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Sample records for acute laboratory stressor

  1. Acute Stressors and Cortisol Responses: A Theoretical Integration and Synthesis of Laboratory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Sally S.; Kemeny, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews 208 laboratory studies of acute psychological stressors and tests a theoretical model delineating conditions capable of eliciting cortisol responses. Psychological stressors increased cortisol levels; however, effects varied widely across tasks. Consistent with the theoretical model, motivated performance tasks elicited…

  2. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  3. Stress-dependent changes in neuroinflammatory markers observed after common laboratory stressors are not seen following acute social defeat of the Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Hueston, Cara M; Barnum, Christopher J; Eberle, Jaime A; Ferraioli, Frank J; Buck, Hollin M; Deak, Terrence

    2011-08-03

    Exposure to acute stress has been shown to increase the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain, blood and peripheral organs. However, the nature of the inflammatory response evoked by acute stress varies depending on the stressor used and species examined. The goal of the following series of studies was to characterize the consequences of social defeat in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat using three different social defeat paradigms. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male SD rats were exposed to a typical acute resident-intruder paradigm of social defeat (60 min) by placement into the home cage of a larger, aggressive Long Evans rat and brain tissue was collected at multiple time points for analysis of IL-1β protein and gene expression changes in the PVN, BNST and adrenal glands. In subsequent experiments, rats were exposed to once daily social defeat for 7 or 21 days (Experiment 3) or housed continuously with an aggressive partner (separated by a partition) for 7 days (Experiment 4) to assess the impact of chronic social stress on inflammatory measures. Despite the fact that social defeat produced a comparable corticosterone response as other stressors (restraint, forced swim and footshock; Experiment 5), acute social defeat did not affect inflammatory measures. A small but reliable increase in IL-1 gene expression was observed immediately after the 7th exposure to social defeat, while other inflammatory measures were unaffected. In contrast, restraint, forced swim and footshock all significantly increased IL-1 gene expression in the PVN; other inflammatory factors (IL-6, cox-2) were unaffected in this structure. These findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of stress-dependent inflammatory changes in the SD rat, raising intriguing questions regarding the features of the stress challenge that may be predictive of stress-dependent neuroinflammation.

  4. Effects of multiple acute stressors on the predator avoidance ability and physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.

    1994-01-01

    Northern squaw fish Ptychocheilus oregonensis are the predominant predators of juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the Columbia River, and their predation rates are greatest just below dams. Because juvenile salmonids are commonly subjected to multiple stressors at dams in the course of their seaward migration, high predation rates below dams may be due in part to an increase in the vulnerability of stressed fish. I conducted laboratory experiments to examine the predator avoidance ability and physiological stress responses of juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha subjected to treatments (stressors) designed to simulate routine hatchery practices (multiple handlings) or dam passage (multiple agitations). Both stressors resulted in lethargic behavior in the fish, and agitation also caused disorieniation and occasional injury. When equal numbers of stressed and unstressed fish were exposed to northern squawfish for up to 1 h, significantly more stressed fish were eaten, but this effect was not evident during longer exposures. The lack of differential predation in trials lasting up to 24 h can be explained by the rapid development of schooling behavior in the prey, but other possibilities exist, such as changing ratios of stressed and unstressed prey over time. Concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate in fish subjected to multiple stressors were similar and sometimes cumulative, returned to prestress levels within 6-24 h, and correlated poorly with predator avoidance ability. My results suggest that juvenile salmonids are capable of avoiding predators within 1 h after being subjected to multiple acute stressors even though physiological homeostasis may be altered for up to 24 h. Therefore, because juvenile salmonids typically reside in lailrace areas for only a short time after dam passage, measures aimed at reducing physical stress or protecting them as they migrate through dam tailraces may help alleviate the relatively intense predation

  5. Youth Offspring of Mothers with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Have Altered Stress Reactivity in Response to a Laboratory Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Badanes, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Parental Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), particularly maternal PTSD, confers risk for stress-related psychopathology among offspring. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is one mechanism proposed to explain transmission of this intergenerational risk. Investigation of this mechanism has been largely limited to general stress response (e.g., diurnal cortisol), rather than reactivity in response to an acute stressor. We examined cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor among offspring of mothers with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD (n=36) and age- and gender- matched control offspring of mothers without PTSD (n=36). Youth (67% girls; mean age = 11.4, SD = 2.6) participated in a developmentally sensitive laboratory stressor and had salivary cortisol assessed five times (one pre-stress, one immediate post-stress, and three recovery measures, spaced 15 minutes apart). Results were consistent with the hypothesis that offspring of mothers with PTSD would exhibit a dysregulated, blunted cortisol reactivity profile and control offspring would display the expected adaptive peak in cortisol response to challenge profile. Findings were maintained after controlling for youth traumatic event history, physical anxiety symptoms, and depression, as well as maternal depression. This finding contributes to the existing literature indicating that attenuated HPA axis functioning, inclusive of hyposecretion of cortisol in response to acute stress, is robust among youth of mothers with PTSD. Future research is warranted in elucidating cortisol reactivity as a link between maternal PTSD and stress-related psychopathology vulnerability among offspring. PMID:25622009

  6. Youth offspring of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder have altered stress reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Hankin, Benjamin L; Badanes, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    Parental Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), particularly maternal PTSD, confers risk for stress-related psychopathology among offspring. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is one mechanism proposed to explain transmission of this intergenerational risk. Investigation of this mechanism has been largely limited to general stress response (e.g., diurnal cortisol), rather than reactivity in response to an acute stressor. We examined cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor among offspring of mothers with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD (n=36) and age- and gender- matched control offspring of mothers without PTSD (n=36). Youth (67% girls; mean age=11.4, SD=2.6) participated in a developmentally sensitive laboratory stressor and had salivary cortisol assessed five times (one pre-stress, one immediate post-stress, and three recovery measures, spaced 15min apart). Results were consistent with the hypothesis that offspring of mothers with PTSD would exhibit a dysregulated, blunted cortisol reactivity profile, and control offspring would display the expected adaptive peak in cortisol response to challenge profile. Findings were maintained after controlling for youth traumatic event history, physical anxiety symptoms, and depression, as well as maternal depression. This finding contributes to the existing literature indicating that attenuated HPA axis functioning, inclusive of hyposecretion of cortisol in response to acute stress, is robust among youth of mothers with PTSD. Future research is warranted in elucidating cortisol reactivity as a link between maternal PTSD and stress-related psychopathology vulnerability among offspring.

  7. Acute vs. chronic stressors, multiple suicide attempts, and persistent suicide ideation in US soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Clemans, Tracy A; Leeson, Bruce; Rudd, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined recent-onset (i.e., acute) and persistent (i.e., chronic) life stressors among 54 acutely suicidal US Army Soldiers and examined their relationship to persistence of suicidal crises over time. Soldiers with a history of multiple suicide attempts reported the most severe suicide ideation (F(2,51) = 4.18, p = 0.021) and the greatest number of chronic stressors (F(2,51) = 5.11, p = 0.009). Chronic but not acute stressors were correlated with severity of suicide ideation (r = 0.24, p = 0.026). Participants reporting low-to-average levels of chronic stress resolved suicide ideation during the 6-month follow-up, but participants reporting high levels of chronic stress did not (Wald χ(1) = 4.57, p = 0.032). Soldiers who are multiple attempters report a greater number of chronic stressors. Chronic, but not acute-onset, stressors are associated with more severe and longer-lasting suicidal crises.

  8. An acute stressor alters steroid hormone levels and activity but not sexual behavior in male and female Ocoee salamanders (Desmognathus ocoee).

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah K; Lacy, Eva L

    2010-08-01

    Stressors that are chronic have clear suppressive effects on reproductive behaviors in both males and females. Stressors that are acute have effects on reproductive behavior that are less clear. We measured the effects of an acute bout of handling in laboratory-housed male and female Ocoee salamanders (Desmognathus ocoee), a species with a prolonged mating season. Handling resulted in decreased locomotory activity and elevated plasma corticosterone, a hallmark of the vertebrate stress response. Handling also decreased plasma testosterone in males and elevated plasma estradiol in females. Despite the handling-induced changes in hormone levels, handling had minimal impact on courtship and mating. Other species in which reproduction is insensitive to acute stressors may live in extreme environments with limited reproductive opportunities, whereas Ocoee salamanders live in a relatively temperate environment with multiple reproductive opportunities. Together, these data indicate that an allostatic response to a stressor can alter locomotory activity and elevate corticosterone without suppressing nonessential behaviors like courtship and mating in a species in which reproductive opportunities can occur over a period of multiple months. The lack of reproductive suppression in Ocoee salamanders might be due to the low energetic cost of courtship and mating in this species combined with potentially elevated energetic stores, highlighting the importance of considering energy budgets when making predictions about behavioral effects of acute stressors.

  9. Brooding Rumination and Cardiovascular Reactivity to a Laboratory-based Interpersonal Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Woody, Mary L.; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Birk, Samantha L.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-known link between stress and depression, but diathesis-stress models suggest that not all individuals are equally susceptible to stress. The current study examined if brooding rumination, a known risk factor for depression, influences cardiovascular reactivity to a laboratory-based interpersonal stressor. Sixty-five women watched a baseline video and were exposed to an interpersonal stressor while high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) was collected. We found that women who endorsed higher levels of brooding rumination exhibited greater HRV withdrawal from baseline to stressor, an effect that was maintained when we controlled for levels of depression. This physiological vulnerability, when combined with high levels of stress, may be one mechanism underlying how brooding rumination increases depression risk. PMID:25512247

  10. Behavioral and neurochemical changes in response to acute stressors: influence of previous chronic exposure to immobilization.

    PubMed

    Pol, O; Campmany, L; Gil, M; Armario, A

    1992-07-01

    The effect of daily (2 h) exposure to immobilization (IMO) for 15 days on the behavioral and neurochemical responses of adult male rats to acute stress caused by 2-h IMO or 2-h tail-shock was studied. The brain areas studied were frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons plus medulla. Chronic exposure to IMO did not alter noradrenaline (NA), 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyletileneglycol-SO4 (MHPG-SO4), serotonin, or 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in any brain area as measured approximately 20 h after the last exposure to IMO. Exposure to behavioral tests did not modify neurochemical variables except NA levels in the hypothalamus of nonchronically stressed (control) rats. Both exposure to 2-h IMO or 2-h shock significantly decreased NA levels in hypothalamus and midbrain of nonchronically stressed rats. These decreases in response to the two acute stressors were not observed in chronically stressed rats. However, MHPG-SO4 levels increased to the same extent in control and chronically stressed rats after exposure to the acute stressors. Likewise, increased 5-HIAA concentrations observed in response to acute stressors were similar in control and chronically stressed rats. The inhibition of activity (areas crossed and rearing) in the holeboard caused by acute IMO was less marked in rats previously exposed to the same stressor than in control rats, but the response to shock was similar. In the forced swim test, acute IMO decreased struggling in control rats but tended to increase it in chronically stressed rats. The response to shock followed the same pattern as that to IMO, although it was slight.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  12. Influence of chemical and environmental stressors on acute cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.N.; Benson, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that the cytosolic protein metallothionein (MT) is induced not only by exposure to certain heavy metals but also by a variety of other factors, including environmental stress. While MT synthesis has been observed with exposure to cold temperatures, there is a paucity of data concerning the influence of cold on heavy-metal toxicity. The present investigation focused on the influence of metal and cold pretreatments on the acute toxicity of cadmium. Mortalities of 80% and 100% were observed for mice orally administered challenge doses of 100 mg Cd/kg and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. To determine a protective cadmium pretreatment dose, animals were administered 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 mg Cd/kg 24 h prior to cadmium challenge. In animals pretreated with 10 mg Cd/kg, mortalities of 20% and 70% were observed with the respective challenge doses. Immediately following cold stress (4/sup 0/C, 12 h), mortalities of 30% and 90% were observed with cadmium challenge doses of 100 and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Significant correlations were demonstrated between induced hepatic MT concentrations and cadmium pretreatment, as well as cold pretreatment. The induced tolerance to cadmium was attributed, in part, to the induction of MT synthesis. Furthermore, the induced levels of MT resulting from cold stress may confound the simplistic approach of using MT as a biological monitor of occupational exposure to cadmium.

  13. Certification testing as an acute naturalistic stressor for disaster dog handlers.

    PubMed

    Lit, L; Boehm, D; Marzke, S; Schweitzer, J; Oberbauer, A M

    2010-09-01

    USA Federal Disaster Canine Teams, consisting of a handler and a dog, are essential for locating survivors following a disaster. Certification, required by the Federal Emergency Management Agency Urban Search and Rescue organization, requires two successful mock searches. Confirmation of the certification testing process as an acute stressor might offer further opportunities to consider stress effects on handlers and dogs in a controlled environment. This study used a pretest-posttest design to evaluate relationships between salivary hormone concentrations (cortisol and testosterone) and subjective stress ratings in handlers and controls, handler assessments of stress in their dogs, and posttest temperature and pulse rate in dogs. Posttest, both subjective stress ratings and salivary cortisol concentration were higher in handlers than controls with both correlated to handlers' assessment of stress in their dogs. Handlers' posttest salivary cortisol concentration was associated with posttest dog pulse and temperature. Posttest cortisol concentration was lower in handlers who were successfully certified compared with those who failed, and was also lower in handlers whose primary occupation was "firefighter". Salivary testosterone concentrations increased from pretest to posttest in handlers but decreased in controls, and higher posttest handler testosterone concentration was negatively associated with posttest dog pulse rate. These findings confirm certification testing as an acute stressor, suggest a relationship between stress and performance moderated by occupation, and demonstrate an interaction between handler stress and dog physiological responses. This certification testing offers a controlled environment for targeted evaluation of effects of an acute naturalistic stressor on disaster dog handlers and dogs.

  14. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  15. Effect of Acute Stressor and Serotonin Transporter Genotype on Amygdala First Wave Transcriptome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hohoff, Christa; Gorji, Ali; Kaiser, Sylvia; Willscher, Edith; Korsching, Eberhard; Ambrée, Oliver; Arolt, Volker; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert; Deckert, Jürgen; Lewejohann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent brain region evaluating the significance of external stimuli immediately after their onset is the amygdala. Stimuli evaluated as being stressful actuate a number of physiological processes as an immediate stress response. Variation in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior, altered stress reactivity and adaptation, and pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. In this study the instant reactions to an acute stressor were measured in a serotonin transporter knockout mouse model. Mice lacking the serotonin transporter were verified to be more anxious than their wild-type conspecifics. Genome-wide gene expression changes in the amygdala were measured after the mice were subjected to control condition or to an acute stressor of one minute exposure to water. The dissection of amygdalae and stabilization of RNA was conducted within nine minutes after the onset of the stressor. This extremely short protocol allowed for analysis of first wave primary response genes, typically induced within five to ten minutes of stimulation, and was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. RNA profiling revealed a largely new set of differentially expressed primary response genes between the conditions acute stress and control that differed distinctly between wild-type and knockout mice. Consequently, functional categorization and pathway analysis indicated genes related to neuroplasticity and adaptation in wild-types whereas knockouts were characterized by impaired plasticity and genes more related to chronic stress and pathophysiology. Our study therefore disclosed different coping styles dependent on serotonin transporter genotype even directly after the onset of stress and accentuates the role of the serotonergic system in processing stressors and threat in the amygdala. Moreover, several of the first wave primary response genes that we found might provide promising targets for

  16. Investigating the effect of acute sleep deprivation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2017-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been previously identified as one potential mechanism that may explain the link between sleep deprivation and negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the direct association between sleep deprivation and HPA-axis functioning, particularly in the context of stress. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between acute sleep deprivation and HPA-axis reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Participants included 40 healthy, young adults between the ages of 18-29. The current protocol included spending two nights in the laboratory. After an adaptation night (night 1), participants were randomized into either a sleep deprivation condition (29 consecutive hours awake) or a control condition (night 2). Following the second night, all participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the TSST. Results indicated that there were significant group differences in cortisol stress reactivity. Specifically, compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the sleep deprivation condition had greater baseline (i.e., pre-stress) cortisol, yet a blunted cortisol response to the TSST. Taken together, a combination of elevated baseline cortisol (and its subsequent effect on HPA-axis regulatory processes) and a relative 'ceiling' on the amount of cortisol a laboratory stressor can produce may explain why participants in the sleep deprivation condition demonstrated blunted cortisol responses.

  17. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings

  18. Extending the recovery window: Effects of trait rumination on subsequent evening cortisol following a laboratory performance stressor.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S

    2015-08-01

    Mental rehearsal of past stressors through rumination may extend the physiological stress response and exposure to stress-related physiological mediators, such as cortisol. If repeated over time, this prolonged activation may contribute to a number of chronic health conditions. Findings from the emerging literature on the tendency to ruminate and its association with cortisol have been somewhat mixed. In the present study, we tested whether trait rumination predicted elevated cortisol concentrations in response to a performance stressor, and whether this association varied by the social-evaluative context of the stressor and gender. We also examined whether associations persisted into the evening of the stressor. Participants (50% female; mean age=19.83, SD=1.62) were randomly assigned to complete a laboratory speech stressor either in a social-evaluative (SET; n=86) or non-evaluative context (non-SET; n=58). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout the laboratory visit and later that evening. There was a main effect of trait rumination on greater total cortisol exposure into the evening of the stressor. In addition, trait rumination interacted with stressor context to predict cortisol declines: on the night of the SET stressor, high trait ruminators did not exhibit typical declines in cortisol. Different cortisol patterns emerged for men and women with tendencies to ruminate: women with higher rumination scores had flatter cortisol slopes with greater evening cortisol, whereas men with higher trait rumination scores had greater initial cortisol reactivity to the stressor. Together, these findings suggest that the relationship between the tendency to ruminate and cortisol concentrations is qualified by individual differences (gender) and stressor characteristics (social-evaluative threat).

  19. Effects of acute stressors on itch- and pain-related behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Jessica Marie; Davoodi, Auva; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E.

    2012-01-01

    Many acute stressors reduce pain, a phenomenon called stress-induced antinociception (SIA). Stress also is associated with increased scratching in chronic itch conditions. We investigated effects of acute stressors on facial itch and pain using a recently-introduced rat model. Under baseline (no-swim) conditions, intradermal (id) cheek microinjection of the pruritogen serotonin (5-HT) selectively elicited hindlimb scratch bouts, while the algogen mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate= AITC) selectively elicited ipsilateral forepaw swipes, directed to the cheek injection site. To test effects of swim stress, rats received id cheek microinjection of 5-HT (1%), AITC (10%), or vehicle, and were then subjected to one of the following swim conditions: (1) weak SIA (W-SIA), (2) naltrexone-sensitive SIA (intermediate or I-SIA), or (3) naltrexone-insensitive SIA (strong or S-SIA). After the swim, we recorded the number of hindlimb scratch bouts and forelimb swipes directed to the cheek injection site, as well as facial grooming by both forepaws. Under S-SIA, AITC-evoked swiping and 5-HT-evoked scratching were both reduced. I-SIA reduced AITC-evoked swiping with no effect on 5-HT-evoked scratching. Facial grooming immediately post-swim was suppressed by S-SIA, but not I- or W-SIA. W-SIA tended to equalize scratching and swiping elicited by 5-HT and AITC compared to no-swim controls, suggesting altered itch and pain processing. Exercise (wheel-running), novelty, cold exposure and fear (shaker table), key components of swim stress, differentially affected tailflick latencies and 5-HT-evoked swiping and scratching behavior. Thus, itch and pain can be simultaneously suppressed by a combination of acute stress-related factors via an opioid-independent mechanism. PMID:22770638

  20. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural Inhibition to Food Cues and Increase Eating Among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhenyong; Jackson, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED) and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test (CPT) followed by negative performance feedback) or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback) conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women.

  1. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural Inhibition to Food Cues and Increase Eating Among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Zhenyong; Jackson, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED) and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test (CPT) followed by negative performance feedback) or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback) conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women. PMID:27790097

  2. Modulation of heart rate response to acute stressors throughout the breeding season in the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Smith, Andrew D; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Groscolas, René

    2015-06-01

    'Fight-or-flight' stress responses allow animals to cope adaptively to sudden threats by mobilizing energy resources and priming the body for action. Because such responses can be costly and redirect behavior and energy from reproduction to survival, they are likely to be shaped by specific life-history stages, depending on the available energy resources and the commitment to reproduction. Here, we consider how heart rate (HR) responses to acute stressors are affected by the advancing breeding season in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We subjected 77 birds (44 males, 33 females) at various stages of incubation and chick-rearing to three experimental stressors (metal sound, distant approach and capture) known to vary both in their intensity and associated risk, and monitored their HR responses. Our results show that HR increase in response to acute stressors was progressively attenuated with the stage of breeding from incubation to chick-rearing. Stress responses did not vary according to nutritional status or seasonal timing (whether breeding was initiated early or late in the season), but were markedly lower during chick-rearing than during incubation. This pattern was obvious for all three stressors. We discuss how 'fight-or-flight' responses may be modulated by considering the energy commitment to breeding, nutritional status and reproductive value of the brood in breeding seabirds.

  3. An acute social defeat stressor in early puberty increases susceptibility to social defeat in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rosenhauer, Anna M; McCann, Katharine E; Norvelle, Alisa; Huhman, Kim L

    2017-04-05

    Syrian hamsters readily display territorial aggression; if they lose even a single agonistic encounter, however, hamsters show striking reductions in aggressive behavior and increases in submissive behavior, a distinct behavioral change that we have previously termed conditioned defeat. This acute social defeat stressor is primarily psychological and is effective in both males and females. Therefore, we maintain that this procedure presents an ideal model for studying behavioral and physiological responses to social stress. Here, we demonstrate that social avoidance following social defeat is a particularly useful dependent measure because of its sensitivity and stability between sexes and across the estrous cycle. In addition, we demonstrate that peripubertal hamsters exposed to a single, 15min social defeat exhibit significantly more social avoidance 24h later when compared with no-defeat controls. Later, defeated and non-defeated hamsters displayed similar agonistic behavior in adulthood indicating that the peripubertal defeat did not alter adult territorial aggression. After experiencing an additional social defeat in adulthood, however, the hamsters that experienced the pubertal defeat responded to the adult defeat with increased social avoidance when compared with hamsters that were defeated only in adulthood and with no-defeat controls. These data are the first to show that a single social defeat in puberty increases susceptibility to later social defeat in both males and females.

  4. Associations between chronic community noise exposure and blood pressure at rest and during acute noise and non-noise stressors among urban school children in India.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stephen J; Shejwal, Bhaskar; Kim, Bang Hyun; Evans, Gary W

    2010-09-01

    The present study builds on prior research that has examined the association between children's chronic exposure to community noise and resting blood pressure and blood pressure dysregulation during exposure to acute stressors. A novel contribution of the study is that it examines how chronic noise exposure relates to blood pressure responses during exposure to both noise and non-noise acute stressors. The acute noise stressor was recorded street noise and the non-noise stressor was mental arithmetic. The sample consisted of 189 3rd and 6th grade children (51.9% percent boys; 52.9% 3rd graders) from a noisy (n = 95) or relatively quiet (n = 94) public school in the city of Pune, India. There were no statistically significant differences between chronic noise levels and resting blood pressure levels. However, relative to quiet-school children, noisy-school children had significantly lower increases in blood pressure when exposed to either an acute noise or non-noise stressor. This finding suggests that chronic noise exposure may result in hypo-reactivity to a variety of stressors and not just habituation to noise stressors.

  5. Behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity related to the ANKK1 gene are independent of an acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    White, Melanie J; Morris, C Phillip; Lawford, Bruce R; Young, Ross McD

    2008-01-01

    Background The A1 allele of the ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism (previously reported as located in the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene) is associated with reduced DRD2 density in the striatum and with clinical disorders, particularly addiction. It was hypothesized that impulsivity represents an endophenotype underlying these associations with the TaqIA and that environmental stress would moderate the strength of the gene-behavior relationship. Methods TaqIA genotyping was conducted on 72 healthy young adults who were randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity were measured using a card-sorting index of reinforcement sensitivity and computerized response inhibition and delay discounting tasks. Results Separate analyses of variance revealed associations between the A1 allele and two laboratory measures of impulsivity. The presence of the TaqIA allele (A1+) was associated with slower card-sorting in the presence of small financial reinforcers, but was overcome in a second administration after either a five-minute rest or psychosocial stress induction. A1+ participants also demonstrated significantly poorer response inhibition and faster response times on a computerized stop inhibition task, independent of acute stress exposure. Conclusion These findings indicate the A1 allele is associated with an endophenotype comprising both a "rash impulsive" behavioral style and reinforcement-related learning deficits. These effects are independent of stress. PMID:19025655

  6. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep.

  7. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  8. Laboratory Test Surveillance following Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; Peterson, Josh F.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Hung, Adriana M.; Speroff, Theodore; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Parr, Sharidan K.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Siew, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk for accelerated loss of kidney function, morbidity, and mortality. We sought to inform efforts at improving post-AKI outcomes by describing the receipt of renal-specific laboratory test surveillance among a large high-risk cohort. Methods We acquired clinical data from the Electronic health record (EHR) of 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals to identify patients hospitalized with AKI from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2009, and followed these patients for 1 year or until death, enrollment in palliative care, or improvement in renal function to estimated GFR (eGFR) ≥60 L/min/1.73 m2. Using demographic data, administrative codes, and laboratory test data, we evaluated the receipt and timing of outpatient testing for serum concentrations of creatinine and any as well as quantitative proteinuria recommended for CKD risk stratification. Additionally, we reported the rate of phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Results A total of 10,955 patients admitted with AKI were discharged with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During outpatient follow-up at 90 and 365 days, respectively, creatinine was measured on 69% and 85% of patients, quantitative proteinuria was measured on 6% and 12% of patients, PTH or phosphorus was measured on 10% and 15% of patients. Conclusions Measurement of creatinine was common among all patients following AKI. However, patients with AKI were infrequently monitored with assessments of quantitative proteinuria or mineral metabolism disorder, even for patients with baseline kidney disease. PMID:25117447

  9. Neurocognitive function and state cognitive stress appraisal predict cortisol reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Marcia J; Grieve, Adam J; Ames, Michelle E; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2013-08-01

    Stress and associated alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have deleterious influence on the development of multiple mental and physical health problems. Prior research has aimed to identify individuals most at risk for the development of these stress-related maladies by examining factors that may contribute to inter-individual differences in HPA responses to acute stress. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in adolescents, (1) whether differences in neurocognitive abilities influenced cortisol reactivity to an acute stressor, (2) whether internalizing psychiatric disorders influenced this relationship, and (3) whether acute cognitive stress-appraisal mechanisms mediated an association between neurocognitive function and cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 70 adolescents from a community sample who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments of IQ, achievement, and declarative memory measures at mean age 14 and whose physiological and behavioral responses to a standardized psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) were assessed at mean age 18. Results showed that, among all adolescents, lower nonverbal memory performance predicted lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, internalizing disorders interacted with verbal memory such that the association with cortisol reactivity was strongest for adolescents with internalizing disorders. Finally, lower secondary cognitive appraisal of coping in anticipation of the TSST independently predicted lower cortisol reactivity but did not mediate the neurocognitive-cortisol relationship. Findings suggest that declarative memory may contribute to inter-individual differences in acute cortisol reactivity in adolescents, internalizing disorders may influence this relationship, and cognitive stress appraisal also predicts cortisol reactivity. Developmental, research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Mastery and coping moderate the negative effect of acute and chronic stressors on mental health-related quality of life in HIV.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Katherine; Rueda, Sergio; Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gardner, Sandra; Fenta, Haile; Hart, Trevor A

    2011-06-01

    Acute and chronic life stressors have a detrimental effect on the health of people living with HIV. Psychosocial resources such as mastery, coping, and social support may play a critical role in moderating the negative effects of stressors on health-related quality of life. A total of 758 participants provided baseline enrolment data on demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education, employment, income), clinical variables (CD4 counts, viral load, AIDS-defining condition, time since HIV diagnosis), psychosocial resources (mastery, coping, social support), life stressors (National Population Health Survey [NPHS] Stress Questionnaire), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). We performed hierarchical multivariate regression analyses to evaluate the potential moderating effects of psychosocial resources on the relationship between stressors and health-related quality of life. The top three stressors reported by participants were trying to take on too many things at once (51%), not having enough money to buy the things they needed (51%), and having something happen during childhood that scared them so much that they thought about it years later (42%). Life stressors were significantly and inversely associated with both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Mastery and maladaptive coping had significant moderating effects on mental health but not on physical health. These results suggest that developing interventions that improve mastery and reduce maladaptive coping may minimize the negative impact of life stressors on the mental health of people with HIV. They also highlight that it is important for clinicians to be mindful of the impact of life stressors on the health of patients living with HIV.

  11. Hemodynamic responses to laboratory stressors in children and adolescents: the influences of age, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Allen, M T; Matthews, K A

    1997-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.

  12. Impact of scorpion venom as an acute stressor on the neuroendocrine-immunological network.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, K N; Pavana, D; Thippeswamy, N B

    2016-11-01

    Although immunomodulatory property and many other pharmaceutical applications of scorpion venom have been addressed before, no studies were reported about its application as a neuroimmunomodulator at therapeutic dose. In this study, we conceptualized the property of scorpion venom, capable of inducing the acute pain and neurotoxicity can cause acute stress resulting in the modulation of immune cells through HPA axis. The whole venom from Hottentotta rugiscutis, a widely seen scorpion in the region of eastern Karnataka, was extracted and injected a single dose of 1 mg/kg b.w. to Swiss albino mice and then erythrocytes and leukogram were measured. Whole brain AChE activity, corticosterone, cytokines and NO levels in plasma were also evaluated at various time points. Hrv didn't show any histopathological changes in the lymphoid organs and at the site of injection. However, lymphocytes and neutrophils did get altered at 2 h post-injection. Plasma corticosterone, cytokine levels such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 and the AChE activity were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner. Based on these results, it may be predicted, Hrv's ability to cause acute stress resulted in the activation of HPA axis, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid hormones which in turn elicits the immunomodulation of leukocytes by altering the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, we can conclude, the impact of acute stress induced by Hrv can intercommunicate the signals between neuroendocrine-immune systems.

