovery in the individual worker and avoidance of new cases of disease. This can be a complex process where allergens and irritants, and therefore allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, may coexist. This article provides guidance to healthcare professionals dealing with workers exposed to agents that potentially cause OCD and OCU. Specifically it aims to summarize the 2010 British Occupational Health Research Foundation (BOHRF) systematic review, and also to help practitioners translate the BOHRF guideline into clinical practice. As such, it aims to be of value to physicians and nurses based in primary and secondary care, as well as occupational health and public health clinicians. It is hoped that it will also be of value to employers, interested workers and those with responsibility for workplace standards, such as health and safety representatives. Note that it is not intended, nor should it be taken to imply, that these standards of care override existing statutory and legal obligations. Duties under the U.K. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, the Equality Act 2010 and other relevant legislation and guidance must be given due consideration, as should laws relevant to other countries. PMID:23374107

  6. An update on airborne contact dermatitis: 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raquel; Goossens, An

    2007-12-01

    Reports on airborne dermatoses are mainly published in the context of occupational settings. Hence, in recent years, dermatologists and also occupational physicians have become increasingly aware of the airborne source of contact dermatitis, resulting mainly from exposure to irritants or allergens. However, their occurrence is still underestimated, because reports often omit the term 'airborne' in relation to dust or volatile allergens. For the present update, we screened the journals 'Contact Dermatitis' (July 2000 to December 2006); 'Dermatitis', formerly named 'American Journal of Contact Dermatitis'; 'La Lettre du Gerda' (January 2000 to December 2006); and also included relevant articles from other journals published during the same period. This resulted in an updated list of airborne dermatitis causes. PMID:17988283

  7. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  8. Contact allergy and hand eczema in Swedish dentists.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, L M; Ortengren, U; Andreasson, H; Barregård, L; Björkner, B; Karlsson, S; Wrangsjö, K; Meding, B

    2000-10-01

    Hand eczema and contact allergy in Swedish dentists were studied in a multidisciplinary project. The aims of the study were to establish diagnoses, to investigate the occurrence of contact allergy, in particular to (meth)acrylates, and to evaluate certain consequences of hand eczema. A postal questionnaire on skin symptoms, atopy and occupational experience was mailed to 3,500 dentists aged <65 years, and licensed 1965-1995. The response rate was 88%. Among dentists living in 3 major cities, 14.9% (n= 191) reported hand eczema during the previous year. They were invited to a clinical examination, including patch testing with a standard and a dental series. 158/191 (83%) dentists attended, and hand eczema diagnosis was confirmed in 149/158 (94%). Irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 67% and allergic contact dermatitis in 28%. On patch testing, 50% presented at least 1 positive reaction. The most frequent allergens were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, gold sodium thiosulfate and thiuram mix. 7 (5%) had positive reactions to (meth)acrylates, all to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 6 also to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. 38% had consulted a physician, 4% had been on sick-leave and 1% had changed occupational tasks due to hand eczema. No dentist with allergy to acrylates had been on sick-leave or changed occupation. It is concluded that dentistry is a high-risk occupation for hand eczema, and that irritant contact dermatitis is most common. The prevalence of contact allergy to acrylates was below 1% in the population of responding dentists, and in most cases did not have serious medical, social or occupational consequences. PMID:11011917

  9. Managing Irritability and Aggression in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Adelaide S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism and autism spectrum disorders have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. In one study up to 20% of children with autism have symptoms of irritability and aggression including aggression, severe tantrums, and deliberate self injurious behavior (Lecavalier [2006] "J. Autism Dev. Disord." 36:1101-1114.). These…

  10. AGONISTIC SENSORY EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS IN MIXTURES: ODOR, NASAL PUNGENCY, AND EYE IRRITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Threshold responses of odor, nasal pungency (irritation), and eye irritation were measured for single chemicals (1-propanol, 1-hexanol, ethyl acetate, heptyl acetate, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, toluene, ethyl benzene, and propyl benzene) and mixtures of them (two three-component m...

  11. POST-INFECTIOUS IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: A LONG TERM CONSEQUENCE OF BACTERIAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a commonly diagnosed disease characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms often associated with psychological illness and emotional problems. The prevalence rate world-wide for IBS ranges from 10 to 20% and is higher for women than for men. Irritable bowel disease ...

  12. Irritability without Elation in a Large Bipolar Youth Sample: Frequency and Clinical Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Birmaher, Boris; Leonard, Henrietta; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Yang, Mei; Gill, Marykay; Dyl, Jennifer; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Stout, Robert; Keller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of 361 youths with bipolar disorder reveal that irritable-only subgroups constitute 10 percent of this sample while elated-only subgroups constitute 15 percent of the sample. These findings support continued consideration for episodic irritability in the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  13. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Shin; Park, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE). Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete questionnaire sheet assessing the extent of histrionic personality traits, extraversion-introversion, and current psychological status. The present authors also collected basic sociodemographic data including alcohol use history. Results. A total of 32 irritable patients and 32 stable patients were analyzed. The histrionic personality trait score of the irritable group was higher than that of the stable group (9.5 ± 3.1 versus 6.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.001), as was the anxiety score (52.8 ± 8.6 versus 46.1 ± 9.6; P = 0.004). Heavy alcohol use was more frequently observed in the irritable group (65.6% versus 28.1%; P = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, all these three factors were independently correlated with irritability during CSE. Conclusion. This study revealed that histrionic personality traits, anxiety, and heavy alcohol use can affect irritability during CSE. PMID:25954307

  14. [Controlled clinical study of the action of mebeverine hydrochloride in the treatment of irritable colon].

    PubMed

    Secco, G B; Di Somma, C; Arnulfo, G; Ricci, C

    1983-03-31

    The results of a study about the mebeverina administered in 45 cases of irritable colon are reported. The clinical and laboratory findings together with the results of colometrography under psychic stimulation, have shown the therapeutic efficacy of the new formulation, specially in irritable colon with abdominal pain. Its tolerance was excellent. PMID:6339996

  15. A single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data presented here shows that a single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components whi...

  16. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota as a cause of and a potential therapeutic option in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    König, J; Brummer, R J

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota forms a complex ecosystem that is in close contact with its host and has an important impact on health. An increasing number of disorders are associated with disturbances in this ecosystem. Also patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show an altered composition of their gut microbiota. IBS is a multifactorial chronic disorder characterised by various abdominal complaints and a worldwide prevalence of 10-20%. Even though its aetiology and pathophysiology are complex and not well understood, it is widely accepted that aberrations along the microbe-gut-brain axis are involved. In this review, it will be discussed how exogenous factors, e.g. antibiotics, can cause disbalance in the intestinal microbiota and thereby contribute to the development of IBS. In addition, several new IBS treatment options that aim at re-establishing a healthy, beneficial ecosystem will be described. These include antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and faecal transplantation. PMID:24583610

  17. Evaluation of the EYTEX system as a screen for eye irritancy of petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Roy, T A; Saladdin, K A; Mackerer, C R

    1994-08-01

    89 petroleum products were tested in the EYTEX in vitro assay and the results were compared with data from Draize tests on the same materials. All 26 chemicals assessed as irritant in the Draize test were classified as irritant by the EYTEX assay; 61 of the 63 non-irritants were correctly classified by the in vitro assay. The correlation between the results from the EYTEX system and the Draize data was 89%, and the predictive value of the EYTEX system (percentage of EYTEX irritants that are true irritants) was 93%. When the same chemicals were tested in another laboratory, the coefficient of determination for the comparison of the EYTEX scores from the two laboratories was R(2) = 0.86. The results demonstrate the reliability and interpretability of the EYTEX assay carried out in our laboratory and therefore the viability, if not the validity, of this in vitro method as a screening test for the Draize assay. PMID:20693014

  18. New model of cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection in rats: endogenous small irritants, antiulcer agents and indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Desković, S; Grabarević, Z; Marović, A; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Konjevoda, P; Jadrijević, S; Sosa, T; Perović, D; Aralica, G; Turković, B

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive cytoprotection in the stomach was originally defined by applying the exogenous irritants only. The contribution of endogenous irritants as inductors of initial lesions was not specially evaluated. No attempt was made to either focus antiulcer agent activity on adaptive cytoprotection, or split their 'cytoprotection' into complex adaptive cytoprotective activity and simple cytoprotective effects. Agents had so far not been applied simultaneously with the second challenge with ethanol (or irritant), when differences between cytoprotection and adaptive cytoprotection appear. Gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h in rats was introduced as new model for analyzing cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection. The contribution of the up-normal level of endogenous irritants and the endogenous small irritant-induced minor lesions during the adaptive cytoprotection were studied. The effect of late challenge with 96% ethanol in the presence of an up-normal level of endogenous irritants and endogenous small irritant-induced minor lesions was compared with results of classic studies of ethanol-induced gastric lesions in normal rats (1 ml/rat i.g.). Antiulcer agents or a prostaglandins-synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, given once only in classic studies, were given at several points during injury induction: (i) surgery, (ii) mild ethanol, (iii) strong ethanol, (iv) strong ethanol applied after a suitable period following either mild ethanol or surgery). Their effects were compared in rats treated as follows: exogenous irritant studies (96% or 20% ethanol), exogenous/exogenous irritant studies (20% ethanol 1 h before 96% ethanol), endogenous irritant studies (gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h), and endogenous/exogenous irritant studies (gastrojejunal anastomosis for 24 h before 96% ethanol). Characteristic of the various irritants differed: the (preceding) small irritants (exogenous (i.e., mild ethanol in healthy intact rats) (exogenous irritant studies) vs. endogenous (e

  19. Utilization of the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA to distinguish the sensitizers from irritants in respect of 3 end points-lymphocyte proliferation, ear swelling, and cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Arancioglu, Seren; Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Karakaya, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals may result in allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we performed ex vivo local lymph node assay: bromodeoxyuridine-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LLNA: BrdU-ELISA) to compare the differences between irritation and sensitization potency of some chemicals in terms of the 3 end points: lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine profiles (interleukin 2 [IL-2], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), and ear swelling. Different concentrations of the following well-known sensitizers and irritant chemicals were applied to mice: dinitrochlorobenzene, eugenol, isoeugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and croton oil. According to the lymph node results; the auricular lymph node weights and lymph node cell counts increased after application of both sensitizers and irritants in high concentrations. On the other hand, according to lymph node cell proliferation results, there was a 3-fold increase in proliferation of lymph node cells (stimulation index) for sensitizer chemicals and SLS in the applied concentrations; however, there was not a 3-fold increase for croton oil and negative control. The SLS gave a false-positive response. Cytokine analysis demonstrated that 4 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were released in lymph node cell cultures, with a clear dose trend for sensitizers whereas only TNF-α was released in response to irritants. Taken together, our results suggest that the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA method can be useful for discriminating irritants and allergens. PMID:25563296

  20. Medical Movies on the Web Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatigue Irritability" 1945 Film | NIH MedlinePlus the ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatigue Irritability" 1945 Film Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Actor Gene Kelly in the 1945 film, Combat Fatigue Irritability, now available to the public ...

  1. Acute-toxicity evaluation of nitroaromatic compounds. Final report, 29 Sep 89-29 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, G.B.; Austin, A.; DiGuilio, N.

    1991-03-01

    The nitroaromatics 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 1,2,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and N-methyl-n,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (tetryl) have been detected as environmental contaminants of water and soil near production waste sites and at military test grounds. Acute toxicity evaluations were carried out with these compounds to develop environmental and health effects criteria. Dermal and eye irritation tests and acute dermal sensitization (Buehler) tests in guinea pigs were conducted according to EPA standard protocols. The sensitization tests showed that DNB and tetryl are not skin sensitizers while TNB caused a mild allergic reaction. None of these compounds produced skin irritation but positive (DNB) to severe (TNB, tetryl) eye irritation potentials were observed.

  2. An evaluation of irritant smoke to detect exhalation valve leakage in respirators.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Erin M; McKay, Roy T

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the ability of a qualitative fit-test method (irritant smoke) to detect known exhalation valve leakage. The OSHA protocol for the irritant smoke test mandates the use of a low flow air pump at 200 mL/minute or an aspirator squeeze bulb. Many commercial test kits include an aspirator bulb, which is subject to variation in frequency, depth of squeeze, fatigue rate, and individual hand strength. Previous studies on irritant smoke used a handheld squeeze bulb. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a low flow pump for irritant smoke fit-testing. Twenty subjects wearing North 7600 series full-face respirators equipped with P100 filters were fit-tested with a Portacount Plus to ensure adequate fit. After successful fit was demonstrated, the exhalation valve was replaced with a damaged valve and/or rotated approximately 90 degrees to produce a fit factor below 100. Having induced an exhalation valve leak, the irritant smoke fit-test was performed using the OSHA irritant smoke protocol. To avoid introducing additional unknown leakage, all head movement exercises were replaced with the head straight, normal breathing maneuver. Irritant smoke did not detect 40 percent of respirators with leaking exhalation valves. Sixty percent of the subjects were able to detect the irritant smoke. Test sensitivity was 60 percent, well below the recommended 95 percent criterion. Of the 12 subjects that detected irritant smoke, none detected the smoke in less than a minute; the average detection time was 3 min 5 s. Some subjects were able to suppress the cough reflex. These findings suggest that qualitative fit-testing using irritant smoke with a 200 ml/min continuous flow pump does not have adequate sensitivity to detect fit factors less than 100. PMID:12909538

  3. Halometasone monohydrate (0.05%) in occupational contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar; Shaju, Noel; Hota, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The impact of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is often underestimated because of underreporting, and its management is also inadequate, especially in developing countries. Topical corticosteroids have remained the first line treatment but till date, there is no study on efficacy and safety of halometasone in OCD, and there is a paucity of data on its comparative efficacy in allergic and irritant variety. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of halometasone in OCD and to compare its effect in allergic and irritant types of OCD. Methods: The present study is a prospective, interventional, single arm clinical study conducted on 150 patients of OCD. Detailed history and clinical examination was done at baseline, and all enrolled patients underwent patch test with the Indian Standard Battery of allergens. Eczema severity was assessed by the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) scale, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, and patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM). Change in quality of life was assessed by using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). After baseline assessments, they were prescribed halometasone 0.05% ointment and were followed up after 4 weeks, and efficacy variables were evaluated. Results: At follow-up, 19 patients were lost, and data of 131 patients were analyzed. After 4 weeks of halometasone therapy, there was statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement in SCORAD index, IGA, POEM, and DLQI. Considering improvement in IGA as treatment success criteria, treatment was found to be successful in 87.8%. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in effect of halometasone in allergic and irritant OCD. Conclusions: Halometasone is efficacious with a good safety profile in patients with OCD, and there is no significant difference in efficacy of the drug in allergic and irritant OCD. PMID:27127314

  4. Rifaximin in irritable bowel syndrome: rationale, evidence and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Mohammed; McCallum, Richard W

    2013-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional bowel disease that affects up to 15% of the US population. The majority of patients with IBS have significant bloating and gas. Recent evidence is beginning to suggest that patients with IBS may have an alteration in the gastrointestinal flora. Specifically, findings suggest that patients with IBS have excessive bacteria in the small bowel, referred to as bacterial overgrowth. Therefore there may be benefits of antibiotic-based therapies for IBS. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that demonstrates no clinically relevant bacterial resistance. Some studies have demonstrated the efficacy and durable improvement of IBS symptoms after treatment with rifaximin. In this review we explore the current data showing the association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and IBS as well as review the available data on the clinical use of rifaximin in the treatment of SIBO in patients with IBS. PMID:23556126

  5. Rifaximin in irritable bowel syndrome: rationale, evidence and clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional bowel disease that affects up to 15% of the US population. The majority of patients with IBS have significant bloating and gas. Recent evidence is beginning to suggest that patients with IBS may have an alteration in the gastrointestinal flora. Specifically, findings suggest that patients with IBS have excessive bacteria in the small bowel, referred to as bacterial overgrowth. Therefore there may be benefits of antibiotic-based therapies for IBS. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that demonstrates no clinically relevant bacterial resistance. Some studies have demonstrated the efficacy and durable improvement of IBS symptoms after treatment with rifaximin. In this review we explore the current data showing the association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and IBS as well as review the available data on the clinical use of rifaximin in the treatment of SIBO in patients with IBS. PMID:23556126

  6. Overgrowth of the indigenous gut microbiome and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bye, William; Ishaq, Naveed; Bolin, Terry D; Duncombe, Vic M; Riordan, Stephen M

    2014-03-14

    Culture-independent molecular techniques have demonstrated that the majority of the gut microbiota is uncultivable. Application of these molecular techniques to more accurately identify the indigenous gut microbiome has moved with great pace over recent years, leading to a substantial increase in understanding of gut microbial communities in both health and a number of disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Use of culture-independent molecular techniques already employed to characterise faecal and, to a lesser extent, colonic mucosal microbial populations in IBS, without reliance on insensitive, traditional microbiological culture techniques, has the potential to more accurately determine microbial composition in the small intestine of patients with this disorder, at least that occurring proximally and within reach of sampling. Current data concerning culture-based and culture-independent analyses of the small intestinal microbiome in IBS are considered here. PMID:24627582

  7. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome; gut microbiota and probiotic therapy].