  13. Dynamic adaptation of large-scale brain networks in response to acute stressors.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Erno J; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Joëls, Marian; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-06-01

    Stress initiates an intricate response that affects diverse cognitive and affective domains, with the goal of improving survival chances in the light of changing environmental challenges. Here, we bridge animal data at cellular and systems levels with human work on brain-wide networks to propose a framework describing how stress-related neuromodulators trigger dynamic shifts in network balance, enabling an organism to comprehensively reallocate its neural resources according to cognitive demands. We argue that exposure to acute stress prompts a reallocation of resources to a salience network, promoting fear and vigilance, at the cost of an executive control network. After stress subsides, resource allocation to these two networks reverses, which normalizes emotional reactivity and enhances higher-order cognitive processes important for long-term survival.

  14. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted.

  15. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  16. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions.

    PubMed

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  17. Chronic Stress Induces a Hyporeactivity of the Autonomic Nervous System in Response to Acute Mental Stressor and Impairs Cognitive Performance in Business Executives

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  18. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  19. Hemodynamic and psychological responses to laboratory stressors in women: Assessing the roles of menstrual cycle phase, premenstrual symptomatology, and sleep characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Douglas, Haley A.C.; Shilling, Elizabeth A.; Woods, Nancy F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed whether premenstrual symptomatology and/or sleep characteristics explain increased luteal phase psychophysiological reactivity to laboratory stressors. We hypothesized that: (1) premenstrual symptoms and sleep characteristics would explain greater luteal versus follicular phase psychophysiological reactivity, (2) symptoms and sleep characteristics would differentially predict psychophysiological reactivity within each cycle phase, and (3) symptoms and sleep characteristics would interact to affect luteal but not follicular reactivity. Freely cycling women (N=87) completed two laboratory sessions, one follicular (cycle days 5–9) and one luteal (days 7–10 post-ovulation). We employed two stressors: one physical (cold pressor task) and the other cognitive in nature (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task). During testing, electrocardiography monitored heart rate (HR) while a timed and auto-inflatable sphygmomanometer assessed blood pressure (BP). Participants also completed a one-time self-report measure of sleep characteristics and premenstrual symptomatology as well as a measure of state anxiety pre-post stressor. Results revealed greater luteal HR and systolic BP reactivity compared to follicular reactivity (p<0.001 for both analyses), however neither premenstrual symptoms nor sleep characteristics explained this luteal increase. Within cycle analyses revealed that symptoms and sleep characteristics interacted to affect luteal phase state anxiety reactivity (R2=.32, p=.002) with negative affect being associated with more reactivity when sleep hours were low (β=.333, p=.04). Overall, significant relationships existed during the luteal phase only. Findings are discussed in terms of clinical utility and methodological challenges related to performing laboratory stress testing in women. PMID:23092740

  20. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

  1. EARLY REARING EXPERIENCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH VASOPRESSIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY BUT NOT REACTIVITY TO AN ACUTE NON-SOCIAL STRESSOR IN THE PRAIRIE VOLE

    PubMed Central

    Perkeybile, Allison M.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The early life experiences of an organism have the potential to alter their developmental trajectories. Perhaps one of the most powerful influences during this period is the parent-offspring relationship. Previous work in several mammalian species has demonstrated that parental care in early life and specifically maternal behavior can influence several adult outcomes in offspring, including affiliative and aggressive behavior, parental behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning and risk of psychopathology. We have previously demonstrated that naturally occurring variation in the type and amount of care given to offspring in a biparental species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), is related to social, anxiety-like, aggressive behaviors as well as HPA response to chronic and acute social stressors. Here we aim to determine the effects of early biparental care on HPA functioning and the interaction between early care and later reactivity to a forced swim test, an acute non-social stressor. Behavior during the swim test as well as several indicators of HPA activity, including plasma corticosterone (CORT), corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactivity (CRH-ir), and vasopressin immunoreactivity (AVP-ir) were measured. Results here indicate an effect of early experience on AVP-ir but not CRH-ir or plasma CORT. There were no differences in CORT levels between high-contact (HC) and low-contact (LC) males or females for either control animals or after a swim stressor. CRH-ir was higher in the central amygdala following a swim test but was not influenced by early care. However, AVP-ir was not influenced by exposure to a swim stressor but was affected by early parental care in a sex-dependent manner. Female HC offspring had increased AVP-ir in the SON while HC male offspring had decreased AVP-ir in the PVN compared to their LC counterparts. The differential response of CRH and AVP to early experience and later stress, and the lack of an interaction

  2. The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-10-01

    Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small short-lived bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.

  3. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-02-18

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders.

  4. Interaction between DRD2 C957T polymorphism and an acute psychosocial stressor on reward-related behavioral impulsivity.

    PubMed

    White, Melanie J; Lawford, Bruce R; Morris, C Phillip; Young, Ross McD

    2009-05-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T polymorphism CC genotype is associated with decreased striatal binding of DRD2 and executive function and working memory impairments in healthy adults. We investigated the relationships between C957T and acute stress with behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity in 72 young adults randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Homozygotes for 957C showed increased reward responsiveness after stress induction. They were also quicker when making immediate choices on the delay discounting task when stressed, compared with homozygotes who were not stressed. No effects were found for response inhibition, a dimension of impulsivity not related to extrinsic rewards. These data suggest that C957T is associated with a reward-related impulsivity endophenotype in response to acute psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine whether the greater sensitivity of 957C homozygotes to the effects of stress is mediated through dopamine release.

  5. Rates of cortisol increase and decrease in channel catfish and sunshine bass exposed to an acute confinement stressor.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth B; Small, Brian C

    2006-05-01

    Channel catfish and sunshine bass were exposed to a low-water stress event and allowed to recover in fresh water or a solution of metomidate (dl-1-(1-phenylethyl)-5-(metoxycarbonyl) imidazole hydrochloride), which inhibits the synthesis of cortisol. Change in time of plasma cortisol was used as an index of cortisol secretion and clearance. Plasma cortisol and glucose increased during the exposure to low-water stress in both fish, but the changes of both plasma components were more dramatic in sunshine bass. Exposure to metomidate during recovery resulted in a short-term increase in plasma glucose but differences between controls and metomidate-exposed fish were relatively minor thereafter. Cortisol began to decrease in catfish immediately after the removal of the stress but continued to increase for 15 min in sunshine bass recovering in fresh water and for 5 min in bass recovering in metomidate. Catfish recovering in fresh water had a cortisol elimination rate of -1.28 ng/mL/min compared with -2.45 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05) while sunshine bass recovering in fresh water had an elimination rate of -6.96 ng/mL/min compared with -4.50 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05). These data indicate that the rapid decrease of plasma cortisol after removal of the stressor is due to an almost immediate decrease of secretion, tissue uptake and a rapid renal loss due to the absence of a plasma binding protein.

  6. Dispositional Mindfulness Uncouples Physiological and Emotional Reactivity to a Laboratory Stressor and Emotional Reactivity to Executive Functioning Lapses in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Greg; Lavalle, Jayne; Gildawie, Kelsea; Greeson, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Both dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training may help to uncouple the degree to which distress is experienced in response to aversive internal experience and external events. Because emotional reactivity is a transdiagnostic process implicated in numerous psychological disorders, dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training could exert mental health benefits, in part, by buffering emotional reactivity. The present studies examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderates two understudied processes in stress reactivity research: the degree of concordance between subjective and physiological reactivity to a laboratory stressor (Study 1); and the degree of dysphoric mood reactivity to lapses in executive functioning in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, lower emotional reactivity to aversive experiences was observed among individuals scoring higher in mindfulness, particularly non-judging, relative to those scoring lower in mindfulness. These findings support the hypothesis that higher dispositional mindfulness fosters lower emotional reactivity. Results are discussed in terms of implications for applying mindfulness-based interventions to a range of psychological disorders in which people have difficulty regulating emotional reactions to stress. PMID:27087863

  7. Dispositional Mindfulness Uncouples Physiological and Emotional Reactivity to a Laboratory Stressor and Emotional Reactivity to Executive Functioning Lapses in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Greg; Lavalle, Jayne; Gildawie, Kelsea; Greeson, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Both dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training may help to uncouple the degree to which distress is experienced in response to aversive internal experience and external events. Because emotional reactivity is a transdiagnostic process implicated in numerous psychological disorders, dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training could exert mental health benefits, in part, by buffering emotional reactivity. The present studies examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderates two understudied processes in stress reactivity research: the degree of concordance between subjective and physiological reactivity to a laboratory stressor (Study 1); and the degree of dysphoric mood reactivity to lapses in executive functioning in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, lower emotional reactivity to aversive experiences was observed among individuals scoring higher in mindfulness, particularly non-judging, relative to those scoring lower in mindfulness. These findings support the hypothesis that higher dispositional mindfulness fosters lower emotional reactivity. Results are discussed in terms of implications for applying mindfulness-based interventions to a range of psychological disorders in which people have difficulty regulating emotional reactions to stress.

  8. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus): cDNA cloning, sites of expression and transcript abundance in corticosteroidogenic tissue after an acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Makoto; Zuccarelli, Micah D; Nakamura, Ikumi; Young, Graham

    2009-06-01

    The white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, is a primitive bony fish that is recognized as an important emerging species for aquaculture. However, many aspects of its stress and reproductive physiology remain unclear. These processes are controlled by various steroid hormones. In order to investigate the regulation of steroidogenesis associated with acute stress in sturgeon, a cDNA-encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) was isolated from white sturgeon. The putative amino acid sequence of sturgeon StAR shares high homology (over 60%) with other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped sturgeon StAR within Actinopterygii, but it was clearly segregated from teleost StARs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcripts were most abundant in yellow corpuscles found throughout the kidney and weaker signals were detected in gonad and kidney. Very weak signals were also detected in brain and spleen by quantitative real-time PCR. In situ hybridization revealed that StAR is expressed in the cells of yellow corpuscles. No significant changes in StAR gene expression were detected in response to an acute handling stress. These results suggest that StAR is highly conserved throughout vertebrates, but the expression of the functional protein during the stress response may be partially regulated post-transcriptionally.

  9. Acute effects of brisk walking on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and responses to a stressor and chocolate cue. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian H; Oliver, Anita J

    2009-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and psychological and physiological responses to stress and a chocolate cue. Following 3 days of chocolate abstinence, 25 regular chocolate eaters, took part, on separate days, in two randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: a 15-min brisk semi-self-paced brisk walk or a passive control. Following each, participants completed two tasks: the Stroop colour-word interference task, and unwrapping and handling a chocolate bar. Chocolate urges [State Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ-S); Rodríguez, S., Fernández, M. C., Cepeda-Benito, A., & Vila, J. (2005). Subjective and physiological reactivity to chocolate images in high and low chocolate cravers. Biological Psychology, 70, 9-18], affective activation [Felt Arousal Scale; Svebak, S., & Murgatroyd, S. (1985). Metamotivational dominance: a multimethod validation of reversal theory constructs. Journal of Perception and Social Psychology, 48, 107-116], affective pleasure/valence [Feelings Scale; Hardy, C. J., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: the measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 304-317], and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were assessed throughout. Exercise reduced chocolate urges and there was a trend towards attenuated urges in response to the chocolate cue. Exercise also attenuated SBP/DBP increases in response to the stressor and chocolate cue. The effects on urges varied across the dimensions of the FCQ-S.

  10. [Task analysis of clinical laboratory physician in acute hospital].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junko

    2013-06-01

    Appropriate communications between clinical divisions and clinical laboratories are required to improve the quality of health care in hospitals. In this paper, the routine work of a clinical laboratory physician is presented. 1. In order to support attentive medical practice, we have established a consultation service system for handling questions from medical staff. The main clients are doctors and clinical laboratory technologists. 2. In order to improve the quality of infectious disease analysis, we have recommended obtaining two or more blood culture sets to achieve good sensitivity. The order rate of multiple blood culture sets increased 90% or more in 2011. 3. In order to provide appropriate blood transfusion, we intervene in inappropriate transfusion plans. 4. In order to support prompt decision making, we send E-mails to physicians regarding critical values. 5. We send reports on the morphology of cells(peripheral blood and bone marrow), IEP, flow cytometry, irregular antibodies, and so on. It has been realized that doctors want to know better solutions immediately rather than the best solution tomorrow morning. We would like to contribute to improving the quality of health care in Saitama Cooperative Hospital as clinical laboratory physicians.

  11. Acute stress-induced sensitization of the pituitary-adrenal response to heterotypic stressors: independence of glucocorticoid release and activation of CRH1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Belda, Xavier; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    A single exposure to some severe stressors causes sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to novel stressors. However, the putative factors involved in stress-induced sensitization are not known. In the present work we studied in adult male rats the possible role of glucocorticoids and CRH type 1 receptor (CRH-R1), using an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis (metyrapone, MET), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU38486 (mifepristone) and the non-peptide CRH-R1 antagonist R121919. In a first experiment we demonstrated with different doses of MET (40-150 mg/kg) that the highest dose acted as a pharmacological stressor greatly increasing ACTH release and altering the normal circadian pattern of HPA hormones, but no dose affected ACTH responsiveness to a novel environment as assessed 3 days after drug administration. In a second experiment, we found that MET, at a dose (75 mg/kg) that blocked the corticosterone response to immobilization (IMO), did not alter IMO-induced ACTH sensitization. Finally, neither the GR nor the CRH-R1 antagonists blocked IMO-induced ACTH sensitization on the day after IMO. Thus, a high dose of MET, in contrast to IMO, was unable to sensitize the HPA response to a novel environment despite the huge activation of the HPA axis caused by the drug. Neither a moderate dose of MET that markedly reduced corticosterone response to IMO, nor the blockade of GR or CRH-R1 receptors was able to alter stress-induced HPA sensitization. Therefore, stress-induced sensitization is not the mere consequence of a marked HPA activation and does not involve activation of glucocorticoid or CRH-R1 receptors.

  12. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  13. Acute stressor exposure modifies plasma exosome-associated heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) and microRNA (miR-142-5p and miR-203).

    PubMed

    Beninson, Lida A; Brown, Peter N; Loughridge, Alice B; Saludes, Jonel P; Maslanik, Thomas; Hills, Abigail K; Woodworth, Tyler; Craig, Wendy; Yin, Hang; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes, biologically active nanoparticles (40-100 nm) released by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, contain a variety of proteins and small, non-coding RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). Exposure to various pathogens and disease states modifies the composition and function of exosomes, but there are no studies examining in vivo exosomal changes evoked by the acute stress response. The present study reveals that exposing male Fisher 344 rats to an acute stressor modulates the protein and miRNA profile of circulating plasma exosomes, specifically increasing surface heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) and decreasing miR-142-5p and -203. The selected miRNAs and Hsp72 are associated with immunomodulatory functions and are likely a critical component of stress-evoked modulation of immunity. Further, we demonstrate that some of these stress-induced modifications in plasma exosomes are mediated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (ADRs), since drug-mediated blockade of the receptors significantly attenuates the stress-induced modifications of exosomal Hsp72 and miR-142-5p. Together, these findings demonstrate that activation of the acute stress response modifies the proteomic and miRNA profile of exosomes released into the circulation.

  14. Acute Stressor Exposure Modifies Plasma Exosome-Associated Heat Shock Protein 72 (Hsp72) and microRNA (miR-142-5p and miR-203)

    PubMed Central

    Beninson, Lida A.; Brown, Peter N.; Loughridge, Alice B.; Saludes, Jonel P.; Maslanik, Thomas; Hills, Abigail K.; Woodworth, Tyler; Craig, Wendy; Yin, Hang; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes, biologically active nanoparticles (40–100 nm) released by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, contain a variety of proteins and small, non-coding RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). Exposure to various pathogens and disease states modifies the composition and function of exosomes, but there are no studies examining in vivo exosomal changes evoked by the acute stress response. The present study reveals that exposing male Fisher 344 rats to an acute stressor modulates the protein and miRNA profile of circulating plasma exosomes, specifically increasing surface heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) and decreasing miR-142-5p and -203. The selected miRNAs and Hsp72 are associated with immunomodulatory functions and are likely a critical component of stress-evoked modulation of immunity. Further, we demonstrate that some of these stress-induced modifications in plasma exosomes are mediated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (ADRs), since drug-mediated blockade of the receptors significantly attenuates the stress-induced modifications of exosomal Hsp72 and miR-142-5p. Together, these findings demonstrate that activation of the acute stress response modifies the proteomic and miRNA profile of exosomes released into the circulation. PMID:25259839

  15. [CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS BILIARY ETIOLOGY COURSE IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS].

    PubMed

    Godlevskiy, A I; Savolyuk, S I; Tomashevskiy, Ya V

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of cytopathic hypoxia markers in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) biliary etiology (BE), depending on the presence of concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM), which is an independent factor of premorbid severity increase and increase in the degree of operational and anesthetic risk. Markers of cytopathic hypoxia use as methods for early diagnosis of acute liver failure (ALF) and monitoring the effectiveness of its correction promising. In terms of cytopathic hypoxia may be at the stage of laboratory diagnostics to distinguish between destructive and non-destructive forms APBE, and for markers of endothelial dysfunction--destructive forms on the area and depth of destruction of the pancreas.

  16. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  17. Trait Hostility and Acute Inflammatory Responses to Stress in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Dominique; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Boisclair Demarble, Julie; D’Antono, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Hostility has been associated with higher basal levels of inflammation. The present study evaluated the association of hostility with acute stress-induced changes in inflammatory activity. One hundred and ninety-nine healthy men and women, aged 19–64 years, were exposed to a stress protocol involving four interpersonal stressors. Participants completed the Cook-Medley Hostility questionnaire and provided two blood samples for the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, Il-6, MPO, TNF-α, MCP-1, Il-8, Il-10, and Il-18), prior to and following exposure to a standardized stress protocol. In univariate analyses, hostility was associated with significantly higher TNF-α, but lower Il-8 and Il-18 values post-stress, though only Il-8 remained significant after controlling for baseline differences. In multivariate analyses, a significant Age by Hostility interaction emerged for Il-6, while sex moderated the relation between hostility and Il-10 reactivity. Following stress, hostility was associated with greater pro-inflammatory Il-6 activity among younger individuals and to decreased anti-inflammatory Il-10 activity in women. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to evaluate their implication for disease. PMID:27270459

  18. Trait Hostility and Acute Inflammatory Responses to Stress in the Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Girard, Dominique; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Boisclair Demarble, Julie; D'Antono, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Hostility has been associated with higher basal levels of inflammation. The present study evaluated the association of hostility with acute stress-induced changes in inflammatory activity. One hundred and ninety-nine healthy men and women, aged 19-64 years, were exposed to a stress protocol involving four interpersonal stressors. Participants completed the Cook-Medley Hostility questionnaire and provided two blood samples for the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, Il-6, MPO, TNF-α, MCP-1, Il-8, Il-10, and Il-18), prior to and following exposure to a standardized stress protocol. In univariate analyses, hostility was associated with significantly higher TNF-α, but lower Il-8 and Il-18 values post-stress, though only Il-8 remained significant after controlling for baseline differences. In multivariate analyses, a significant Age by Hostility interaction emerged for Il-6, while sex moderated the relation between hostility and Il-10 reactivity. Following stress, hostility was associated with greater pro-inflammatory Il-6 activity among younger individuals and to decreased anti-inflammatory Il-10 activity in women. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to evaluate their implication for disease.

  19. Effects of voluntary wheel running on heart rate, body temperature, and locomotor activity in response to acute and repeated stressor exposures in rats.

    PubMed

    Masini, Cher V; Nyhuis, Tara J; Sasse, Sarah K; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Stress often negatively impacts physical and mental health but it has been suggested that voluntary physical activity may benefit health by reducing some of the effects of stress. The present experiments tested whether voluntary exercise can reduce heart rate, core body temperature and locomotor activity responses to acute (novelty or loud noise) or repeated stress (loud noise). After 6 weeks of running-wheel access, rats exposed to a novel environment had reduced heart rate, core body temperature, and locomotor activity responses compared to rats housed under sedentary conditions. In contrast, none of these measures were different between exercised and sedentary rats following acute 30-min noise exposures, at either 85 or 98 dB. Following 10 weeks of running-wheel access, both groups displayed significant habituation of all these responses to 10 consecutive daily 30-min presentations of 98 dB noise stress. However, the extent of habituation of all three responses was significantly enhanced in exercised compared to sedentary animals on the last exposure to noise. These results suggest that in physically active animals, under some conditions, acute responses to stress exposure may be reduced, and response habituation to repeated stress may be enhanced, which ultimately may reduce the negative and cumulative impact of stress.

  20. Effects of stressor controllability on diurnal physiological rhythms.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert S; Christianson, John P; Maslanik, Thomas M; Maier, Steve F; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2013-03-15

    Disruptions in circadian and diurnal rhythms are associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders and stressor exposure can disrupt these rhythms. The controllability of the stressor can modulate various behavioral and neurochemical responses to stress. Uncontrollable, but not controllable, stress produces behaviors in rats that resemble symptoms of anxiety and depression. Whether acute stress-induced disruptions in physiological rhythms are sensitive to controllability of the stressor, however, remains unknown. To examine the role of controllability in diurnal rhythm disruption, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with Data Sciences International (DSI) biotelemetry devices. Real-time measurements were obtained before, during and after exposure to a controllable or yoked uncontrollable stressor. Controllable and uncontrollable stress equally disrupted diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature but not heart rate. The diurnal heart rate the day following stressor exposure was flattened to a greater extent and was significantly higher in rats with control over stress suggesting a relationship between stressor controllability and the heart rate response. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that acute stress-induced disruptions in diurnal physiological rhythms likely contribute little to the behavioral and affective consequences of stress that are sensitive to stressor controllability.

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Methods in Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Groselj-Grenc, Mojca; Repše, Stane; Vidmar, Dubravka; Derganc, Metka

    2007-01-01

    Aim To compare the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination, white blood cell and differential count, and C-reactive protein as routine tests for acute appendicitis with that of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ultrasonography. Methods Eighty-two children were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Intensive Care, Ljubljana, Slovenia because of suspected acute appendicitis. Among them, 49 children underwent surgery for acute appendicitis and 33 had abdominal pain but were not treated surgically and were diagnosed with non-specific abdominal pain or mesenteric lymphadenitis on sonography. Clinical signs of acute appendicitis were determined by surgeons on admission. White blood cell count and differential and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 were measured and abdominal ultrasonography was performed. Results Ultrasonography showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (92.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84.5%-98.0%, Bayes’ theorem), followed by serum IL-6 concentration (77.6% [67.1-86.1%] receiver-operating characteristic [ROC] curve analysis), clinical signs (69.5% [59.5-79.0%] Bayes’ theorem), white blood cell count (68.4% [57.2-78.3%] ROC curve analysis), and serum C-reactive protein concentration (63.7% [52.1-74.3%] ROC curve analysis). Ultrasonography achieved also the highest specificity (95.2%) and positive (93.8%) and negative (93.3%) predictive values, whereas clinical signs showed the highest sensitivity (93.9%). Conclusion Ultrasonography was a more accurate diagnostic method than IL-6 serum concentration, laboratory marker with the highest diagnostic accuracy in our study, and hence it should be a part of the diagnostic procedure for acute appendicitis in children. PMID:17589979

  2. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  3. Positive emotional style and subjective, cardiovascular and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Sophie; Hamer, Mark; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Mitchell, Ellen S; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The relationships between positive emotional style and acute salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to laboratory stress tasks were examined in 40 young women (mean age=28.8 years). Positive emotional style (PES) was measured by aggregating daily positive mood rating scales over one week. Negative affect was assessed with the short form Profile of Mood States. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a 5 min speech task and a 5 min mirror tracing task. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate responses were monitored using a Finometer during baseline, tasks and recovery. Higher PES was associated with more complete diastolic BP recovery (p=0.027) and lower acute cortisol response to stress (p=0.018), after adjusting for baseline measures, age, BMI and negative affect. Individuals with higher PES reported lower subjective tension during the tasks and perceived the tasks as more controllable. There were no differences in ratings of task involvement or in objective measures of task performance. A retrospective measure of positive affect (POMS vigour) was associated with diastolic BP recovery but not cortisol responses or subjective tension. The findings suggest that positive affective traits, assessed using repeated assessments of daily mood, are related to adaptive recovery from acute psychological stress. Our results reinforce evidence linking positive affect with adaptive diastolic BP recovery, while extending the results to cortisol. Investigations into the biological correlates of affective traits should consider utilising repeated measures of experienced affect.

  4. Linking stressors and ecological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Butcher, J.B.; Harrass, M.; Landis, W.G.; Power, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Wenger, R.; Foran, Jeffery A.; Ferenc, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    To characterize risk, it is necessary to quantify the linkages and interactions between chemical, physical and biological stressors and endpoints in the conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment (ERA). This can present challenges in a multiple stressor analysis, and it will not always be possible to develop a quantitative stressor-response profile. This review commences with a conceptual representation of the problem of developing a linkage analysis for multiple stressors and responses. The remainder of the review surveys a variety of mathematical and statistical methods (e.g., ranking methods, matrix models, multivariate dose-response for mixtures, indices, visualization, simulation modeling and decision-oriented methods) for accomplishing the linkage analysis for multiple stressors. Describing the relationships between multiple stressors and ecological effects are critical components of 'effects assessment' in the ecological risk assessment framework.

  5. Acute flaccid paralysis laboratorial surveillance in a polio-free country: Brazil, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ivanildo P; Burlandy, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Silas S; Nunes, Amanda M; Sousa, Cristiane; da Silva, Elaine M; Souza, Jaqueline G A; de Paula, Valdemar A; Oliveira, Ivone C M; Tavares, Fernando Neto; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2017-03-04

    The last case of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus in Brazil occurred in 1989. The interruption of the indigenous poliovirus transmission was obtained through mass immunization campaigns to eligible children and an active epidemiological and laboratorial surveillance of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children under 15 y of age. This paper describes and evaluates the performance of the AFP surveillance system in different geographic areas of Brazil between 2005 and 2014, using indicators recommended by WHO. AFP surveillance indicators as well as virological investigation of polio and non-polio enteroviruses in stool samples received in the laboratory were assessed from 2005-2014. During the period, 5463 cases of AFP were investigated. Of these, 55% were males and 45% were females. Those under 5 y of age represented 48% of all cases reported and investigated. AFP notification rate was within the acceptable values with mean value of 1.3 (North), 1.4 (Northeast), 1.1 (Southern), 1.0 (Southeast) and 1.4 (Midwest) cases of AFP per 100.000 population aged 15 y as well as the adequacy of fecal specimens received in the laboratory. Sabin- related polioviruses accounted for 1.7% of the isolates while, 6.7% were non-polio enterovirus with the values ranging from 5.0% to 8.9 %. No wild-type polio was found. The AFP epidemiological and laboratorial surveillance activities have been kept at appropriate levels in Brazil. These data are a very strong indication, which supports the status of country free of polio.

  6. Multiple stressors in the Sacramento River watershed.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D E

    1998-01-01

    Aquatic biota in the Sacramento River watershed are stressed by diversion of river flows, by historical mining resulting in cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, and, more recently, contamination by agricultural and urban chemical runoff. In addition, the proposed redirection of drainage of saline waters--containing selenium--from the western slope of the San Joaquin River into the Delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers could add to the stress on resident organisms. These combined stressors have led to deterioration in surface water quality and the aquatic habitat. The potential interaction of these stressors, coupled with invasions of foreign species and the export of juvenile fish into aqueducts, has driven several species of fish to near extinction in the system. Effects of historical contamination by heavy metals are potentially exacerbated by presence of organophosphate pesticides, at concentrations exceeding National Academy of Sciences recommendations, throughout the lower watershed and the San Francisco Bay. The Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, an introduced non-indigenous species has apparently become a preferred food item of the sturgeon, Accipenser transmontanus, an important sport and aquaculture species. Since this introduction, sturgeon body burdens for selenium have increased dramatically and analytical chemistry of P. amurensis indicates that these organisms are effective bioaccumulators of selenium. This review examines potential ecotoxicity associated with multiple stressors in the watershed. Data from field monitoring, laboratory toxicity assays with ambient water, and ecotoxicologic investigations are reviewed. Potential designs for multiple stressor investigations are discussed. The information presented on this watershed illustrates the challenge to investigators seeking to evaluate multiple stressor effects on riverine and estuarine organisms.

  7. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute community-acquired urinary tract infections in adult hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Piljic, Dilista; Piljic, Dragan; Ahmetagic, Sead; Ljuca, Farid; Porobic Jahic, Humera

    2010-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) cause a great number of morbidity and mortality. These infections are serious complications in pregnancy, patients with diabetes, polycystic kidneys disease, sickle cell anaemia, kidney transplant and in patients with functional or structural anomalies of the urinary tract. The aim of this investigation was to determine a dominant causative agents of UTI and some of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute community-acquired UTI in adult hospitalised patients. We studied 200 adult patients with acute community-acquired UTI hospitalised in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases Tuzla from January 2006 to December 2007. The patients were divided into two groups: a group of patients with E. coli UTI (147) and a group of patients with non-E. coli UTI (53). In these two groups, the symptoms and signs of illness, blood test and urine analysis results were analysed. Our results have shown that the patients with E. coli UTI frequently had fever higher than 38,5 degrees C (p<0,0001), chills (p=0,0349), headache (p=0,0499), cloudy urine (p<0,0001), proteinuria (p=0,0011) and positive nitrite-test (p=0,0002). The patients with non-E. coli UTI frequently had fever lower than 38,5 degrees C (p<0,0001) and urine specific gravity <1015 (p=0,0012). There was no significant difference in blood test results between patients with E. coli and non-E. coli UTI. These clinical and laboratory findings can lead us to early etiological diagnosis of these UTI before urine culture detection of causative agents, which takes several days. Early etiological diagnosis of the E. coli and non-E. coli UTI is necessary for an urgent administration of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. This is very important in prevention of irreversible kidney damage, prolonged treatment, complications, as well as recidives and chronicity of the illness.

  8. Class III Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Acute Leukemia – Biological Functions and Modern Laboratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Rimma

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex disease caused by deregulation of multiple signaling pathways. Mutations in class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been implicated in alteration of cell signals concerning the growth and differentiation of leukemic cells. Point mutations, insertions, or deletions of RTKs as well as chromosomal translocations induce constitutive activation of the receptor, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid blasts. Aberrations can occur in all domains of RTKs causing either the ligand-independent activation or mimicking the activated conformation. The World Health Organization recommended including RTK mutations in the AML classification since their detection in routine laboratory diagnostics is a major factor for prognostic stratification of patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods are well-validated for the detection of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations and can easily be applied for other RTKs. However, when methodological limitations are reached, accessory techniques can be applied. For a higher resolution and more quantitative approach compared to agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR fragments can be separated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore, high-resolution melting and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography are reliable presequencing screening methods that reduce the sample amount for Sanger sequencing. Because traditional DNA sequencing is time-consuming, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an innovative modern possibility to analyze a high amount of samples simultaneously in a short period of time. At present, standardized procedures for NGS are not established, but when this barrier is resolved, it will provide a new platform for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnostic of RTK mutations in patients with AML. In this article, the biological and physiological role of RTK mutations in AML as well as possible laboratory methods for their detection will be

  9. Cognitive Appraisals and Emotions Predict Cortisol and Immune Responses: A Meta-Analysis of Acute Laboratory Social Stressors and Emotion Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Models of stress and health suggest that emotions mediate the effects of stress on health; yet meta-analytic reviews have not confirmed these relationships. Categorizations of emotions along broad dimensions such as valence (e.g., positive and negative affect) may obscure important information about the effects of specific emotions on physiology.…

  10. Ambulatory and Challenge-Associated Heart Rate Variability Measures Predict Cardiac Responses to “Real-World” Acute Emotional Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dikecligil, GN; Mujica-Parodi, LR

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) measures homeostatic regulation of the autonomic nervous system in response to perturbation, and has been previously shown to quantify risk for cardiac events. In spite of known interactions between stress vulnerability, psychiatric illness, and cardiac health, however, to our knowledge this is the first study to directly compare the value of laboratory HRV in predicting autonomic modulation of “real-world” emotional stress. Methods We recorded ECG on 56 subjects: first, within the laboratory, and then during an acute emotional stressor: a first-time skydive. Laboratory sessions included two five-minute ECG recordings separated by one ambulatory 24-hour recording. To test the efficacy of introducing a mild emotional challenge, during each of the five-minute laboratory recordings subjects viewed either aversive or benign images. Following the laboratory session, subjects participated in the acute stressor wearing a holter ECG. Artifact-free ECGs (N=33) were analyzed for HRV, then statistically compared across laboratory and acute stress sessions. Results There were robust correlations (r=0.7-0.8) between the laboratory and acute stress HRV, indicating that the two most useful paradigms (long-term wake, followed by short-term challenge) also were most sensitive to distinct components of the acute stressor: the former correlated with the fine-tuned regulatory modulation occurring immediately prior and following the acute stressor, while the latter correlated with gross amplitude and recovery. Conclusions Our results confirmed the efficacy of laboratory-acquired HRV in predicting autonomic response to acute emotional stress, and suggest that ambulatory and challenge protocols enhance predictive value. PMID:20299007

  11. Disease caused by environmental stressors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Goodyear, C.P.; Kinne, O.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the terms 'stress' and 'stressor' is sometimes inconsistent (e.g., Pickering, 1981). The term 'stressor' should be used to describe environmental or other factor intensities severe enough to require a compensatory response at any level of biological organization. A stressor is normally extrinsic. The term 'stress' indicates the organismic response initiated by the stressor, also at any level of biological organization. Thus, the original concept of Selye (1950) that stress is 'the sum of all the physiological responses by which an animal tries to maintain or re-establish a normal metabolism in the face of a physical or chemical force' has evolved into the concept that stress is the biological effect of any force that challenges homeostatic or stabilizing processes and extends them beyond their normal limits, at any level of biological organization - individual, population, or ecosystem (Esch and Hazen, 1978; Bayne, 1980).

  12. Identification of Internal and External Stressors in Parents of Newborns in Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Grosik, Cindy; Snyder, Denise; Cleary, Gerard M; Breckenridge, Diane M; Tidwell, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents’ self-reported stressors as they experience their baby’s course in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Miles, Funk & Carlson (1993) Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit was used to survey 119 parents of neonatal infants, born at 24 weeks to full term, in the 28-bed level 3 NICU of a mid-Atlantic, Magnet-designated acute care hospital with 665 licensed beds. The newly developed Grosik, Snyder, Cleary and Tidwell NICU External Stressors and Stress Reduction Scale (2006), a 5-point Likert scale, was also used. Intrapersonal and interpersonal stressors were categorized as internal (occurring within the NICU) and extrapersonal (occurring outside the NICU) as external stressors. The findings were used to develop a new practice in the NICU to help reduce parental stressors. PMID:24355889

  13. Trait reflection predicts interleukin-6 response to a social-evaluative stressor.

    PubMed

    Woody, Alex; Figueroa, Wilson S; Benencia, Fabian; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2016-02-01

    Past work has linked negative repetitive thought (worry, rumination) about stressors to sustained stress responses. Less is known about the effects of neutral types of repetitive thought (e.g., reflection) on physiological stress responses. The present study examined whether greater trait reflection was associated with a lower inflammatory response to an acute psychosocial stressor. Thirty-four healthy undergraduate women completed a speech stressor, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were assessed before and after the stressor. Higher levels of reflection predicted lower IL-6 responses 1h after the stressor. Stressor appraisal was not a significant mediator. These preliminary findings stand in contrast to existing evidence that other forms of repetitive thought like worry and rumination may exacerbate or prolong the inflammatory stress response and indicate that reflection is a notable factor worth considering when examining the relationship between stress, inflammation, and health.

  14. Optimizing laboratory test utilization in long-term acute care hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Brian S.; Grigonis, Antony M.; Dawson, Amanda; Jing, Yuqing; Hammerman, Samuel I.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory tests can be considered inappropriate if overused or when repeated, unnecessary “routine” testing occurs. For chronically critically ill patients treated in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs), inappropriate testing may result in unnecessary blood draws that could potentially harm patients or increase infections. A quality improvement initiative was designed to increase physician awareness of their patterns of lab utilization in the LTACH environment. Within a large network of LTACHs, 9 hospitals were identified as having higher patterns of lab utilization than other LTACHs. Meetings were held with administrative staff and physicians, who designed and implemented hospital-specific strategies to address lab utilization. Lab utilization was measured in units of lab tests ordered per inpatient day (lab UPPD) for 8 months prior to the initial meeting and 7 months after the meeting. A repeated measures mixed model determined that postintervention lab utilization improved, on average and adjusted by case mix index, by 0.37 lab UPPD (t = −3.61, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.58) compared to the preintervention period. Overall, the case mix index 8 months prior to the intervention was no different than it was 7 months after the initial meeting (t[8] = −0.96, P = 0.37). Patient safety and outcome measures, including percentage of patients weaned from a ventilator, readmission rates, central catheter utilization rates, and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other multidrug resistant organisms, showed no significant change. Hospital staff meetings focused on lab utilization and the development and deployment of tailored lab utilization strategies were associated with LTACHs achieving significantly lower lab utilization without negatively impacting quality outcomes. PMID:28127124

  15. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  16. AN APPROACH TO PREDICT RISKS TO WILDLIFE POPULATIONS FROM MERCURY AND OTHER STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) is developing tools for predicting risks of multiple stressors to wildlife populations, which support the development of risk-based protective criteria. NHEERL's res...

  17. THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    Susan M. Cormier, ORD/NRMRL, Susan B. Norton, ORD/NCEA, Glenn W. Suter, II ORD/NCEA, William Swietlik, OW lOST

    Science Question(s):

    MYP Science Question: How can multiple and possibly related causes of biological ...

  18. Urban Stormwater Stressors, Sources & BMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper covers the origin and values of the various pollutants or stressors in urban stormwater including flow (shear force), pathogens, suspended solids/sediment, toxicants (organic and metals), nutrients, oxygen demanding substances, and coarse solids. A broad overview of t...

  19. Autism and Potential Family Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Pamela; Drew, Clifford

    1994-01-01

    Examines some effects that diagnosis of autism may bring to family and some of potential family stressors that presence of autistic child may present. Discusses problem areas, including communication, bonding, early sleep patterns, unpredictable behavior, difficulties created by changes in routine, splinter effects, respite, and financial matters.…

  20. Routine Laboratory Screening for Acute and Recent HIV Infection in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L.; Segura, Eddy R.; Montano, Silvia M.; Leon, Segundo R.; Kochel, Tadeusz; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Alcantara, Jorge; Cáceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior to implementing screening programs for acute HIV infection in developing countries, key issues including cost, feasibility, and public health impact must be determined. We compared fourth-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with pooled HIV-1 RNA assays for the detection of acute and early HIV infection in counseling and testing populations in Lima, Peru. Methods Adults presenting for HIV testing at designated clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru were offered additional screening for acute HIV infection. All serum samples were tested with fourth-generation Ag/Ab EIA and confirmed by line immunoassay (LIA). Negative specimens were combined into 50-sample pools for HIV-1 RNA screening by PCR analysis in standard pooling algorithms. RNA-positive samples were re-tested with a third-generation EIA to evaluate the relative sensitivity of standard testing procedures. Results Between 2007 and 2008 we recruited 1,191 participants. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.2% (38/1191; 2.2-4.2%) overall and 10.6% (25/237; CI=6.6-14.5%) among men who reported sex with men (MSM). The prevalence of acute or recent HIV infection was 0.2% (CI=0-0.4%) overall and 0.8% (CI=0-2.0%) among MSM. Compared with third generation EIA testing, both fourth generation EIA and RNA PCR increased the rate of HIV case identification by 5.6% overall and by 8.0% within the subpopulation of MSM. Conclusions Screening for acute HIV infection within Peru's resource-limited public health system was acceptable and detected a high prevalence of acute and recent HIV infection among MSM. Additional efforts are needed to screen for and prevent transmission of HIV among MSM in Peru during the acute seroconversion stage. PMID:21113069

  1. Exploring the Stressors of New Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrivee, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the different stressors and anxieties facing new librarians. It also addresses the various ways that new librarians can cope with location, emotional, and work-related stressors. The article is broken into four different categories of stress; some stressors have been more explored than others. The research is based on an…

  2. Ranking ecological risks of multiple chemical stressors on amphibians.

    PubMed

    Fedorenkova, Anastasia; Vonk, J Arie; Lenders, H J Rob; Creemers, Raymond C M; Breure, Anton M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-06-01

    Populations of amphibians have been declining worldwide since the late 1960s. Despite global concern, no studies have quantitatively assessed the major causes of this decline. In the present study, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to analyze the sensitivity of anurans for ammonium, nitrate, heavy metals (cadmium, copper), pesticides (18 compounds), and acidification (pH) based on laboratory toxicity data. Ecological risk (ER) was calculated as the probability that a measured environmental concentration of a particular stressor in habitats where anurans were observed would exceed the toxic effect concentrations derived from the species sensitivity distributions. The assessment of ER was used to rank the stressors according to their potential risk to anurans based on a case study of Dutch freshwater bodies. The derived ERs revealed that threats to populations of anurans decreased in the sequence of pH, copper, diazinon, ammonium, and endosulfan. Other stressors studied were of minor importance. The method of deriving ER by combining field observation data and laboratory data provides insight into potential threats to species in their habitats and can be used to prioritize stressors, which is necessary to achieve effective management in amphibian conservation.

  3. National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ecosystems Research Division of EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory, conducts research on organic and inorganic chemicals, greenhouse gas biogeochemical cycles, and land use perturbations that create stressor exposures and potentia risk

  4. Cortisol responses to naturalistic and laboratory stress in student teachers: comparison with a non-stress control day.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-04-01

    Ambulatory assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute natural stressors yield evidence on stress regulation with high ecological validity. Sampling of salivary cortisol is a standard technique in this field. In 21 healthy student teachers, we assessed cortisol responses to a demonstration lesson. On a control day, sampling was repeated at analogous times. Additionally, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed on both days. Participants were also exposed to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, and rated their individual levels of chronic work stress. In pre-to-post-stress assessment, cortisol levels declined after the lesson. However, post-stress cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with those on the control day. Also, the Trier Social Stress Test yielded higher cortisol responses when using the control day as reference baseline. Associations between the CAR and chronic stress measures were observed solely on the control day. There were no significant associations between cortisol responses to the natural and laboratory stressors. Our results indicate that a control day might be an important complement in laboratory but especially in ambulatory stress research. Furthermore, associations between chronic stress measures and the CAR might be obscured by acute stress exposure. Finally, responses to the laboratory stressor do not seem to mirror natural stress responses.

  5. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P.; Swan, Gary E.; Reid, Mark W.; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps < 0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. PMID:22172638

  6. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  7. Comparison of catheterization laboratory initiated abciximab and eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes (an ACUITY substudy).

    PubMed

    Kirtane, Ajay J; Parise, Helen; Mehran, Roxana; Moses, Jeffrey W; Fahy, Martin; Bertrand, Michel E; Ohman, E Magnus; White, Harvey D; Feit, Frederick; Colombo, Antonio; McLaurin, Brent T; Cox, David A; Ware, James H; Pocock, Stuart J; Lansky, Alexandra J; Stone, Gregg W

    2010-07-15

    Abciximab and eptifibatide have been shown to reduce ischemic complications compared with heparin alone in patients with acute coronary syndromes who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether 1 agent is safer and/or more effective has not been prospectively examined. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes related to downstream glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment selection during percutaneous coronary intervention in 2,211 patients with moderate and high-risk acute coronary syndromes in the prospective multicenter Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trial. The protocol permitted operator selection of abciximab (n = 835) or eptifibatide (n = 1,376) for routine use in the trial. Multivariate and propensity-based adjustments were used to assess the independent association of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment selection with prespecified study end points. Compared to patients receiving eptifibatide, those administered abciximab were older, more likely to be enrolled outside of North America, more frequently had biomarker elevations and ST-segment deviation, but had fewer baseline cardiac risk factors and previous revascularization procedures. After multivariate propensity-based adjustment, abciximab was independently associated with significantly fewer net clinical adverse events (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.90, p = 0.01), mediated by composite ischemia (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.98, p = 0.04) and major bleeding (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 1.00, p = 0.051). In conclusion, in this prespecified but nonrandomized comparison in patients with acute coronary syndromes who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with catheterization laboratory initiation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, the use of abciximab rather than eptifibatide was associated with improved clinical outcomes at 30 days. These findings should be viewed as

  8. The effects of ergonomic stressors on process tool maintenance and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1998-03-31

    This study examines ergonomic stressors associated with front-end process tool maintenance, relates them to decreased machine utilization, and proposes solution strategies to reduce their negative impact on productivity. Member company ergonomists observed technicians performing field maintenance tasks on seven different bottleneck tools and recorded ergonomic stressors using SEMaCheck, a graphics-based, integrated checklist developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The top ten stressors were prioritized according to a cost formula that accounted for difficulty, time, and potential errors. Estimates of additional time on a task caused by ergonomic stressors demonstrated that machine utilization could be increased from 6% to 25%. Optimal solution strategies were formulated based on redesign budget, stressor cost, and estimates of solution costs and benefits

  9. Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Muriale, L; Lee, E; Genovese, J; Trend, S

    1996-12-01

    A fatal accident involving concentrated hydrofluoric acid in a palynological laboratory is described. Similar deaths due to dermal exposure to concentrated hydrofluoric acid have been reported in the literature. It is evident that rigorous control measures including proper personal protective equipment and first aid are of utmost importance in the prevention of death and injury when handling hydrofluoric acid. Possible factors that may have contributed to the accident are reviewed.

  10. Inducing jet lag in the laboratory - Patterns of adjustment to an acute shift in routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Moline, Margaret L.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    Eight middle-aged males were studied in a temporal isolation experimental lasting 15 d. After 5 d and nights of entrainment to his own habitual routine, each subject experienced an acute unheralded 6-h phase advance in routine, accomplished by truncating his sixth sleep episode. For the remaining 10 d of the study, subjects were held to a routine 6-h phase advanced to the original. Significant symptoms of jet lag appeared in mood, performance efficiency, sleep, and circadian temperature rhythms. When plotted as a function to days postshift, some variables showed a fairly monotonic recovery to baseline levels, but other variables showed a zig-zag recovery pattern, suggesting the interaction of two competing processes, and reinforcing the need for greater sophistication in the development of jet-lag coping strategies.

  11. Acute toxicity of drainage ditch water from a Washington State cranberry-growing region to Daphnia pulex in laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Wood, Barbara; Stark, John D

    2002-10-01

    High concentrations of organophosphorous insecticides resulting from cranberry bog applications were detected in the Grayland Drainage Ditch (GDD) system in Grayland, Washington State, during the 1994-1996 Washington State Department of Ecology Pesticide Monitoring Program. This drainage ditch system drains cranberry bogs and enters the Pacific Ocean via the North Cove and Supon Inlet. Concerns about the impact of these pesticides on human and environmental health led to this investigation of the potential impact on an indicator species, Daphnia pulex. To determine the toxic effects of multiple pesticides entering the GDD, standardized laboratory toxicity tests with D. pulex were conducted concurrently with the Washington State Department of Ecology pesticide sampling. Concentrations of three insecticides, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl, were the highest ever detected in state waters. The GDD water was found to cause acute toxicity in 33% of the laboratory bioassays conducted. Regression analysis, however, detected a poor correlation between total insecticide detected and percentage mortality of D. pulex at the two drainage ditch sites studied, Grays Harbor County site and the Pacific County site. However, the relationship between mortality of D. pulex and detected concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos were significant. Sampling schedules for chemical analysis and bioassay testing appear to be the primary reason that statistical analysis failed to correlate mortality with detected OP pesticide concentrations. Grab samples used in toxicity testing may over- or underestimate actual concentrations of contaminants present in the system being studied.

  12. Clinical characteristics and laboratory analyses of acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;21)(p11;q22)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHIFEN; ZOU, JIANWEN; LI, YUANTANG; LIU, ZHANFENG; XU, RUI; TIAN, WENJUN; ZHAO, ZONGCHEN; SUN, HUI; HAN, JINGYING; WANG, JIA; ZHANG, BINGCHANG; JU, YING

    2015-01-01

    The present study reviewed three patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who had the specific genetic abnormality t(16;21)(p11;q22). To investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of AML with t(16;21)(p11;q22) translocation, the similarities and differences of clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations were compared, and a literature review was conducted. According to the French-American-British classification system, patient 1 was M4, patient 2 was M1 and patient 3 was M2. The cytogenetic aberrations were 46, XY, t(16;21)(p11;q22)/47, idem, +21 for patient 1 and 46, XX, t(16;21)(p11;q22) for patients 2 and 3. Cytophagocytosis and cluster of differentiation 56 antigen expression were found in all three cases. The prognosis was poor in all the cases. AML with t(16;21)(p11;q22) is a specific subtype of AML that exhibits unique characteristics of morphology, immunology, cytogenetics and clinical features, as well as a poor prognosis. Stem cell transplantation may be the first and only choice for treatment. PMID:26137050

  13. Laboratory Measures of Postural Control During the Star Excursion Balance Test After Acute First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris M.; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context No researchers, to our knowledge, have investigated the immediate postinjury-movement strategies associated with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) as quantified by center of pressure (COP) and kinematic analyses during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Objective To analyze the kinematic and COP patterns of a group with acute first-time LAS and a noninjured control group during performance of the SEBT. Design Case-control study. Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 81 participants with acute first-time LAS (53 men, 28 women; age = 23.22 ± 4.93 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75.72 ± 13.86 kg) and 19 noninjured controls (15 men, 4 women; age = 22.53 ± 1.68 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 71.55 ± 11.31 kg). Intervention Participants performed the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s) We assessed 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity joints and associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path during performance of the SEBT. Results The LAS group had decreased normalized reach distances in the ANT, PL, and PM directions when compared with the control group on their injured (ANT: 58.16% ± 6.86% versus 64.86% ± 5.99%; PL: 85.64% ± 10.62% versus 101.14% ± 8.39%; PM: 94.89% ± 9.26% versus 107.29 ± 6.02%) and noninjured (ANT: 60.98% ± 6.74% versus 64.76% ± 5.02%; PL: 88.95% ± 11.45% versus 102.36% ± 8.53%; PM: 97.13% ± 8.76% versus 106.62% ± 5.78%) limbs (P < .01). This observation was associated with altered temporal sagittal-plane kinematic profiles throughout each reach attempt and at the point of maximum reach (P < .05). This result was associated with a reduced FD of the COP path for each reach direction on the injured limb only (P < .05). Conclusions Acute first-time LAS was associated with bilateral deficits in postural control, as evidenced by the bilateral

  14. Acute sensory responses of nonsmokers at very low environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in controlled laboratory settings.

    PubMed Central

    Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270

  15. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  16. Immune cell CD62L and CD11a expression in response to a psychological stressor in human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mills, Paul J; Farag, Noha H; Hong, Suzi; Kennedy, Brian P; Berry, Charles C; Ziegler, Michael G

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the effects of hypertension and an acute psychological stressor on white blood cells and their expression of CD62L and CD11a. Seventeen mild hypertensive and 23 normotensive volunteers were studied prior to and following a standardized laboratory public speech. In response to the speech, all subjects increased the number of circulating leukocyte populations (p's<.01). Patients with hypertension increased the number of circulating white blood cells more than normotensives (p<.01). Hypertensives also showed a greater increase in the number of circulating CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells (p<.02) in response to the speech. Only hypertensives increased the number of circulating CD8(+)CD62L(high) T cells (p=.001). The density of CD11a on lymphocytes was increased in all subjects following the speech (p<.001). Hypertensives showed a greater mean density of CD11a on lymphocytes (p<.01). Coupled with observations of increased expression of the endothelial CD11a ligand ICAM-1 in hypertension, these findings are consistent with the notion that patients with hypertension exhibit a circulatory environment conducive to increased leukocyte adhesion. Exposure to repeated psychological stressors may further augment this potentially adverse circulatory environment.

  17. Social Stressors at Work, Sleep, and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana; Gross, Sven; Elfering, Achim

    2016-03-01

    Many employees in service work are required to work on Saturdays, recovering during work-free Sundays and working again Mondays. We examined the effects of social stressors at work on recovery status at Sunday noon and Monday noon, and investigated if sleep quality mediates the negative effects of social stressors at work on recovery. From Saturday until Monday morning, 41 participants wore actigraphs to measure sleep duration and sleep fragmentation. Social stressors at work were assessed by self-reported questionnaires administered on Saturday. Recovery status was reported Sunday noon and Monday noon. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were negatively related to recovery status on Sunday and on Monday. Supporting our assumptions, more social stressors at work predicted higher sleep fragmentation in the night to Monday. A mediation effect of sleep quality, however, was not found. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. [Myocardial electrogenesis in laboratory rats under conditions of acute nitrite intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shumilova, T E; Shereshkov, V I; Ianvareva, I N; Nozdrachev, A D

    2010-01-01

    In anesthetized male rats the arterial blood pressure in femoral artery and electrocardiogram in standard leads were recorded uninterruptedly for 1-1.5 h under conditions of acute nitrite intoxication produced by a subcutaneous injection of water solution of sodium nitrite (donor of nitric oxide) at concentrations of 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg body mass. Results of the study have shown dose-dependent changes of arterial pressure as well as of time and amplitude characteristics of electrocardiogram under effect of NaNO2. At the threshold hypoxic dose, an increase of amplitude of R and S waves was observed by the 30-45th min, while at the maximal NaNO2 dose, amplitude of all waves rose by the 15th min of intoxication. High nitric doses often caused an increase of the ST segment above the isoelectric line and a rise of the amplitude of the T wave, on which a notch appeared in some cases. The change of the ECG time parameters was expressed in the dose-dependent development of bradycardia for the first 4-7 min; its level correlated with the progressively decreasing arterial pressure in the beginning (the 2-4th min) of nitrite intoxication. Variation analysis of heart rate spectral characteristics by Baevskii has revealed a rise of the total spectral power of pulse oscillations. Under effect of nitrite, in the spectrum of cardiointervals, quent recovery of the normal ECG spectrum in the end of the experimental period. The maximal nitrite dose produced more pronounced shifts of the heart rate spectrum towards the LF and VLF diapasons that were not restored for 1 h of experiment. Transitory processes of readjustment of the cardiac rhythm had discrete character. The nitrite dose of 50 mg/kg body mass increased the RR-interval after 4-7 min with amplitude steps of 3-5 imp/s and the time constant of 20-40 s. The revealed ECG changes had the reflex (enhancement of parasympathetic tonus) and metabolic (the hypoxic and histotoxic damage of myocardium) nature.

  19. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was impaired. Second, the presence of source, stressor, and effect were established. Then linkages between source, stressor, and effect were developed. This allows identification of probable stressors adversely affecting the waterbody. Three pollutant categories were assessed: chemicals, nutrients, and suspended sediments. This weight of evidence approach indicated that Greenwich Bay was primarily impacted by eutrophication-related stressors. The sediments of Greenwich Bay were carbon enriched and low dissolved oxygen concentrations were commonly seen, especially in the western portions of Greenwich Bay. The benthic community was depauperate, as would be expected under oxygen stress. Although our analysis indicated that contaminant loads in Greenwich Bay were at concentrations where adverse effects might be expected, no toxicity was observed, as a result of high levels of organic carbon in these sediments reducing contaminant bioavailability. Our analysis also indicated that suspended sediment impacts were likely nonexistent for much of the Bay. This analysis demonstrates that the diagnostic procedure was useful to organize and assess the potential stressors impacting the ecological well-being

  20. Identification and sequencing of a novel rodent gammaherpesvirus that establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Loh, Joy; Zhao, Guoyan; Nelson, Christopher A; Coder, Penny; Droit, Lindsay; Handley, Scott A; Johnson, L Steven; Vachharajani, Punit; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Wang, David; Fremont, Daved H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2011-03-01

    Gammaherpesviruses encode numerous immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to their ability to evade the host immune response and establish persistent, lifelong infections. As the human gammaherpesviruses are strictly species specific, small animal models of gammaherpesvirus infection, such as murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (γHV68) infection, are important for studying the roles of gammaherpesvirus immune evasion genes in in vivo infection and pathogenesis. We report here the genome sequence and characterization of a novel rodent gammaherpesvirus, designated rodent herpesvirus Peru (RHVP), that shares conserved genes and genome organization with γHV68 and the primate gammaherpesviruses but is phylogenetically distinct from γHV68. RHVP establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice. Additionally, RHVP contains multiple open reading frames (ORFs) not present in γHV68 that have sequence similarity to primate gammaherpesvirus immunomodulatory genes or cellular genes. These include ORFs with similarity to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), C-type lectins, and the mouse mammary tumor virus and herpesvirus saimiri superantigens. As these ORFs may function as immunomodulatory or virulence factors, RHVP presents new opportunities for the study of mechanisms of immune evasion by gammaherpesviruses.

  1. Test anxiety and cardiovascular responses to daily academic stressors.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kristen M; Lehman, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Routine academic events may cause stress and produce temporary elevations in blood pressure. Students who experience test anxiety may be especially prone to cardiovascular activation in response to academic stress. This study drew on self-reported stress and ambulatory blood pressure measurements provided by 99 undergraduate participants (30% men, mean age=21 years) who participated over 4 days. Posture, activity level, recent consumption and the previous same-day reading were considered as covariates in a series of hierarchical linear models. Results indicate elevations in systolic blood pressure at times of acute academic stressors; neither diastolic blood pressure nor heart rate was linked with academic stress. In addition, those participants higher in test anxiety exhibited especially pronounced elevations in systolic blood pressure during times of acute academic stress. This research suggests that everyday academic stressors are linked with temporary increases in blood pressure and that test anxiety may contribute to these elevations. Test anxiety has implications for future academic and job success, and cardiovascular responses to everyday stress may contribute to health problems later in life.

  2. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress.

  3. Stressor-Based Prognostics for Next Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Donald B.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2002-04-14

    This paper reviews the evolution and current state of the maintenance art. It presents a key measurement philosophy that results from the use of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) as a fundamental investigative precept, and how this approach impacts degradation and failure measurement and prediction accuracy. It then examines of how this measurement approach is applied in sensing and correlating pump stressors with regard to degradation rate and time to equipment failure. The specifics are examined on how this approach is currently being applied in the Laboratory to cavitation and vibration phenomena in a centrifugal pump.

  4. Differences in Assessing Chemical vs. Nonchemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on real world individuals and communities, resulting in complex exposures for individuals and populations with a variety of vulnerabilities, in applications that range from envir...

  5. URBAN STORMWATER STRESSOR SOURCES, CHARACTERIZATION, AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation covers the origin and values of the various pollutants or stressors in urban stormwater including flow (shear force), pathogens, suspended solids/sediment, toxicants (organic and metals), nutrients, oxygen demanding substances, and coarse solids. A broad overvie...

  6. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory.

  7. Guidelines on selection of laboratory tests for monitoring the acute phase response. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (expert panel on blood rheology).