    PubMed

    Tojo González, Rafael; Suarez Gonzalez, Adolfo; Rúas Madiedo, Patricia; Mancebo Mata, Alejo; Pipa Muñiz, María; Barreiro Alonso, Eva; Roman Llorente, Francisco Javier; Moro Villar, María Carmen; Arce González, Marta María; Villegas Diaz, María Francisca; Mosquera Sierra, Eugenia; Ruiz Ruiz, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. This common disorder is managed by varying clinical styles as no dominant therapeutic strategy has emerged. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unknown, but several lines of evidence link this disorder with the gut microbiota. Although controversy exists, gut microbiota is likely contributing to symptoms of IBS, at least in some patients, through an altered fermentation process, an impaired intestinal barrier function, a harmful modulation of enteric sensorimotor function, a promotion of low-grade inflammation without tissue damage, and a harmful modulation of the brain-gut axis. Probiotic therapy has a modest effect on IBS symptomatic relief, but the actual evidence is not strong enough to support a general recommendation of use. The best results are achieved, in children, with Lactobacillus rhamnusus GG, which moderately improves abdominal pain, while in adults the benefit appears to be greatest employing Bifidobacterium species. PMID:25659060

  8. Clinical trials in irritable bowel syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Claire M; Mangel, Allen W

    2013-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders and it is characterized by episodes of abdominal pain and altered bowel functions. The specific bowel disturbances of diarrhea, constipation or an alternation between the two defines the IBS subtypes of diarrhea-predominant, constipation-predominant, and mixed or alternating IBS. Because of the abnormalities in bowel states associated with each IBS subtype, it is not likely that one agent would successfully treat all three subtypes. As a result, clinical trials have focused, for the most part, on one IBS subtype. Over the past 2 decades very few agents have achieved regulatory approval for the treatment of IBS. In the present article we review publications reporting on phase 2 and phase 3 studies evaluating agents to potentially be used in the treatment of patients with IBS. PMID:23130604

  9. Placebo Effect in Clinical Trial Design for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Eric; Pimentel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing efforts to improve clinical trial design in irritable bowel syndrome have been hindered by high placebo response rates and ineffective outcome measures. We assessed established strategies to minimize placebo effect as well as the various approaches to placebo effect which can affect trial design. These include genetic markers such as catechol-O-methyltransferase, opioidergic and dopaminergic neurobiologic theory, pre-cebo effect centered on expectancy theory, and side effect unblinding grounded on conditioning theory. We reviewed endpoints used in the study of IBS over the past decade including adequate relief and subjective global relief, emphasizing their weaknesses in fully evaluating the IBS condition, specifically their motility effects based on functional net value and relative benefit-harm based on dropouts due to adverse events. The focus of this review is to highlight ongoing efforts to improve clinical trial design which can lead to better outcomes in a real-world setting. PMID:24840369

  10. Symbolic dynamics of jejunal motility in the irritable bowel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Renate; Schmidt, Thomas

    1999-09-01

    Different studies of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by conventional analysis of jejunal motility report conflicting results. Therefore, our aim is to quantify the jejunal contraction activity by symbolic dynamics in order to discriminate between IBS and control subjects. Contraction amplitudes during fasting motility (phase II) are analyzed for 30 IBS and 30 healthy subjects. On the basis of a particular scale-independent discretization of the contraction amplitudes with respect to the median, IBS patients are characterized by increased block entropy as well as increased mean contraction amplitude. In a further more elementary level of analysis these differences can be reduced to specific contraction patterns within the time series, namely the fact that successive large contraction amplitudes are less ordered in IBS than in controls. These significant differences in jejunal motility may point to an altered control of the gut in IBS, although further studies on a representative number of patients have to be done for a validation of these findings.

  11. Is fructose malabsorption a cause of irritable bowel syndrome?

    PubMed

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C

    2015-09-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a condition that may be marked by abdominal pain, bloating, fullness, indigestion, belching, constipation and/or diarrhea. IBS symptoms can result from malabsorption of fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in small quantities in fruits and some vegetables, and in much larger quantities in industrially manufactured sweets with added sugars (e.g. sucrose and high fructose corn syrup). Fructose malabsorption leads to osmotic diarrhea as well as gas and bloating due to fermentation in the colon. A low-fructose diet has been found to improve IBS symptoms in some patients. This paper discusses the prevalence of fructose malabsorption and considers fructose ingestion as a possible cause of--and fructose restriction as a possible dietary treatment for--IBS. PMID:26059250

  12. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment. PMID:26523104

  13. New and Investigational Agents for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Camilleri, Michael; Grover, Madhusudan

    2015-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects about 15 % of the US population and results in significant morbidity and health care costs. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments particularly for the pain component of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Progress made in our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms such as the role of altered bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, the epithelial barrier and secretory properties of the gut has led to advancements in therapeutic armamentarium for IBS. This review discusses the new drugs for constipation and diarrhea-predominant IBS subtypes that have been tested or have been under investigation over the last 3-4 years. Overall, there is a promising pipeline of investigational drugs for the future treatment of IBS and related FGIDs. PMID:26446557

  14. Intestinal secretory mechanisms in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Although diarrhea is the predominant bowel dysfunction in as many as one-third of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear whether there is a specific disorder of intestinal fluid or electrolyte secretion in IBS. Diarrhea is generally considered a result of accelerated colonic transit in patients with IBS. Although a primary secretory diathesis has not been well-documented in patients with IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), several mechanisms that could potentially contribute to intestinal secretion have been reported. Some of these mechanisms also influence motor and secretory dysfunctions that contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS-D. We review the evidence supporting secretion in IBS-D caused by peptides and amines produced by enteroendocrine cells or submucosal neurons, enterocyte secretory processes, and intraluminal factors (bile acids and short-chain fatty acids). Understanding these mechanisms and developing clinical methods for their identification could improve management of patients with IBS-D. PMID:25041862

  15. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Magge, Suma

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs increases the delivery of readily fermentable substrates and water to the distal small intestine and colon—which results in luminal distention and gas—the reduction of FODMAPs in a patient’s diet may improve functional gastrointestinal symptoms. This paper will review the pathophysiology of IBS and the role of FODMAPs for the treatment of this condition. PMID:24672410

  16. Thermal irritation of teeth during dental treatment procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jung; Jun, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, In-Bog; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    While it is reasonably well known that certain dental procedures increase the temperature of the tooth's surface, of greater interest is their potential damaging effect on the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues. Previous studies have investigated the responses of the pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone to thermal irritation and the temperature at which thermal damage is initiated. There are also many in vitro studies that have measured the temperature increase of the pulp and tooth-supporting tissues during restorative and endodontic procedures. This review article provides an overview of studies measuring temperature increases in tooth structures during several restorative and endodontic procedures, and proposes clinical guidelines for reducing potential thermal hazards to the pulp and supporting tissues. PMID:24010075

  17. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Global Challenge Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Sarah Rauf; Abdelaal, Ahmed M; Janjua, Zaynab A; Alasmari, Hajar A; Obad, Adam S; Alamodi, Abdulhadi

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been identified as one of the more highly prevalent and costly gastrointestinal disorders. Despite its uncertain etiology, risk factors, such as stress and academic load, are well correlated with the prevalence of the disease. Being in one of the most stressful and challenging environments, medical students are predisposed to have high rates of IBS. The socioeconomic burden of the disease on its sufferers is devastating as their quality of life is reduced, mandating additional health care precautions. The aim of this article, therefore, is to review the current literature about IBS among medical students, its prevalence, associated risk factors, and diagnostic criteria. Additionally, different solutions and management options are recommended to control the disease.  PMID:27625907

  18. Inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome: Myth or new treatment target?

    PubMed Central

    Sinagra, Emanuele; Pompei, Giancarlo; Tomasello, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; Morreale, Gaetano Cristian; Amvrosiadis, Georgios; Rossi, Francesca; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio; Rizzo, Aroldo Gabriele; Raimondo, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade intestinal inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and this role is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on the spectrum of mucosal inflammation in IBS, highlighting the relationship of this inflammation to the pathophysiology of IBS and its connection to clinical practice. We carried out a bibliographic search in Medline and the Cochrane Library for the period of January 1966 to December 2014, focusing on publications describing an interaction between inflammation and IBS. Several evidences demonstrate microscopic and molecular abnormalities in IBS patients. Understanding the mechanisms underlying low-grade inflammation in IBS may help to design clinical trials to test the efficacy and safety of drugs that target this pathophysiologic mechanism. PMID:26900287

  19. Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Mikhail; Castillo, Carlos Cuellar; Barber, Melissa S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be comorbidities that are difficult to treat. In this patient, an evidence-informed treatment pathway guided by laboratory biomarkers was used to address both conditions. Case Presentation A 69-y-old female patient presented with a 50-y history of sinusitis that was worse in the winter, postnasal drip, frequent sore throats, gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, and yeast infections. Two sinus surgeries (in years 2000 and 2002) and multiple courses of antibiotics had not resolved her sinus symptoms. In addition to CRS and IBS, this patient was noted to have intestinal overgrowth of Candida albicans, multiple food sensitivities, and leaky gut syndrome. Conclusion Antifungal medication and dietary changes in the course of 8 mo resulted in the resolution of her CRS and IBS. PMID:27547167

  20. Recent advances in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    The symptom-based diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been established in everyday clinical practice, and the diagnosis of this disorder remains one of exclusion. It has been demonstrated that the densities of duodenal chromogranin A, rectal peptide YY and somatostatin cells are good biomarkers for the diagnosis of sporadic IBS, and low-grade mucosal inflammation is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of postinfectious IBS. Genetic markers are not useful as biomarkers for IBS since the potential risk genes have yet to be validated, and the intestinal microbiota cannot be used because of the lack of an association between a specific bacterial species and IBS. Furthermore, gastrointestinal dysmotility and visceral hypersensitivity tests produce results that are too nonconsistent and noncharacteristic to be used in the diagnosis of IBS. A combination of symptom-based assessment, exclusion of overlapping gastrointestinal diseases and positive biomarkers appears to be the best way to diagnose IBS. PMID:26162959

  1. Current and Novel Therapeutic Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Management

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Andresen, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting up to 3-15% of the general population in western countries. It is characterized by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is multifactorial involving disturbances of the brain-gut-axis. The pathophysiology provides the rationale for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocial factors, autonomic dysfunction, and mucosal immune activation. Understanding the mechanisms, and their mediators or modulators including neurotransmitters and receptors have led to several therapeutic approaches including agents acting on the serotonin receptor or serotonin transporter system, antidepressants, novel selective anticholinergics, α-adrenergic agonists, opioid agents, cholecystokinin-antagonists, neurokinin-antagonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, corticotropin releasing factor antagonists, chloride-channel activators, guanylate-cyclase-c agonists, melatonin, atypical benzodiazepines, antibiotics, immune modulators and probiotics. The mechanisms and current evidence regarding efficacy of these agents are reviewed. PMID:19665953

  2. Cluster belly: a variant of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    Cluster headache (CH) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are pain disorders that possess relationships with circadian rhythms. However, they have not been compared to assess similarities that could yield pathophysiologic insights. A young male adult with periodic episodes of abdominal pain highly reminiscent of CH is described. Since childhood, he experienced severe attacks featuring excruciating, abdominal pain accompanied by prominent restlessness, lasting 30-120 minutes, occurring in the evening and in discrete 2- to 8-week periods, interspersed with remissions where typical triggers did not lead to attacks. Although all of the patient's symptoms fell within the spectrum of IBS, the semiology was highly evocative of CH, based on the attack duration, restlessness, periodicity, and selective vulnerability to particular triggers only during attack periods. A subset of patients thought to have IBS may feature similar attack profiles and could suggest the importance of the hypothalamus in its pathophysiology, akin to CH. PMID:25039367

  3. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fresé, Michael P.; Rapgay, Lobsang

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies. PMID:18317547

  4. [Irritable bowel syndrome: New pathophysiological hypotheses and practical issues].