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    These guidelines refer to laboratory tests for monitoring changes in acute phase proteins in patients with an inflammatory response to tissue damage. Quantitative measurements of acute phase proteins are a valuable indicator of the presence, extent, and response of inflammation to treatment. When short term (less than 24 hours) changes in the inflammatory response are expected, quantitative assay of C reactive protein is the test of choice. The hyperproteinaemia that develops in response to a longer term (more than 24 hours) inflammatory response is complex and may vary from one disease to another. A test that is sensitive to the combined effect of several plasma proteins is therefore indicated, and appropriate tests include the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma viscosity--the latter having several advantages. Tests for monitoring short term and long term changes in acute phase proteins are complementary and should be used for different clinical purposes; no one test is ideal for all clinical situations. A quality control programme is an essential component of laboratory tests for monitoring the acute phase response. PMID:2463272

  8. Toxicity of chromium (VI) to two mussels and an amphipod in water-only exposures with or without a co-stressor of elevated temperature, zinc, or nitrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Kunz, James L.; Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Glidewell, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for propagating western pearlshell (Margaritifera falcata) for laboratory toxicity testing and evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of chromium VI [Cr(VI)] to the pearlshell and a commonly tested mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea at 20 °C or in association with a co-stressor of elevated temperature (27 °C), zinc (50 µg Zn/L), or nitrate (35 mg NO3/L). A commonly tested invertebrate (amphipod, Hyalella azteca) also was tested in chronic exposures. Newly transformed pearlshell (~1 week old) were successfully cultured and tested in acute 96 h Cr exposures (control survival 100%). However, the grow-out of juveniles in culture for chronic toxicity testing was less successful and chronic 28-day Cr toxicity tests started with 4 month-old pearlshell failed due to low control survival (39–68%). Acute median effect concentration (EC50) for the pearlshell (919 µg Cr/L) and fatmucket (456 µg Cr/L) tested at 20 °C without a co-stressor decreased by a factor of > 2 at elevated temperature but did not decrease at elevated Zn or elevated NO3. Chronic 28-day Cr tests were completed successfully with the fatmucket and amphipod (control survival 83–98%). Chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for fatmucket at 20 °C (26 µg Cr/L) decreased by a factor of 2 at elevated temperature or NO3 but did not decrease at elevated Zn. However, chronic MATC for amphipod at 20 °C (13 µg Cr/L) did not decrease at elevated temperature, Zn, or NO3. Acute EC50s for both mussels tested with or without a co-stressor were above the final acute value used to derive United States Environmental Protection Agency acute water quality criterion (WQC) for Cr(VI); however, chronic MATCs for fatmucket at elevated temperature or NO3 and chronic MATCs for the amphipod at 20 °C with or without elevated Zn or NO3 were about equal to the chronic WQC. The results indicate that (1) the elevated temperature

  9. Testing local and global stressor impacts on a coastal foundation species using an ecologically realistic framework.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Brian S; Bible, Jillian M; Chang, Andrew L; Ferner, Matthew C; Wasson, Kerstin; Zabin, Chela J; Latta, Marilyn; Deck, Anna; Todgham, Anne E; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2015-02-12

    Despite the abundance of literature on organismal responses to multiple environmental stressors, most studies have not matched the timing of experimental manipulations with the temporal pattern of stressors in nature. We test the interactive effects of diel-cycling hypoxia with both warming and decreased salinities using ecologically realistic exposures. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of negative synergistic effects on Olympia oyster growth; rather, we found only additive and opposing effects of hypoxia (detrimental) and warming (beneficial). We suspect that diel-cycling provided a temporal refuge that allowed physiological compensation. We also tested for latent effects of warming and hypoxia to low-salinity tolerance using a seasonal delay between stressor events. However, we did not find a latent effect, rather a threshold survival response to low salinity that was independent of early life-history exposure to warming or hypoxia. The absence of synergism is likely the result of stressor treatments that mirror the natural timing of environmental stressors. We provide environmental context for laboratory experimental data by examining field time series environmental data from four North American west coast estuaries and find heterogeneous environmental signals that characterize each estuary, suggesting that the potential stressor exposure to oysters will drastically differ over moderate spatial scales. This heterogeneity implies that efforts to conserve and restore oysters will require an adaptive approach that incorporates knowledge of local conditions. We conclude that studies of multiple environmental stressors can be greatly improved by integrating ecologically realistic exposure and timing of stressors found in nature with organismal life-history traits.

  10. Companions reverse stressor-induced decreases in neurogenesis and cocaine conditioning possibly by restoring BDNF and NGF levels in dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Chuang, Jia-Ying; Lin, Li-Ching; Cherng, Chianfang G; Lin, Kuei-Ying; Chen, Li-Hsien; Su, Chien-Chou; Yu, Lung

    2013-03-01

    The presence of companions can reverse the stressor-induced decrease in neurogenesis in mouse dentate gyrus (DG). In this study, we decided to study the underlying mechanisms of the companions' protective effect and to assess whether two DG neurogenesis-related memories, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and spatial memory, can be affected by our stressor and companions. Neurotrophin levels in DG were measured, in this regard, to reveal their roles in mediating the stressors' and companions' effect. We found that the stressor did not affect NT-3 but acutely decreased NGF and BDNF levels in DG. The presence of companions abolished these stressor-decreased NGF and BDNF levels. Neither the stressor nor the presence of companions affected TrkA, TrkB or TrkC expression in DG. Pre-exposure to the stressor rendered deficits in cocaine-induced CPP and spatial memory, while companions reversed the stressor-decreased cocaine-induced CPP. Intra-ventricular infusion with K252a, a mixed TrkA and TrkB antagonist, did not affect the protective effects of companions on local NGF, BDNF levels in DG, but abolished the companions' protective effects against the stressor-decreased DG neurogenesis and cocaine-induced CPP. Systemic pretreatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), a selective TrkB agonist, did not affect baseline, the stressor-stimulated corticosterone (CORT) secretion or local NGF, BDNF levels in DG, but in part mimicked companions' protective effects. These results, taken together, indicate that stressor-decreased NGF and BDNF levels in DG could be involved in the stressor-decreased DG neurogenesis and cocaine conditioning. The presence of companions reverses the stressor-decreased DG neurogenesis and cocaine conditioning possibly by restoring BDNF and NGF levels in DG.

  11. Multiple stressor effects in relation to declining amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2003-01-01

    This book represents the work of several authors who participated in the symposium entitled 'Multiple Stressor Effects in Relation to Declining Amphibian Populations' convened 16-17 April, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Declines of amphibian populations of varying severity have been observed for many years, and in the last 8 to 10 years considerable progress has been made in documenting the status and distribution of a range of amphibian species. Habitat alteration and destruction are likely linked to many amphibian declines, but a variety of other factors, both anthropogenic and natural, have been observed or proposed to have caused declines or extinctions of amphibian populations. Unfortunately, determining the environmental causes for the decline of many species has proven difficult. The goals of this symposium were three-fold. First, highlight ASTM's historic role in providing a forum for the standardization of amphibian toxicity test methods and the characterization of adverse effects potentially associated with chemical stressors. Second, demonstrate through case studies the current state of technical 'tools' available to biologists, ecologists, environmental scientists and natural resource professionals for assessing amphibian populations exposed to various environmental stressors. And third, characterize a process that brings a range of interdisciplinary technical and management tools to the tasks of causal analysis, especially as those relate to a multiple stressor risk assessment 'mind-set.' As part of the symposium, scientists and resource management professionals from diverse fields including ecotoxicology and chemistry, ecology and field biology, conservation biology, and natural resource management and policy contributed oral presentations and posters that addressed topics related to declining amphibian populations and the role that various stressors have in those losses. The papers contained in this publication reflect the commitment of ASTM

  12. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  13. Self-harm to preferentially harm the pathogens within: non-specific stressors in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Therapies with increasing specificity against pathogens follow the immune system's evolutionary course in maximizing host defence while minimizing self-harm. Nevertheless, even completely non-specific stressors, such as reactive molecular species, heat, nutrient and oxygen deprivation, and acidity can be used to preferentially harm pathogens. Strategic use of non-specific stressors requires exploiting differences in stress vulnerability between pathogens and hosts. Two basic vulnerabilities of pathogens are: (i) the inherent vulnerability to stress of growth and replication (more immediately crucial for pathogens than for host cells) and (ii) the degree of pathogen localization, permitting the host's use of locally and regionally intense stress. Each of the various types of non-specific stressors is present during severe infections at all levels of localization: (i) ultra-locally within phagolysosomes, (ii) locally at the infected site, (iii) regionally around the infected site and (iv) systemically as part of the acute-phase response. We propose that hosts strategically use a coordinated system of non-specific stressors at local, regional and systemic levels to preferentially harm the pathogens within. With the rising concern over emergence of resistance to specific therapies, we suggest more scrutiny of strategies using less specific therapies in pathogen control. Hosts' active use of multiple non-specific stressors is likely an evolutionarily basic defence whose retention underlies and supplements the well-recognized immune defences that directly target pathogens. PMID:27075254

  14. Energy acquisition and allocation in an ectothermic predator exposed to a common environmental stressor.

    PubMed

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Talent, Larry G

    2007-04-01

    Stressors are commonly encountered by organisms and often prove to be energetically costly. Certain stressors can simultaneously affect multiple components of an animal's energy budget and can either exacerbate energetic costs to the individual or offset one another. Here we used a commonly encountered stressor, the pesticide carbaryl, to examine the complex effects that acute environmental disturbances can have on energy expenditure, allocation, and acquisition, important processes that influence growth and reproduction. After exposing lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) to carbaryl, we measured their metabolism over a 48 h period and assessed their food consumption over 96 h. We found no difference in total energy expenditure among treatment groups, but lizards exposed to the highest dose of carbaryl allocated energy differently than other groups. Compared to controls, these lizards exhibited a 16-30% increase in standard metabolic rate (SMR), which was offset by a 45-58% decrease in additional energy expenditures. Lizards in the highest dose group also exhibited a 30-34% decrease in energy acquisition compared to controls. The net result was a 1.83 kJ decrease in energy assimilation, equivalent to 5 times their daily SMR requirements. Our results indicate that energetic consequences of stressors may result in complex energetic trade-offs, and emphasize the need to simultaneously examine the effect of stressors on multiple portions of an animal's energy budget.

  15. Self-harm to preferentially harm the pathogens within: non-specific stressors in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    LeGrand, Edmund K; Day, Judy D

    2016-04-13

    Therapies with increasing specificity against pathogens follow the immune system's evolutionary course in maximizing host defence while minimizing self-harm. Nevertheless, even completely non-specific stressors, such as reactive molecular species, heat, nutrient and oxygen deprivation, and acidity can be used to preferentially harm pathogens. Strategic use of non-specific stressors requires exploiting differences in stress vulnerability between pathogens and hosts. Two basic vulnerabilities of pathogens are: (i) the inherent vulnerability to stress of growth and replication (more immediately crucial for pathogens than for host cells) and (ii) the degree of pathogen localization, permitting the host's use of locally and regionally intense stress. Each of the various types of non-specific stressors is present during severe infections at all levels of localization: (i) ultra-locally within phagolysosomes, (ii) locally at the infected site, (iii) regionally around the infected site and (iv) systemically as part of the acute-phase response. We propose that hosts strategically use a coordinated system of non-specific stressors at local, regional and systemic levels to preferentially harm the pathogens within. With the rising concern over emergence of resistance to specific therapies, we suggest more scrutiny of strategies using less specific therapies in pathogen control. Hosts' active use of multiple non-specific stressors is likely an evolutionarily basic defence whose retention underlies and supplements the well-recognized immune defences that directly target pathogens.

  16. Prevention of Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Jonathon R; Stein, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, frequently chronic, and disabling condition which, along with acute stress disorder (ASD), is categorized as a trauma- and stressor-related disorder by the DSM-5. These disorders are unique in requiring exposure to a severe stressor, which implies that potential sufferers could be identified and helped before developing a disorder. Research on prevention strategies for stress-related disorders has taken a number of avenues, including intervention before and after trauma and the use of both psychosocial and somatic approaches. Despite advances in neurobiological understanding of response to trauma, clinical evidence for preventive interventions remains sparse. This review provides an overview of prevention approaches and summarizes the existing literature on prevention of ASD and PTSD, including clinical and preclinical studies. Given the potential benefits to trauma survivors and society, the development of effective preventive interventions should be given greater priority. Resources should be directed to adequately test promising interventions in clinical trials, and research should be conducted according to translational research principles in which preclinical research informs the design of clinical studies. PMID:26315508

  17. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Ban, Stephen S; Graham, Nicholas A J; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-03-01

    Concern is growing about the potential effects of interacting multiple stressors, especially as the global climate changes. We provide a comprehensive review of multiple stressor interactions in coral reef ecosystems, which are widely considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to global change. First, we synthesized coral reef studies that examined interactions of two or more stressors, highlighting stressor interactions (where one stressor directly influences another) and potentially synergistic effects on response variables (where two stressors interact to produce an effect that is greater than purely additive). For stressor-stressor interactions, we found 176 studies that examined at least 2 of the 13 stressors of interest. Applying network analysis to analyze relationships between stressors, we found that pathogens were exacerbated by more costressors than any other stressor, with ca. 78% of studies reporting an enhancing effect by another stressor. Sedimentation, storms, and water temperature directly affected the largest number of other stressors. Pathogens, nutrients, and crown-of-thorns starfish were the most-influenced stressors. We found 187 studies that examined the effects of two or more stressors on a third dependent variable. The interaction of irradiance and temperature on corals has been the subject of more research (62 studies, 33% of the total) than any other combination of stressors, with many studies reporting a synergistic effect on coral symbiont photosynthetic performance (n = 19). Second, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of existing literature on this most-studied interaction (irradiance and temperature). We found that the mean effect size of combined treatments was statistically indistinguishable from a purely additive interaction, although it should be noted that the sample size was relatively small (n = 26). Overall, although in aggregate a large body of literature examines stressor effects on coral reefs and coral

  18. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  19. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound.

  20. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3.

  1. Stress in the wild: chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Newman, A E M; Zanette, L Y; Clinchy, M; Goodenough, N; Soma, K K

    2013-05-01

    The effects of chronic stressors on glucocorticoid levels are well described in laboratory rodents, but far less is known about the effects of chronic stressors on wild animals or on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. DHEA can be produced by the adrenal cortex and has prominent antiglucocorticoid properties. Here, we examined wild songbirds to elucidate the relationship between chronic predator pressure and plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels. We measured circulating steroid levels at baseline and after acute restraint in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. During the breeding season, males in low predator pressure (LPP) environments had higher baseline DHEA levels than males in high predator pressure (HPP) environments. Also, acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in LPP males only but increased corticosterone levels in HPP and LPP males similarly. During the nonbreeding season, DHEA and corticosterone levels were lower than during the breeding season, and acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in both HPP and LPP males. Unlike males, breeding females showed no effect of predator pressure on baseline DHEA or corticosterone levels. These data suggest that naturalistic chronic and acute stressors affect circulating DHEA and corticosterone levels in wild animals and highlight the importance of using multiple endpoints when studying the physiological effects of chronic stress.

  2. Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Cynthia V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and “doses” of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled “Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors” held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments. PMID:24154487

  3. Managing for Interactions between Local and Global Stressors of Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J.; Saunders, Megan I.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems – seagrass and fish communities – where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities. PMID:23776542

  4. Continuation of the Ecological Risk Assessment of Explosive Residues in Rodents, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish and Invertebrates: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Investigation Related to Live-Fire Ranges in the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    the sub-acute and sub-chronic study. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the lowest level of a stressor that causes...which far exceeds the previously reported LOAEC for RDX [27]. Likewise, reduced soil quality and decreased soil microbial biomass carbon was...and Environmental Effects of Munition Production Waste Water. In Laboratory ORN, ed. 4. United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S EPA

  5. Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in

  6. The effects of acute stress on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    PubMed

    Pielock, Steffi M; Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Pavlovian stimuli invigorate ongoing instrumental action, a phenomenon termed the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) effect. Acute stressors can markedly enhance the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF injection into the nucleus accumbens increases the PIT effect. However, it is unknown whether acute stressors by themselves would amplify the PIT effect. Here, we examined the effects of acute stressors on PIT. Rats first received Pavlovian and instrumental training, and then the impact of the Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding was analyzed in the subsequent PIT test. Acute stressors were applied prior to the PIT test. Because the effects of acute stressors critically depend on stressor type and time of day, we used two acute stressors that involved one or several distinct stressors (denoted here as "single" vs. "multiple" stressors) applied either in the light or the dark period of the light:dark cycle. The results revealed that single and multiple stressors applied in the light period did not alter the PIT effect--that is, the ability of an appetitive Pavlovian stimulus to enhance leverpressing--or the basal leverpress rate. When applied in the dark period, single and multiple stressors also did not alter the PIT effect, but they did markedly reduce the basal leverpress rate. Diazepam pretreatment did not counteract the declines in basal instrumental responding in the PIT test that were induced by either a single or multiple stressors. Our findings suggest that acute stressors were unable to amplify the incentive salience of reward-predictive Pavlovian stimuli to activate instrumental responding, but, depending on the time of day of stressor exposure, they did reduce basal instrumental responding.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL, POPULATION, AND SPATIAL LEVELS: INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE STRESSORS ON PISCIVOROUS BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory's Wildlife Risk Assessment program is to develop scientifically valid methods to assess risks to wildlife and aquatic organisms from multiple stressors. To this end, the Loo...

  8. Responses of Spartina alterniflora to Multiple Stressors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Coastal wetlands, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats throughout the United States and elsewhere. Managers require good information on responses of wetlands to the combined stressors that these habitats experience, or may in the future as a result of climate change, and few studies have explored the effect of multiple stressors on wetlands. We conducted a 4-month mesocosm study to analyze the multiple stressor effects of precipitation changes, sea level rise, and eutrophication on the salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora. Pots containing plants in a soil matrix were positioned in tanks and received Narragansett Bay (RI) water. The mesocosms simulated three precipitation levels (ambient daily rain, biweekly storm, and drought); three elevation levels, low (15 cm below mean high water (MHW)), middle (MHW), and high (15 cm above MHW); and two nutrient enrichment levels (unenriched and nutrient-enriched bay water). Our results demonstrate storm and drought stressors led to significantly less above- and belowground biomass than those in ambient rain conditions. Plants that were flooded at the low elevation had less belowground biomass, fine roots, and S. alterniflora shoots. Nutrients had no detectable effect on total above- and belowground biomass, but the enriched pots had higher stem counts and more fine roots than unenriched pots, in addition to greater CO2 emission rates. However, the unenriched pots had significantly more co

  9. INCORPORATING NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk assessment paradigm has begun to shift from assessing single chemicals using "reasonable worst case" assumptions for individuals to considering multiple chemicals and community-based models. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is examination of all stressors a...

  10. Stressors during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Some infants experience unusual stress from pregnancy through the postnatal period and are especially called upon to exercise coping responses. Discusses unusual stressors, how the infant naturally copes with them, and how caregivers can provide assistance. Reviews studies on stress-relieving intervention techniques. (NH)

  11. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  12. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  13. Stressor Identification Guidance Document | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance document is designed to assist water quality managers in identifying unknown causes of biological impairments in any type of water body. Section 101(a) of the Clean Water Act states that it is the objective of the Act to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. To achieve this objective, numerous States and Tribes are using biological assessments and biocriteria to help protect the Nation's waters. Using these tools, State and Tribal water quality experts are finding water bodies where the fish, invertebrate, algae or plant communities (or other aquatic life) have been detrimentally impacted by different singular or multiple causes. In many cases, the cause, or causes, of these biological impairments have not yet been identified. The Stressor Identification Guidance Document provides a logical, scientific process by which State, Tribal, and other water quality experts can evaluate available information to identify the stressor(s) causing the biological impairments. The process has three main steps: (1) List candidate causes of impairment, (2) analyze the evidence, and (3) characterize the causes. When evidence is adequate, using this guidance, investigators should be able to successfully identify the likely cause, or ca

  14. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  15. Impact of stressors in a natural context on release of cortisol in healthy adult humans: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Kathy; Matheson, Kimberly; Kelly, Owen; Anisman, Hymie

    2008-05-01

    Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, culminating in elevated circulating cortisol levels is a fundamental response to stressors. In animals, this neuroendocrine change is highly reliable and marked (approximately 5-10-fold elevations), whereas in humans, the increase of cortisol release is less pronounced, and even some potent life-threatening events (anticipation of surgery) only elicit modest cortisol increases. Meta-analysis of factors that influenced the increase of cortisol release in a laboratory context pointed to the importance of social evaluative threats and stressor controllability in accounting for the cortisol rise. The present meta-analysis, covering the period from 1978 through March 2007, was undertaken to identify the factors most closely aligned with cortisol increases in natural settings. It appeared that stressor chronicity was fundamental in predicting cortisol changes; however, this variable is often confounded by the stressor type, the stressor's controllability, as well as contextual factors, making it difficult to disentangle their relative contributions to the cortisol response. Moreover, several experiential factors (e.g. previous stressor experiences) may influence the cortisol response to ongoing stressors, but these are not readily deduced through a meta-analysis. Nevertheless, there are ample data suggesting that stressful events, through their actions on cortisol levels and reactivity, may influence psychological and physical pathology.

  16. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  17. Relations of SARS-Related Stressors and Coping to Chinese College Students' Psychological Adjustment during the 2003 Beijing SARS Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Alexandra; Zhou, Qing; Ma, Yue; Luecken, Linda J.; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive relations of stressors and coping related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with Chinese college students' psychological adjustment (psychological symptoms, perceived general health, and life satisfaction) during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. All the constructs were assessed by self-report…

  18. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae to Global Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; van Belzen, Jim; van Dalen, Jeroen; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Airoldi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local stressors (sediment load and nutrient concentrations) can improve the resilience of foundation species (canopy algae along temperate rocky coastlines) to future projected global climate stressors (high wave exposure, increasing sea surface temperature), which are less amenable to management actions. We focused on Fucoids (Cystoseira barbata) along the north-western Adriatic coast in the Mediterranean Sea because of their ecological relevance, sensitivity to a variety of human impacts, and declared conservation priority. At current levels of sediment and nutrients, C. barbata showed negative responses to the simulated future scenarios of high wave exposure and increased sea surface temperature. However, reducing the sediment load increased the survival of C. barbata recruits by 90.24% at high wave exposure while reducing nutrient concentrations resulted in a 20.14% increase in the survival and enhanced the growth of recruited juveniles at high temperature. We conclude that improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations, and particularly the sediment load, would significantly increase the resilience of C. barbata populations to projected increases in climate stressors. Developing and applying appropriate targets for specific local anthropogenic stressors could be an effective management action to halt the severe and ongoing loss of key marine habitats. PMID:25807516

  19. Combinations of Stressors in Midlife: Examining Role and Domain Stressors Using Regression Trees and Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Global perceptions of stress (GPS) have major implications for mental and physical health, and stress in midlife may influence adaptation in later life. Thus, it is important to determine the unique and interactive effects of diverse influences of role stress (at work or in personal relationships), loneliness, life events, time pressure, caregiving, finances, discrimination, and neighborhood circumstances on these GPS. Method. Exploratory regression trees and random forests were used to examine complex interactions among myriad events and chronic stressors in middle-aged participants’ (N = 410; mean age = 52.12) GPS. Results. Different role and domain stressors were influential at high and low levels of loneliness. Varied combinations of these stressors resulting in similar levels of perceived stress are also outlined as examples of equifinality. Loneliness emerged as an important predictor across trees. Discussion. Exploring multiple stressors simultaneously provides insights into the diversity of stressor combinations across individuals—even those with similar levels of global perceived stress—and answers theoretical mandates to better understand the influence of stress by sampling from many domain and role stressors. Further, the unique influences of each predictor relative to the others inform theory and applied work. Finally, examples of equifinality and multifinality call for targeted interventions. PMID:23341437

  20. The effect of Prometheus device on laboratory markers of inflammation and tissue regeneration in acute liver failure management.

    PubMed

    Rocen, M; Kieslichova, E; Merta, D; Uchytilova, E; Pavlova, Y; Cap, J; Trunecka, P

    2010-11-01

    Prometheus, based on modified fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) method, is used in the therapy of acute liver failure as a bridge to liver transplantation. As the therapeutic effect of Prometheus is caused not only by the elimination of terminal metabolites, the aim of the study was to identify the effect of FPSA on the levels of cytokines and markers of inflammation and liver regeneration. Previous studies assessing cytokine levels involved mostly acute-on-chronic liver failure patients. Data concerning markers of inflammation and liver regeneration are not published yet. Eleven patients (three males, eight females) with acute liver failure were investigated. These patients underwent 37 therapeutic sessions on Prometheus device. Before and after each treatment, the plasma levels of selected cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and α(1) fetoprotein, were measured, and the kinetics of their plasma concentrations was evaluated. Before the therapy, elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, CRP, and PCT were detected. The level of TNFα, CRP, PCT, and α(1) fetoprotein decreased significantly during the therapy. In contrast, an increase of HGF was detected. The decline of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations was not significant. Our results show that Prometheus is highly effective in clearing inflammatory mediators responsible for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and affects the serum levels of inflammatory and regeneration markers important for management of acute liver failure.

  1. An upside to adversity?: moderate cumulative lifetime adversity is associated with resilient responses in the face of controlled stressors.

    PubMed

    Seery, Mark D; Leo, Raphael J; Lupien, Shannon P; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Almonte, Jessica L

    2013-07-01

    Despite common findings suggesting that lack of negative life events should be optimal, recent work has revealed a curvilinear pattern, such that some cumulative lifetime adversity is instead associated with optimal well-being. This work, however, is limited in that responses to specific stressors as they occurred were not assessed, thereby precluding investigation of resilience. The current research addressed this critical gap by directly testing the relationship between adversity history and resilience to stressors. Specifically, we used a multimethod approach across two studies to assess responses to controlled laboratory stressors (respectively requiring passive endurance and active instrumental performance). Results revealed hypothesized U-shaped relationships: Relative to a history of either no adversity or nonextreme high adversity, a moderate number of adverse life events was associated with less negative responses to pain and more positive psychophysiological responses while taking a test. These results provide novel evidence in support of adversity-derived propensity for resilience that generalizes across stressors.

  2. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  3. Meta-analysis of intrinsic rates of increase and carrying capacity of populations affected by toxic and other stressors.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Maas-Diepeveen, Johanna L M; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Van Straalen, Nico M

    2005-09-01

    Most of the thousands of substances and species that are of concern for environmental management will not be investigated empirically at ecologically relevant levels because of financial, practical, and ethical constraints. To allow risk assessment for these less well-known categories, we have developed a mechanistic model with classical equations from toxicology and ecology. The parameters are linked to well-known properties, such as the octanol-water partition ratio K(ow), acute lethal (body) concentrations, and organism size. This allows estimation of intrinsic rates of increase r and carrying capacity K over a wide range of substances and species. The model was calibrated with parameter values (micro +/- 95% confidence interval) obtained in reviews and validated by a meta-analysis with largely independent data from 200 laboratory experiments. For single substances, the 5 to 95% interval of the observations on intrinsic rates of increase overlapped with the range predicted by the model. Model and experiments independently indicated that population growth ceased below 1% of the acute median lethal concentration in about 5% of the cases. Exceptional values and possible explanations were identified. The reduction of the carrying capacity K was nearly proportional to the inhibition of the population growth r. Population-level effects of mixtures as estimated by concentration addition were confirmed by observations in the experiments. The impact of a toxicant and another stressor could generally be described by response multiplication, with the exception of cases with extreme stress. Data sets on population laboratory experiments are biased to metals and crustaceans. This field will benefit from empirical studies on chemicals, conditions, and species, identified as risky by the model. Other implications of the model for environmental management and research are discussed.

  4. [Multicenter evaluation of h-FABP semi-quantitative assay (Cardio Detect) in central laboratory: the point in acute myocardial infarction diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, G; Fayet, J-M; Graïne, H; Berny, C; Maupas-Schwalm, F; Capolaghi, B; Morin, C

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of heart-Fatty Acid Binding Protein (h-FABP) (semi-quantitative CardioDetect test) and cardiac troponin I (TnIc) blood assays were compared in one hundred patients presenting with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. Final patient diagnosis was "acute myocardial infarction" in 36 cases, "non ST myocardial infarction" in 25 cases and "non ischemic pathologies" in 39 cases. h-FABP results were positive in 26 patients, negative in 57 patients and ambiguous in 17 patients, the latter corresponding to the final diagnosis of "acute myocardial infarction" in 5 cases, "non ST myocardial infarction" in 2 cases and "non ischemic pathologies " in 10 cases. At admission, h-FABP and TnIc exhibiteda sensitivity of 54% an 66%, respectively and a specificity of 86% and 95%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 81% and 64% for h-FABP, respectively and 92% and 75% for cTnI, respectively. h-FABP and cTnI demonstrated a similar diagnostic efficiency if admission delay is less than 4 hours after onset of chest pain (area under ROC curve TnIc = 0.767 +/- 0.091 ; area under ROC curve h-FABP = 0.622 +/- 0.109 ; p = 0.144). On the contrary, cTnI assay demonstrated a better efficiency than h-FABP (p< 0.005) for patients admitted in a delay of 4 to 12 hours after the onset of chest pain. If chosen cTnI cut-off corresponded to the recent consensus definition used for monitoring acute coronary syndrome patients, h-FABP semi-quantitative assay realized within central laboratory did not demonstrated a better diagnostic efficiency than cTnI.

  5. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Acute Porphyria: A Study of 36 Subjects in a Chinese Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Qianlong; Yang, Hang; Hua, Baolai; Zhu, Tienan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Yu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria is a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. The presentation of porphyria is highly variable, and the symptoms are nonspecific, which accounts in part for delays in establishing a diagnosis. In this study, we report the characteristics of 36 Chinese acute porphyria patients. Most of them were female (33/36), and the median age was 25.3 years (range 18–45 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (32/36). Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality (29/36), and the serum sodium concentration was significantly negatively correlated with convulsion (p = 0.00). Genetic testing provided a precise diagnosis of the patients. Genetic analysis of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene was performed for 10 subjects. Of them, 9 were found to harbor a mutation in the PBGD gene, proving a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria, and, in 1 case, a novel Cys209Term mutation was found. PMID:28025645

  6. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Acute Porphyria: A Study of 36 Subjects in a Chinese Tertiary Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Qianlong; Yang, Hang; Hua, Baolai; Zhu, Tienan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Zhu, Huadong; Yu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria is a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. The presentation of porphyria is highly variable, and the symptoms are nonspecific, which accounts in part for delays in establishing a diagnosis. In this study, we report the characteristics of 36 Chinese acute porphyria patients. Most of them were female (33/36), and the median age was 25.3 years (range 18-45 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (32/36). Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality (29/36), and the serum sodium concentration was significantly negatively correlated with convulsion (p = 0.00). Genetic testing provided a precise diagnosis of the patients. Genetic analysis of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene was performed for 10 subjects. Of them, 9 were found to harbor a mutation in the PBGD gene, proving a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria, and, in 1 case, a novel Cys209Term mutation was found.