    PubMed

    Duboc, H; Dior, M; Coffin, B

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, besides the fact that it still fills the gastroenterologists' offices and impairs patient's quality of life, the irritable bowel syndrome has considerably evolved on several points. The pathophysiology is now organized around a consensual hypothesis called the "brain-gut axis", which gather all the influences of peripheral factors as gut microbiota or local serotonin secretion, on the central pain perception, contributing to visceral hypersensitivity and transit modifications. About the diagnosis, the key message is "avoid over-prescription" of additional tests, and reminds that a positive clinical diagnosis based on Rome III criteria is possible after the elimination of simple clinical warning signs. Finally, the food component, a neglected and historical claim of patients, finally finds a strong scientific rational, with a diet low in fermentable sugar and polyols, that gives positive and reproducible results. PMID:26872433

  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Global Challenge Among Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sarah Rauf; Abdelaal, Ahmed M; Janjua, Zaynab A; Alasmari, Hajar A; Obad, Adam S; Alamodi, Abdulhadi; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been identified as one of the more highly prevalent and costly gastrointestinal disorders. Despite its uncertain etiology, risk factors, such as stress and academic load, are well correlated with the prevalence of the disease. Being in one of the most stressful and challenging environments, medical students are predisposed to have high rates of IBS. The socioeconomic burden of the disease on its sufferers is devastating as their quality of life is reduced, mandating additional health care precautions. The aim of this article, therefore, is to review the current literature about IBS among medical students, its prevalence, associated risk factors, and diagnostic criteria. Additionally, different solutions and management options are recommended to control the disease. PMID:27625907

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: Relations with functional, mental, and somatoform disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the conceptual and clinical relations between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional, somatoform, and mental disorders, and points to appropriate future conceptualizations. IBS is considered to be a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with a considerable symptom overlap with other FSSs like chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome. IBS patients show an increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, especially depression and anxiety. IBS is largely congruent with the concepts of somatoform and somatic symptom disorders. Roughly 50% of IBS patients complain of gastrointestinal symptoms only and have no psychiatric comorbidity. IBS concepts, treatment approaches, as well as health care structures should acknowledge its variability and multidimensionality by: (1) awareness of additional extraintestinal and psychobehavioral symptoms in patients with IBS; (2) general and collaborative care rather than specialist and separated care; and (3) implementation of “interface disorders” to abandon the dualistic classification of purely organic or purely mental disorders. PMID:24876725

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: relations with functional, mental, and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Hausteiner-Wiehle, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter

    2014-05-28

    This review describes the conceptual and clinical relations between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional, somatoform, and mental disorders, and points to appropriate future conceptualizations. IBS is considered to be a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with a considerable symptom overlap with other FSSs like chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia syndrome. IBS patients show an increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, especially depression and anxiety. IBS is largely congruent with the concepts of somatoform and somatic symptom disorders. Roughly 50% of IBS patients complain of gastrointestinal symptoms only and have no psychiatric comorbidity. IBS concepts, treatment approaches, as well as health care structures should acknowledge its variability and multidimensionality by: (1) awareness of additional extraintestinal and psychobehavioral symptoms in patients with IBS; (2) general and collaborative care rather than specialist and separated care; and (3) implementation of "interface disorders" to abandon the dualistic classification of purely organic or purely mental disorders. PMID:24876725

  8. Irritation fibroma removal: a comparison of two laser wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Walinski, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    Laser wavelengths are available that offer dentists treatment options for both hard and soft oral tissues. This article discusses the benefits of removing hypertrophic soft tissue by using an all-tissue laser. A clinical case is presented involving the use of both an 810 nm diode laser and a 2,780 nm Er,Cr:YSGG laser to remove two irritation fibromas, both located on the left cheek of the same patient. This unique perspective was ideal for comparing the healing of each wound. The Er,Cr:YSGG appeared to have a less traumatic effect on target tissue and offered improved postoperative healing, faster recovery time, and less trauma than traditional surgical modalities. PMID:15206255

  9. Quality of life measures in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wong, Reuben K M; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with significant morbidity, resulting from the interaction of physiologic, psychological, social, cultural and behavioral factors. In view of this complex interaction, and in the absence of a measurable biological index of disease, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as an ideal measure for use in clinical trials and outcome studies. This article discusses the relevance of HRQoL measurement in IBS and its definition. It then explores the research methodology in HRQoL and describes how global measures and generic HRQoL instruments have been used in IBS. Finally, the IBS-specific HRQoL measures are described in detail, with an emphasis on their development, content and validation. PMID:20528115

  10. Dicationic Alkylammonium Bromide Gemini Surfactants. Membrane Perturbation and Skin Irritation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, João A. S.; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A.; Marques, Eduardo F.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of 31P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by 31P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism. PMID:22102870

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  13. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A Text Size What's ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  14. Evaluation of TOPKAT, Toxtree, and Derek Nexus in Silico Models for Ocular Irritation and Development of a Knowledge-Based Framework To Improve the Prediction of Severe Irritation.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Wilson, Daniel M; Parks, Amanda K; Carney, Edward W; Spencer, Pamela J

    2016-05-16

    Assessment of ocular irritation is an essential component of any risk assessment. A number of (Q)SARs and expert systems have been developed and are described in the literature. Here, we focus on three in silico models (TOPKAT, BfR rulebase implemented in Toxtree, and Derek Nexus) and evaluate their performance using 1644 in-house and 123 European Centre for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) compounds with existing in vivo ocular irritation classification data. Overall, the in silico models performed poorly. The best consensus predictions of severe ocular irritants were 52 and 65% for the in-house and ECETOC compounds, respectively. The prediction performance was improved by designing a knowledge-based chemical profiling framework that incorporated physicochemical properties and electrophilic reactivity mechanisms. The utility of the framework was assessed by applying it to the same test sets and three additional publicly available in vitro irritation data sets. The prediction of severe ocular irritants was improved to 73-77% if compounds were filtered on the basis of AlogP_MR (hydrophobicity with molar refractivity). The predictivity increased to 74-80% for compounds capable of preferentially undergoing hard electrophilic reactions, such as Schiff base formation and acylation. This research highlights the need for reliable ocular irritation models to be developed that take into account mechanisms of action and individual structural classes. It also demonstrates the value of profiling compounds with respect to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties that, in combination with existing models, results in better predictions for severe irritants. PMID:27018716

  15. Contact dermatitis to topical acne drugs: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Borghi, Alessandro; Angelini, Gianni; Bonamonte, Domenico; Corazza, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatological disorder that affects the majority of teenagers in the Western world. Topical therapy is widely used to treat mild-moderate acne and is known as well-tolerated thanks to its low systemic toxicity, although associated to skin adverse effects. Acne seems to be associated also to an intrinsic alteration of the epidermal barrier, regarding both the upper and the follicular stratum corneum that promotes the onset of such local side effects. The commonest one is irritant contact dermatitis, an event of frequent observation occurring with erythema, burning, dryness, scaling, and itching, usually characterized by low severity and limited duration. Among topical acne drugs, retinoids are the most irritating ones. Another side effect is allergic contact dermatitis: it is rare and mainly associated to benzoyl peroxide. PMID:26302055

  16. Acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride in rabbits. Report for 18 May-1 August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hiatt, G.F.; Sanso, S.K.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride was evaluated in five male and five female New Zealand White rabbits. Guanidine hydrochloride (2 g/kg) was applied topically to the clipped dorsal skin surface for 24 hours. No compound-related deaths or clinical signs were observed; however, guanidine hydrochloride did produce dermal irritation, necrosis, and eschar formation under conditions of the study.

  17. Bovine serum albumin-meloxicam nanoaggregates laden contact lenses for ophthalmic drug delivery in treatment of postcataract endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenji; Zu, Dongni; Chen, Jianting; Peng, Junjie; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Hefeng; Li, Sanming; Pan, Weisan

    2014-11-20

    Postcataract endophthalmitis treatment through eye drops is of low corneal bioavailability and short residence time. The dominant NSAIDs therapy also suffers from severe ocular irritancy and low patients compliance. This study dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated meloxicam (MX) nanocrystals encapsulating nanoaggregates (BSA-MX-NA) in contact lenses to reduce drug ocular irritancy and increased drug release duration. The BSA-MX-NA (∼100 nm) were prepared using acid-base neutralization in aqueous solutions and were dispersed in poly(hydroxylethyl methacrylate) gels, which are common contact lens materials. Drug release studies showed that the gels released the drug for about 5 days. The proposed drug transport mechanism is a diffusion process which can be described by the Ritger-Peppas model with the diffusional exponent n of 0.4768. The drug release can be affected by the gel thickness and the cross-linking degree. A 400 micro thick gels with 100 μL cross-linker TEGDMA leads to an adequate meloxicam release for therapeutic application. The ocular irritation studies showed that BSA-MX-NA loaded p-HEMA gels are significantly less irritating to the ocular tissues as compared to marketed MX solutions. The developed contact lenses loaded with BSA-MX-NA could be very useful for extended delivery in postcataract endophthalmitis treatment. PMID:25158220

  18. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  19. The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Nessel, C S; Freeman, J J; Forgash, R C; McKee, R H

    1999-05-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans. PMID:10367341

  20. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    PubMed Central

    Contri, Renata V; Frank, Luiza A; Kaiser, Moacir; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC) was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP) did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP]) and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product]) and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product]) irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation. PMID:24611011

  1. Should close contacts of returning travellers with typhoid fever be protected by vaccination?

    PubMed

    Kantele, A

    2015-03-17

    Increasing international travel to areas endemic for typhoid fever correlates with increased risk for travellers to contract the disease. At home, the acutely ill/convalescent patients may pose some risk to their close contacts. In Finland an unofficial guideline suggests vaccination for close contacts of patients with acute typhoid fever; in other developed countries, routine typhoid vaccinations are only recommended to contacts of chronic carriers. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of prophylactic/post-exposure typhoid vaccination for contacts of patients with acute disease. PMID:25678244

  2. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool. PMID:26415037

  3. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  4. Menthol Attenuates Respiratory Irritation and Elevates Blood Cotinine in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Michael A.; Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I.; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol’s effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  5. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as a model for chemically induced skin irritation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pappinen, Sari . E-mail: sari.pappinen@uku.fi; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Suhonen, Marjukka; Tammi, Raija; Urtti, Arto

    2005-11-01

    The potential of rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) organotypic culture (ROC) with proper stratum corneum barrier as a model for screening skin irritants was evaluated. The test chemicals were selected from ECETOC database (1995) and the observed in vitro irritation potential was compared to ECETOC in vivo primary irritation index (PII), to EU risk phrases, and to the harmonized OECD criteria. Chemicals were applied onto the stratum corneum surface of ROC for 30 min and samples were taken from the underlying medium at 4 and 8 h after exposure. Cell membrane integrity (determined by LDH assay) and pro-inflammatory effect (determined by IL-1{alpha} release) were verified at both time points and correlated to PII values. The best correlation (R {sup 2} = 0.831) was seen with LDH leakage test. Based on obtained data, chemicals were classified according to criteria defined by EU and OECD. From 12 chemicals, only two were incorrectly classified according to OECD criteria when using LDH leakage and IL-1{alpha} release as irritation markers. At the end of experiment, chemical-treated ROC cultures were fixed and histological changes were assessed. Typical signs for irritation were lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed nuclei, cellular vacuolization, eosinophilic cytoplasms, and blebbing. These irritation effects of chemicals were graded visually into four classes (A-D). The extent of morphological perturbations of the cultures mostly correlated with PII. The present results indicate the validity of the ROC model in predicting skin irritation potential of chemicals and show that the use of set of irritation markers with different mechanistic responses gives more information on irritation than if only one marker was used.

  6. Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.

  7. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  8. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  9. Occupational airways diseases from chronic low-level exposures to irritants.

    PubMed

    Balmes, John R

    2002-12-01

    Short-term, high-level exposures to dusts, gases, mists, fumes, and smoke that are irritating to the respiratory tract are capable of inducing asthma, the so-called reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Such exposures, however, do not occur frequently; chronic or recurrent exposures to lower levels of irritants are much more common. This article reviews the evidence that supports the concept that low-level exposures to respiratory tract irritants can contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. PMID:12512162

  10. Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, T L; Germolec, D R; Zhang, Ling X; Auttachoat, W; Smith, M J; White, K L

    2013-12-15

    Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72h following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse. PMID:24172597

  11. Increased VGLUT3 involved in visceral hyperalgesia in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Duan, Li-Ping; Qiao, Pei-Tang; Zhao, Li; Guo, Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the activity of vesicular glutamate transporter-3 (VGLUT3) in a visceral hyperalgesia rat model of irritable bowel syndrome, and the role of mast cells (MCs). METHODS: Transient intestinal infection was induced by oral administration of Trichinella spiralis larvae in rats. On the 100th day post-infection (PI), the rats were divided into an acute cold restraint stress (ACRS) group and a non-stressed group. Age-matched untreated rats served as controls. The abdominal withdrawal reflex was used to measure the visceromotor response to colorectal distension (CRD). The expression levels of VGLUT3 in peripheral and central neurons were analyzed by immunofluorescence and western blotting. RESULTS: VGLUT3 expression in the L6S1 dorsal root ganglion cells was significantly higher in the PI group than in the control group (0.32 ± 0.009 vs 0.22 ± 0.008, P < 0.01), and there was no significant difference in the expression of VGLUT3 between MC-deficient rats and their normal wild-type littermates. Immunofluorescence showed that the expression levels of VGLUT3 in PI + ACRS rats were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex of the brain compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: VGLUT3 is involved in the pathogenesis of visceral hyperalgesia. Coexpression of c-fos, 5-hydroxytryptamine and VGLUT3 after CRD was observed in associated neuronal pathways. Increased VGLUT3 induced by transient intestinal infection was found in peripheral nerves, and was independent of MCs. Moreover, the expression of VGLUT3 was enhanced in the prefrontal cortex in rats with induced infection and stress. PMID:25780293

  12. Alcohol Use Disorder Increases the Risk of Irritable Bowel Disease: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tai-Yi; He, Guan-Yi; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is considered a possible risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, previous studies investigating the association between AUD and IBS have yielded inconsistent results. The study investigated whether AUD increases the risk of IBS by using a population-based database in Taiwan.This retrospective matched-cohort study included the health insurance claims data of 56,355 AUD inpatients and 225,420 randomly selected controls by frequency-matched for sex, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to measure the risk of IBS among AUD patients compared with non-AUD patients.During the follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IBS had 12.3-fold (95% CI: 11.9-12.7) in the AUD patients than non-AUD patients and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IBS in the AUD patients was 5.51 (95% CI: 4.36-6.96). For several comorbidities, the risk of IBS was significantly higher in the AUD patients than in non-AUD patients, with aHRs of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-3.84), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.06-3.96), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.26-6.72) for sleep disorders, acute pancreatitis, and hepatitis B, respectively. When we stratified the severity of AUD according to the length of hospital stay, the aHRs exhibited a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with severity, yielding aHRs of 3.24 (95% CI: 2.49-4.22), 11.9 (95% CI: 8.96-15.9), and 26.1 (95% CI: 19.4-35.2) for mild, moderate, and severe AUD, respectively.The risk of IBS was higher among AUD patients, and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:26705226

  13. Formation of strong airway irritants in mixtures of isoprene/ozone and isoprene/ozone/nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, C K; Clausen, P A; Wolkoff, P; Larsen, S T; Hammer, M; Larsen, K; Hansen, V; Nielsen, G D

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the airway irritation of isoprene, isoprene/ozone, and isoprene/ozone/nitrogen dioxide mixtures using a mouse bioassay, from which we calculated sensory irritation, bronchial constriction, and pulmonary irritation. We observed significant sensory irritation (approximately 50% reduction of mean respiratory rate) by dynamically exposing the mice, over 30 min, to mixtures of isoprene and O3 or isoprene, O3, and NO2. The starting concentrations were approximately 4 ppm O3 and 500 ppm isoprene (+ approximately 4 ppm NO2. The reaction mixtures after approximately 30 sec contained < 0.2 ppm O3. Addition of the effects of the residual reactants and the identified stable irritant products (formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, methacrolein, and methylvinyl ketone) could explain only partially the observed sensory irritation. This suggests that one or more strong airway irritants were formed. It is thus possible that oxidation reactions of common unsaturated compounds may be relevant for indoor air quality. PMID:11673123

  14. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Wind Energy Industry.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. RESULTS: We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation. PMID:22795575

  15. Use of the cytosensor microphysiometer to predict results of a 21-day cumulative irritation patch test in humans.

    PubMed

    Landin, Wendell E; Mun, Greg C; Nims, Raymond W; Harbell, John W

    2007-09-01

    The cytosensor microphysiometer (mu phi) was investigated as a rapid, relatively inexpensive test to predict performance of skin cleansing wipes on the human 21-day cumulative irritation patch test (21CIPT). It indirectly measures metabolic rate changes in L929 cells as a function of test article dose, by measuring the acidification rate in a low-buffer medium. The dose producing a 50% reduction in metabolic rate (MRD50), relative to the baseline rate, is used as a measure of toxicity. The acute toxicity of the mu phi assay can be compared to the chronic toxicity of the 21CIPT, which is based largely on the exposure of test agents to the epidermal cells, resulting in damage and penetration of the stratum corneum leading to cell toxicity. Two series of surfactant-based cleansing wipe products were tested via the mu phi assay and 21CIPT. The first series, consisting of 20 products, was used to determine a prediction model. The second series of 38 products consisted of routine product development formulas or marketed products. Comparing the results from both tests, samples with an MRD50 greater than 50 mg/ml provided a 21CIPT score consistent with a product that performs satisfactorily in the market. When the MRD50 was greater than 78 mg/ml, the 21CIPT score was usually zero. The mu phi may be more sensitive than the 21CIPT for ranking minimally irritating materials. The mu phi assay is useful as a screen for predicting the performance of a wet wipes formula on the 21CIPT, and concurrently reduces the use of animals for safety testing in a product development program for cleansing wipes. PMID:17475442

  16. Sensitivity of the Contact Chemoreceptors of the Blowfly to Vapors

    PubMed Central

    Dethier, V. G.

    1972-01-01

    Contact chemoreceptors on the mouthparts and legs of the blowfly Phormia regina that normally respond to aqueous solutions of sapid substances also respond to compounds in the gaseous state. Effective vapors include organic and inorganic acids and various unrelated nonpolar compounds. In general, the acids stimulate the salt receptor. Some nonpolar compounds stimulate the salt receptor while others inhibit it. Others stimulate the water, sugar, or “fifth” receptor. Differential action cannot be attributed to pH or solubility. Not all compounds that are irritating to mammalian mucous membranes or amphibian skin stimulate the contact chemoreceptors of the fly. Sensitivity to these vapors is a phenomenon analogous to the common chemical sense of vertebrates. Images PMID:16592005

  17. Phospholipidomic Profile Variation on THP-1 Cells Exposed to Skin or Respiratory Sensitizers and Respiratory Irritant.

    PubMed

    Martins, João D; Maciel, Elisabete A; Silva, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel; Ricardo, Fernando; Domingues, Pedro; Neves, Bruno M; Domingues, Maria Rosário M; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to low molecular weight reactive chemicals often leads to development of allergic reactions such as allergic contact dermatitis and respiratory allergies. Further insights into the interaction of these chemicals with physiopathological relevant cellular models might provide the foundations for novel non-animal approaches to safety assessment. In this work we used the human THP-1 cell line to determine phospholipidome changes induced by the skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB), the respiratory allergen hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and the irritant methyl salicylate (MESA). We detected that these chemicals differently induce lipid peroxidation and modulate THP-1 IL-1β, IL-12B, IL-8, CD86, and HMOX1 transcription. Decreased phosphatidylethanolamine content was detected in cells exposed to MESA, while profound alterations in the relative abundance of cardiolipin species were observed in cells exposed to DNFB. All chemicals tested induced a decrease in the relative abundance of plasmanyl phosphatidylcholine species PC (O-16:0e/18:1) and phosphatidylinositol species PI (34:1), while increasing PI (38:4). An increased abundance of oleic acid was observed in the phospholipids of cells exposed to DNFB while a decreased abundance of palmitic acid was detected in cells treated with MESA or DNFB. We conclude that both specific and common alterations at phospholipidome levels are triggered by the different chemicals, while not allowing a complete distinction between them using a Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP). The common effects observed at phospholipids level with all the chemicals tested might be related to unspecific cell cytotoxic mechanisms that nevertheless may contribute to the elicitation of specific immune responses. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2639-2651, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946329

  18. Respiratory and eye irritation from boron oxide and boric acid dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Garabrant, D.H.; Bernstein, L.; Peters, J.M.; Smith, T.J.

    1984-08-01

    Boron oxide has been shown in animals to irritate the respiratory mucosa and conjuctiva. The present study was undertaken to determine whether exposures to boron oxide and its hydration product, boric acid, cau

  19. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Approaches for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: What the Science Says Share: July 2015 © Tom Le Goff/Digital ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  20. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Paula C.; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O’Connor, Brian P.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition. PMID:27134650

  1. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects. PMID:25000236

  2. Constructions of contact manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, Hansjörg

    1997-05-01

    1. IntroductionIt has been known for some time that contact structures show a high degree of topological flexibility in the sense that many topological operations can be performed on contact manifolds while preserving the contact property. For instance, Martinet [14] used a surgery description of 3-manifolds to show that every closed, oriented 3-manifold admits a contact structure, and alternative proofs of this result were given later by Thurston and Winkelnkemper [18], who based their proof on an open book decomposition, and Gonzalo [8], who used branched covers. These, however, are all strictly 3-dimensional constructions.

  3. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  4. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-01-01

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients. PMID:27605876

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation: Fact and fiction

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Massimo; Gambaccini, Dario; Usai-Satta, Paolo; De Bortoli, Nicola; Bertani, Lorenzo; Marchi, Santino; Stasi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. According to the Rome III Criteria these two disorders should be theoretically separated mainly by the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort relieved by defecation (typical of IBS) and they should be mutually exclusive. However, many gastroenterologists have serious doubts as regards a clear separation. Both IBS-C and FC, often associated with many other functional digestive and non digestive disorders, are responsible for a low quality of life. The impact of the media on patients’ perception of these topics is sometimes disruptive, often suggesting a distorted view of pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. These messages frequently overlap with previous subjective opinions and are further processed on the basis of the different culture and the previous experience of the constipated patients, often producing odd, useless or even dangerous behaviors. The aim of this review was to analyze the most common patients’ beliefs about IBS-C and CC, helping physicians to understand where they should focus their attention when communicating with patients, detecting false opinions and misconceptions and correcting them on the basis of scientific evidence. PMID:26523103

  6. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C. Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V.; Bytzer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were mostly female (89%), and mean age (SD) was 35.1 (8.2) years. Microbiological response, evaluated 2 weeks post-treatment, was observed in 15 of 25 patients (60%), all by MZ. Clinical response, defined as adequate relief of symptoms, was observed in 7 of 22 patients (32%), all by MZ. In a logistic regression analysis, we found no significant association between clinical and microbiological response. This case study did not support our hypothesis of a simple association between D. fragilis and IBS. Some D. fragilis-infections were insufficiently treated by MZ. Further studies into the prevalence and effect of eradication of D. fragilis in IBS and into efficient treatments of D. fragilis are warranted. PMID:23091195

  7. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota. PMID:24627584

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: a microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-10-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  9. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  10. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: beyond fiber and antispasmodic agents

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Anita; Ford, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. The diagnosis of IBS is made clinically, using symptom-based criteria such as the Manning or Rome criteria. Medical therapy for this condition has traditionally been directed towards symptom relief, using fiber or antispasmodic agents. In recent years, emerging data have confirmed the efficacy of antidepressants, psychological therapies, 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and probiotics in the short-term treatment of IBS, although whether these therapies influence the long-term course of the disease is unknown. Increasing knowledge regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying IBS has resulted in a number of novel molecular treatments, which show promise. These include therapies targeting gastrointestinal mucosal chloride channels and guanylate cyclase-C receptors, as well as highly selective agents influencing serotonergic transmission that, at the time of writing, do not appear to have any severe deleterious effects. In this article we provide a summary of current and emerging therapies in this field. PMID:21694813

  11. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lazaraki, Georgia; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Katsinelos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional disorder that reduces patients’ quality of life. It is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disordered defecation in the absence of identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities. IBS imposes a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. Alteration in neurohumoral mechanisms and psychological factors, bacterial overgrowth, genetic factors, gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and immune system factors are currently believed to influence the pathogenesis of IBS. It is possible that there is an interaction of one or more of these etiologic factors leading to heterogeneous symptoms of IBS. IBS treatment is predicated upon the patient’s most bothersome symptoms. Despite the wide range of medications and the high prevalence of the disease, to date no completely effective remedy is available. This article reviews the literature from January 2008 to July 2013 on the subject of IBS peripherally acting pharmacological treatment. Drugs are categorized according to their administration for IBS-C, IBS-D or abdominal pain predominant IBS. PMID:25083060

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation: Fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Massimo; Gambaccini, Dario; Usai-Satta, Paolo; De Bortoli, Nicola; Bertani, Lorenzo; Marchi, Santino; Stasi, Cristina

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC) are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. According to the Rome III Criteria these two disorders should be theoretically separated mainly by the presence of abdominal pain or discomfort relieved by defecation (typical of IBS) and they should be mutually exclusive. However, many gastroenterologists have serious doubts as regards a clear separation. Both IBS-C and FC, often associated with many other functional digestive and non digestive disorders, are responsible for a low quality of life. The impact of the media on patients' perception of these topics is sometimes disruptive, often suggesting a distorted view of pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. These messages frequently overlap with previous subjective opinions and are further processed on the basis of the different culture and the previous experience of the constipated patients, often producing odd, useless or even dangerous behaviors. The aim of this review was to analyze the most common patients' beliefs about IBS-C and CC, helping physicians to understand where they should focus their attention when communicating with patients, detecting false opinions and misconceptions and correcting them on the basis of scientific evidence. PMID:26523103

  13. New and Emerging Treatment Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Chey, William D; Lembo, Anthony J

    2015-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. Lifestyle modifications that aim to improve exercise, sleep, diet, and stress may be warranted. Recent data suggest that a gluten-free diet and a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) may benefit some patients. For patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, treatment options include the synthetic peripheral μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide, antispasmodic agents, antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT3 antagonists, and the gut-specific antibiotic rifaximin. Ongoing research is evaluating the use of probiotics. For patients with constipation-predominant IBS, therapeutic strategies may include dietary fiber, laxatives, and the prosecretory agents lubiprostone and linaclotide. Research is continuing to optimize the use of available agents and evaluating new approaches to further improve the care of patients with IBS. PMID:26491416

  14. Optimal management of constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Revelli, Matteo; Marabotto, Elisa; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Del Nero, Lorenzo; Savarino, Edoardo; Giannini, Edoardo G; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, meanly characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. It is a complex disorder involving biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. The diagnosis is achieved according to the Rome III criteria provided that organic causes have been excluded. Although IBS does not constitute a life-threatening condition, it has a remarkable prevalence and profoundly reduces the quality of life with burdening socioeconomic costs. One of the principal concerns about IBS is the lack of effective therapeutic options. Up to 40% of patients are not satisfied with any available medications, especially those suffering from chronic constipation. A correct management of IBS with constipation should evolve through a global approach focused on the patient, starting with careful history taking in order to assess the presence of organic diseases that might trigger the disorder. Therefore, the second step is to examine lifestyle, dietary habits, and psychological status. On these bases, a step-up management of disease is recommended: from fiber and bulking agents, to osmotic laxative drugs, to new molecules like lubiprostone and linaclotide. Although new promising tools for relief of bowel-movement-related symptoms are being discovered, a dedicated doctor-patient relationship still seems to be the key for success. PMID:26028974

  15. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  16. Irritable bowel syndrome: A microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  17. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  18. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-01-01

    Background IBS affects 5–11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. Aim To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Results Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5‐HT3 antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5‐HT4 agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Conclusions Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed. PMID:17488783

  19. Irritable bowel syndrome: Physicians' awareness and patients' experience

    PubMed Central

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrímur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Jonsson, Jon Steinar; Bjornsson, Einar; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if and how physicians use the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnostic criteria and to assess treatment strategies in IBS patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 191 physicians regarding IBS criteria, diagnostic methods and treatment. Furthermore, 94 patients who were diagnosed with IBS underwent telephone interview. RESULTS: A total of 80/191 (41.9%) physicians responded to the survey. Overall, 13 patients were diagnosed monthly with IBS by specialists in gastroenterology (SGs) and 2.5 patients by general practitioners (GPs). All the SGs knew of the criteria to diagnose IBS, as did 46/70 (65.7%) GPs. Seventy-nine percent used the patient’s history, 38% used a physical examination, and 38% exclusion of other diseases to diagnose IBS. Only 18/80 (22.5%) physicians used specific IBS criteria. Of the patients interviewed, 59/94 (62.8%) knew they had experienced IBS. Two out of five patients knew IBS and had seen a physician because of IBS symptoms. Half of those received a diagnosis of IBS. A total of 13% were satisfied with treatment. IBS affected daily activities in 43% of cases. CONCLUSION: Half of the patients with IBS who consulted a physician received a diagnosis. Awareness and knowledge of diagnostic criteria for IBS differ between SGs and GPs. PMID:22851864

  20. Therapeutic Advances in Functional Gastrointestinal Disease: Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gaman, Alexandru; Bucur, Maria Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Reported prevalence rates of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are between 8% to 20% in the US general population with an average medical expenditure of US$1.35 billion direct and US$205 million indirect costs. Current pathophysiologic theories are based on abnormalities of both the brain and gut, thus setting a new stage for current and future therapeutic approaches. There are numerous treatment options in IBS acting centrally and peripherally by influencing motility and visceral sensitivity. Clinical evidence is variable; however, newer emerging treatments are being evaluated using better-designed clinical trials. Accurate assessment of IBS drug efficacy is still hampered by heterogeneity of the IBS population. Novel methods such as pharmacogenomics or brain imaging may be helpful in the future to better understand and characterize IBS patient subtypes, and this in turn will lead to more specific and efficient therapeutic options. Patient subpopulation measurement of side effects is also a clinical challenge and further understanding could improve treatment efficacy by enhancing the patient compliance. PMID:19936327

  1. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients’ diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota. PMID:24627584

  2. Novel Therapies for Myocardial Irritability following Extreme Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Paul B.; Missirlis, Perseus I.; Brar, Harry; Dhingra, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) overdose is rare and potentially deadly when consumed in large doses. Management of severe HCQ toxicity is limited and infrequently reported. This report presents the case of a massive ingestion of HCQ. Case Report. A 23-year-old female presents following an intentional ingestion of approximately 40 g of HCQ. Within six hours after ingestion, she developed severe hemodynamic instability resulting from myocardial irritability with frequent ventricular ectopic activity leading to runs of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) requiring multiple defibrillations. Additional treatments included intravenous diazepam, epinephrine, norepinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, and magnesium sulfate. Despite the ongoing hemodynamic instability, the patient was also treated with Intralipid (ILE) and received hemodialysis. Improvements in her hemodynamics were observed after 18 hours. She survived her massive overdose of HCQ. Conclusion. HCQ poisoning is rare but serious because of its rapid progression to life-threatening symptoms. Hemodynamic support, gastric decontamination, electrolyte monitoring and replacement, and management of arrhythmias are the mainstays of treatment. The combined role of dialysis and ILE in the setting of massive HCQ overdose may improve outcomes. PMID:26351590

  3. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-02-21

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  4. [Irritable bowel syndrome: diet and complementary medicine therapies?].