  7. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  8. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Rosemary H; Novejarque, Amparo; Huang, Wenlong; Wodarski, Rachel; Denk, Franziska; Dawes, John D; Pheby, Tim; McMahon, Stephen B; Rice, Andrew SC

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone) in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators. PMID:27158443

  9. The Impact of Stressors on Military Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Physiological Adaptation, and Performance .................. 62 7.6.5 Sleep Deprivation , Physiological Adaptation, and Performance ... 62 7.6.6 Noise...therefore important to identify the impact of vibration on performance . UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0780 UNCLASSIFIED 22 5.1.4 Sleep Deprivation Sleep can...the impact of the physical stressors of noise, climate, motion, sleep deprivation /fatigue, protective clothing, and mental workload on performance

  10. Habituation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis hormones to repeated homotypic stress and subsequent heterotypic stressor exposure in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Understanding potential sex differences in repeated stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis habituation could provide insight into the sex-biased prevalence of certain affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. Therefore in these studies, male and female rats were exposed to 30 min of either audiogenic or restraint stress daily for 10 days in order to determine whether sex regulates the extent to which HPA axis hormone release is attenuated upon repeated homotypic stressor presentation. In response to the initial exposure, both stressors robustly increased plasma concentrations of both adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in both sexes. Acutely, females displayed higher ACTH and CORT concentrations following restraint stress, whereas males exhibited higher hormone concentrations following loud noise stress. HPA axis hormone responses to both stressors decreased incrementally over successive days of exposure to each respective stressor. Despite the differential effect of sex on acute hormone responses, the extent to which HPA axis hormone response was attenuated did not differ between male and female animals following either stressor. Furthermore, ACTH and CORT responses to a novel environment were not affected by prior exposure to stress of either modality in either male or female rats. These experiments demonstrate that despite the acute stress response, male and female rats exhibit similar habituation of HPA axis hormones upon repeated homotypic stressor presentations, and that exposure to repeated stress does not produce exaggerated HPA axis hormone responses to a novel environment in either female or male rats.

  11. Evidence for a hormonal tactic maximizing green turtle reproduction in response to a pervasive ecological stressor.

    PubMed

    Jessop, T S; Hamann, M; Read, M A; Limpus, C J

    2000-06-01

    Mortality of breeding sea turtles due to excessive heat exposure after nesting activities is an unusual feature of the Raine Island green turtle rookery. Breeding turtles that fail to return to the ocean after oviposition can experience increasing body temperatures that exceed lethal limits (>39 degrees C) as ambient temperatures rise after sunrise. We investigated how acute increases in body temperature influenced plasma corticosterone (B) concentrations of individual turtles. Furthermore, interactions between progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) and increasing body temperature and the glucocorticoid corticosterone were examined for negative correlations. Breeding green turtles exhibited a 16-fold mean increase in plasma corticosterone concentration as body temperature (cloacal) rose from 28.2 to 40.7 degrees C in less than 6 h. However, the absolute increase in plasma B was small and much less than expected, despite the lethal stressor. Comparatively, the maximal B response to lethal heat stress was similar to plasma B concentrations obtained from breeding female turtles exposed to 8 h of capture stress. However, the maximal B response of breeding turtles exposed to heat and capture stressors was significantly less than the B response of nonbreeding adult female turtles subjected to an 8-h capture stressor. No negative correlations were observed between plasma T and plasma B, between plasma T and body temperature, between plasma P and plasma B, or between plasma P and body temperature. Our findings provide further evidence that reduced adrenocortical function operates in breeding green turtles in the presence of even the most pervasive of environmental stressors.

  12. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.

  13. Characterizing the Life Stressors of Children of Alcoholic Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined differences between children of alcoholic (COAs) and non-alcoholic parents in their experience of negative life events across three, longitudinal studies together spanning the first three decades of life. We posited that COAs would differ from their peers in the life domains in which they are vulnerable to stressors, in the recurrence of stressors, and in the severity of stressors. Scale- and item-level analyses of adjusted odds-ratios based on stressors across seven life domains showed that COAs consistently reported greater risk for stressors in the family domain. COAs were also more likely to experience stressors repetitively and to rate their stressors as more severe (in adulthood). Implications for prevention and intervention programs targeting this risk group are discussed. PMID:19102603

  14. Characterizing the life stressors of children of alcoholic parents.

    PubMed

    Hussong, Andrea M; Bauer, Daniel J; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J; Zucker, Robert A

    2008-12-01

    The current study examined differences between children of alcoholic (COAs) and nonalcoholic parents in their experience of negative life events across 3 longitudinal studies together spanning the first 3 decades of life. The authors posited that COAs would differ from their peers in the life domains in which they are vulnerable to stressors, in the recurrence of stressors, and in the severity of stressors. Scale- and item-level analyses of adjusted odds ratios based on stressors across 7 life domains showed that COAs consistently reported greater risk for stressors in the family domain. COAs were also more likely to experience stressors repetitively and to rate their stressors as more severe (in adulthood). Implications for prevention and intervention programs targeting this risk group are discussed.

  15. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondo, Sandy; Lilavois, Crystal R.; Lee, Larisa; Augspurger, Tom; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.; Barron, Mace G.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitivity among commonly tested mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Utterbackia imbecillis, Villosa iris), commonly tested cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lepomis macrochirus). The results of these analyses indicate intra-laboratory variability for median effect concentrations (EC50) averaged about 2 fold for both life stages, while inter-laboratory variability averaged 3.6 fold for juvenile mussels and 6.3 fold for glochidia. The EC50s for juveniles and glochidia were within a factor of 2 of each other for 50% of paired records across chemicals, with juveniles more sensitive than glochidia by more than 2 fold for 33% of the comparisons made between life stages. There was a high concurrence of the sensitivity of commonly tested L. siliquoidea, U. imbecillis, and V. iris to that of other mussels. However, this concurrence decreases as the taxonomic distance of the commonly tested cladocerans and fish to mussels increases. The compiled mussel database and determination of data variability will advance risk assessments by including more robust species sensitivity distributions, interspecies correlation estimates, and availability of taxon-specific empirically derived application factors for risk assessment.

  16. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    PubMed

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  17. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be established. Developing stressor gradients presents challenges including: stressors which co-occur but operate at different or unknown spatial and temporal scales, inconsistent data availability measuring stressor levels, and unknown effects on exposed reef biota. We are developing a generalized stressor model using Puerto Rico as case study location, to represent the cumulative spatial/temporal co-occurrence of multiple anthropogenic stressors. Our approach builds on multi-stressor research in streams and rivers, and focuses on three high-priority stressors identified by coral reef experts: land-based sources of pollution (LBSP), global climate change (GCC) related temperature anomalies, and fishing pressure. Landscape development intensity index, based on land use/land cover data, estimates human impact in watersheds adjacent to coral reefs and is proxy for LBSP. NOAA’s retrospective daily thermal anomaly data is used to determine GCC thermal anomalies. Fishing pressure is modeled using gear-specific and fishery landings data. Stressor data was adjusted to a common scale or weighted for relative importance, buffered to account for diminished impact further from source, and compared wit

  18. [Epidemiological, clinical, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemia in children: the experience at the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center].

    PubMed

    Doumbia, Mariam; Uwingabiye, Jean; Bissan, Aboubacar; Rachid, Razine; Benkirane, Souad; Masrar, Azlarab

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemias (AL) in children diagnosed at IBN SINA University Hospital Center and to determine the concordance between cytology and immunophenotyping results. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center between June 2012 and May 2014. Among the 104 cases with diagnosed AL, 52% were boys with a sex-ratio H/F= 1.32, the average age was 5.7 years. The distribution of different types of AL was: lymphoid AL (LAL) (74%), myeloid (AML) (20.2%), biphenotypic AL (BAL) (65.8%). Among the LALs, 78% were classified as B LAL and 22% as T LAL. Clinical signs were mainly presented with tumor syndrome (73.1%), fever (61%) and hemorrhagic syndrome (50%). The most common blood count abnormalities were: thrombopenia (89.4%), anemia (86.5%), hyperleukocytosis (79.8%). The rate of peripheral and bone marrow blasts was statistically higher for LAL than for AML and BAL (p <0.001). The rate of relapse and mortality was 21.2% and 16. 3% respectively. Concordance rate between the results of cytology and of immunophenotyping was 92.7% for LAL and 82.6% for AML. Diagnosis of AL is always based primarily on cytology. Immunophenotyping allowed us to make a better distinction between acute leukemias. The management of paediatric AL is a major health problem which requires specialized care centers.

  19. Transposable elements in response to environmental stressors&

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Lumen, Annie; Ferguson, Alesia; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a group of repetitive sequences that bring positive, negative, as well as neutral effects to the host organism. Earlier considered as “junk DNA,” TEs are now well-accepted driving forces of evolution and critical regulators the of expression of genetic information. Their activity is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation of DNA and histone modifications. The loss of epigenetic control over TEs, exhibited as loss of DNA methylation and decondensation of the chromatin structure, may result in TEs reactivation, initiation of their insertional mutagenesis (retrotransposition) and has been reported in numerous human diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that these alterations are not the simple consequences of the disease, but often may drive the pathogenesis, as they can be detected early during disease development. Knowledge derived from the in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, clearly demonstrates that exposure to ubiquitous environmental stressors, many of which are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens, are capable of causing alterations in methylation and expression of TEs and initiate retrotransposition events. Evidence summarized in this review suggests that TEs are the sensitive endpoints for detection of effects caused by such environmental stressors, as ionizing radiation (terrestrial, space, and UV-radiation), air pollution (including particulate matter [PM]-derived and gaseous), persistent organic pollutants, and metals. Furthermore, the significance of these effects is characterized by their early appearance, persistence and presence in both, target organs and peripheral blood. Altogether, these findings suggest that TEs may potentially be introduced into safety and risk assessment and serve as biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors. Furthermore, TEs also show significant potential to become invaluable surrogate biomarkers in clinic and possible targets

  20. Epigenetic memory in response to environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Flanagan, James M; Hanson, Mark; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios

    2017-03-09

    Exposure to environmental stressors, toxicants, and nutrient deficiencies can affect DNA in several ways. Some exposures cause damage and alter the structure of DNA, but there is increasing evidence that the same or other environmental exposures, including those that occur during fetal development in utero, can cause epigenetic effects that modulate DNA function and gene expression. Some epigenetic changes to DNA that affect gene transcription are at least partially reversible (i.e., they can be enzymatically reversed after cessation of exposure to environmental agents), but some epigenetic modifications seem to persist, even for decades. To explain the effects of early life experiences (such as famine and exposures to other stressors) on the long-term persistence of specific patterns of epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, we propose an analogy with immune memory. We propose that an epigenetic memory can be established and maintained in self-renewing stem cell compartments. We suggest that the observations on early life effects on adult diseases and the persistence of methylation changes in smokers support our hypothesis, for which a mechanistic basis, however, needs to be further clarified. We outline a new model based on methylation changes. Although these changes seem to be mainly adaptive, they are also implicated in the pathogenesis and onset of diseases, depending on individual genotypic background and types of subsequent exposures. Elucidating the relationships between the adaptive and maladaptive consequences of the epigenetic modifications that result from complex environmental exposures is a major challenge for current and future research in epigenetics.-Vineis, P., Chatziioannou, A., Cunliffe, V. T., Flanagan, J. M., Hanson, M., Kirsch-Volders, M., Kyrtopoulos, S. Epigenetic memory in response to environmental stressors.

  1. Impact of stressor exposure on the interplay between commensal microbiota and host inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Galley, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressful stimuli results in the activation of multiple physiological processes aimed at maintaining homeostasis within the body. These physiological processes also have the capacity to influence the composition of microbial communities, and research now indicates that exposure to stressful stimuli leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis. While the relative abundance of many different bacterial types can be altered during stressor exposure, findings in nonhuman primates and laboratory rodents, as well as humans, indicate that bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus are consistently reduced in the gut during stress. The gut microbiota, including the lactobacilli, have many functions that enhance the health of the host. This review presents studies involving germfree and antibiotic treated mice, as well as mice given Lactobacillus spp. to prevent stressor-induced reductions in lactobacilli, to provide evidence that the microbiota contribute to stressor-induced immunomodulation, both in gut mucosa as well as in systemic compartments. This review will also discuss the evidence that commensal gut microbes have bidirectional effects on gastrointestinal physiology during stressor exposure. PMID:24690880

  2. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  3. Effects of acute thermal stress on the survival, predator avoidance, and physiology of juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Wagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    We subjected juvenile fall chinook salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to acute thermal stressors in the laboratory that were derived from field data. We assessed the effects of thermal stress on: (1) the extent of direct mortality; (2) the vulnerability of fish to predation by smallmouth bass; and (3) some general physiological stress responses and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Thermally-stressed fish showed little direct mortality and no increases in vulnerability to predation. However, these fish showed transient increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and a dramatic (25-fold higher than controls) and persistent (lasting 2 wk) increase in levels of liver hsp70. Our results indicate that exposure of Hanford Reach juvenile fall chinook salmon to such stressors did not lead to significant increases in direct mortality or vulnerability to predation, but did alter physiological homeostasis, which should be of concern to those managing this resource. Because our fish received only a single exposure to one of the stressors we examined, we are also concerned about the consequences of exposing fish to multiple, cumulative stressors - a likely scenario for fish in the wild.

  4. Job stressors and coping in health professions.

    PubMed

    Heim, E

    1991-01-01

    In spite of their knowledge about stressors, health hazards and coping, health professionals are in general not aware of their own health risks. In an attempt to clarify the issue results of our own studies are compared to the relevant literature. A survey on 1,248 Swiss nurses confirmed the major stressors known: ethical conflicts about appropriate patient care, team conflicts, role ambiguity, workload and organizational deficits. In doctors workload and shortage of time, combined with specific responsibility in decision making, are most prominent. Nevertheless, job satisfaction is still high in both professions. Health hazards in doctors are considerable, although life expectancy has improved and is comparable to the general public, but still lower as compared to other professionals. Depression and substance abuse are related to higher suicide rates. The specific role strain of female doctors is responsible for health risks with an alarming 10 years lower life expectancy than in the general population. Little is known about specific health hazards in nurses, except for burnout. A lack of coping research in the field makes conclusions difficult. Our own studies show limited coping skills in nurses, but good buffering effect in 1,700 Swiss dentists.

  5. Effects of sex, gender role identification, and gender relevance of two types of stressors on cardiovascular and subjective responses: sex and gender match and mismatch effects.

    PubMed

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M; Klugkist, Irene G

    2008-07-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one's sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the n-back task. Stressor relevance was manipulated to be masculine or feminine relevant or gender neutral. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian model selection procedure. The results showed stronger cardiovascular responses for the CPT in the case of a gender match effect. In contrast, results for the n-back task revealed stronger cardiovascular responses for sex and gender mismatch effects. These discrepant match and mismatch effects are discussed in terms of differential task appraisal (i.e., threat vs. challenge). Additional results (a) support the success of measuring gender role identification indirectly by means of the Gender Implicit Association Test, (b) do not show that the effect of stressor relevance is more pronounced on those hemodynamic parameters typically increased by the stressor, and (c) reveal differential effects of stressor relevance for subjective and cardiovascular stress responses. Taken together, it can be concluded that the process of the cognitive appraisal of stressor relevance outlines individual variability in cardiovascular responding to acute stress.

  6. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  7. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity and mortality in mice after intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles in three laboratories.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Stoeger, Tobias; van den Brule, Sybille; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Beyerle, Andrea; Vietti, Giulia; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Józef; Budtz, Hans Christian; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Banerjee, Atrayee; Ercal, Nuran; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Møller, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Inhalation is the main pathway of ZnO exposure in the occupational environment but only few studies have addressed toxic effects after pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles (NP). Here we present results from three studies of pulmonary exposure and toxicity of ZnO NP in mice. The studies were prematurely terminated because interim results unexpectedly showed severe pulmonary toxicity. High bolus doses of ZnO NP (25 up to 100 μg; ≥1.4 mg/kg) were clearly associated with a dose dependent mortality in the mice. Lower doses (≥6 μg; ≥0.3 mg/kg) elicited acute toxicity in terms of reduced weight gain, desquamation of epithelial cells with concomitantly increased barrier permeability of the alveolar/blood as well as DNA damage. Oxidative stress was shown via a strong increase in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione in the pulmonary tissue. Two months post-exposure revealed no obvious toxicity for 12.5 and 25 μg on a range of parameters. However, mice that survived a high dose (50 μg; 2.7 mg/kg) had an increased pulmonary collagen accumulation (fibrosis) at a similar level as a high bolus dose of crystalline silica. The recovery from these toxicological effects appeared dose-dependent. The results indicate that alveolar deposition of ZnO NP may cause significant adverse health effects.

  8. Prioritizing ecological restoration among sites in multi-stressor landscapes.

    PubMed

    Neeson, Thomas M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition. To illustrate this approach, we analyze stressor evenness across the world's rivers and the Laurentian Great Lakes. This exploration reveals that evenness and cumulative stress are decoupled, enabling selection of sites where remediating a modest number of high-intensity stressors could substantially reduce cumulative stress. Just as species richness and species evenness are fundamental axes of biological diversity, we argue that cumulative stress and stressor evenness constitute fundamental axes for identifying restoration opportunities in multi-stressor landscapes. Our results highlight opportunities to boost restoration efficiency through strategic use of multi-stressor datasets to identify sites that maximize ecological response per stressor remediated. This prioritization framework can also be expanded to account for the feasibility of remediation and the expected societal benefits of restoration projects.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSOR AND EXPOSURE INFORMATION FOR OLDER ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product describes results of literature and data reviews to identify important chemical and biological stressors in the aging population, summarize extant exposure information, and identify data gaps.

  10. Vitiligo disease triggers: psychological stressors preceding the onset of disease.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is the loss of skin pigmentation caused by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Little is known about the impact of psychological stressors preceding vitiligo onset on symptoms associated with vitiligo and the extent of disease. We performed a questionnaire-based study of 1541 adults with vitiligo to evaluate the impact of psychological stressors in this patient population. Psychological stressors should be considered as potential disease triggers in vitiligo patients, and screening of vitiligo patients for psychological stressors and associated symptoms should be included in routine assessment.

  11. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  12. [Trauma and stressor-related disorders: diagnostic conceptualization in DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, H P

    2014-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) includes a distinct diagnostic group of trauma and stressor-related disorders that has been set apart from anxiety disorders. From a perspective of adult psychiatry this new disorder category includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder (ASD), and adjustment disorders. The PTSD is based on narrower trauma criteria that focus on acute life-threatening situations, serious injury, or sexual violence by way of direct confrontation, witnessing or indirect confrontation. Indirect confrontation, however, is reserved only for violent or accidental events that occurred to close family members or friends. The former A2 criterion of an intense emotional reaction to trauma has been removed. A deliberately broad approach to clinical PTSD phenomenology has created an empirically driven new cluster of persistent negative alterations in cognition and mood due to experiencing traumatic events. The ASD has been reconceptualized as an intense stress syndrome with a clear need of acute treatment during the early course after traumatic exposure. Adjustment disorders continue to emphasize maladaptive emotional and behavioral responses to unspecific, non-traumatic stressors in an intensity that is beyond social or cultural norms. Neither complex PTSD nor prolonged grief disorders have received an independent diagnostic status within DSM-5. With respect to stress-related disorders major divergences between DSM-5 and the future International Classification of Diseases 11 (ICD-11) are to be expected.

  13. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    PubMed

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  14. Family stressors as predictors of codependency.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J A; Warner, R M

    2000-02-01

    Codependency has been defined as an extreme focus on relationships, caused by a stressful family background (J. L. Fischer, L. Spann, & D. W. Crawford, 1991). In this study the authors assessed the relationship of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (J. L. Fischer et al., 1991) and the Potter-Efron Codependency Assessment (L. A. Potter-Efron & P. S. Potter-Efron, 1989) with self-reported chronic family stress and family background. Students (N = 257) completed 2 existing self-report codependency measures and provided family background information. Results indicated that women had higher codependency scores than men on the Spann-Fischer scale. Students with a history of chronic family stress (with an alcoholic, mentally ill, or physically ill parent) had significantly higher codependency scores on both scales. The findings suggest that other types of family stressors, not solely alcoholism, may be predictors of codependency.

  15. The relationships among workplace stressors, coping methods, demographic characteristics, and health in Australian nurses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Esther M; Daly, John; Hancock, Karen M; Bidewell, John W; Johnson, Amanda; Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E

    2006-01-01

    Nursing is known to be stressful. Stress detrimentally can influence job satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical health. There is a need for increased understanding of the stress that nurses experience and how best to manage it. Three hundred twenty Australian acute care public hospital nurses participated in a study by completing four questionnaires that examined (a) how various workplace stressors relate to ways of coping, demographic characteristics, and physical and mental health and (b) which workplace stressors, coping mechanisms, and demographic characteristics were the best predictors of physical and mental health. Significant correlations were found between stressors and physical and mental health. Multiple regression showed age to be the only significant predictor of physical health. The best coping predictors of mental health were escape-avoidance, distancing, and self-control. Other significant predictors of mental health were support in the workplace, the number of years worked in the unit, and workload. Mental health scores were higher for nurses working more years in the unit and for those who used distancing as a way of coping. Mental health scores were lower for nurses who used escape-avoidance, lacked workplace support, had high workload, and used self-control coping. The findings have implications for organizational management, particularly in terms of recommendations for stress management, social support, and workload reduction.

  16. Classification of trauma and stressor-related disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Matthew J; Resick, Patricia A; Bryant, Richard A; Strain, James; Horowitz, Mardi; Spiegel, David

    2011-09-01

    This review examines the question of whether there should be a cluster of disorders, including the adjustment disorders (ADs), acute stress disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the dissociative disorders (DDs), in a section devoted to abnormal responses to stress and trauma in the DSM-5. Environmental risk factors, including the individual's developmental experience, would thus become a major diagnostic consideration. The relationship of these disorders to one another is examined and also their relationship to other anxiety disorders to determine whether they are better grouped with anxiety disorders or a new specific grouping of trauma and stressor-related disorders. First how stress responses have been classified since DSM-III is reviewed. The major focus is on PTSD because it has received the most attention, regarding its proper placement among the psychiatric diagnoses. It is discussed whether PTSD should be considered an anxiety disorder, a stress-induced fear circuitry disorder, an internalizing disorder, or a trauma and stressor-related disorder. Then, ASD, AD, and DD are considered from a similar perspective. Evidence is examined pro and con, and a conclsion is offered recommending inclusion of this cluster of disorders in a section entitled "Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders." The recommendation to shift ASD and PTSD out of the anxiety disorders section reflects increased recognition of trauma as a precipitant, emphasizing common etiology over common phenomenology. Similar considerations are addressed with regard to AD and DD.

  17. Susceptibility of a carabid beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus fab., from a gradient of heavy metal pollution to additional stressors.

    PubMed

    Lagisz, Malgorzata; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2007-11-01

    Insects inhabiting contaminated areas show increased susceptibility to other stressors, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether this phenomenon had a genetic basis. We investigated changes in susceptibility to food deprivation and insecticide (dimethoate) treatment of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus originating from four populations situated along a metal pollution gradient. To determine whether the increased susceptibility to additional stressors found in field-exposed animals from chronically metal-polluted sites had a genetic basis, our research was conducted on the second generation of laboratory-reared animals. There was no difference in susceptibility to the additional stressors indicating that the differences between populations observed in earlier studies do not have a genetic basis.

  18. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  19. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  20. The effects of two chronic intermittent stressors on brain monoamines.

    PubMed

    Campmany, L; Pol, O; Armario, A

    1996-03-01

    The effects of chronic exposure (27 days) to two different stressors on brain monoaminergic activity was studied in adult male rats. The stressors used were restraint in tubes (RES) and immobilization in wooden boards (IMO). Both chronically stressed and stress naive (control) rats were subjected to 0, 15, and 60 min of the same stressor to which they were chronically exposed. Previous chronic exposure to either RES or IMO significantly reduced ACTH response to the same stressor. Monoaminergic response to these stressors was studied by measuring the levels of noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites: 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyletileneglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively. The regions studied were: pons plus medulla, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex. Previous chronic exposure to the stressors induced only few changes in the resting levels of the monoamines and their metabolites. In addition, monoaminergic response to the same stressor to which they were chronically exposed was always similar in control and chronically stressed rats. These data indicate that brain NA and 5-HT metabolism is less sensitive than ACTH to the process of habituation to a repeated stressor, at least in the gross areas of the brain analyzed in the present study.

  1. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  2. Daily stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Rasmussen, Andrew; Yaqubi, Aziz; Daudzai, Haqmal

    2008-12-01

    Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, daily stressors were a better predictor than war experiences of all mental health outcomes except for PTSD; for men, daily stressors were a better predictor of depression and functional impairment, while war experiences and daily stressors were similarly predictive of general distress. For men, daily stressors moderated the relationship between war experiences and PTSD, which was significant only under conditions of low daily stress. The study's implications for research and intervention in conflict and post-conflict settings are considered.

  3. Multiple Stressors and the Functioning of Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Rogers, Alice; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Mumby, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs provide critical services to coastal communities, and these services rely on ecosystem functions threatened by stressors. By summarizing the threats to the functioning of reefs from fishing, climate change, and decreasing water quality, we highlight that these stressors have multiple, conflicting effects on functionally similar groups of species and their interactions, and that the overall effects are often uncertain because of a lack of data or variability among taxa. The direct effects of stressors on links among functional groups, such as predator-prey interactions, are particularly uncertain. Using qualitative modeling, we demonstrate that this uncertainty of stressor impacts on functional groups (whether they are positive, negative, or neutral) can have significant effects on models of ecosystem stability, and reducing uncertainty is vital for understanding changes to reef functioning. This review also provides guidance for future models of reef functioning, which should include interactions among functional groups and the cumulative effect of stressors.

  4. Generation of a reference transcriptome for evaluating rainbow trout responses to various stressors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fish under intensive culture conditions are exposed to a variety of acute and chronic stressors, including high rearing densities, sub-optimal water quality, and severe thermal fluctuations. Such stressors are inherent in aquaculture production and can induce physiological responses with adverse effects on traits important to producers and consumers, including those associated with growth, nutrition, reproduction, immune response, and fillet quality. Understanding and monitoring the biological mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate alleviating their negative effects through selective breeding and changes in management practices, resulting in improved animal welfare and production efficiency. Results Physiological responses to five treatments associated with stress were characterized by measuring plasma lysozyme activity, glucose, lactate, chloride, and cortisol concentrations, in addition to stress-associated transcripts by quantitative PCR. Results indicate that the fish had significant stressor-specific changes in their physiological conditions. Sequencing of a pooled normalized transcriptome library created from gill, brain, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle RNA of control and stressed fish produced 3,160,306 expressed sequence tags which were assembled and annotated. SNP discovery resulted in identification of ~58,000 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms including 24,479 which were predicted to fall within exons. Of these, 4907 were predicted to occupy the first position of a codon and 4110 the second, increasing the probability to impact amino acid sequence variation and potentially gene function. Conclusion We have generated and characterized a reference transcriptome for rainbow trout that represents multiple tissues responding to multiple stressors common to aquaculture production environments. This resource compliments existing public transcriptome data and will facilitate approaches aiming to evaluate gene expression

  5. Interaction of mental and orthostatic stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Lackner, Helmut K.; Papousek, Ilona; Jezova, Daniela; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2011-05-01

    We assessed hemodynamic responses induced by orthostatic and mental stressors, using passive head up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetic (MA), respectively. The 15 healthy males underwent three protocols: (1) HUT alone, (2) MA in supine position and (3) MA+HUT, with sessions randomized and ≥2 weeks apart. In relation to baseline, HUT increased heart rate (HR) (+20.4±7.1 bpm; p<0.001), mean blood pressure (MBP) (+4.7±11.3 mmHg; p<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (+6.1±11.6 mmHg; p<0.05) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) (+155±232 dyne*s/cm 5; p<0.001) but decreased stroke volume (SV) (-33.1±13.4 ml; p<0.001) and cardiac output (CO) (-0.6±1.0 l/min; p<0.01). MA increased HR (+8.0±6.0 bpm; p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (+9.0±7.7 mmHg; p<0.001), MBP (+10.0±6.5 mmHg; p<0.001), DBP (+9.5±7.2 mmHg; p<0.001) and CO (+0.6±0.8 l/min; p<0.01). MA+HUT increased HR (+28.8±8.4 bpm; p<0.001), SBP (+4.6±14.3 mmHg; p<0.05), MBP (+11.2±11.6 mmHg; p<0.001), DBP (+13.5±10.1 mmHg; p<0.001) and TPR (+160±199 dyne*s/cm 5; p<0.001) but SV (-34.5±14.6 ml; p<0.001) decreased. Mental challenge during orthostatic challenge elicited greater increases in heart rate, despite similar reductions in stroke volume such as those during orthostatic stress alone. Overall, cardiac output decreases were less with combinations of mental and orthostatic challenges in comparison to orthostasis alone. This would suggest that carefully chosen mental stressors might affect orthostatic responses of people on standing up. Therefore, additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  6. Evaluating the effect of stressors on thiaminase activity in alewife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Kraft, C.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    No consistent explanation has been found for the variability in the thiaminase activity of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus despite the role of alewife thiaminase in large-scale salmonine mortality in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effect of two stressors, reduced salt content in the water and food limitation, on alewife thiaminase activity. Alewives were subjected to treatments in replicated tanks in which conductivity was lowered (<100 ??S/cm) for 8 d and feeding was limited for 39 d. Circulating white blood cells, plasma cortisol, plasma glucose, and whole-body thiaminase were measured in individual alewives to assess their response to these experimental treatments. Alewives from the controls had significantly larger numbers of circulating white blood cells than those in the salt-reduced and food-limited treatments (24,000 and 19,000 cells/??L and 11,000 and 9,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and salt-reduced treatment tanks, respectively, and 34,000 and 30,000 cells/??L and 21,000 and 16,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and food-limited treatment tanks). No significant differences in alewife thiaminase activity were found between treatment fish and their controls. The mean thiaminase activity in the alewives studied increased from 6,900 to 16,000 pmol??g -1??min-1 from the time of their collection in Cayuga Lake to the start of laboratory experiments 1.5-2.5 years later; the latter value was more than twice that of previously reported levels of thiaminase activity from alewives collected in the wild. These data suggest that the variability in alewife thiaminase is not related to stress from salt reduction or food limitation, but laboratory holding conditions significantly increased thiaminase through a mechanism not evaluated by our experimental treatments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor blockade prevents tau protein hyperphosphorylation and corrects the defect in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by a combination of environmental stressors in mice.