    PubMed

    Gerkens, A

    2012-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent and invalidating functional bowel disorder with entangled mechanisms. Its therapeutic approach is therefore complex. Classical therapies, prescribed alone or in combination in light of the predominant symptom, consist of antispasmodics, fibers, laxatives, antidiarrheals, and psychotropic agents. Other emerging pharmacological therapies, such as prokinetics, prosecretory or serotoninergic agents, bile acid modulators and antibiotics have been recently studied in clinical trials. Dietary measures can include reduction of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (FODMAPs) and gluten restriction. Assessment of food allergy can be proposed in a subgroup of IBS patients. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies, that are generally low cost and safe, appear to be appreciated by patients. Probiotics have demonstrated action on the gut microbiote modulation, and may be helpful in a subset of patients. Peppermint oil has an established visceral analgesic effect. Hypnotherapy represents an original, global and effective approach. Finally, education, reassurance and listening to the patient, leading to a solid therapeutic relationship, represents an essential backdrop of remedy or diet effectiveness. PMID:23091952

  5. Genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetics in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Katzka, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this review are twofold. Our first objective is to evaluate the evidence supporting a role for genetics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Specific examples of the associations of genetic variation and symptoms, syndromes, and intermediate phenotypes, including neurotransmitter (serotonergic, α2-adrenergic, and cannabinoid) mechanisms, inflammatory pathways (IL-10, TNFα, GNβ3, and susceptibility loci involved in Crohn's disease), and bile acid metabolism, are explored. The second objective is to review pharmacogenetics in IBS, with the focus on cytochrome P-450 metabolism of drugs used in IBS, modulation of motor and sensory responses to serotonergic agents based on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and 5-HT3 genetic variants, responses to a nonselective cannabinoid agonist (dronabinol) based on cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) variation, and responses to a bile acid (sodium chenodeoxycholate) and bile acid binding (colesevelam) based on klothoβ (KLB) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) variation. Overall, there is limited evidence of a genetic association with IBS; the most frequently studied association is with 5-HTTLPR, and the most replicated association is with TNF superfamily member 15. Most of the pharmacogenetic associations are reported with intermediate phenotypes in relatively small trials, and confirmation in large clinical trials using validated clinical end points is still required. No published genome-wide association studies in functional gastrointestinal or motility disorders have been published. PMID:22403795

  6. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients. PMID:26167065

  7. Optimal management of constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Revelli, Matteo; Marabotto, Elisa; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Del Nero, Lorenzo; Savarino, Edoardo; Giannini, Edoardo G; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, meanly characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. It is a complex disorder involving biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. The diagnosis is achieved according to the Rome III criteria provided that organic causes have been excluded. Although IBS does not constitute a life-threatening condition, it has a remarkable prevalence and profoundly reduces the quality of life with burdening socioeconomic costs. One of the principal concerns about IBS is the lack of effective therapeutic options. Up to 40% of patients are not satisfied with any available medications, especially those suffering from chronic constipation. A correct management of IBS with constipation should evolve through a global approach focused on the patient, starting with careful history taking in order to assess the presence of organic diseases that might trigger the disorder. Therefore, the second step is to examine lifestyle, dietary habits, and psychological status. On these bases, a step-up management of disease is recommended: from fiber and bulking agents, to osmotic laxative drugs, to new molecules like lubiprostone and linaclotide. Although new promising tools for relief of bowel-movement-related symptoms are being discovered, a dedicated doctor–patient relationship still seems to be the key for success. PMID:26028974

  8. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

  9. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2015-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction. PMID:26139983

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gut neuroendocrine peptides.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Seim, Inge; Chopin, Lisa; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 10 percent of the world's population. This condition is characterised by abdominal discomfort or pain, altered bowel habits, and often bloating and abdominal distension. IBS reduces quality of life in the same degree of impairment as major chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes and the economic burden on the health care system and society is high. Abnormalities have been reported in the neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the stomach, small- and large intestine in patients with IBS. These abnormalities would cause disturbances in digestion, gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity, which have been reported in patients with IBS. These abnormalities seem to contribute to the symptom development and appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Neuroendocrine peptides/amines are potential tools in the treatment and diagnosis of IBS. In particular, the cell density of duodenal chromogranin A expressing cells appears to be a good histopathological marker for the diagnosis of IBS with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22652678

  11. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients. PMID:26167065

  12. Rifaximin: The Revolutionary Antibiotic Approach for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    A large number of clinical studies using breath testing and a smaller number of studies using quantitative cultures of the upper small intestine established a link between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A series of 12 studies both prospective and retrospective in design in a population of patients with SIBO without IBS showed that the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin can eradicate SIBO as proved through decrease of the exhaled hydrogen and methane in breath tests. The efficacy of rifaximin was superior over the comparator treatment in most of these studies. Based on these findings, short course rifaximin was tested in various concentrations in eight open-label trials in patients with IBS and proven SIBO by breath test. Similar efficacy of rifaximin was shown in SIBO eradication; this was accompanied by improvement of the global score for IBS symptoms. Finally, five double-blind randomized clinical trials were conducted in patients with IBS; four were placebo-controlled. The larger trials were TARGET 1 and TARGET 2 studies testing rifaximin at a regimen of 550 mg tid for 14 days. All trials showed a significant superiority of rifaximin over comparator for the improvement of global symptoms of IBS and bloating. Although the aforementioned results render rifaximin a revolutionary therapeutic approach for IBS, several concerns on induction of antimicrobial resistant flora remain. PMID:26202193

  13. [Bran in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Dubinin, A V; Kabanov, A V; Kirkin, B V; Kolkunova, G K; Igorianova, N A

    1987-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of using wheat bran in the treatment of patients with irritable colon syndrome expressed as spastic constipation. The effectiveness of the treatment with the wheat bran only (in a dose of 30-35 g/day), and in combination with drugs was comparatively studied in 105 patients. The bran fractions differing in the particle size, in the content of cellulose, starch and vitamins were used in the treatment. The combined therapy proved to be advantageous only in the rate of the clinical effect, while the acceleration of the movement along the large intestine did not depend on the treatment type. A long-term (during one year) follow-up of the patients showed that the bran intake led to the cessation of the disease relapse; when the bran was abolished the symptoms of the disease appeared in 11 out of 12 cases. The highest effect was recorded with the bran fraction containing 55.3% cellulose, 18.3% lignin, 157 micrograms tocopherol and the lowest amount of starch--18.0%. A conclusion has been made that the wheat bran are effective in the treatment and prevention of intestinal diseases, the effectiveness of the treatment depends on the summary content of food fibers in the nutrition. PMID:3031879

  14. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Zobeiri; Sakineh, Ebrahimi; Mohammad, Farahvash; Mansour, Rezaei; Alireza, Abdollahi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the community is 10%–20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD) with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG) IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients. PMID:23826010

  15. Practical management of irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Ellinor; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, frequently managed by general practitioners and gastroenterologists. It is a complex condition, characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits, and it affects 11% of the population worldwide. It has a profound effect on quality of life for many patients and poses a substantial cost to society. Due to the complexity and diversity of IBS, diagnosis and treatment can be challenging. Common drawbacks in diagnosing and treating this disorder include unnecessary tests, failure to establish trust in the physician-patient relationship and difficulties in explaining the diagnosis. Research in recent years has however refined the diagnostic criteria and improved our ability to safely identify IBS with a limited number of investigations. A concise diagnostic evaluation, guided adequate information, prompt initiation of symptom-guided treatment and consistency in the patient-doctor relationship can help relieve the suffering experienced by patients with IBS. For patients with mild symptoms, reassurance, education, lifestyle changes and dietary advice are often sufficient. Patients with moderate to severe symptoms might need symptom modifying drugs, and psychological treatments such as CBT or hypnotherapy may be offered at this stage. For patients with severe and incapacitating symptoms, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended and psychotropic drugs are often used. This clinical review offers suggestions for a diagnostic approach as well as a treatment strategy, based on the current evidence on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment in IBS. PMID:26448307

  16. New Receptor Targets for Medical Therapy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite setbacks to the approval of new medications for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, interim guidelines on endpoints for IBS trials have enhanced interest as new targets for medical therapy are proposed based on novel mechanisms or chemical entities. Aim To review the approved lubiprostone, two targets that are not meeting expectations (tachykinins and corticotrophin-releasing hormone), the efficacy and safety of new 5-HT4 agonists, intestinal secretagogues (chloride channel activators, and guanylate cyclase-C agonists), bile acid modulation, anti-inflammatory agents and visceral analgesics. Methods Review of selected articles based on PubMed search and clinically relevant information on mechanism of action, safety, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy Conclusions The spectrum of peripheral targets of medical therapy address chiefly the bowel dysfunction of IBS, and these effects are associated with pain relief. There are less clear targets related to the abdominal pain or visceral sensation in IBS. The new 5-HT4 agonists are more specific than older agents, and show cardiovascular safety to date. Secretory agents have high specificity, low bioavailability, and efficacy. The potential risks of agents “borrowed” from other indications (like hyperlipidemia, inflammatory bowel disease or somatic pain) deserve further study. There is reason for optimism in medical treatment of IBS. PMID:19785622

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Material and methods Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental evaluations based on ROME-II scale and SCL-90-R questionnaires, the subjects were randomly superseded into: the control group with medical treatment and, the case group with a combination of medical and psychological treatments. The acquired data were then analyzed through t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The findings show that the mental health of patients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy along with the medical treatment was higher than those of the control group at post-test level. It was observed that the therapy reduces the disability caused by IBS. Comparatively, while the cognitive therapy and medical treatments cured 80% of the patients, those receiving cognitive therapy alone showed an extensive reduction of symptoms. Conclusions Considering the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, it is therefore recommend that such patients be managed by a combined team of gastroenterologists and psychologists. PMID:22457686

  18. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in China: A review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic, functional gastrointestinal disorder with a high incidence rate in the general population, and it is common among the Chinese population. The pathophysiology, etiology and pathogenesis of IBS are poorly understood, with no evidence of inflammatory, anatomic, metabolic, or neoplastic factors to explain the symptoms. Treatment approaches are mainly focused on symptom management to maintain everyday functioning and to improve quality of life for patients with IBS. However, prescribed medications often result in significant side effects, and many IBS sufferers (particularly Chinese) do not improve. Instead of taking a variety of conventional medications, many have turned to taking traditional Chinese medicine or integrated Chinese and Western medicine for remedy. A number of clinical trials have shown that Chinese herbal, acupuncture or integrative therapies presented improved treatment outcomes and reduced side effects in IBS patients. The purpose of this review article is to examine the treatment approaches of IBS that have been published in recent years, especially in China, to assess the possible differences in treating IBS between China and other countries. This would provide some useful information of unique treatment approach in clinical practice for physicians in the management of IBS in China, thus offering more treatment options for IBS patients with potentially better treatment outcomes while reducing the medical cost burden. PMID:25741137

  19. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients. PMID:27605876

  20. New and Emerging Treatment Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.; Chey, William D.; Lembo, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of symptoms. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood but appears to involve genetics, the gut microbiome, immune activation, altered intestinal permeability, and brain-gut interactions. There is no gold standard for diagnosis. Several sets of symptom-based guidelines exist. Treatment strategies for IBS may include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. Lifestyle modifications that aim to improve exercise, sleep, diet, and stress may be warranted. Recent data suggest that a gluten-free diet and a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) may benefit some patients. For patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, treatment options include the synthetic peripheral μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide, antispasmodic agents, antidepressants, serotonin 5-HT3 antagonists, and the gut-specific antibiotic rifaximin. Ongoing research is evaluating the use of probiotics. For patients with constipation-predominant IBS, therapeutic strategies may include dietary fiber, laxatives, and the prosecretory agents lubiprostone and linaclotide. Research is continuing to optimize the use of available agents and evaluating new approaches to further improve the care of patients with IBS. PMID:26491416

  1. Development and Validation of a Biomarker for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Mark; Morales, Walter; Rezaie, Ali; Marsh, Emily; Lembo, Anthony; Mirocha, James; Leffler, Daniel A.; Marsh, Zachary; Weitsman, Stacy; Chua, Kathleen S.; Barlow, Gillian M.; Bortey, Enoch; Forbes, William; Yu, Allen; Chang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding “organic” conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB) is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375) were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3). Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n=142), subjects with celiac disease (n=121), and healthy controls (n=43) were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001). Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001) compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs) were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80) the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68) were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and

  2. [Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: Is there a connection?].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Perelló, Antonia; Balboa, Agustín

    2009-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and is that with the greatest socioeconomic impact worldwide. Diagnosis of IBS is based on clinical criteria that have been modified over time, the Rome II criteria being those that are currently followed. Some of the symptoms of IBS are similar to those in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can hamper or delay diagnosis. The use of inflammatory markers in stools (such as calprotectin) may help to distinguish between these two entities. A possible connection between IBS and IBD could be based on five points: (i) both disorders have similar symptoms; (ii) symptoms often overlap in the same patients; (iii) IBS and IBD have a common familial aggregation; (iv) some predisposing factors, such as a history of acute gastroenteritis, play a role in both disorders, and (v) importantly, signs of microinflammation are found in the bowels of patients with IBS. With regard to this latter point, an increase in inflammatory cells has been found in the intestinal mucosa of patients with IBS and, more specifically, mastocytes have been found to be increased in the jejunum and colon while CD3 and CD25 intraepithelial lymphocytes have be observed to be increased in the colon. Moreover, activated mastocytes are increased near to nerve endings in patients with IBS and this finding has been correlated with the intensity of both intestinal symptoms (abdominal pain) and psychological symptoms (depression and fatigue). A good model of microinflammation is post-infectious IBS, since the timing of the onset of the infectious process is known. In patients with post-infectious IBS, an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes and enterochromaffin cells is initially found, which is reduced over time; consequently, although the symptoms of IBS persist, after 3 years no differences are detected in the number of inflammatory cells between IBS patients and controls. Among the various

  3. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation. PMID:26550706

  4. Acute Parotitis as a Complication of Noninvasive Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Alaya, S; Mofredj, Ali; Tassaioust, K; Bahloul, H; Mrabet, A

    2016-09-01

    Several conditions, including oropharyngeal dryness, pressure sores, ocular irritation, epistaxis, or gastric distension, have been described during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Although this technique has been widely used in intensive care units and emergency wards, acute swelling of the parotid gland remains a scarcely reported complication. We describe herein the case of an 82-year-old man who developed unilateral parotitis during prolonged NIV for acute heart failure. Intravenous antibiotics, corticosteroids, and adjusting the mask laces' position allowed rapid resolution of clinical symptoms. PMID:26928643

  5. Development of a cumulative irritation model for incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Larner, J; Matar, H; Goldman, V S; Chilcott, R P

    2015-01-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a painful yet preventable form of cumulative skin irritation prevalent amongst those with limited movement. Consequently, it has a significant impact on the quality of life for those affected as well as substantial cost implications. Prevention and intervention is typically through good skin hygiene regimes and regular use of barrier products. In this paper, we describe the development of an in vivo model of IAD in healthy volunteers by occluded application of alkaline synthetic urine to the volar aspect of volunteer's forearms for 6 h per day over a five-day period to reproduce the moist and irritant conditions causative of IAD. Irritation was assessed and quantified on a daily basis by a series of non-invasive biophysical measurements and compared to a contralateral saline-treated (control) site. Dermal irritation was assessed by subjective (visual) and objective measurements (laser Doppler and polarisation spectroscopic imaging, infrared thermography, skin reflectance spectroscopy, transepidermal water loss and skin surface pH). The provocation of reproducible, cumulative skin irritation was successfully demonstrated and quantified. This five-day model of irritation is considered appropriate for the initial clinical assessment of topical products to prevent or treat IAD. PMID:25416151