    PubMed

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Di Pietro, Paola; Riozzi, Barbara; Traficante, Anna; Biagioni, Francesca; Nisticò, Robert; Fornai, Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bruno, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to multimodal sensory stressors is an everyday occurrence and sometimes becomes very intense, such as during rave parties or other recreational events. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong environmental stressors might cause neuronal dysfunction on their own in addition to their synergistic action with illicit drugs. Mice were exposed to a combination of physical and sensory stressors that are reminiscent of those encountered in a rave party. However, this is not a model of rave because it lacks the rewarding properties of rave. A 14-h exposure to environmental stressors caused an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory, and an enhanced phosphorylation of tau protein in the CA1 and CA3 regions. These effects were transient and critically depended on the activation of 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, which are highly expressed in the CA1 region. Acute systemic injection of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, RS-102,221 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 2 min prior the onset of stress), prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and also corrected the defects in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory. These findings suggest that passive exposure to a combination of physical and sensory stressors causes a reversible hippocampal dysfunction, which might compromise mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and spatial memory for a few days. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors might protect the hippocampus against the detrimental effect of environmental stressors.

  8. The effects of workplace stressors on muscle activity in the neck-shoulder and forearm muscles during computer work: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eijckelhof, B H W; Huysmans, M A; Bruno Garza, J L; Blatter, B M; van Dieën, J H; Dennerlein, J T; van der Beek, A J

    2013-12-01

    Workplace stressors have been indicated to play a role in the development of neck and upper extremity pain possibly through an increase of sustained (low-level) muscle activity. The aim of this review was to study the effects of workplace stressors on muscle activity in the neck-shoulder and forearm muscles. An additional aim was to find out whether the muscles of the neck-shoulder and the forearm are affected differently by different types of workplace stressors. A systematic literature search was conducted on studies investigating the relation between simulated or realistic workplace stressors and neck-shoulder and forearm muscle activity. For studies meeting the inclusion criteria, a risk of bias assessment was performed and data were extracted for synthesis. Results were pooled when possible and otherwise described. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria, reporting data of 25 different studies. Except for one field study, all included studies were laboratory studies. Data of 19 articles could be included in the meta-analysis and revealed a statistically significant, medium increase in neck-shoulder and forearm muscle activity as a result of workplace stressors. In subgroup analyses, we found an equal effect of different stressor types (i.e. cognitive/emotional stress, work pace, and precision) on muscle activity in both body regions. In conclusion, simulated workplace stressors result in an increase in neck-shoulder and forearm muscle activity. No indications were found that different types of stressors affect these body regions differently. These conclusions are fully based on laboratory studies, since field studies on this topic are currently lacking.

  9. The prebiotics 3'Sialyllactose and 6'Sialyllactose diminish stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior and colonic microbiota alterations: Evidence for effects on the gut-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Andrew J; Galley, Jeffrey D; Fisher, Sydney E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Bailey, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    There are extensive bidirectional interactions between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS), and studies demonstrate that stressor exposure significantly alters gut microbiota community structure. We tested whether oligosaccharides naturally found in high levels in human milk, which have been reported to impact brain development and enhance the growth of beneficial commensal microbes, would prevent stressor-induced alterations in gut microbial community composition and attenuate stressor-induced anxiety-like behavior. Mice were fed standard laboratory diet, or laboratory diet containing the human milk oligosaccharides 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) or 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL) for 2 weeks prior to being exposed to either a social disruption stressor or a non-stressed control condition. Stressor exposure significantly changed the structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota in control mice, as indicated by changes in beta diversity. The stressor resulted in anxiety-like behavior in both the light/dark preference and open field tests in control mice. This effect was associated with a reduction in immature neurons in the dentate gyrus as indicated by doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining. These effects were not evident in mice fed milk oligosaccharides; stressor exposure did not significantly change microbial community structure in mice fed 3'SL or 6'SL. In addition, 3'SL and 6'SL helped maintain normal behavior on tests of anxiety-like behavior and normal numbers of DCX+ immature neurons. These studies indicate that milk oligosaccharides support normal microbial communities and behavioral responses during stressor exposure, potentially through effects on the gut microbiota-brain axis.

  10. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  11. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor.

    PubMed

    Chartoff, Elena H; Carlezon, William A

    2014-09-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress.

  12. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  13. Climate change, multiple stressors, and the decline of ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Jason R; Palmer, Brent D

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is believed to be causing declines of ectothermic vertebrates, but there is little evidence that climatic conditions associated with declines have exceeded critical (i.e., acutely lethal) maxima or minima, and most relevant studies are correlative, anecdotal, or short-term (hours). We conducted an 11-week factorial experiment to examine the effects of temperature (22 °C or 27 °C), moisture (wet or dry), and atrazine (an herbicide; 0, 4, 40, 400 μg/L exposure as embryos and larvae) on the survival, growth, behavior, and foraging rates of postmetamorphic streamside salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri), a species of conservation concern. The tested climatic conditions were between the critical maxima and minima of streamside salamanders; thus, this experiment quantified the long-term effects of climate change within the noncritical range of this species. Despite a suite of behavioral adaptations to warm and dry conditions (e.g., burrowing, refuge use, huddling with conspecifics, and a reduction in activity), streamside salamanders exhibited significant loss of mass and significant mortality in all but the cool and moist conditions, which were closest to the climatic conditions in which they are most active in nature. A temperature of 27 °C represented a greater mortality risk than dry conditions; death occurred rapidly at this temperature and more gradually under cool and dry conditions. Foraging decreased under dry conditions, which suggests there were opportunity costs to water conservation. Exposure to the herbicide atrazine additively decreased water-conserving behaviors, foraging efficiency, mass, and time to death. Hence, the hypothesis that moderate climate change can cause population declines is even more plausible under scenarios with multiple stressors. These results suggest that climate change within the noncritical range of species and pollution may reduce individual performance by altering metabolic demands, hydration, and foraging effort

  14. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity.

  15. Relational stressors as predictors for repeat aggressive and self-harming incidents in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Ulke, Christine; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether relational stressors such as psychosocial stressors, the therapist's absence and a change of therapist are associated with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care. The study data were derived from critical incident reports and chart reviews of 107 inpatients. In multinomial regression analysis, patients with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents were compared with patients with single incidents. Results suggested that a higher number of psychosocial stressors and a change of therapist, but not the therapist's absence are predictors for repeat aggressive and self-harming incidents. There was a high prevalence of therapist's absence during both, single and repeat, incidents. Repeat aggressive incidents were common in male children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. Repeat self-harming incidents were common in adolescent females with trauma-related disorders. Patients with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents had a higher number of abnormal intrafamilial relationships and acute life events than patients with single incidents. Interventions to reduce a change of therapist should in particular target children and adolescents with a higher number of psychosocial stressors and/or a known history of traumatic relational experiences. After a first incident, patients should have a psychosocial assessment to evaluate whether additional relational support is needed.

  16. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Shuryak, Igor; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by nuclear waste at the Hanford site (USA); (2) fungi isolated from the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant (Ukraine) buildings after the accident; (3) yeast subjected to continuous γ-irradiation in the laboratory, where radiation dose rate and cell removal rate were independently varied. We applied generalized linear mixed-effects models to describe the first two data sets, whereas the third data set was amenable to mechanistic modeling using differential equations. Machine learning and information-theoretic approaches were used to select the best-supported formalism(s) among biologically-plausible alternatives. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) Both radionuclides and co-occurring chemical contaminants (e.g. NO2) are important for explaining microbial responses to radioactive contamination. (2) Radionuclides may produce non-monotonic dose responses: stimulation of microbial growth at low concentrations vs. inhibition at higher ones. (3) The extinction-defining critical radiation dose rate is dramatically lowered by additional stressors. (4) Reproduction suppression by radiation can be more important for determining the critical dose rate, than radiation-induced cell mortality. In conclusion, the modeling approaches used here on three diverse data sets provide insight into explaining and predicting multi-stressor effects on microbial communities: (1) the most severe effects (e.g. extinction) on microbial populations may occur when unfavorable environmental

  17. Unconventional Impacts from Unconventional Hydropower Devices: The Environmental Effects of Noise, Electromagnetic Fields, and other Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelhimer, M.; Cada, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional dam-based hydropower production produces a variety of environmental stressors that have been debated and confronted for decades. In-current hydrokinetic devices present some of the same or analogous stressors (e.g., changes in sediment transport and deposition, interference with animal movements and migrations, and strike by rotor blades) and some potentially new stressors (e.g., noise during operation, emission of electromagnetic fields [EMF], and toxicity of paints, lubricants, and antifouling coatings). The types of hydrokinetic devices being proposed and tested are varied, as are the locations where they could be deployed, i.e., coastal, estuarine, and big rivers. Differences in hydrology, device type, and the affected aquatic community (marine, estuarine, and riverine) will likely result in a different suite of environmental concerns for each project. Studies are underway at the U.S. Department of Energy's national laboratories to characterize the level of exposure to these stressors and to measure environmental response where possible. In this presentation we present results of studies on EMF, noise, and benthic habitat alteration relevant to hydrokinetic device operation in large rivers. In laboratory studies we tested the behavioral response of a variety of fish and invertebrate organisms to exposure to DC and AC EMF. Our findings suggest that lake sturgeon may be susceptible to EMF like that emitted from underwater cables, but most other species tested are not. Based on recordings of various underwater noise sources, we will show how the spectral density of noises created by hydrokinetic devices compares to that from other anthropogenic sources and natural sources. We will also report the results of hydroacoustic surveys that show how sediments are redistributed behind pilings like those that could be used for mounting hydrokinetic devices. The potential effects of these stressors will be discussed in the context of possible fish population

  18. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 1. Findings on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality.

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Gruber, G; Saletu, M; Brandstätter, N; Hauer, C; Prause, W; Ritter, K; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G

    2000-01-01

    Although the restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate (8% in Austria) and leads to insomnia and excessive daytime tiredness, there is a paucity of sleep laboratory data concerning objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated RLS patients as compared with 12 normal controls and subsequently measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a nonergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In 3 nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) sleep induction, maintenance and architecture were measured objectively by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality were assessed by self-rating scales and visual-analog scales, and objective awakening quality was evaluated by a psychometric test battery. In polysomnography, RLS patients demonstrated, as compared with normal controls, a decreased total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficacy, increased wakefulness during the total sleep period and frequency of nocturnal awakenings, increased sleep stage S1, decreased S2 and increased stage shifts. Subjective sleep quality tended to decrease, and morning well-being, mood, affectivity and wakefulness were deteriorated. In the noopsyche, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were deteriorated. Ropinirole 0.5 mg induced, as compared with placebo, an increase in TST, sleep efficacy, S2 sleep and stage shifts. In the morning, somatic complaints increased slightly, while fine motor activity and reaction time performance improved. Our findings suggest a key-lock principle in the diagnosis/treatment of RLS and a dopaminergic mechanism in its pathogenesis, which is supported by the data on periodic leg movements during sleep and arousals of the subsequent paper.

  19. Physiological monitoring of team and task stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Tada, Yuri; Kraft, Norbert; Fischer, Ute

    2005-05-01

    Sending astronauts into space, especially on long-durations missions (e.g. three-year missions to Mars), entails enormous risk. Threats include both physical dangers of radiation, bone loss and other consequences of weightlessness, and also those arising from interpersonal problems associated with extended life in a high-risk isolated and confined environment. Before undertaking long-duration missions, NASA seeks to develop technologies to monitor indicators of potentially debilitating stress at both the individual and team level so that countermeasures can be introduced to prevent further deterioration. Doing so requires a better understanding of indicators of team health and performance. To that end, a study of team problem solving in a simulation environment was undertaken to explore effects of team and task stress. Groups of four males (25-45 yrs) engaged in six dynamic computer-based Antarctic search and rescue missions over four days. Both task and team stressors were manipulated. Physiological responses (ECG, respiration rate and amplitude, SCL, EMG, and PPG); communication (voice and email); individual personality and subjective team dynamics responses were collected and related to task performance. Initial analyses found that physiological measures can be used to identify transient stress, predict performance, and reflect subjective workload. Muscle tension and respiration were the most robust predictors. Not only the level of arousal but its variability during engagement in the task is important to consider. In general, less variability was found to be associated with higher levels of performance. Individuals scoring high on specific personality characteristics responded differently to task stress.

  20. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  1. 75 FR 39843 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder AGENCY... amending its adjudication regulations governing service connection for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD... & Health, Vol. 6: Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment- Related Stress,...

  2. CADDIS Volume 1. Stressor Identification: About Causal Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An introduction to the history of our approach to causal assessment, A chronology of causal history and philosophy, An introduction to causal history and philosophy, References for the Causal Assessment Background section of Stressor Identification

  3. Applying Metabolomics to differentiate amphibian responses to multiple stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction/Objectives/Methods One of the biggest challenges in ecological risk assessment is determining the impact of multiple stressors on individual organisms and populations in ‘real world’ scenarios. Emerging ‘omic technologies, notably, metabolomics, pr...

  4. Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial, reflect increased interest in consideratio of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop co...

  5. Inhalation of Environmental Stressors & Chronic Inflammation: Autoimmunity and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E.; Zhai, Zili; Akram, Hammad; Pye, Quentin N.; Hensley, Kenneth; Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2009-01-01

    Human life expectancy and welfare has decreased because of the increase in environmental stressors in the air. An environmental stressor is a natural or human-made component present in our environment that upon reaching an organic system produces a coordinated response. This response usually involves a modification of the metabolism and physiology of the system. Inhaled environmental stressors damage the airways and lung parenchyma, producing irritation, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and oxidative modification of biomolecules. Oxidatively modified biomolecules, their degradation products, and adducts with other biomolecules can reach the systemic circulation, and when found in higher concentrations than normal they are considered to be biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. We classify them as metabolic stressors because they are not inert compounds; indeed, they amplify the inflammatory response by inducing inflammation in the lung and other organs. Thus the lung is not only the target for environmental stressors, but it is also the source of a number of metabolic stressors that can induce and worsen pre-existing chronic inflammation. Metabolic stressors produced in the lung have a number of effects in tissues other than the lung, such as the brain, and they can also abrogate the mechanisms of immunotolerance. In this review, we discuss recent published evidence that suggests that inflammation in the lung is an important connection between air pollution and chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, and we highlight the critical role of metabolic stressors produced in the lung. The understanding of this relationship between inhaled environmental pollutants and systemic inflammation will help us to: 1) understand the molecular mechanism of environment-associated diseases, and 2) find new biomarkers that will help us prevent the exposure of susceptible individuals and/or design novel therapies. PMID:18977456

  6. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed.

  7. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin

    2017-06-01

    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  8. Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities that change a watershed can cause adverse impacts to receiving water. Agricultural and urban runoff are the two leading causes of surface-water impairment in the US. When assessing pollutant sources and their effects on aquatic ecosystems, and prior to implementing source controls, it is necessary to define the systems stressors and receptors of exposure. Toxicity assays are a key component to integrative assessments that include habitat (physical), chemical, and indigenous community characterization. Traditional toxicity assay methods and the use of water-quality criteria are often inappropriate because of exposure design and effect assumptions. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed in situ for varying time periods during both low- and high-flow conditions to determine the effect of urban and agricultural runoff. Short-term chronic and acute toxicity of urban and agricultural runoff was then measured in the laboratory and related to in situ test results. Nonpoint-source (NPS) runoff from urban areas was often more acutely toxic to organisms in the laboratory as compared to in situ results. Conversely, toxicity to the organisms was greater at the agricultural site during in situ exposures when compared to laboratory. In situ assays were an essential and integral component of NPS runoff assessments. They provided unique information that complemented laboratory toxicity, habitat, benthic community, and physicochemical characterizations.

  9. Next generation sequence analysis of the transcriptome of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to a range of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sharon E; Johnston, Emma L; Nair, Sham; Roach, Anthony C; Moncuquet, Philippe; Twine, Natalie A; Raftos, David A

    2014-12-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) were exposed to environmental stressors at contaminated field sites or in a controlled laboratory setting. RNA seq transcriptome data were generated for the gill and digestive gland using Roche's 454 pyrosequencing technology. 28,685 contigs were de novo assembled which encoded 11,671 different protein products. The data will act as a reference for future studies in ecology, immunology and environmental toxicology.

  10. Cultural Stressors and the Hopelessness Model of Depressive Symptoms in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Huq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in Latino youth have been related to both culturally-universal and culturally-based stressors. However, few studies have examined the unique contributions of culturally-based stressors above and beyond other types of stressors. Moreover, no past studies with Latinos have examined the role of culturally-based stressors within a…

  11. Identifying Stressors and Coping Strategies in Two-Generation Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Randy R.; Weigel, Daniel J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined stressors and coping strategies of two-generation farm families. Results identified four key factors creating stressors for family members and four strategies that family members used to cope with stressors. Significant differences in stressors and coping strategies were found between generations and among fathers, mothers, sons, and…

  12. The impacts of multiple stressors to model ecological structures

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.G.; Kelly, S.A.; Markiewicz, A.J.; Matthews, R.A.; Matthews, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    The basis of the community conditioning hypothesis is that ecological structures are the result of their unique etiology. Systems that have been exposed to a variety of stressors should reflect this history. The authors how conducted a series of microcosm experiments that can compare the effects of multiple stressors upon community dynamics. The microcosm protocols are derived from the Standardized Aquatic Microcosm (SAM) and have Lemma and additional protozoan species. Two multiple stressor experiments have been conducted. In an extended length SAM (ELSAM), two of four treatments were dosed with the turbine fuel JP-8 one week into the experiment. Two treatments were later exposed to the heat stress, one that had received jet fuel and one that had not. Similarly, an ELSAM was conducted with the second stressor being the further addition of JP-8 replacing the heat shock. Biological, physical and chemical data were analyzed with multivariate techniques including nonmetric clustering and association analysis. Space-time worms and phase diagrams were also employed to ascertain the dynamic relationships of variables identified as important by the multivariate techniques. The experiments do not result in a simple additive linear response to the additional stressor. Examination of the relative population dynamics reveal alterations in trajectories that suggest treatment related effects. As in previous single stressor experiments, recovery does not occur even after extended experimental periods. The authors are now attempting to measure the resulting trajectories, changes in similarity vectors and overall dynamics. However, community conditioning does appear to be an important framework in understanding systems with a heterogeneous array of stressors.

  13. Psychosocial stressor effects on cortisol and ghrelin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence of anger and shame.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption in stressful situations vary as a function of individual difference factors (e.g., emotional vs. non-emotional eating), and may be related to hormonal responses elicited by the stressful event. These hormonal responses may be tied to specific emotions elicited by the stressful event. The present investigation examined the emotional and hormonal (cortisol, ghrelin) responses of high and low emotional eaters following a laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Women (n=48) either high or low in emotional eating status were tested in a TSST or served as controls during which blood samples were taken for analysis of cortisol and ghrelin, both of which have been implicated in eating and in response to stressors. The TSST promoted elevated cortisol levels, being somewhat more pronounced in emotional than in non-emotional eaters. Both shame and anger were provoked by the TSST, and although both these emotions were correlated with cortisol levels, only anger significantly mediated the relationship between the stressor and cortisol levels. As well, baseline ghrelin levels in low emotional eaters exceeded that of high emotional eaters, and increased moderately in response to the stressor situation, irrespective of emotional eating status. Interestingly, when provided with food, ghrelin levels declined in the non-emotional eaters, but not in emotional eaters. The possibility is offered that the lack of a decline of ghrelin in emotional eaters may sustain eating in these individuals.

  14. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval and juvenile colombian frogs 2. Field and laboratory microcosm acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M H; Solomon, K R; Carrasquilla, G

    2009-01-01

    The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate (coca mixture, a combination of formulated glyphosate, Glyphos, and an adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux) in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. Although acute LC50 for 8 species of Colombian frogs ranged from 1.2 to 2.78 mg acid equivalents (a.e.)/L, these exposures were conducted in the laboratory in the absence of sediments and organic matter such as would occur under realistic field conditions. In order to assess the effects of overspray of frog habitat under field conditions, Gosner stage 25 tadpoles of Rhinella granulosa, R. marina, Hypsiboas crepitans, and Scinax ruber were placed in outdoor microcosms made from polyethylene plastic fish ponds (2.07 m in diameter, 37 cm high) in an experimental area in Tolima, Colombia. The bottoms of the microcosms were covered with a 3-cm layer of local soil and they were filled to a depth of 15 cm (above the sediment) with local spring water. After up to 100 tadpoles of each frog species were placed in the microcosms, they were sprayed with the coca mixture at concentrations greater and less than the normal application rate (3.69 kg glyphosate a.e./ha). Mortality at 96 h in the control microcosms was between 0 and 16% and LC50 values were between 8.9 and 10.9 kg glyphosate a.e./ha (equivalent to initial concentrations of 5963 to 7303 microg glyphosate a.e./L). Mortality >LC50 was only observed in the tested species when the application rate was >2-fold the normal application rate. In other experiments, juvenile and adult terrestrial stages of frogs were exposed by direct spraying to a range of concentrations of coca mixture. Juveniles and adults were exposed in plastic food containers (19 x 19 cm). The bottom of the container was filled with moistened soil and leaf litter to a depth of 1 cm and 0.5 cm, respectively. Mortality in the controls was low, from 0 to 10%, and from 0 to 35% at the normal application rate. LC50 values ranged between 4.5 kg

  15. Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity disorders in vehicle manufacturing: cross sectional exposure-response trends

    PubMed Central

    Punnett, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between upper extremity soft tissue disorders and exposure to preventable ergonomic stressors in vehicle manufacturing operations. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in one vehicle stamping plant and one engine assembly plant. A standardised physical examination of the upper extremities was performed on all subjects. An interviewer administered questionnaire obtained data on demographics, work history, musculoskeletal symptoms, non-occupational covariates, and psycho-physical (relative intensity) ratings of ergonomic stressors. The primary exposure score was computed by summing the responses to the psychophysical exposure items. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the prevalence of disorders of the shoulders or upper arms, wrists or hands, and all upper extremity regions (each defined both by symptoms and by physical examination plus symptoms) as a function of exposure quartile. RESULTS: A total of 1315 workers (85% of the target population) was examined. The prevalence of symptom disorders was 22% for the wrists or hands and 15% for the shoulders or upper arms; cases defined on the basis of a physical examination were about 80% as frequent. Disorders of the upper extremities, shoulders, and wrists or hands all increased markedly with exposure score, after adjustment for plant, acute injury, sex, body mass index, systemic disease, and seniority. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities were strongly associated with exposure to combined ergonomic stressors. The exposure- response trend was very similar for symptom cases and for physical examination cases. It is important to evaluate all dimensions of ergonomic exposure in epidemiological studies, as exposures often occur in combination in actual workplaces.   PMID:9764102

  16. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    PubMed Central

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic. PMID:27782171

  17. Dissecting Driver Behaviors Under Cognitive, Emotional, Sensorimotor, and Mixed Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlidis, I.; Dcosta, M.; Taamneh, S.; Manser, M.; Ferris, T.; Wunderlich, R.; Akleman, E.; Tsiamyrtzis, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a simulation experiment we studied the effects of cognitive, emotional, sensorimotor, and mixed stressors on driver arousal and performance with respect to (wrt) baseline. In a sample of n = 59 drivers, balanced in terms of age and gender, we found that all stressors incurred significant increases in mean sympathetic arousal accompanied by significant increases in mean absolute steering. The latter, translated to significantly larger range of lane departures only in the case of sensorimotor and mixed stressors, indicating more dangerous driving wrt baseline. In the case of cognitive or emotional stressors, often a smaller range of lane departures was observed, indicating safer driving wrt baseline. This paradox suggests an effective coping mechanism at work, which compensates erroneous reactions precipitated by cognitive or emotional conflict. This mechanisms’ grip slips, however, when the feedback loop is intermittently severed by sensorimotor distractions. Interestingly, mixed stressors did not affect crash rates in startling events, suggesting that the coping mechanism’s compensation time scale is above the range of neurophysiological latency. PMID:27170291

  18. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  19. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    PubMed

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.

  20. Development and Initial Validation of the Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale: Stressors Faced by Students in Accelerated High School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Roth, Rachel A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    High school students in accelerated curricula face stressors beyond typical adolescent developmental challenges. The Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale (StRESS) is a self-report measure of environmental stressors appropriate for students in Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. We developed the StRESS…

  1. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity.

  2. Exploring Culturally Based Intrafamilial Stressors Among Latino Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, David; Ciofu, Amanda; Cervantes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the profound impact that intrafamilial stressors, including parent – adolescent acculturation discrepancies, may have on Latino adolescent behavioral and mental health, this line of research remains underdeveloped. The purpose of this study is to obtain rich descriptions from Latino adolescents of the most salient intrafamilial stressors. The authors employ focus group methodology with a grounded theory approach. A total of 25 focus groups were conducted with 170 Latino adolescents in the Northeast and Southwest United States. Findings indicate that Latino adolescents experience significant stressors related to parent – adolescent acculturation discrepancies. From this qualitative study the authors derive a series of testable hypotheses aimed at fully understanding the role of parent – adolescent acculturation discrepancies on Latino adolescent behavioral and mental health and informing the development of culturally responsive preventive interventions for this population. PMID:25530653

  3. Stressors and stress management--1 month after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miller, P; Garrett, M J; Stoltenberg, M; McMahon, M; Ringel, K

    1990-01-01

    Stressors and stress management behaviors reported by 52 myocardial infarction (MI) patients were identified from a content analysis of transcriptions of nurse/patient/spouse interactions that took place 30 days postinfarction. Subjects defined stress primarily in terms of distress related to appraisals of harm, loss, or threat. Stressors and stress management behaviors varied, although subjects were similar in age and occupation and were in the same phase of recovery. Most stressors related to recent myocardial infarction and pertained to thoughts and feelings more than to external events. Others, related to family and/or work, were ongoing before the MI. Stress management behaviors comprised a continuum of physical, cognitive, and verbal behaviors ranging from active to passive. Avoidance of situations, ignoring situations, expressing feelings, and thinking things through were the four major modes of stress management behaviors. Implications for rehabilitation nursing practice are identified.

  4. Why Bees Are So Vulnerable to Environmental Stressors.

    PubMed

    Klein, Simon; Cabirol, Amélie; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Bee populations are declining in the industrialized world, raising concerns for the sustainable pollination of crops. Pesticides, pollutants, parasites, diseases, and malnutrition have all been linked to this problem. We consider here neurobiological, ecological, and evolutionary reasons why bees are particularly vulnerable to these environmental stressors. Central-place foraging on flowers demands advanced capacities of learning, memory, and navigation. However, even at low intensity levels, many stressors damage the bee brain, disrupting key cognitive functions needed for effective foraging, with dramatic consequences for brood development and colony survival. We discuss how understanding the relationships between the actions of stressors on the nervous system, individual cognitive impairments, and colony decline can inform constructive interventions to sustain bee populations.

  5. Stressors May Compromise Medication Adherence among Adults with Diabetes and Low Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mayberry, Lindsay S.; Wagner, Julie A.; Welch, Garry W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have been limited by focusing on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms; stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing numerous chronic stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. PMID:24569697

  6. Amphibian decline: An integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.; Krest, S.K.; Sparling, D. W.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing the attention and imagination of the public and the scientific community alike, the mysterious decline in amphibian populations drew scientists and resource managers from ecotoxicology and chemistry, ecology and field biology, conservation biology, and natural resource policy to a SETAC–Johnson Foundation workshop. Facilitating environmental stewardship, increasing capacity of the sciences to explain complex stressors, and educating the public on relationships among communities of all types motivated these experts to address amphibian decline and the role of various stressors in these losses.

  7. Non-Chemical Stressors in a Child's Social Environment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Non-chemical stressors exist in the built, natural and social environments including physical factors (e.g., noise, temperature and humidity) and psychosocial factors (e.g., poor diet, smoking, illicit drug use)[1]. Scientists study how non-chemical stressors (e.g., social support, stress, exposure to violence) from the social environment (e.g., places where children live, learn, play) affect the biological response to chemical exposures; impacting children’s health[2-5]. Poster for the 2017 CEHN Conference.

  8. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  9. Impact of Deployment-Related Sexual Stressors on Psychiatric Symptoms After Accounting for Predeployment Stressors: Findings From a U.S. National Guard Cohort.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Ethan B; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul; Polusny, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    This study used a longitudinal research design to examine the impact of predeployment stressors and deployment-related sexual stressors on self-reported psychiatric symptoms of U.S. National Guard soldiers returning from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Prior to deployment, participants completed measures of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, along with an inventory of predeployment stressor experiences. At 3-months postdeployment, participants (468 men, 60 women) again completed self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms, along with an inventory of sexual stressors experienced during deployment. We compared a cross-sectional model of sexual stressors' impact on psychiatric symptoms, in which only postdeployment reports were considered, to a longitudinal model in which we adjusted for participants' predeployment stressors and psychiatric symptoms. No participants reported sexual assault during deployment, though sexual harassment was common. The cross-sectional model suggested that deployment-related sexual stressors were significantly associated with postdeployment depression (R(2) = .11) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (R(2) = .10). Once predeployment factors were taken into consideration, however, sexual stressors were no longer significant. The results did not support the notion of lasting negative impact for low-level sexual stressors (e.g., sexual harassment) during deployment after predeployment stressors are accounted for. Future studies of sexual stressors should consider longitudinal designs.

  10. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA.

  11. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  12. URBAN STORMWATER STRESSOR SOURCES. CHARACTERIZATION AND BMP TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper covers the origin and values of the various pollutants or stressors in urban stormwater including flow (shear force), pathogens, suspended solids/sediment, toxicants (organic and metals), nutrients, oxygen demanding substances, and coarse solids. A broad overview of t...

  13. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  14. Anger after Childbirth: An Overlooked Reaction to Postpartum Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jennifer E.; Lobel, Marci; DeLuca, Robyn Stein

    2002-01-01

    Other than postpartum depression, little is known about women's emotional responses to childbirth and subsequent stressors. Anger was explored on the basis of theory and evidence that it is a likely emotional response in this context. During their third trimester of pregnancy and approximately six weeks after delivery, 163 participants completed…

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology is an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of exposure to stressors at the level of the individual. Even though the histopathological approach is somewhat qualitative, it is very valuable because the observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  16. Environmental and Developmental Risks and Stressors Impacting a 2050 Vision

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vision of what our water resources and environment may look like in the year 2050 must consider the increasing risks and stressors facing our planet. Recent papers, reports and books are used as the source and basis for identifying the range of future challenges facing the worl...

  17. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make...

  18. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  19. Job Stressors, Personality and Burnout in Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied.…

  20. Coping with Specific Stressors in Alzheimer's Disease Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Gail M.; Schulz, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Examined strategies used by 170 Alzheimer's disease caregivers to cope with memory deficits, communication impairments, and decline of loved one. Wishfulness was related to more depressed affect, regardless of stressor type. Relaxation in response to memory deficits, and acceptance in dealing with communication impairments and decline of loved one…

  1. Faculty Research Productivity: Some Moderators of Associated Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Bently, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    A study with 894 college faculty investigated the effects of certain stress variables on different kinds of faculty research activity; psychological and organizational variables thought to moderate stress; and the effects of stressors and moderators for gender, institution type, and discipline (humanities, social sciences, natural sciences)…

  2. Management Team Stressors and Their Impact on Administrators' Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.; Swent, Boyd

    School administrators suffer greater stress from administrative constraints than from any other stress factors, according to a survey of over 1,150 Oregon elementary and secondary principals and vice-principals, superintendents, and central office administrators. Researchers isolated 35 stressors, or stress-inducing situations, that could be…

  3. AN EPA SPONSORED LITERATURE REVIEW DATABASE TO SUPPORT STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS) is an EPA decision-support system currently under development for evaluating the biological impact of stressors on water bodies. In support of CADDIS, EPA is developing CADLIT, a searchable database of the scient...

  4. The Rural Texas Environment: A Profile of Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain, Karen; and Others

    Questionnaire data from 168 rural residents of Atacosa, Cass, Freestone, Scurry, and Upton counties, 153 health and human services providers and interviews with 125 residents of 25 rural communities identified and described stressors in the rural Texas environment. Rural Texans viewed economic problems (money, lack of jobs, poverty, working…

  5. Occupational Stressors and Administrative Role in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Thomas

    To explore the relationship between occupational stressors and educational administration, a random sample of 226 Oklahoma administrators was given an administrative stress questionnaire. The administrators--including 52 superintendents, 50 central office administrators, 61 secondary principals, and 63 elementary principals--were all enrolled at…

  6. Chronic Psychosocial Factors and Acute Physiological Responses to Laboratory-Induced Stress in Healthy Populations: A Quantitative Review of 30 Years of Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness;…

  7. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-08

    CD19-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  8. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  9. Stressor diversity: Introduction and empirical integration into the daily stress model.

    PubMed

    Koffer, Rachel E; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Almeida, David M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether and how stressor diversity, the extent to which stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span 2 independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N = 2,022 adults, aged 33 to 85 years, assessed over T = 8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N = 150 adults, aged 18 to 89 years, assessed over T = 63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals' stressor experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors: New Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Bellinger, David C; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Chadwick, Lisa H; Cordier, Sylvaine; Etzel, Ruth A; Gray, Kimberly A; Ha, Eun-Hee; Junien, Claudine; Karagas, Margaret; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Paige Lawrence, B; Perera, Frederica P; Prins, Gail S; Puga, Alvaro; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Sherr, David H; Sly, Peter D; Suk, William; Sun, Qi; Toppari, Jorma; van den Hazel, Peter; Walker, Cheryl L; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2015-10-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of biomedical research. Environmental stressors that can impact on DOHaD encompass a variety of environmental and occupational hazards as well as deficiency and oversupply of nutrients and energy. They can disrupt early developmental processes and lead to increased susceptibility to disease/dysfunctions later in life. Presentations at the fourth Conference on Prenatal Programming and Toxicity in Boston, in October 2014, provided important insights and led to new recommendations for research and public health action. The conference highlighted vulnerable exposure windows that can occur as early as the preconception period and epigenetics as a major mechanism than can lead to disadvantageous "reprogramming" of the genome, thereby potentially resulting in transgenerational effects. Stem cells can also be targets of environmental stressors, thus paving another way for effects that may last a lifetime. Current testing paradigms do not allow proper characterization of risk factors and their interactions. Thus, relevant exposure levels and combinations for testing must be identified from human exposure situations and outcome assessments. Testing of potential underpinning mechanisms and biomarker development require laboratory animal models and in vitro approaches. Only few large-scale birth cohorts exist, and collaboration between birth cohorts on a global scale should be facilitated. DOHaD-based research has a crucial role in establishing factors leading to detrimental outcomes and developing early preventative/remediation strategies to combat these risks.

  11. MULTIPLE STRESSOR EFFECTS OF HERBICIDE, PH, AND FOOD ON WETLAND ZOOPLANKTON AND A LARVAL AMPHIBIAN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Hathaway, Kevin M.; Thompson, Dean G.; Folt, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of herbicides and natural environmental stressors such as pH and food availability are poorly understood. We tested a chemical formulation of triclopyr (Release®) at environmentally relevant test concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 mg/L) in combination with two levels of pH (pH 5.5 and 7.5), and two levels of food availability (high and low). Population level effects of each stressor alone and in combination with the others were investigated using Simocephalus vetulus, a zooplankton species, and Rana pipiens tadpoles (Gosner stage 25), both common to forest ponds and wetlands. Herbicide treatments resulted in significant decreases in survival of both test species as well as reproduction and development time for Simocephalus vetulus at levels 5–10× below predicted worst case environmental concentrations (2.6 mg/L). This laboratory study demonstrates a probable risk of toxic effects of Release® herbicide which may be significantly increased by low food availability and by low pH at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:17904219

  12. Digital vibration threshold testing and ergonomic stressors in automobile manufacturing workers: a cross-sectional assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, J E; Punnett, L; Cherniack, M; Wegman, D H

    2005-01-01

    Upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) comprise a large proportion of work-related illnesses in the USA. Physical risk factors including manual force and segmental vibration have been associated with UEMSDs. Reduced sensitivity to vibration in the fingertips (a function of nerve integrity) has been found in those exposed to segmental vibration, to hand force, and in office workers. The objective of this study was to determine whether an association exists between digital vibration thresholds (VTs) and exposure to ergonomic stressors in automobile manufacturing. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted in a cross-sectional survey of workers (n = 1174). In multivariable robust regression modelling, associations with workers' estimates of ergonomic stressors stratified on tool use were determined. VTs were separately associated with hand force, vibration as felt through the floor (whole body vibration), and with an index of multiple exposures in both tool users and non-tool users. Additional associations with contact stress and awkward upper extremity postures were found in tool users. Segmental vibration was not associated with VTs. Further epidemiologic and laboratory studies are needed to confirm the associations found. The association with self-reported whole body vibration exposure suggests a possible sympathetic nervous system effect, which remains to be explored.

  13. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic stressors on Puget Sound flatfish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lyndal L.; Landahl, John T.; Kubin, Leslie A.; Horness, Beth H.; Myers, Mark S.; Collier, Tracy K.; Stein, John E.

    1998-03-01

    Puget Sound is an estuary in the northwestern United States which serves as the habitat for a number of recreationally and commercially important species of flatfish. Over the past 100 years, there has been substantial urban and industrial development within this region, resulting in heavy inputs of chemical contaminants at selected sites, as well as significant loss or alteration of marine habitat. Studies show that feral flatfish in Puget Sound are experiencing a range of biological effects due to chemical contaminant exposure, including reproductive dysfunction, altered immune competence, and development of toxicopathic diseases, and there is some evidence of reduced survival in fish from urban areas of Puget Sound from increased infectious and toxicopathic disease. Puget Sound sole are also subject to other anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing pressure or alteration of nearshore nursery habitats. The cumulative impact of these stressors on flatfish abundance in Puget Sound, however, is poorly understood. In a series of field and laboratory studies, we determined vital rates and other life history parameters in English sole ( Pleuronectes vetulus) subpopulations from urban and non-urban sites in Puget Sound, and are using this information to estimate potential population level impacts of anthropogenic stressors, with age and stage-based Leslie-matrix models. Initial results suggest that declines in the fecundity component of the model, as observed in field studies of fish from contaminated sites, could reduce the size of sub-populations in these areas if the loss of recruits is not offset by density-dependent changes in recruitment, immigration, or other compensating mechanisms. Studies on flatfish species from a variety of sites in Europe and North America suggest that contaminant-related disease and reproductive impairment are widespread in this group of fish, although substantial differences in sensitivity have been observed, even among closely related

  14. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions.

  15. Genotype and toxicity relationships among Hyalella azteca: I. Acute exposure to metals or low pH

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Y.; Guttman, S.I.; Oris, J.T.; Bailer, A.J.

    2000-05-01

    Comparative genotype and toxin interactions at three polymorphic enzyme loci were examined in a laboratory population of amphipods (Hyalella azteca) during acute exposure to cadmium, zinc, copper, lead, or low pH. Significant toxin-genotype interactions were observed using logistic regression to model mortality in ten of 15 analyses. Both stressor-specific and nonspecific modes of selection were observed. In general, low pH selected for different genotypes than those selected by metals, especially zinc. Different modes of selection were also observed when amphipods were exposed to different metals. These results suggest that exposure to low pH would significantly reduce the ability of H. azteca to survive subsequent contamination by metals; exposure to stressors in the reverse order would also compromise a population's chance of survival. A genetic distance analysis showed that the magnitude of genetic differentiation consistently increased among survivors compared with that of the initial populations. These increases in genetic divergence estimates suggest that acute exposure to metals or low pH may have an evolutionarily significant impact on the species. They also suggest that both genotype frequency and genetic distance measures (based on allozyme data) may be used as bioindicators for environmental monitoring programs. Validation of such bioindicators requires an understanding of the population's genetic background, genetic structure, and history.

  16. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  17. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  18. Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed.

    PubMed

    Gieswein, Alexander; Hering, Daniel; Feld, Christian K

    2017-03-21

    Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment. Twenty-one biological metrics calculated from taxa lists of three organism groups (fish, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes) served as response variables. Stressor and response variables were subjected to Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis to identify stressor hierarchy and stressor interactions and subsequently to Generalised Linear Regression Modelling (GLM) to quantify the stressors standardised effect size. Our results show that riverine habitat degradation was the dominant stressor group for the river fauna, notably the bed physical habitat structure. Overall, the explained variation in benthic invertebrate metrics was higher than it was in fish and macrophyte metrics. In particular, general integrative (aggregate) metrics such as % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa performed better than ecological traits (e.g. % feeding types). Overall, additive stressor effects dominated, while significant and meaningful stressor interactions were generally rare and weak. We concluded that given the type of stressor and ecological response variables addressed in this study, river basin managers do not need to bother much about complex stressor interactions, but can focus on the prevailing stressors according to the hierarchy identified.

  19. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output

    PubMed Central

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors. PMID:27511270

  20. A Qualitative Assessment of Personal and Academic Stressors among Korean College Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Hun; Kang, Sunwoo; Yum, Sichang

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the patterns of personal and academic stressors reported by Korean college students. The survey items included types of stress factors in academic and personal stressors and demographic variables (i.e., gender and school year). The participants were asked to provide the academic and personal stressors as the…

  1. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  2. Stressors, Resources, and Strain at Work: A Longitudinal Test of the Triple-Match Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jonge, Jan; Dormann, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies investigated the issue of match between job stressors and job resources in the prediction of job-related strain. On the basis of the triple-match principle (TMP), it was hypothesized that resources are most likely to moderate the relation between stressors and strains if resources, stressors, and strains all match.…

  3. Immediate and longer-term stressors and the mental health of Hurricane Ike survivors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2-5 months (Wave 1), 5-9 months (Wave 2) and 14-18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors.

  4. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  5. Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors in Vulnerable Groups and Potential Health Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to chemical stressors Understanding of the myriad non-chemical stressorsLinkages between chemical and non-chemical stressors and health and well-beingPriority research in children’s environmental health, Tribal research needs, and disproportionately impacted comm...

  6. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  7. Lumbar position sense acuity during an electrical shock stressor

    PubMed Central

    Hjortskov, Nis; Hye-Knudsen, Christian; Fallentin, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Background Optimal motor control of the spine depends on proprioceptive input as a prerequisite for co-ordination and the stability of the spine. Muscle spindles are known to play an important role in proprioception. Animal experiments suggest that an increase in sympathetic outflow can depress muscle spindle sensitivity. As the muscle spindle may be influenced by sympathetic modulation, we hypothesized that a state of high sympathetic activity as during mental stress would affect the proprioceptive output from the muscle spindles in the back muscles leading to alterations in proprioception and position sense acuity. The aim was to investigate the effect of mental stress, in this study the response to an electrical shock stressor, on position sense acuity in the rotational axis of the lumbar spine. Methods Passive and active position sense acuity in the rotational plane of the lumbar spine was investigated in the presence and absence of an electrical shock stressor in 14 healthy participants. An electrical shock-threat stressor lasting for approximately 12 minutes was used as imposed stressor to build up a strong anticipatory arousal: The participants were told that they were going to receive 8 painful electrical shocks however the participants never received the shocks. To quantify the level of physiological arousal and the level of sympathetic outflow continuous beat-to-beat changes in heart rate (beats*min-1) and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg) were measured. To quantify position sense acuity absolute error (AE) expressed in degrees was measured. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements (subjects as random factor and treatments as fixed factors) was used to compare the different treatments. Results Significant increases were observed in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate during the stress sessions indicating elevated sympathetic activity (15, 14 and 10%, respectively). Despite pronounced

  8. Social isolation and the inflammatory response: sex differences in the enduring effects of a prior stressor.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Gretchen L; Rosenthal, Louis; Montag, Anthony; McClintock, Martha K

    2006-02-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between persistent social isolation and "all-cause" morbidity and mortality. To date, no causal mechanism for these findings has been established. Whereas animal studies have often reported short-term effects of social isolation on biological systems, the long-term effects of this adverse psychological state have been understudied. This is the first animal study to examine the effects of long-term social isolation from weaning through young adulthood on an innate inflammatory response linked to numerous disease processes. Results presented here offer a plausible link between vulnerability to disease and social neglect. For socially isolated male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, a naturally gregarious species, formation of a granuloma in response to a subcutaneous injection of carrageenin (seaweed) was significantly delayed compared with the response of animals housed in single-sex groups of five. Significant sex differences, however, emerged when an acute prior stressor was superimposed on the experience of chronic social isolation. In this context, isolated females produced a more robust inflammatory response than isolated males. This sexual dimorphism at the nexus of chronic social isolation, acute stress, and inflammatory processes may account for the observation in humans that men with low levels of social integration are more vulnerable to disease and death than women.

  9. Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation: carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-02-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500-1400 μatm and O2 from 80-240 μmol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 μmol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  10. Validating faecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis in the Virunga mountain gorilla using a natural biological stressor

    PubMed Central

    Eckardt, W.; Stoinski, T. S.; Rosenbaum, S.; Umuhoza, M. R.; Santymire, R.

    2016-01-01

    The continued degradation of primate habitat worldwide is forcing many primate populations into small protected forest islands surrounded by high-density human populations. One well-studied example is the critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Decades of monitoring and research on Rwanda's mountain gorillas offer a unique opportunity to use non-invasive endocrine analysis to address pressing questions about the conservation of this endangered population. The aims of our study were as follows: (i) to validate field and laboratory methods for assessing stress through faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) analysis using inter-social unit interactions as a natural stressor; (ii) to determine the excretion lag times between interactions and detectable stress response in faeces; and (iii) to determine whether there are circadian patterns of FGM excretion. We collected ~6000 faecal samples from 127 known gorillas in 10 habituated groups, monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center over 21 months in 2011 and 2012. Extracted FGMs were measured using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay (R4866; C. J. Munro). Results revealed cause–effect relationships between inter-unit interactions and increased FGMs (relative to individual pre-event samples) between 20 and 140 h after interactions, with the peak most often occurring on day 3. There was no evidence of circadian patterns in FGM concentrations, as previously shown in many species with long gut passage times. However, baseline FGM concentrations were lower in adult males than in adult females, and variation was associated with the collection month, indicating possible seasonal variation. This study provides a biologically validated, field-friendly faecal hormone metabolite extraction and laboratory enzyme immunoassay analysis method for non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in Virunga mountain gorillas. The methods are useful for future evaluation of a variety

  11. Antioxidative responses in females and males of the spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Grażyna; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of enzymatic antioxidative parameters [i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the glutathione peroxidases each selene dependent, GPOX or selene independent, including GSTPx, glutathione S-transferase, and GST] and non-enzymatic antioxidative parameters [i.e., glutathione total (GSH-t), the heat shock proteins of Hsp70, and metallothioneins (Mt)] in the midgut glands of female and male wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to natural stressors (i.e., heat shock and starvation) and anthropogenic stressors (i.e., the organophosphorous pesticide dimethoate) under laboratory conditions. The spiders were collected from two differentially polluted sites both localized in southern Poland: Olkusz, which is heavily polluted with metals, and Pilica, the reference site. In response to the stressing factors, increases in Hsp70 levels, in the concentrations of total glutathione and in the activity levels of glutathione-dependent enzymes (GPOX, GSTPx, and GST) were found in the midgut glands of males. In the females, high levels of activity of CAT and SOD were revealed, as well as an increased percentage of Mt-positive cells. Preexposed females, in comparison to the individuals from the reference site, responded with increased SOD activity, irrespective of the stressing factor. In contrast, the changes in the antioxidative parameters in the midgut glands of male X. nemoralis seem to reflect a short-term reaction to the applied stressors and do not confirm the effects of long-term selection in a polluted environment.

  12. Sleep Disturbance and Older Adults' Inflammatory Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Kathi L.; Ng, H. Mei; Suhr, Julie A.; France, Christopher R.; Marshall, Gailen D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Design Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Setting Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Participants Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women 50 years of age and older. Measurements IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Results Participants categorized as poor sleepers based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors compared to good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Conclusions Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation. PMID:22327621

  13. Office workers' computer use patterns are associated with workplace stressors.

    PubMed

    Eijckelhof, Belinda H W; Huysmans, Maaike A; Blatter, Birgitte M; Leider, Priscilla C; Johnson, Peter W; van Dieën, Jaap H; Dennerlein, Jack T; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-11-01

    This field study examined associations between workplace stressors and office workers' computer use patterns. We collected keyboard and mouse activities of 93 office workers (68F, 25M) for approximately two work weeks. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between self-reported effort, reward, overcommitment, and perceived stress and software-recorded computer use duration, number of short and long computer breaks, and pace of input device usage. Daily duration of computer use was, on average, 30 min longer for workers with high compared to low levels of overcommitment and perceived stress. The number of short computer breaks (30 s-5 min long) was approximately 20% lower for those with high compared to low effort and for those with low compared to high reward. These outcomes support the hypothesis that office workers' computer use patterns vary across individuals with different levels of workplace stressors.

  14. Combined ocean acidification and low temperature stressors cause coral mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavousi, Javid; Parkinson, John Everett; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Oceans are predicted to become more acidic and experience more temperature variability—both hot and cold—as climate changes. Ocean acidification negatively impacts reef-building corals, especially when interacting with other stressors such as elevated temperature. However, the effects of combined acidification and low temperature stress have yet to be assessed. Here, we exposed nubbins of the scleractinian coral Montipora digitata to ecologically relevant acidic, cold, or combined stress for 2 weeks. Coral nubbins exhibited 100% survival in isolated acidic and cold treatments, but ~30% mortality under combined conditions. These results provide further evidence that coupled stressors have an interactive effect on coral physiology, and reveal that corals in colder environments are also susceptible to the deleterious impacts of coupled ocean acidification and thermal stress.

  15. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M J; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-11-16

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed at integration of methods for human and ecological risk assessment. A mechanistically based model, considering uptake and toxicity as a processes in time, has demonstrated considerable potential for predicting mixture effects in ecotoxicology, but requires the measurement of toxicity endpoints at different moments in time. Within a novel framework for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, the importance of environmental factors on toxicokinetic processes is highlighted. A new paradigm for applying personal characteristics that determine individual exposure and sensitivity in human risk assessment is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors.

  16. Assessing and managing stressors in a changing marine environment.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Peter M

    2016-10-16

    We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions. Agreed protection goals and considering both the negatives (risks) and the positives (benefits) of all any and all actions are required, as is judicious and appropriate use of the Precautionary Principle. Researchers and managers need to focus on: determining tipping points (alternative stable points); maintaining ecosystem services; and, managing competing ecosystem services. Marine (and other) scientists are urged to focus their research on wicked problems to allow for informed decision-making on a planetary basis.

  17. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. PMID:26385447

  18. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part II – The relationship between self-esteem and demographic factors and psychosocial stressors in psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Salsali, Mahnaz; Silverstone, Peter H

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to identify the effects and relative importance of demographic factors and psychosocial stressors on self-esteem of psychiatric patients. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, patients and controls completed two self-esteem questionnaires, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. In addition, a large amount of demographic and psychosocial data was collected on all patients. Results Significantly increased self-esteem was observed with an increase in age, educational achievement and income. Employed patients showed significantly higher self-esteem compared to unemployed patients. Female patients had a significantly lower self-esteem compared to male patients. The self-esteem of psychiatric patients did not vary significantly with their marital status. No relationship was detected between acute stressors and the self-esteem of psychiatric patients, although severe enduring stressors were associated with lower self-esteem in psychiatric patients. Conclusion The results of this large study demonstrate that the self-esteem of adult psychiatric patients is affected by a number of demographic and psychosocial factors including age, sex, educational status, income, employment status, and enduring psychosocial stressors. PMID:12622872

  19. A review of neuroimaging studies of stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity: Emerging evidence for a brain-body pathway to coronary heart disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Sheu, Lei K.

    2009-01-01

    An individual's tendency to show exaggerated or otherwise dysregulated cardiovascular reactions to acute stressors has long been associated with increased risk for clinical and preclinical endpoints of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the ‘brain-body’ pathways that link stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactions to CHD risk remain uncertain. This review summarizes emerging neuroimaging research indicating that individual differences in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity (a particular form of cardiovascular reactivity) are associated with activation patterns in corticolimbic brain areas that are jointly involved in processing stressors and regulating the cardiovascular system. As supported empirically by activation likelihood estimates derived from a meta-analysis, these corticolimbic areas include divisions of the cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala—as well as networked cortical and subcortical areas involved in mobilizing hemodynamic and metabolic support for stress-related behavioral responding. Contextually, the research reviewed here illustrates how behavioral medicine and health neuroscience methods can be integrated to help characterize the ‘brain-body’ pathways that mechanistically link stressful experiences with CHD risk. PMID:19410652

  20. Nursing students in Iran identify the clinical environment stressors.

    PubMed

    Najafi Doulatabad, Shahla; Mohamadhosaini, Sima; Ghafarian Shirazi, Hamid Reza; Mohebbi, Zinat

    2015-06-01

    Stress at clinical environment is one of the cases that could affect the education quality among nursing students. The study aims to investigate Iranian nursing students' perceptions on the stressors in clinical environment in the South Western part of Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2010 to include 300 nursing students after their completion of second clinical nursing course in a hospital environment. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, with focus on the clinical environment stressors from personal, educational and training viewpoints. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and descriptive statistics tests. Among the various stressors, the highest scores were given to the faculty (71 ± 19.77), followed by the students' personal characteristics (43.15 ± 21.79). Given that faculty-related factors provoked more stress in nursing students, nursing administration should diligently evaluate and improve communication skills among faculty to reduce student stress and enhance learning.

  1. A Systems Approach to Stress, Stressors and Resilience in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Barry S.; Chamine, Irina; Wakeland, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the biology of stress and resilience and their biomarkers in humans from the system science perspective. A stressor pushes the physiological system away from its baseline state towards a lower utility state. The physiological system may return towards the original state in one attractor basin but may be shifted to a state in another, lower utility attractor basin. While some physiological changes induced by stressors may benefit health, there is often a chronic wear and tear cost due to implementing changes to enable the return of the system to its baseline state and maintain itself in the high utility baseline attractor basin following repeated perturbations. This cost, also called allostatic load, is the utility reduction associated with both a change in state and with alterations in the attractor basin that affect system responses following future perturbations. This added cost can increase the time course of the return to baseline or the likelihood of moving into a different attractor basin following a perturbation. Opposite to this is the system’s resilience which influences its ability to return to the high utility attractor basin following a perturbation by increasing the likelihood and/or speed of returning to the baseline state following a stressor. This review paper is a qualitative systematic review; it covers areas most relevant for moving the stress and resilience field forward from a more quantitative and neuroscientific perspective. PMID:25549855

  2. Emotion work and job stressors and their effects on burnout.

    PubMed

    Zapf, D; Seifert, C; Schmutte, B; Mertini, H; Holz, M

    2001-09-01

    Abstract This article reports research on emotion work, organizational as well as social variables as predictors of job burnout. In burnout research, high emotional demands resulting from interactions with clients are seen as a core characteristic of service jobs. However, these emotional demands were seldom measured in a direct manner. It was only recently that emotional demands were included in studies on burnout referring to the concept of emotion work (emotional labor). Emotion work is defined as the requirement to display organizationally desired emotions. A multi-dimensional concept of emotion work was used to analyze the relations of emotion work variables with organizational and social variables and their joint effect on burnout in five samples including employees working in children's homes, kindergartens, hotels, banks and call centers. Emotion work variables correlated with organizational stressors and resources. However, hierarchical multiple regression showed a unique contribution of emotion work variables in the prediction of burnout. Moreover, the analysis of interaction effects of emotional dissonance and organizational and social stressors showed that for service professionals, the coincidence of these stressors led to exaggerated levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.

  3. Multiple anthropogenic stressors and the structural properties of food webs.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Fitch, Jayne E; Crowe, Tasman P

    2012-03-01

    Coastal environments are among the most productive on the planet, providing a wide range of ecosystem services. Development and exploitation mean that they are faced with stresses from a number of anthropogenic sources. Such stresses are typically studied in isolation, but multiple stressors can combine in unexpected ways to alter the structure of ecological systems. Here, we experimentally explore the impacts of inorganic nutrients and organic matter on a range of food web properties. We find that these two stressors combine additively to produce significant increases in connectance and mean food chain length. Such increases are typically associated with enhanced robustness to secondary extinctions and productivity, respectively. Despite these apparent beneficial effects, we find a simplification of web structure in terms of taxon richness and diversity, and altered proportions of basal and top species. These effects are driven by a reduction in community assembly and lower consistency in a range of system properties as a result of the multiple stressors. Consequently, impacted food webs are likely to be more vulnerable to human- or climate-induced perturbations in the long-term.

  4. Interactions among ecosystem stressors and their importance in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.; Brown, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between multiple ecosystem stressors are expected to jeopardize biological processes, functions and biodiversity. The scientific community has declared stressor interactions—notably synergies—a key issue for conservation and management. Here, we review ecological literature over the past four decades to evaluate trends in the reporting of ecological interactions (synergies, antagonisms and additive effects) and highlight the implications and importance to conservation. Despite increasing popularity, and ever-finer terminologies, we find that synergies are (still) not the most prevalent type of interaction, and that conservation practitioners need to appreciate and manage for all interaction outcomes, including antagonistic and additive effects. However, it will not be possible to identify the effect of every interaction on every organism's physiology and every ecosystem function because the number of stressors, and their potential interactions, are growing rapidly. Predicting the type of interactions may be possible in the near-future, using meta-analyses, conservation-oriented experiments and adaptive monitoring. Pending a general framework for predicting interactions, conservation management should enact interventions that are robust to uncertainty in interaction type and that continue to bolster biological resilience in a stressful world. PMID:26865306

  5. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ontogeny influences sensitivity to climate change stressors in an endangered fish.

    PubMed

    Komoroske, L M; Connon, R E; Lindberg, J; Cheng, B S; Castillo, G; Hasenbein, M; Fangue, N A

    2014-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most human-impacted habitats globally, and their management is often critically linked to recovery of declining native species. In the San Francisco Estuary, the Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endemic, endangered fish strongly tied to Californian conservation planning. The complex life history of Delta Smelt combined with dynamic seasonal and spatial abiotic conditions result in dissimilar environments experienced among ontogenetic stages, which may yield stage-specific susceptibility to abiotic stressors. Climate change is forecasted to increase San Francisco Estuary water temperature and salinity; therefore, understanding the influences of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity on tolerance to these critical environmental parameters is particularly important for Delta Smelt and other San Francisco Estuary fishes. We assessed thermal and salinity limits in several ontogenetic stages and acclimation states of Delta Smelt, and paired these data with environmental data to evaluate sensitivity to climate-change stressors. Thermal tolerance decreased among successive stages, with larval fish exhibiting the highest tolerance and post-spawning adults having the lowest. Delta Smelt had limited capacity to increase tolerance through thermal acclimation, and comparisons with field temperature data revealed that juvenile tolerance limits are the closest to current environmental conditions, which may make this stage especially susceptible to future climate warming. Maximal water temperatures observed in situ exceeded tolerance limits of juveniles and adults. Although these temperature events are currently rare, if they increase in frequency as predicted, it could result in habitat loss at these locations despite other favourable conditions for Delta Smelt. In contrast, Delta Smelt tolerated salinities spanning the range of expected environmental conditions for each ontogenetic stage, but salinity did impact survival in juvenile and

  7. Laboratory-Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With High-Risk Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-05

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition.