  6. An in silico expert system for the identification of eye irritants.

    PubMed

    Verma, R P; Matthews, E J

    2015-01-01

    This report describes development of an in silico, expert rule-based method for the classification of chemicals into irritants or non-irritants to eye, as defined by the Draize test. This method was developed to screen data-poor cosmetic ingredient chemicals for eye irritancy potential, which is based upon exclusion rules of five physicochemical properties - molecular weight (MW), hydrophobicity (log P), number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD), number of hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA) and polarizability (Pol). These rules were developed using the ADMET Predictor software and a dataset of 917 eye irritant chemicals. The dataset was divided into 826 (90%) chemicals used for training set and 91 (10%) chemicals used for external validation set (every 10th chemical sorted by molecular weight). The sensitivity of these rules for the training and validation sets was 72.3% and 71.4%, respectively. These rules were also validated for their specificity using an external validation set of 2011 non-irritant chemicals to the eye. The specificity for this validation set was revealed as 77.3%. This method facilitates rapid screening and prioritization of data poor chemicals that are unlikely to be tested for eye irritancy in the Draize test. PMID:25967253

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of irritability in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed. PMID:24932108

  8. Potential irritation of lysine derivative surfactants by hemolysis and HaCaT cell viability.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, L; Mitjans, M; Infante, M R; Vinardell, M P

    2006-02-01

    Surfactants represent one of the most common constituents in topical pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications or cleansers. Since adverse skin and ocular reactions can be caused by them, it is important to evaluate damaging effects. Amino acid-based surfactants deserve particular attention because of their low toxicity and environmental friendly properties. New lysine derivative surfactants associated with heavy and light counterions were tested. The ocular irritancy was assessed by hemolysis, and photohemolysis was employed to evaluate their phototoxicity. Cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells was determined by neutral red uptake and MTT assay to predict skin irritation. All lysine derivative surfactants were less hemolytic and thus less eye-irritating than the commercial surfactants used as model irritants. No phototoxic effects were found. All surfactants presented cytotoxic effects as demonstrated by decrease of neutral red uptake and reduction of MTT salt, with clear concentration-effect profiles. However, the rates of cytotoxicity on HaCaT for the new surfactants suggested that they were less cytotoxic and then, less skin-irritating than the reference ones; surfactants with heavy counterions were the less cytotoxic. The anionic surfactants investigated in the present work may constitute a promising class of surfactants given their low irritancy potential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:16135402

  9. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products. PMID:21190399

  10. Language Contact: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah G.

    This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

  11. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  12. Electrical Contacts to Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, P R; Faraby, H; DiBattista, M

    2015-12-01

    The efficient passage of electrical current from an external contact to a nanomaterial is necessary for harnessing characteristics unique to the nanoscale, such as those relevant to energy quantization. However, an intrinsic resistance pertinent to dimensionality crossover and the presence of impurities precludes optimal electrical contact formation. In this review, we first discuss the relevant principles and contact resistance measurement methodologies, with modifications necessary for the nanoscale. Aspects related to the deposition of the contact material are deemed to be crucial. Consequently, the use of focused ion beam (FIB) based deposition, which relies on the ion-induced decomposition of a metallorganic precursor, and which has been frequently utilized for nanoscale contacts is considered in detail. PMID:26682353

  13. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  14. Microbial community and metabolomic comparison of irritable bowel syndrome faeces.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Kannan; Choi, Jung Nam; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Sun-Young; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2011-06-01

    Human health relies on the composition of microbiota in an individual's gut and the synthesized metabolites that may alter the gut environment. Gut microbiota and faecal metabolites are involved in several gastrointestinal diseases. In this study, 16S rRNA-specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the mean similarity of total bacteria was significantly different (P<0.001) in faecal samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; n = 11) and from non-IBS (nIBS) patients (n = 8). IBS subjects had a significantly higher diversity of total bacteria, as measured by the Shannon index (H') (3.360.05). GC/MS-based multivariate analysis delineated the faecal metabolites of IBS from nIBS samples. Elevated levels of amino acids (alanine and pyroglutamic acid) and phenolic compounds (hydroxyphenyl acetate and hydroxyphenyl propionate) were found in IBS. These results were highly correlated with the abundance of lactobacilli and Clostridium, which indicates an altered metabolism rate associated with these gut micro-organisms. A higher diversity of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus groups in IBS faecal samples also correlated with the respective total quantity. In addition, these changes altered protein and carbohydrate energy metabolism in the gut. PMID:21330412

  15. Role of antispasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annaházi, Anita; Róka, Richárd; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-lasting, relapsing disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. Intestinal motility impairment and visceral hypersensitivity are the key factors among its multifactorial pathogenesis, both of which require effective treatment. Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate smooth muscle contraction and endocrine secretion and play important roles in neuronal transmission. Antispasmodics are a group of drugs that have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Alverine citrate, a spasmolytic, decreases the sensitivity of smooth muscle contractile proteins to calcium, and it is a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Alverine, in combination with simethicone, has been demonstrated to effectively reduce abdominal pain and discomfort in a large placebo-controlled trial. Mebeverine is a musculotropic agent that potently blocks intestinal peristalsis. Non-placebo-controlled trials have shown positive effects of mebeverine in IBS regarding symptom control; nevertheless, in recent placebo-controlled studies, mebeverine did not exhibit superiority over placebo. Otilonium bromide is poorly absorbed from the GI tract, where it acts locally as an L-type calcium channel blocker, an antimuscarinic and a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Otilonium has effectively reduced pain and improved defecation alterations in placebo-controlled trials in IBS patients. Pinaverium bromide is also an L-type calcium channel blocker that acts locally in the GI tract. Pinaverium improves motility disorders and consequently reduces stool problems in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol are non-specific antispasmodics that reduced pain in IBS patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Antispasmodics have excellent safety profiles. T-type calcium channel blockers can abolish visceral hypersensitivity in animal models, which makes them potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the

  16. Anti-Enteric Neuronal Antibodies and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sumei; Drossman, Douglas A; Ringel, Yehuda; Whitehead, William E

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders are those in which no abnormal metabolic or physical processes, which can account for the symptoms, can be identified. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a significant functional disorder, which affects 10-20 percent of the population worldwide. Predominant symptoms of IBS are abnormal defecation associated with abdominal pain, both of which may be exacerbated by psychogenic stress. Our study was designed to test a hypothesis that symptoms in a subset of patients with a diagnosis of IBS are associated with an autoimmune degenerative neuropathy in the enteric nervous system. Methods Serum was collected from Rome II-IBS patients and controls at the University of North Carolina Functional Gastrointestinal Diseases Center. Assay procedures were immunohistochemical localization of antibody binding to enteric neurons and human protein microarray assay for antigens recognized by antibodies in the sera. Results Eighty-seven percent of IBS sera and 59% of control sera contained anti-enteric neuronal antibodies. Antibody immunostaining was seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons in the enteric nervous system. Protein microarray analysis detected antibody reactivity for autoantigens in serum with anti-enteric neuronal antibodies and no reactivity for the same autoantigens in samples not containing anti-enteric neuronal antibodies in our immunostaining assay. Antibodies in sera from IBS patients recognized only 3 antigens out of an 8,000 immunoprotein array. The 3 antigens were: (1) a nondescript ribonucleoprotein (RNP-complex); (2) small nuclear ribonuclear polypeptide A; and (3) Ro-5,200 kDa. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that symptoms in a subset of IBS patients might be a reflection of enteric neuronal damage or loss, caused by circulating anti-enteric autoimmune antibodies. PMID:22323991

  17. Role of opioid ligands in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corazziari, E

    1999-03-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides - enkephalins, beta-endorphin and dynorphins - are located in specific sites of the brain, the spinal cord, the autonomic ganglia and the enteric nervous system. Endogenous opioids participate in the regulation of nervous visceral afference and sensitivity as well as of several visceral motor function induced by the central nervous system and through the enteroenteric and the myoenteric reflexes. Their final effect on gut physiology is the net and harmonically balanced result of their binding to mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor subtypes. Exogenous opioid receptor ligands with different affinities for the opioid receptor subtypes have been effectively used to modify and normalize altered gut functions. The mu receptor agonists - morphine and, to a greater extent, the meperidine congeners diphenoxylate and loperamide - have been shown to slow gastrointestinal transit by their effects on the circular and longitudinal muscle of the intestine. Diphenoxylate and, more efficiently, loperamide, for the lack of any effect on the central nervous system, have been usefully employed in the treatment of diarrhea in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Unlike the mu receptor agonists morphine and loperamide, which invariably stimulate colonic motility, trimebutine, which has almost equal affinity for mu, delta and kappa receptors, has no effect on normal colonic activity but reduces the abnormal increase in postprandial motor activity in IBS patients and accelerates slow large bowel transit in constipated patients. Opioid ligands can be usefully employed to normalize altered visceral sensitivity in IBS patients. The kappa receptor agonist fedotozine exerts its antinociceptive effect by acting on peripheral nerve endings of sensory vagal and nonvagal afferent pathways. Fedotozine has been shown to increase the threshold of perception to colonic distension in experimental conditions and to affect favourably symptoms of IBS in clinical trials. PMID

  18. Modern Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: More Than Motility.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jan; Vanuytsel, Tim; Corsetti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), loperamide seems efficacious for diarrhea and ispaghula for constipation, while musculotropic spasmolytics may relieve abdominal pain. Antidepressants were found to be efficacious for abdominal pain, but their tolerance may be problematic and the therapeutic effect varied largely between trials. While meta-analyses suggest efficacy of probiotics as a group, the quality of the trials is often suboptimal and there is large variability. Lubiprostone, a chloride channel activator, and linaclotide, a guanylyl cyclase-C agonist, showed favorable effects on multiple symptoms in IBS with constipation. For IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ramosetron showed efficacy in men and women, but is currently only approved in Japan. A multicenter study with the anti-emetic 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron showed efficacy on stool pattern in IBS-D. The poorly absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and eluxadoline, a mu opioid receptor agonist and delta antagonist, both showed efficacy in phase III trials in IBS-D and were approved by the FDA. Eluxadoline was associated with increased occurrence of sphincter of Oddi spasm and biliary pancreatitis. The non-pharmacological treatment of IBS, with dietary interventions (mainly gluten elimination and low FODMAP (fructose, oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols)) has received a lot of attention lately. While responder rates vary across studies, perhaps based on regional variations in dietary intake of FODMAPs, the dietary approach seems to have acquired recognition as a valid therapeutic alternative. Long-term studies and comparative studies with pharmacotherapy, as well as elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of action, are needed. PMID:27331917

  19. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern. PMID:24845149

  20. Latent structure of irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Fabian; Egloff, Boris; Roalfe, Andrea; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the latent structure of an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom severity scale in a population of healthy adults. METHODS: The Birmingham IBS symptom questionnaire which consists of three symptom specific scales (diarrhea, constipation, pain) was evaluated by means of structural equation modeling. We compared the original 3-factor solution to a general factor model and a bifactor solution in a large internet sample of college students (n = 875). Statistical comparisons of competing models were conducted by means of χ2 difference tests. Regarding the evaluation of model fit, we examined the comparative fit index (CFI) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). RESULTS: Results clearly favored a bifactor model of IBS symptom severity (CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.05) which consisted of a strong general IBS somatization factor and three symptom specific factors (diarrhea, constipation, pain) based on the subscales of the Birmingham IBS symptom questionnaire. The fit indices of the competing one factor model (CFI = 0.85, RMSEA = 0.17) and three factor model (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.08) were clearly inferior. χ2 difference tests showed that the differences between the models were indeed significant in favor of the bifactor model (P < 0.001). Correlations of the four latent factors with measures of pain sensitivity, somatoform dissociation, fatigue severity, and demographic variables support the validity of our bifactor model of IBS specific symptom severity. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that IBS symptom severity might best be understood as a continuous and multidimensional construct which can be reliably and validly assessed with the B-IBS. PMID:25574104

  1. Role of antispasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Annaházi, Anita; Róka, Richárd; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor

    2014-05-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-lasting, relapsing disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. Intestinal motility impairment and visceral hypersensitivity are the key factors among its multifactorial pathogenesis, both of which require effective treatment. Voltage-gated calcium channels mediate smooth muscle contraction and endocrine secretion and play important roles in neuronal transmission. Antispasmodics are a group of drugs that have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Alverine citrate, a spasmolytic, decreases the sensitivity of smooth muscle contractile proteins to calcium, and it is a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Alverine, in combination with simethicone, has been demonstrated to effectively reduce abdominal pain and discomfort in a large placebo-controlled trial. Mebeverine is a musculotropic agent that potently blocks intestinal peristalsis. Non-placebo-controlled trials have shown positive effects of mebeverine in IBS regarding symptom control; nevertheless, in recent placebo-controlled studies, mebeverine did not exhibit superiority over placebo. Otilonium bromide is poorly absorbed from the GI tract, where it acts locally as an L-type calcium channel blocker, an antimuscarinic and a tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist. Otilonium has effectively reduced pain and improved defecation alterations in placebo-controlled trials in IBS patients. Pinaverium bromide is also an L-type calcium channel blocker that acts locally in the GI tract. Pinaverium improves motility disorders and consequently reduces stool problems in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol and trimethylphloroglucinol are non-specific antispasmodics that reduced pain in IBS patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Antispasmodics have excellent safety profiles. T-type calcium channel blockers can abolish visceral hypersensitivity in animal models, which makes them potential candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the

  2. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  3. Possible pathogenetic roles of abdominal surgery in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Yu, Yifeng; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-04-01

    Recently, a plethora of studies have reported that irritably bowel syndrome (IBS) patients have increased incidences of abdominal surgeries, mainly gut surgeries. This high incidence of surgeries highlights the fact that the surgery was done because diagnosis of IBS was not suspected in them. It is then a matter of inquisitiveness as to why the diagnosis of IBS was missed in so many patients. Lack of clinical diagnostic sophistication could be one of the reasons. However, inspite of these facts, it has never been documented that the typical IBS like picture was present in these patients before surgery. Mostly, the preoperative complaints in negative appendectomy patients have been atypical pain syndromes. Thus we should also take into account the possibility that the typical IBS symptom profile was not present in these patients before surgery and that the surgical intervention could have resulted in subsequent development of complete picture of IBS. Infact, in one study, various surgical procedures were known to precede IBS symptoms, where they have also been conceptualized as one of the stressors which could lead to IB. Seeing from the other perspective, the etiological understanding of IBS in medical literature is still so preliminary that we have only been able to enumerate some possible factors. In such a scenario, we need to explore in detail the events which occur frequently in IBS patients, like abdominal surgery. Here, we hypothesize that any abdominal surgical intervention could itself be a reason for development of IBS. We provide evidences from literature in favor of two such possible mechanisms through which any abdominal surgical procedure could act resulting in development of IBS. In addition, we present the report of follow-up of 4 of our own patients where we specifically inquired about IBS before the appendectomy, which turned out to be negative. After 6 months of the followup, the patients developed symptoms which were diagnosable as IBS. PMID

  4. Evaluation of drug treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a therapeutic challenge in part because of the limited understanding of the pathophysiology. The placebo response rate varies in randomized controlled trials from 20 to 70%, and can persist for up to at least 1 year. It is contentious whether dietary fibre and bulking agents relieve the symptoms of IBS; constipation probably improves. Anticholinergic and antispasmodic agents are of questionable benefit in IBS despite positive meta-analyses of poor quality trials. A meta-analysis concluded that the tricyclic antidepressants were superior to placebo in IBS, although the individual trial results were variable. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are of uncertain benefit. Laxatives are used for constipation but probably poorly control the IBS symptom complex. Loperamide is superior to placebo in improvement of diarrhoea but not abdominal pain in IBS. Tegaserod is a well- tolerated aminoguanidine indole derivative of serotonin that is a partial 5HT4–receptor agonist with prokinetic properties; a therapeutic gain over placebo of 5% to 15% has been observed in constipation-predominant IBS in females. Alosetron is a 5HT3-receptor antagonist that is efficacious in females with diarrhoea-predominant IBS, with a 12% to 17% therapeutic gain; the risk of ischaemic colitis is 1 in 350, with very severe constipation occurring in about 1 in 1000. Optimizing study design remains a challenge in IBS. New visceral analgesic and motility modifying agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents are in trials, and hopefully additional efficacious therapeutic options for patients with IBS will soon emerge. PMID:12968980

  5. The Combination of d-Dimer and Peritoneal Irritation Signs as a Potential Indicator to Exclude the Diagnosis of Intestinal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Xin-Zu; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal necrosis is a life-threatening disease, and its prompt and accurate diagnosis is very important. This study aimed to evaluate the value of d-dimer as a marker for early diagnosis of bowel necrosis. From 2009 to 2013, patients undergoing operation due to acute intestinal obstruction were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared among no ischemia group, reversible ischemia group, and bowel necrosis group. There were totally 274 patients being included for analyses. Patients with bowel necrosis had a significant highest level of d-dimer compared with other 2 groups (P = 0.007) when FEU unit was applied. The optimal cutoff value of d-dimer levels as an indicator in diagnosing bowel necrosis was projected to be 1.965 mg/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 84.0%, a specificity of 45.6%, a positive predictive value of 60.7%, and a negative predictive value of 74.0%. And the sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 70.0% were detected, when 1.65 mg/L of d-dimer was set as the cutoff value to distinguish the reversible ischemia and bowel necrosis. The corresponding results in patients with no or slight peritoneal irritation signs were 85.2%, 44.7%, 35.4% and 89.5% respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value were 96.0% and 91.7%, respectively, when d-dimer and peritoneal irritation signs were combined to perform the parallel analysis. The combination of d-dimer and peritoneal irritation signs could generate a reliable negative predictive value, which is helpful to exclude the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. However, it should also be proved in well-designed large-scale prospective study. PMID:26448003

  6. The Combination of D-Dimer and Peritoneal Irritation Signs as a Potential Indicator to Exclude the Diagnosis of Intestinal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Xin-Zu; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal necrosis is a life-threatening disease, and its prompt and accurate diagnosis is very important. This study aimed to evaluate the value of D-dimer as a marker for early diagnosis of bowel necrosis. From 2009 to 2013, patients undergoing operation due to acute intestinal obstruction were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared among no ischemia group, reversible ischemia group, and bowel necrosis group. There were totally 274 patients being included for analyses. Patients with bowel necrosis had a significant highest level of D-dimer compared with other 2 groups (P =  .007) when FEU unit was applied. The optimal cutoff value of D-dimer levels as an indicator in diagnosing bowel necrosis was projected to be 1.965 mg/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 84.0%, a specificity of 45.6%, a positive predictive value of 60.7%, and a negative predictive value of 74.0%. And the sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 70.0% were detected, when 1.65 mg/L of D-dimer was set as the cutoff value to distinguish the reversible ischemia and bowel necrosis. The corresponding results in patients with no or slight peritoneal irritation signs were 85.2%, 44.7%, 35.4% and 89.5% respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value were 96.0% and 91.7%, respectively, when D-dimer and peritoneal irritation signs were combined to perform the parallel analysis. The combination of D-dimer and peritoneal irritation signs could generate a reliable negative predictive value, which is helpful to exclude the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. However, it should also be proved in well-designed large-scale prospective study. PMID:26448003

  7. Prevalence of Acute Symptoms among Workers in Printing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify socioeconomic situation factors and behavioral factors associated with the prevalence of acute symptoms among 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 150 printing workers in 16 printing factories in Southern Thailand. Results. Acute symptoms comprised dizziness, drowsiness, eye irritation, light-headedness, rhinitis, shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, nausea/vomiting, exacerbation of asthma, allergic skin reaction, and visual disorder. The prevalence of symptoms was consistently higher among workers in the printing process than among other workers. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol were not associated with an increased prevalence of acute symptoms among these printing-factory workers. Conclusion. The significant associations were found between personal protective equipment and personal hygiene and prevalence of acute symptoms in printing workers. PMID:25386365

  8. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  9. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  10. The involvement of TRP channels in sensory irritation: a mechanistic approach toward a better understanding of the biological effects of local irritants.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Ramona; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves innervating the mucosae of the nose, mouth, and throat protect the organism against chemical hazards. Upon their stimulation, characteristic perceptions (e.g., stinging and burning) and various reflexes are triggered (e.g., sneezing and cough). The potency of a chemical to cause sensory irritation can be estimated by a mouse bioassay assessing the concentration-dependent decrease in the respiratory rate (50 % decrease: RD50). The involvement of the N. trigeminus and its sensory neurons in the irritant-induced decrease in respiratory rates are not well understood to date. In calcium imaging experiments, we tested which of eight different irritants (RD50 5-730 ppm) could induce responses in primary mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons. The tested irritants acetophenone, 2-ethylhexanol, hexyl isocyanate, isophorone, and trimethylcyclohexanol stimulated responses in trigeminal neurons. Most of these responses depended on functional TRPA1 or TRPV1 channels. For crotyl alcohol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and sodium metabisulfite, no activation could be observed. 2-ethylhexanol can activate both TRPA1 and TRPV1, and at low contractions (100 µM) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) seem to be involved. GPCRs might also be involved in the mediation of the responses to trimethylcyclohexanol. By using neurobiological tools, we showed that sensory irritation in vivo could be based on the direct activation of TRP channels but also on yet unknown interactions with GPCRs present in trigeminal neurons. Our results showed that the potency suggested by the RD50 values was not reflected by direct nerve-compound interaction. PMID:27037703

  11. Predictive performance of the Vitrigel-eye irritancy test method using 118 chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    We recently developed a novel Vitrigel-eye irritancy test (EIT) method. The Vitrigel-EIT method is composed of two parts, i.e., the construction of a human corneal epithelium (HCE) model in a collagen vitrigel membrane chamber and the prediction of eye irritancy by analyzing the time-dependent profile of transepithelial electrical resistance values for 3 min after exposing a chemical to the HCE model. In this study, we estimated the predictive performance of Vitrigel-EIT method by testing a total of 118 chemicals. The category determined by the Vitrigel-EIT method in comparison to the globally harmonized system classification revealed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90.1%, 65.9% and 80.5%, respectively. Here, five of seven false-negative chemicals were acidic chemicals inducing the irregular rising of transepithelial electrical resistance values. In case of eliminating the test chemical solutions showing pH 5 or lower, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were improved to 96.8%, 67.4% and 84.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, nine of 16 false-positive chemicals were classified irritant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the disappearance of ZO-1, a tight junction-associated protein and MUC1, a cell membrane-spanning mucin was immunohistologically confirmed in the HCE models after exposing not only eye irritant chemicals but also false-positive chemicals, suggesting that such false-positive chemicals have an eye irritant potential. These data demonstrated that the Vitrigel-EIT method could provide excellent predictive performance to judge the widespread eye irritancy, including very mild irritant chemicals. We hope that the Vitrigel-EIT method contributes to the development of safe commodity chemicals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26472347

  12. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%). PMID:27134543

  13. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%). PMID:27134543

  14. Contacting American Overseas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, David

    1993-01-01

    Provides contacts for architects or educational consultants who wish to work overseas. Cites a directory, newsletters, newspapers, and associations focused on educators involved with independent overseas schools that are organized around the United States curriculum. (MLF)

  15. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  16. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  17. The impact of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    1986-10-01

    Scenarios of the impact on human society of radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization are presented. Some believe that contact with advanced extraterrestrials would quickly devastate the human spirit, while others believe that these super-intelligent beings would show the inhabitants of the earth how to live in peace. It is proposed that the possible existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the development of means of studying and communicating with them need to be considered.

  18. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar. PMID:11254419

  19. Contact dermatitis following sustained exposure to pecans (Carya illinoensis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kathleen M; Boyd, Jason; Viernes, Jay L

    2006-04-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions following ingestion of peanuts and tree nuts are well characterized. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are less well characterized, yet they remain the second most common reaction pattern to contact with or ingestion of such nuts. We present a case of a patient who experienced an acute vesicular cutaneous reaction after prolonged contact with pecans. This case illustrates the salient features of contact dermatitis and serves as a reminder that contact with allergenic foods can lead to hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:16706235

  20. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. PMID:26289653

  1. Contact allergens in registered cleaning agents for industrial and household use.

    PubMed Central

    Flyvholm, M A

    1993-01-01

    Cleaning work is a common cause of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Cleaning agents for industrial and household use are registered in the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS) according to a special notification rule issued by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. About 2350 registered washing and cleaning agents containing about 1250 different chemical substances were marketed in Denmark in February 1992. The occurrence of 49 contact allergens in 16 different product types within washing and cleaning agents were listed. Preservatives and surface active agents made up the main part of contact allergens. Isothiazolinones and formaldehyde releasers were the most commonly registered preservatives, and coconut diethanolamide the most commonly registered surface active agent. The major product types registered as containing contact allergens were general cleaners, skin cleaners, hair shampoos, and floor polishes. PMID:8280630

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Increases the Risk of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An abnormal interaction in the brain–gut axis is regarded as the cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We attempted to determine the association between IBS and subsequent development of epilepsy. A total of 32,122 patients diagnosed with IBS between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database as the study cohort, and 63,295 controls were randomly selected from the insurants without IBS and frequency-matched according to age, sex, and index year as the comparison cohort. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of epilepsy. We analyzed the risks of epilepsy using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The IBS patients had greater cumulative incidence of epilepsy than the cohort without IBS (log-rank test, P < 0.001 and 2.54 versus 1.86 per 1000 person-years). The IBS cohort had a higher risk of epilepsy after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, head injury, depression, systemic lupus erythematosus, brain tumor, and antidepressants usage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–1.45). Stratified by the presence of other risk factors, the relative risk was also greater for patients with (aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10–1.41) or without other risk factors (aHR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.35–2.10) in the IBS cohort than for those in the non-IBS cohort. The age-specific relative risk of epilepsy in the IBS cohort was greater than that in the non-IBS cohort for both 35 to 49 age group and 50 to 64 age group (age ≤ 34, aHR:1.31, 95% CI: 0.93–1.85; age 35–49, aHR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12–1.83; age 50–64, aHR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.27–1.91). However, there was no difference between patients > 65 years with IBS and those without IBS (aHR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94–1.31). This population-based cohort study revealed that IBS increases the risk of developing epilepsy. However, IBS may be less influential than other risk factors

  3. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Alireza; Somi, Mohammad H; Sarami, Firouz; Farhang, Sara; Yasrebinia, Sanaz

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both) and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients. METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome II diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied. The mean age (± SD) was 33.4 (± 11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25 ± 7.80 vs 22.92 ± 9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25 ± 5.22 vs 27.94 ± 4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ± 7.80 vs 31.62 ± 5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79 ± 5.65 vs 31.95 ± 6.80, P = 0.035 and 31.97 ± 9.87, P = 0.043, respectively). Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors. Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype. PMID:18081232

  4. Effect of São Pedro do Sul thermal water on skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M O; Costa, P C; Bahia, M F

    2010-06-01

    Many mineral waters are known for centuries for treating dermatological diseases but there is little scientific evaluation of the effects of these waters in skin. A total of 17 healthy Caucasian volunteers, including men and women, were enrolled in this study. Two skin sites were marked on each volunteer forearm and irritated with sodium lauryl sulphate at 2% (w/v) kept under occlusion for 24 h with Finn chambers. Afterwards, purified water or São Pedro do Sul (SPS) thermal water were applied to the irritated skin sites, and kept under occlusion for 48 h also with Finn chambers. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used as a measure of the skin barrier function to evaluate the potential anti-irritant effect of the thermal water on skin. Statistically significant differences in the mean TEWL variations were observed for the skin treated with SPS thermal water and with purified water (P = 0.036). The thermal water reduced the degree to which the skin barrier was disrupted compared with purified water alone in 82.4% of the volunteers. The SPS thermal water is anti-irritant and, therefore, can be helpful to relieve skin irritation and in cosmetic formulations to improve the tolerability of the products. PMID:20557578

  5. Influence of temperature on irritation in the hand/forearm immersion test.

    PubMed

    Clarys, P; Manou, I; Barel, A O

    1997-05-01

    As indicated by in vitro experiments the penetration of irritants through the skin is significantly influenced by the temperature of the solution. In vivo experiments, demonstrated equally a significant influence of temperature in surfactant-induced skin irritation. In order to evaluate the irritant potential of detergent solutions under normal user conditions, we used the hand/forearm immersion test. We compared 2 detergents with different anionic character in a repetitive immersion protocol (30 min immersion on 4 consecutive days). The solutions were tested at 2 temperatures (37 degrees C and 40 degrees C). The irritation was quantified by assessment of the stratum corneum barrier function (transepidermal water loss), skin redness (a* colour parameter) and skin dryness (capacitance method). Both detergents affected the integrity of the skin in a significant way. The anionic content as well as the temperature of the solutions were found to be determinative for the irritant potential, with a stronger response for higher anionic content and temperature, respectively. PMID:9197957

  6. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  7. The risk of ischaemic colitis in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with serotonergic therapies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James H

    2011-07-01

    Ischaemic colitis (IC) is the most common form of ischaemic injury to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IC typically presents with the sudden onset of lower abdominal pain, cramping and rectal bleeding, and is usually self-limited with low morbidity, although it may cause gangrenous or fulminant colitis, especially when the right colon is involved. Multiple medical conditions, as well as several pharmacological agents, are associated with IC, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and drugs used for its treatment that act on gut serotonin 5-HT receptors. These include the selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist alosetron, currently approved for the treatment of severe diarrhoea-predominant IBS in women who fail to respond to conventional treatment, and cilansetron, another 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist that is no longer in clinical development. In addition, the 5-HT(4) receptor partial agonist tegaserod, which was approved for the treatment of constipation-predominant IBS in women, was associated with IC in the postmarketing setting, as was renzapride, a 5-HT(4) agonist/5-HT(3) antagonist. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, the pathophysiological basis for development of IC with 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists or 5-HT(4) receptor agonists remains unknown. Of interest, several population-based studies demonstrated that a diagnosis of IBS (independent of serotonergic therapies) increases the risk of developing IC 2- to 4-fold. As a result, IBS patients with the acute onset of abdominal pain, tenderness, diarrhoea or lower intestinal bleeding, especially those with predisposing conditions or medications, should be evaluated promptly for IC. The management of IC remains supportive; most cases of non-gangrenous IC, as seen in the alosetron and tegaserod databases, have been transient and have resolved spontaneously without complications or death. Despite the small number of deaths associated with alosetron in patients with complications of constipation and

  8. Rifaximin in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: is there a high risk for development of antimicrobial resistance?

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J

    2013-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic, nonfatal illness is commonly encountered in clinical practice; however, treatment options are limited and often ineffectual. Despite this, there is increasing evidence that bacterial overgrowth in the bowel (dysbiosis) may be an etiological factor in IBS. This has lead to studies in which the antibiotic agent rifaximin has been used to reduce the microbial burden in the bowel, to some extent alleviating the symptoms of IBS. Rifaximin is a member of the rifamycin class of antibiotics, which when administered orally has the distinctions of being gut specific coupled with poor systemic absorption, characteristics that are suggested to limit the development of bacterial resistance. The rifamycins are currently used to treat serious human diseases including tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile infections. The use of rifamycins in the treatment of these diseases is associated with the development of antibiotic resistance over time. When considering the importance of the rifamycins in the treatment of serious human diseases, the large number of patients affected by IBS, and the lack of scientific evidence available on the development of antibiotic resistance to rifaximin over the long-term when used in the gut, it is advisable that the use of rifaximin as a therapy for IBS should be limited to single, acute, short-term treatment. PMID:23340064

  9. Potential future therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: will disease modifying therapy as opposed to symptomatic control become a reality?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Robin C

    2005-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome can remit spontaneously, implying cure is possible. Predictors of good prognosis include a short history, acute onset(possibly postinfective origin), absence of psychological disorders, and resolution of chronic life stressors. Possible-disease modifying treatments with long-lasting effects include diet and anti-inflammatory and psychological treatments. Dietary modifications, which often involve excluding dairy and wheat products, are successful in some patients. Anti-inflammatory treatments have been subjected to one RCT in postinfective IBS without benefit. Probiotics may have benefit in altering bacterial flora and as anti-inflammatory agents, but further trials are needed before they can be recommended. Psychological treatments may produce long-lasting responses. Relaxation therapy appears to have a nonspecific benefit. Psychotherapy has been shown to have long-term benefit and is particularly acceptable to, and effective for, those with overt psychological distress. Hypnotherapy has been shown to be effective in randomized placebo controlled trials and has a sustained effect. PMID:15862939

  10. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  11. Acute malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dupont, John S

    2006-01-01

    Acute malocclusion can result from disturbances in the maxillary/mandibular tooth relationship. These alterations in the occlusal position can result from high fillings, sinus problems, abscesses, periodontal disease, and moving or erupting teeth. Conditions seen less frequently include acute malocclusions secondary to an event (such as trauma) that make a stable dental relationship an unstable one. Patients can demonstrate any of a number of clinical conditions that interfere with their comfort and ability to function. This article provides information on some of the less familiar causes of acute malocclusion. PMID:16689064

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Small Intestinal Microflora. What Do We Know?

    PubMed

    Moraru, Ioana G; Moraru, A G; Dumitraşcu, D L

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome, one of the most common functional gastro intestinal disorders all over the world is considered to have a multi factorial pathogenesis. Recently more and more studies are focusing on the changes that take place in the microbiota of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, underlining the bacterial role in this pathogenesis. As a consequence, bacterial overgrowth, along with intestinal dysmotility, altered brain-gut axis and genetic factors are considered part of this pathophysiology. This report intends to summarize the actual knowledge on irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome, from details on the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment to details on the relationship between these two syndromes. PMID:26076568

  13. Towards an Irritable Bowel Syndrome Control System Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolski, Ina; Rettberg, Achim

    To solve health problems with medical applications that use complex algorithms is a trend nowadays. It could also be a chance to help patients with critical problems caused from nerve irritations to overcome them and provide a better living situation. In this paper a system for monitoring and controlling the nerves from the intestine is described on a theoretical basis. The presented system could be applied to the irritable bowel syndrome. For control a neural network is used. The advantages for using a neural network for the control of irritable bowel syndrome are the adaptation and learning. These two aspects are important because the syndrome behavior varies from patient to patient and have also concerning the time a lot of variations with respect to each patient. The developed neural network is implemented and can be simulated. Therefore, it can be shown how the network monitor and control the nerves for individual input parameters.

  14. Removal of an Extra-large Irritation Fibroma With a Combination of Diode Laser and Scalpel

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Taheri, Jamileh Bigom; Sehhatpour, Marziye; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Attarbashi Moghadam, Saaedeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Irritation fibroma is the most common tumor like and sub mucosal reactive lesion in the oral cavity. Usually it is measured less than 1.5 cm in diameter; however in rare case it has more than 3 cm in diameter. Different kind of treatment for soft tissue lesions include scalpel excision, electrical surgery, and laser surgery. The diode laser can be more effective than conventional surgery, electrosurgery and cryosurgery in reduction of bleeding and pain. Case Report: We reported a very large irritation fibroma in right lingual side of retromolar pad which was less prone to be traumatized under local irritation, in a woman wearing maxillary complete denture and use of both diode laser and scalpel for its excision. PMID:26705465

  15. NCTC 2544 and IL-18 production: a tool for the identification of contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Galbiati, Valentina; Mitjans, Montserrat; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Progress in understanding the mechanisms of skin sensitization, provides us with the opportunity to develop in vitro tests as an alternative to in vivo sensitization testing. Keratinocytes play a key role in all phases of skin sensitization. We have recently identified interleukin-18 (IL-18) production in keratinocyte as a potentially useful endpoint for determination of contact sensitization potential of low molecular weight chemicals. The aim of the present article is to further exploit the performance of the NCTC 2544 assay. NCTC 2544 is a commercially available skin epithelial-like cell line originating from normal human skin, which posses a good expression of cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activities. Cells were exposed to contact allergens (2-bromo-2-bromomethyl glutaronitrile, cinnamaldehyde, citral, diethylmaleate, dinitrochlorobenzene, glyoxal, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, nickel sulfate, 4-nitrobenzylbromide, oxazolone, penicillin G, resorcinol, tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to pre- pro-haptens (cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, p-phenylediamine), to respiratory allergens (ammonium hexachloroplatinate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, glutaraldehyde, hexamethylenediisocyanate, maleic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride) and to irritants (benzaldehyde, cholorobenzene, diethylphtalate, hydrobenzoic acid, lactic acid, octanoic acid, phenol, salicylic acid, sodium lauryl sulphate, sulfamic acid). Cell associated IL-18 was evaluated 24 later by ELISA. At not-cytotoxic concentrations (cell viability higher of 80%, as assessed by MTT reduction assay), all contact sensitizers, including pre-pro-haptens, induced a dose-related increase in IL-18, whereas both irritants, with the exception of sulfamic acid, and respiratory allergens failed. A total of 33 chemicals were tested, with an overall accuracy of 97%. Overall, results obtained indicated that cell-associated IL-18 might provide an in vitro tool for identification and discrimination of contact vs. respiratory

  16. Irritancy and allergic responses induced by topical application of ortho-phthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Fluharty, Kara; Kashon, Michael; Franko, Jennifer; Jackson, Laurel G; Johnson, Victor J; Joseph, Pius

    2010-06-01

    Although ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) has been suggested as an alternative to glutaraldehyde for the sterilization and disinfection of hospital equipment, the toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of OPA. The EpiDerm Skin Irritation Test was used to evaluate in vitro irritancy potential of OPA and glutaraldehyde. Treatment with 0.4125 and 0.55% OPA induced irritation, while glutaraldehyde exposure at these concentrations did not. Consistent with the in vitro results, OPA induced irritancy, evaluated by ear swelling, when mice were treated with 0.75%. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.75%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with a calculated EC3 value of 0.051% compared to that of 0.089%, previously determined for glutaraldehyde. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-inducing potential was evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node (DLN) cells and measurement of total and specific serum IgE levels. The 0.1 and 0.75% exposed groups yielded significant increases in the IgE+B220+ cell population in the lymph nodes while the 0.75% treated group demonstrated significant increases in total IgE, OPA-specific IgE, and OPA-specific IgG(1). In addition, significant increases in interleukin-4 messenger RNA and protein expression in the DLNs were observed in OPA-treated groups. The results demonstrate the dermal irritancy and allergic potential of OPA and raise concern about the proposed/intended use of OPA as a safe alternative to glutaraldehyde. PMID:20176622

  17. Comparison of in vitro cell toxicity with in vivo eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Bracher, M; Faller, C; Spengler, J; Reinhardt, C A

    The effects of 26 different cosmetic ingredients (e.g., permanent wave and hair dye compounds, emulsifiers, resins, and detergents such as quats) were assessed by four end points indicative for qualitatively and quantitatively different cytotoxicity: (1) neutral red uptake reduction after 24 h of treatment (NR-90 and NR-50); (2) cell detachment from culture dish after 4 h of treatment (CD-25); (3) growth inhibition after 48 h of treatment (GI-50); and (4) membrane permeability measured by fluorescent dye retention (fluorescence shift FS-25) and dye exclusion (viability ratio VR-25). The cytotoxicity potentials of the test agents were ranked for each in vitro test and compared with the in vivo eye irritation in guinea pigs (Draize test) after application of 5 or 2.5% (w/v) solutions of the same test batches. Strong irritants could be easily detected by most of the in vitro tests, but the neutral red uptake assay (especially NR-50) was the only one that was able to distinguish the minimally irritating test agents from strong irritants as well as from nonirritants. (I) All three extremely irritating quaternary ammonia compounds were identified as the strongest cytotoxic agents. (II) Nine out of 12 minimally irritating substances (mainly emulsifiers and resins) were ranked in the intermediate group. (III) Eight out of 11 non-or practically nonirritating chemicals (mainly permanent wave compounds) showed cytotoxic effects at very high concentrations only. The distinction of these three groups was better by means of NR-50 than by NR-90 data. At least two of the other cell tests (CD-25, GI-50, FS-25, and VR-25) had to be considered to allow an adequate interpretation of in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:3509702

  18. Contact binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochnacki, S. W.

    1981-04-01

    Densities, corrected primary colors, minimum periods, inferred masses, luminosities, and specific angular momenta are computed from data on 37 W Ursae Majoris systems. A-type systems, having lower densities and angular momenta than the W-type systems, are shown to be evolved, and a new class of contact binary is identified, the OO Aquilae systems, whose members have evolved into contact. Evolutionary grids based on the contact condition agree with observation, except in that the evolved A-type systems have lost more angular momentum than predicted by gravitational radiation alone. This is accounted for by stellar wind magnetic braking, which is shown to be effective on a shorter time scale and to be important in other kinds of binaries containing a cool, tidally coupled component.

  19. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  20. Contact sensitization in children.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Ferdani, G; Simonetti, V; Donini, M; Seidenari, S

    1998-01-01

    Our study concerns contact sensitization in children, the frequency of which is still debated in the literature, even though specific reports are increasing. During a 7 year period (1988-1994) 670 patients, 6 months to 12 years of age, were patch tested with the European standard series, integrated with 24 haptens, at the same concentrations as for adults. We observed positive results in 42% of our patients. Thimerosal, nickel sulfate, Kathon CG, fragrance mix, neomycin, wool alcohols, and ammoniated mercury induced most of the positive responses. The highest sensitization rate was found in children from 0 to 3 years of age. Comments on main positive haptens are reported. Seventy-seven percent of our sensitized patients were atopics, suggesting that atopy represents a predisposing factor for contact hypersensitivity. Patch testing represents a useful diagnostic procedure for the definition of childhood eczematous dermatitis and for the identification of agents inducing contact sensitization which is frequently associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9496796

  1. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on a normal probability chart, enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  2. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on normal probability chart enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  3. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  4. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  5. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  6. Wild bearded capuchins process cashew nuts without contacting caustic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Giulia; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    Complex and flexible food processing was a key element for the evolutionary success of hominins, enlarging the range of exploitable foods while enabling occupation of new habitats. Only a few primate species crack open encased food by using percussive tools and/or avoid physical contact with irritant compounds by removing the structures containing them. We describe, for the first time, how a population of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) accesses the nutritious kernel of cashew nuts avoiding the caustic chemicals protecting it. Two processing strategies, namely rubbing/piercing and stone tool use, are used according to maturity of the nuts. The frequency of cashew nuts processing increases with capuchin age, and the same set of processing strategies appears to be absent in other capuchin populations, making cashew nuts processing an excellent candidate for social transmission. PMID:23300054

  7. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCETM

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won-hee; Jung, Kyoung-mi; Yang, Hye-ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCETM which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCETM can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  8. Thermal contact conductance for cylindrical and spherical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil Kumar, S.; Abilash, P. M.; Ramamurthi, K.

    A prediction methodology based on Monte-Carlo simulation model, developed for flat conforming surfaces in contact, is modified and extended to predict contact conductance between curvilinear surfaces like cylinders and spheres. Experiments are also conducted in vacuum for the measurement of contact conductance between stainless steel and aluminium cylindrical contacts and stainless steel spherical contacts over a range of contact pressures. The contact conductance between cylindrical and spherical bodies is, in general, about an order of magnitude lower than for flat surfaces in contact. Increase of surface roughness and decrease in contact pressure lowers the contact conductance. However, the influence of these parameters is larger than those obtained for flat surfaces. The prediction for different parametric conditions agree closely with those measured in the experiments.

  9. Acute effects of exposure to 1 mg/m(3) of vaporized 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in humans.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, L; Norbäck, D; Nordquist, T; Wieslander, G; Wålinder, R; Johanson, G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to assess acute effects from controlled exposure of volunteers to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a volatile organic compound that is often found in indoor air. Sixteen males and fourteen females were in random order exposed to 1 mg/m(3) of vapors of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol or to clean air (control exposure) in an exposure chamber during 2 h at rest. The subjects performed symptom ratings on Visual Analog Scales. During exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol subjective ratings of smell and eye discomfort were minimally but significantly increased. Ratings of nasal irritation, throat irritation, headache, dyspnoea, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, and intoxication were not significantly affected. No exposure-related effects on measurement of blinking frequency by electromyography, measurement of the eye break-up time, vital staining of the eye, nasal lavage biomarkers, transfer tests, spirometric and rhinometric measures were seen. No differences in response were seen between sexes or between atopics and non-atopics. Practical Implications It is important to assess acute effects in volatile organic compounds like 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is often found in indoor air generated by degradation of plastic building materials or in new buildings. There are associations between 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in indoor air and respiratory effects, eye irritation, headache, and blurred vision. A controlled chamber exposure study in acute effects was performed. In conclusion, this study showed weak subjective symptom of irritation in the eyes. PMID:20409194

  10. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  11. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  12. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products. PMID:21901563

  13. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  14. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  15. Compact contacting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

  16. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  17. Have Confidence in Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  18. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Korpi, A; Kasanen, J-P; Kosma, V-M; Rylander, R; Pasanen, A-L

    2003-01-01

    Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of beta-glucan (grifolan) were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The beta-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled beta-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to beta-glucan. PMID:12857597

  19. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  20. Occupational contact dermatitis: known knowns and known unknowns.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    It is only by recognizing what we know that we know, and being cognizant of the things that we know that we don't know that clinicians and the health profession are able to deliver quality care to patients. Traditional learning methods can sometimes perpetuate unappraised and unfounded beliefs and practices. Evidence-based practice requires robustly conducted systematic reviews and evidence-based guidelines. There have only been three systematic reviews of occupational contact dermatitis. These inform us of what we know we know and what we know that we don't know. We know which agents cause allergic and irritant occupational contact dermatitis, and we know the occupations that present the greatest risk. We know that conditioning creams are helpful in the prevention and management of the disease, and we know that we don't know the optimal frequency of application. We know that prework creams are not universally effective. We know that avoidance of exposure can help to improve symptoms in those who have developed dermatitis, but we know that we don't know if earlier identification and earlier avoidance of exposure produces better outcomes. Most importantly, we know that there is a need for better research conducted in occupational rather than experimental settings and with contact dermatitis rather than subclinical findings as an outcome measure. PMID:21496742