  9. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Deudero, Salud; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Álvarez, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving) as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts. PMID:26218134

  10. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    PubMed

    Deudero, Salud; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Álvarez, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving) as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  11. Work stressors, role-based performance, and the moderating influence of organizational support.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J Craig; Edwards, Bryan D; Arnold, Todd; Frazier, M Lance; Finch, David M

    2009-01-01

    As a test of the 2-dimensional model of work stressors, the present study proposed differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and role-based performance, which were expected to be moderated by organizational support. In a sample of 215 employees across 61 offices of a state agency, the authors obtained a positive relationship between challenge stressors and role-based performance and a negative relationship between hindrance stressors and role-based performance. In addition, organizational support moderated the relationship between challenge stressors and role-based performance but did not moderate the relationship between hindrance stressors and role-based performance. This suggests that organizations would benefit from increasing challenges in the workplace as long as they are supportive of employees and removing hindrances. Further implications for organizational theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Lukasz M.; Mosaly, Prithima R.; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  13. Analysing the impact of multiple stressors in aquatic biomonitoring data: A 'cookbook' with applications in R.

    PubMed

    Feld, Christian K; Segurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Cayetano

    2016-12-15

    Multiple stressors threaten biodiversity and ecosystem integrity, imposing new challenges to ecosystem management and restoration. Ecosystem managers are required to address and mitigate the impact of multiple stressors, yet the knowledge required to disentangle multiple-stressor effects is still incomplete. Experimental studies have advanced the understanding of single and combined stressor effects, but there is a lack of a robust analytical framework, to address the impact of multiple stressors based on monitoring data. Since 2000, the monitoring of Europe's waters has resulted in a vast amount of biological and environmental (stressor) data of about 120,000 water bodies. For many reasons, this data is rarely exploited in the multiple-stressor context, probably because of its rather heterogeneous nature: stressors vary and are mixed with broad-scale proxies of environmental stress (e.g. land cover), missing values and zero-inflated data limit the application of statistical methods and biological indicators are often aggregated (e.g. taxon richness) and do not respond stressor-specific. Here, we present a 'cookbook' to analyse the biological response to multiple stressors using data from biomonitoring schemes. Our 'cookbook' includes guidance for the analytical process and the interpretation of results. The 'cookbook' is accompanied by scripts, which allow the user to run a stepwise analysis based on his/her own data in R, an open-source language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. Using simulated and real data, we show that the recommended procedure is capable of identifying stressor hierarchy (importance) and interaction in large datasets. We recommend a minimum number of 150 independent observations and a minimum stressor gradient length of 75% (of the most relevant stressor's gradient in nature), to be able to reliably rank the stressor's importance, detect relevant interactions and estimate their standardised effect size. We conclude with

  14. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  15. The Hispanic Women's Social Stressor Scale: Understanding the Multiple Social Stressors of U.S.- and Mexico-Born Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Gonzales, Melissa; Malcoe, Lorraine H.; Espinosa, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of social stressors among Hispanic women is a growing and important area of study, particularly in terms of understanding explanatory mechanisms for health disparities. This study involved adaptation of the Hispanic Stress Inventory and the Latin American Stress Inventory to create a measure of social stressors specifically for both…

  16. Interpersonal Stressors in the Schoolyard and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Rumination and Co-Rumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Cuiying; Chu, Xiaowei; Wang, Mingzhong; Zhou, Zongkui

    2016-01-01

    Stressors have been identified as significant vulnerability factors in the development of adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the relationship between depressive symptoms and two types of interpersonal stressors in the schoolyard, namely teacher-student interaction stressors (TSIS) and peer interaction stressors (PIS). More…

  17. Stressor exposure has prolonged effects on colonic microbial community structure in Citrobacter rodentium-challenged mice

    PubMed Central

    Galley, Jeffrey D.; Mackos, Amy R.; Varaljay, Vanessa A.; Bailey, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Stressor exposure significantly affects the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota, and exacerbates Citrobacter rodentium-induced inflammation, effects that can be attenuated with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. This study assessed the structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota in mice exposed to a social stressor (called social disruption), as well as non-stressed control mice, during challenge with the colonic pathogen C. rodentium. Mice were exposed to the social stressor or home cage control conditions for six consecutive days and all mice were challenged with C. rodentium immediately following the first exposure to the stressor. In addition, mice received probiotic L. reuteri, or vehicle as a control, via oral gavage following each stressor exposure. The stressor-exposed mice had significant differences in microbial community composition compared to non-stressed control mice. This difference was first evident following the six-cycle exposure to the stressor, on Day 6 post-C. rodentium challenge, and persisted for up to 19 days after stressor termination. Mice exposed to the stressor had different microbial community composition regardless of whether they were treated with L. reuteri or treated with vehicle as a control. These data indicate that stressor exposure affects the colonic microbiota during challenge with C. rodentium, and that these effects are long-lasting and not attenuated by probiotic L. reuteri. PMID:28344333

  18. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. Methods A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. Results The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Conclusion Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout. PMID:26508955

  19. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale. PMID:27698128

  20. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Roland A; Fellers, Gary M; Kleeman, Patrick M; Miller, David A W; Vredenburg, Vance T; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2016-10-18

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth's amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species' adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale.

  1. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Vrendenburg, Vance T.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale.

  2. Psychosocial stressors in the lives of great jazz musicians.

    PubMed

    Patalano, F

    1997-02-01

    Brief biographical information on four great jazz tenor saxophone players of the past is presented to illustrate the similar psychosocial stressors these men seemed to experience, namely, severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of their art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style. Ages at death of 80 great jazz musicians may indicate that the stressful life style of jazz musicians may be reflected in a shortened life span, but a control group is needed.

  3. Comparison of the identification and ease of use of two alarm sound sets by critical and acute care nurses with little or no music training: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Atyeo, J; Sanderson, P M

    2015-07-01

    The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to learn and remember, especially clinicians with little prior formal music training. An alarm sound set proposed by Patterson and Edworthy in 1986 might improve performance for such participants. In this study, 31 critical and acute care nurses with less than one year of formal music training identified alarm sounds while they calculated drug dosages. Sixteen nurses used the IEC and 15 used the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set. The mean (SD) percentage of alarms correctly identified by nurses was 51.3 (25.6)% for the IEC alarm set and 72.1 (18.8)% for the Patterson-Edworthy alarms (p = 0.016). Nurses using the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set reported that it was easier to distinguish between alarm sounds than did nurses using the IEC alarm sound set (p = 0.015). Principles used to construct the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sounds should be adopted for future alarm sound sets.

  4. Hepatitis E virus: do locally acquired infections in Australia necessitate laboratory testing in acute hepatitis patients with no overseas travel history?

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ashish C; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert L P; Seed, Clive R; Keller, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is emerging as a global public health threat. Water-borne HEV outbreaks are common in developing countries and are associated with genotypes 1 and 2. In industrialised countries, sporadic cases of zoonotic transmission associated with genotypes 3 and 4 are increasingly being reported. Transfusion- and transplantation-transmitted HEV have been documented, although ingestion of contaminated food is thought to be the major transmission route. Severe disease is possible and chronic hepatitis infection occurs in solid-organ-transplant recipients and in patients with immunosuppressive disorders. In Australia, HEV cases are mainly travellers returning from disease endemic countries. Indeed, there are few reported cases of locally acquired HEV. Pigs in Australia have been shown to be infected with HEV, which indicates the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The extent of locally acquired infection is not known, however it may be greater than expected and may necessitate laboratory testing in patients reporting no overseas travel.

  5. Hepatitis E virus: do locally acquired infections in Australia necessitate laboratory testing in acute hepatitis patients with no overseas travel history?

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Ashish C.; Faddy, Helen M.; Flower, Robert L. P.; Seed, Clive R.; Keller, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is emerging as a global public health threat. Water-borne HEV outbreaks are common in developing countries and are associated with genotypes 1 and 2. In industrialised countries, sporadic cases of zoonotic transmission associated with genotypes 3 and 4 are increasingly being reported. Transfusion- and transplantation-transmitted HEV have been documented, although ingestion of contaminated food is thought to be the major transmission route. Severe disease is possible and chronic hepatitis infection occurs in solid-organ-transplant recipients and in patients with immunosuppressive disorders. In Australia, HEV cases are mainly travellers returning from disease endemic countries. Indeed, there are few reported cases of locally acquired HEV. Pigs in Australia have been shown to be infected with HEV, which indicates the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The extent of locally acquired infection is not known, however it may be greater than expected and may necessitate laboratory testing in patients reporting no overseas travel. PMID:25560836

  6. The stressed female brain: neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Shors, Tracey J

    2013-01-01

    Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. About 24 h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similarly to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful life

  7. Rapid changes in cellular immunity following a confrontational role-play stressor.

    PubMed

    Naliboff, B D; Solomon, G F; Gilmore, S L; Fahey, J L; Benton, D; Pine, J

    1995-09-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown several immune system changes consistently associated with brief stress including increases in circulating natural killer (NK) cell numbers, increases in NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), increases in suppressor cytotoxic (CD8) T cell numbers, and decreases in the in vitro proliferative response to mitogen stimulation. In the present study, we use a confrontational role-play, which brings out responses varying from assertion to capitulation and examine the psychological, behavioral, physiological, and immune system responses to this task compared to a resting control task. Compared to the control condition, the brief confrontational role-play led to significant subjective and physiological arousal and increases in circulating NK (CD16, CD56) as well as large granular lymphocyte (CD57) cells and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD8). There were also significant relationships between stress-related increases in the cardiovascular measures and the numbers of circulating NK cells. These findings support sympathetic nervous system activation as a primary mechanism for increases in NK cell numbers under challenge. These role-play results are generally consistent with those from other laboratory tasks such as mental arithmetic. However, in contrast to previously examined brief stressors, the role-play led to decreased NKCC adjusted for percentage of NK cells. This apparent differential change in NK cytotoxicity across different types of activating experimental tasks points to the importance of examining dimensions of the behavioral and emotional response to challenge or threat in addition to that of autonomic arousal.

  8. Work environment stressors, social support, anxiety, and depression among secondary school teachers.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Pamela L; Mahan, Michael P; Park, Na-Jin; Shelton, Christie; Brown, Kathleen C; Weaver, Michael T

    2010-05-01

    Work environment stress, a salient health and safety issue for secondary school teachers, school administrators, parents, and students, was examined in 168 teachers from two urban and five suburban high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ongoing and episodic stressors and anxiety and depression, as well as the extent to which anxiety and depression may be predicted by stressors and coworker and supervisor support. The Ongoing Stressor Scale (OSS) and the Episodic Stressor Scale (ESS), the Coworker and Supervisor Contents of Communication Scales (COCS), the State Anxiety inventory (S-Anxiety), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to measure the variables. Ongoing and episodic stressors were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and depression. Ongoing stressors and coworker support were significant in explaining anxiety and depression among secondary school teachers. Coworker support had an inverse relationship to anxiety and depression.

  9. Differential Reactivity and the Within-person Job Stressor-Satisfaction Relationship.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Cort W; Clark, Malissa A; Jundt, Dustin K; Baltes, Boris B

    2016-12-01

    An experience sampling methodology was used to study the direct and conditional within-person relationship between job stressors and job satisfaction. One hundred and one full-time administrative staff completed momentary measures of job stressors and job satisfaction three times a day on six different workdays over a 3-week period (N = 1818 observations). Multilevel random coefficients models were specified, and the results suggest that within-person stressors are negatively related to within-person job satisfaction. These results stand when controlling for the effects of time, demographics, work characteristics, baseline levels of job stressors and satisfaction, and between-person effects of job stressors. Furthermore, consistent with the differential reactivity model, the results suggest that the observed within-person stressors-satisfaction relationship is conditional upon locus of control and positive affect. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  11. Place-Based Stressors Associated with Industry and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: 1) the public’s identification with a place or industry, 2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and 3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

  12. Life histories predict coral community disassembly under multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S; McClanahan, Timothy R; Côté, Isabelle M

    2013-06-01

    Climate change is reshaping biological communities against a background of existing human pressure. Evaluating the impacts of multiple stressors on community dynamics can be particularly challenging in species-rich ecosystems, such as coral reefs. Here, we investigate whether life-history strategies and cotolerance to different stressors can predict community responses to fishing and temperature-driven bleaching using a 20-year time series of coral assemblages in Kenya. We found that the initial life-history composition of coral taxa largely determined the impacts of bleaching and coral loss. Prior to the 1998 bleaching event, coral assemblages within no-take marine reserves were composed of three distinct life histories - competitive, stress-tolerant and weedy- and exhibited strong declines following bleaching with limited subsequent recovery. In contrast, fished reefs had lower coral cover, fewer genera and were composed of stress-tolerant and weedy corals that were less affected by bleaching over the long term. Despite these general patterns, we found limited evidence for cotolerance as coral genera and life histories were variable in their sensitivities to fishing and bleaching. Overall, fishing and bleaching have reduced coral diversity and led to altered coral communities of 'survivor' species with stress-tolerant and weedy life histories. Our findings are consistent with expectations that climate change interacting with existing human pressure will result in the loss of coral diversity and critical reef habitat.

  13. Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public׳s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement.

  14. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  15. Urban development results in stressors that degrade stream ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Woodside, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, eighty-three percent of Americans lived in metropolitan areas, and considerable population increases are predicted within the next 50 years. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Every stream is connected downstream to other water bodies, and inputs of contaminants and (or) sediments to streams can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to physical and chemical stressors associated with urban development can provide important clues on how multiple stressors may be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a comprehensive assessment by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas.

  16. Hidden stressors in the clonogenic assay used in radiobiology experiments.

    PubMed

    Potter, M D E; Suchowerska, N; Rizvi, S; McKenzie, D R

    2011-09-01

    While clonogenic assays are extensively used in radiobiology, there is no widely accepted procedure for choosing the composition of the cell culture media. Cell line suppliers recommend a specific culture medium for each cell line, however a researcher will frequently customize this aspect of the protocol by supplementing the recommended support medium with additives. For example, many researchers add antibiotics, in order to avoid contamination of cells and the consequent loss of data, with little discussion of the influence of the antibiotics on the clonogenic survival of the cells. It is assumed that the effect of any variables in the growth medium on cell survival is taken into consideration by comparing the survival fraction relative to that of controls grown under the same conditions. In the search for better cancer treatment, the effect of various stressors on clonogenic cell survival is under investigation. This study seeks to identify and test potential stressors commonly introduced into the cell culture medium, which may confound the response to radiation.

  17. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  18. Untangling the effects of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in European running waters.

    PubMed

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Palt, Martin; Segurado, Pedro; Schmutz, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    This work addresses human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages at pan-European scale by analysing single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Based on an extensive dataset with 3105 fish sampling sites, patterns of stressors, their combination and nature of interactions, i.e. synergistic, antagonistic and additive were investigated. Geographical distribution and patterns of seven human stressor variables, belonging to four stressor groups (hydrological-, morphological-, water quality- and connectivity stressors), were examined, considering both single and multiple stressor combinations. To quantify the stressors' ecological impact, a set of 22 fish metrics for various fish assemblage types (headwaters, medium gradient rivers, lowland rivers and Mediterranean streams) was analysed by comparing their observed and expected response to different stressors, both acting individually and in combination. Overall, investigated fish sampling sites are affected by 15 different stressor combinations, including 4 stressors acting individually and 11 combinations of two or more stressors; up to 4 stressor groups per fish sampling site occur. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results among different stressor categories, even though a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing stressor quantity can be observed. Fish metrics based on density of species 'intolerant to water quality degradation' and 'intolerant to oxygen depletion" responded best to single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Interactions of stressors were additive (40%), synergistic (30%) or antagonistic (30%), emphasizing the importance to consider interactions in multi-stressor analyses. While antagonistic effects are only observed in headwaters and medium-gradient rivers, synergistic effects increase from headwaters over medium gradient rivers and Mediterranean streams to large lowland rivers. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for

  19. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  20. Social organizational stressors and post-disaster mental health disturbances: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; Bogaerts, Stefan; van Veldhoven, Marc J P M

    2014-09-30

    Social organizational stressors are well-known predictors of mental health disturbances (MHD). However, to what extent these stressors predict post-disaster MHD among employed victims hardly received scientific attention and is clearly understudied. For this purpose we examined to what extent these stressors independently predict MHD 1.5 years post-disaster over and above well-known risk factors such as disaster exposure, initial MHD and lack of general social support, life-events in the past 12 months and demographics (N=423). Exposure, social organizational stressors and support were significantly associated with almost all examined mental health disturbances on a bi-variate level. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that these stressors, i.e. problems with colleagues, independently predicted anxiety (Adj. OR=5.93), depression (Adj. OR=4.21), hostility (Adj. OR=2.85) and having two or more mental health disturbances (Adj. OR=3.39) in contrast to disaster exposure. Disaster exposure independently predicted symptoms of PTSD symptoms (Adj. OR=2.47) and agoraphobia (Adj. OR=2.15) in contrast to social organizational stressors. Importantly, levels of disaster exposure were not associated nor correlated with (levels of) social organizational stressors. Findings suggest that post-disaster mental health care programs aimed at employed affected residents, should target social organizational stressors besides disaster-related stressors and lack of general social support.

  1. Comparison of the influence of two stressors on steadiness during index finger abduction

    PubMed Central

    Marmon, Adam R.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2010-01-01

    Although several stressors have been used to examine the influence of arousal on motor performance, including noxious electrical stimulation, cold pressor test, and mental math calculations, no study has compared the influence of different physical stressors on motor output. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of two stressors (cold pressor test and electrical stimulation) on the steadiness of the abduction force exerted by the index finger. Sixteen subjects (22.8 ± 3.5 yrs, 8 women) performed steadiness trials before (anticipatory phase), during (stressor phase), and after (recovery phase) each stressor. The steadiness task involved isometric contractions with the first dorsal interosseus muscle, which is the muscle that produces most of the abduction force exerted by the index finger. Subjects were required to match the abduction force on a monitor to a target force set to 5% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force for 60 s. In contrast to previous studies that examined the influence of stressors on pinch grip steadiness, the two stressors did not decrease steadiness. Furthermore, the absence of a change in steadiness contrasted with the increases in cognitive (State-Trait Anxiety Index, Visual Analog Scale) and physiological (heart rate) arousal during the stressor phase and the subsequent decline during recovery. The null effect of the stressors on index finger steadiness may be due to the relative simplicity of the task compared with those examined previously. PMID:20079364

  2. When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals.

    PubMed

    Zill, Julie A; Gil, Michael A; Osenberg, Craig W

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum, and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either stressor in isolation, but a significant decrease in coral growth in the presence of both stressors. Additionally, seven times more sediment remained on corals in the presence (versus absence) of vermetids, likely owing to adhesion of sediments to corals via vermetid mucus. Thus, vermetid snails and high sedimentation can interact to drive deleterious effects on reef-building corals. More generally, our study illustrates that environmental factors can combine to have negative interactive effects even when individual effects are not detectable. Such 'ecological surprises' may be easily overlooked, leading to environmental degradation that cannot be anticipated through the study of isolated factors.

  3. Acute psychosocial challenge and cardiac autonomic response in women: the role of estrogens, corticosteroids, and behavioral coping styles.

    PubMed

    Pico-Alfonso, M Angeles; Mastorci, Francesca; Ceresini, Graziano; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Manghi, Massimo; Pino, Olimpia; Troisi, Alfonso; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    Theoretical statements, as well as clinical and experimental data, suggest that the amplitude of cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors can be a good predictor of preclinical and clinical cardiovascular states. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of estrogens, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity, and the behavioral profile in individual cardiac autonomic reactivity to brief laboratory stressors in women. Thirty-six adult, healthy women were exposed to a stress interview and a mental task test, each lasting 5 min. They were assigned to two experimental groups: D4, i.e. 4 days after menses beginning (follicular phase, n=18), and D14, i.e. 14 days after menses beginning (ovulatory phase, n=18). The cardiac measurements in the baseline, stress and recovery periods consisted in heart rate (average R-R interval) and parasympathetic tone (r-MSSD) quantification, while the HPA axis activity and stress reactivity were assessed via plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations. The ethological profile during the interview was drawn by means of non-verbal behavior analysis. The cardiac, adrenocortical and behavioral responses to the two stressors were similar in groups D4 and D14, despite significantly higher estradiol levels in the latter. Subjects with higher pre-stress cortisol levels had higher heart rate and lower vagal activity in the baseline, stress and recovery phases. Women showing higher level of submission were characterized by higher heart rate acceleration and vagal withdrawal during both the interview and the recovery phase. In addition, the subjects that exhibited greater displacement during the interview were also characterized by lower heart rate increments and less pronounced vagal suppression during post-stress recovery. In conclusion, the present results do not support a clear buffering role of estrogens in cardiovascular response to acute stressors. However, they confirm that baseline HPA axis activity

  4. [IgM antibody detection in acute viral diseases, 1995-2004: analysis of data collected at a commercial diagnostic laboratory in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ban, Fumihiko; Itabashi, Yoshinori; Masui, Yukio; Inouye, Sakae

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed data from tests for virus-specific IgM in 376,000 serum specimens sent to a commercial diagnostic laboratory from clinics nationwide between 1995 and 2004. IgM antibodies to measles, rubella, mumps, parvo B19, and varicella-zoster viruses were tested using IgM-capture ELISA kits. Among specimens, 254,000 (68%) had documentation of age, of which 56% were sera from persons<20 and 44%> or = 20 years of age. Monthly or yearly trends in IgM antibody-positive tests in<20 year-old persons were similar to those in pediatric patients per sentinel clinic reported by the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID), which collects weekly numbers of patients with designated infectious diseases from 3000 pediatrics clinics nationwide. Patterns of changes in monthly IgM positive tests in both < 20 and > or = 20 y specimens were similar, indicating that infections occur simultaneously in both children and adults. Adult IgM-positive specimens came from internal medicine clinics and from dermatology clinics for measles; from dermatology and obstetrics clinics for rubella and parvo B19; from otolaryngology clinics for mumps; and from dermatology and otolaryngology clinics for varicella-zoster virus. Analysis of large numbers of IgM test results at regular intervals may contribute to understanding of the epidemiology of these viral diseases in Japan.

  5. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins.

  6. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  7. Molecular Characterisation of Chikungunya Virus Infections in Trinidad and Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Features with Dengue and Other Acute Febrile Cases.

    PubMed

    Sahadeo, Nikita; Mohammed, Hamish; Allicock, Orchid M; Auguste, Albert J; Widen, Steven G; Badal, Kimberly; Pulchan, Krishna; Foster, Jerome E; Weaver, Scott C; Carrington, Christine V F

    2015-11-01

    Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised and compared dengue virus (DENV) and CHIKV infections in 158 patients presenting with suspected dengue fever (DF) and CHIKF at a major hospital in T&T, and performed phylogenetic analyses on CHIKV genomic sequences recovered from 8 individuals. The characteristics of patients with and without PCR-confirmed CHIKV were compared using Pearson's χ2 and student's t-tests, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using logistic regression. We then compared signs and symptoms of people with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV and DENV infections using the Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Among the 158 persons there were 8 (6%) RT-qPCR-confirmed DENV and 30 (22%) RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV infections. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CHIKV strains belonged to the Asian genotype and were most closely related to a British Virgin Islands strain isolated at the beginning of the 2013/14 outbreak in the Americas. Compared to persons who were RT-qPCR-negative for CHIKV, RT-qPCR-positive individuals were significantly more likely to have joint pain (aOR: 4.52 [95% CI: 1.28-16.00]), less likely to be interviewed at a later stage of illness (days post onset of fever--aOR: 0.56 [0.40-0.78]) and had a lower white blood cell count (aOR: 0.83 [0.71-0.96]). Among the 38 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV or DENV, there were no significant differences in symptomatic presentation. However when individuals with serological evidence of recent DENV or CHIKV infection were included in the analyses, there were key differences in clinical presentation between CHIKF and other AUFIs including DF, which

  8. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  9. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article

  10. Molecular Characterisation of Chikungunya Virus Infections in Trinidad and Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Features with Dengue and Other Acute Febrile Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sahadeo, Nikita; Mohammed, Hamish; Allicock, Orchid M.; Auguste, Albert J.; Widen, Steven G.; Badal, Kimberly; Pulchan, Krishna; Foster, Jerome E.; Weaver, Scott C.; Carrington, Christine V. F.

    2015-01-01

    Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised and compared dengue virus (DENV) and CHIKV infections in 158 patients presenting with suspected dengue fever (DF) and CHIKF at a major hospital in T&T, and performed phylogenetic analyses on CHIKV genomic sequences recovered from 8 individuals. The characteristics of patients with and without PCR-confirmed CHIKV were compared using Pearson’s χ2 and student’s t-tests, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using logistic regression. We then compared signs and symptoms of people with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV and DENV infections using the Mann-Whitney U, Pearson’s χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Among the 158 persons there were 8 (6%) RT-qPCR-confirmed DENV and 30 (22%) RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV infections. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CHIKV strains belonged to the Asian genotype and were most closely related to a British Virgin Islands strain isolated at the beginning of the 2013/14 outbreak in the Americas. Compared to persons who were RT-qPCR-negative for CHIKV, RT-qPCR-positive individuals were significantly more likely to have joint pain (aOR: 4.52 [95% CI: 1.28–16.00]), less likely to be interviewed at a later stage of illness (days post onset of fever—aOR: 0.56 [0.40–0.78]) and had a lower white blood cell count (aOR: 0.83 [0.71–0.96]). Among the 38 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV or DENV, there were no significant differences in symptomatic presentation. However when individuals with serological evidence of recent DENV or CHIKV infection were included in the analyses, there were key differences in clinical presentation between CHIKF and other AUFIs

  11. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  12. Combined chemical (fluoranthene) and drought effects on Lumbricus rubellus demonstrate the applicability of the independent action model for multiple stressor assessment.

    PubMed

    Long, Sara M; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Lister, Lindsay J; Hankard, Peter K; Townsend, Joanna; Mayer, Philipp; Wright, Julian; Holmstrup, Martin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2009-03-01

    The combined effect of a chemical (fluoranthene) and a nonchemical stress (reduced soil moisture content) to the widely distributed earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were investigated in a laboratory study. Neither fluoranthene (up to 500 microg/g) nor low soil moisture (15% below optimal) had a significant effect on the survival of the exposed worms, but a significant effect on reproduction (cocoon production rate) was found for both stressors (p < 0.001 in both cases). The response of cocoon production to each stressor could be well described by a logistic model; this suggested that the joint effects may be applicable to description using the independent action (IA) model that is widely used in pharmacology and chemical mixture risk assessment. Fitting of the IA model provided a good description of the combined stressor data (accounting for 53.7% of total variation) and was the most parsimonious model describing joint effect (i.e., the description of the data was not improved by addition of further parameters accounting for synergism or antagonism). Thus, the independent action of the two responses was further supported by measurement of internal fluoranthene exposure. The chemical activity of fluoranthene in worm tissue was correlated only with soil fluoranthene concentration and not with soil moisture content. Taken together these results suggest that the IA model can help interpret the joint effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Such analyses should, however, be done with caution since the literature data set suggests that there may be cases where interactions between stressors result in joint effects that differ significantly from IA predictions.

  13. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  14. The Relationship Between Beta-Adrenoreceptor Density and Immune Function Before and After Acute Stressor Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-12

    additional study, Transcendental Meditation was associated with decreased lymphocyte ~-adrenoreceptors (Mills et ai, 1990). However, whether... meditation attenuated the effects of stress on ~­ receptor number was not addressed. Whether receptor density corresponds to function before, during, and...One study found that practicing Transcendental Meditation was related to decreased numbers of functional ~-adrenoreceptors 94 on lymphocytes

  15. An Idiographic and Nomothetic Approach to the Study of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Socio-Cultural Stressors and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals’ fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors, and to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination, related to youths’ depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors, but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females’ adjustment, and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084

  16. Effects, but no interactions, of ubiquitous pesticide and parasite stressors on honey bee (Apis mellifera) lifespan and behaviour in a colony environment.

    PubMed

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Odemer, Richard; Boltin, Janina; Di Poto, Cornelia; Mehmann, Marion M; Retschnig, Peter; Winiger, Pius; Rosenkranz, Peter; Neumann, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between pesticides and parasites are believed to be responsible for increased mortality of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the northern hemisphere. Previous efforts have employed experimental approaches using small groups under laboratory conditions to investigate influence of these stressors on honey bee physiology and behaviour, although both the colony level and field conditions play a key role for eusocial honey bees. Here, we challenged honey bee workers under in vivo colony conditions with sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, the miticide tau-fluvalinate and the endoparasite Nosema ceranae, to investigate potential effects on longevity and behaviour using observation hives. In contrast to previous laboratory studies, our results do not suggest interactions among stressors, but rather lone effects of pesticides and the parasite on mortality and behaviour, respectively. These effects appear to be weak due to different outcomes at the two study sites, thereby suggesting that the role of thiacloprid, tau-fluvalinate and N. ceranae and interactions among them may have been overemphasized. In the future, investigations into the effects of honey bee stressors should prioritize the use of colonies maintained under a variety of environmental conditions in order to obtain more biologically relevant data.

  17. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Morten P; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R; Harper, Ronald M

    2004-01-19

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity peaked 0.8s following stimulation, and then markedly declined below baseline to a trough at 9.7s. Hypothalamic responses were not uniformly distributed across the recorded PVH field. Activity changes emerged from subregions within the visualized area, and were widespread at the overall activity zenith and nadir. Isolated pixels appeared opposite in activity pattern to overall changes. We suggest that transient activity increases represent initial PVH neural stress responses, and that subsequent profound declines result from neural inhibitory feedback.

  18. Gender differences, work stressors and musculoskeletal disorders in weaving industries.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, H; Nag, P K

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the work stressors among male and female weavers (N=516) in powerloom and handloom and examine the association of work stressors with the prevalence of work related musculo-skeletal disorders (MSDs). Physical and psychosocial stresses of work, job diagnostics, hazards of workplace, working environment and MSDs prevalence were assessed. There is high prevalence of MSDs among weavers. Female weavers in powerloom and handloom were more prone to developing MSDs in upper back (OR 1.8; p<0.05 and OR 2.1; p<0.01) and lower back (OR 1.9; p<0.05 and OR 1.8; p<0.05). Male weavers were more prone to developing pain in the knee (OR 2.9; p<0.001), and hand (OR 2.2; p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that job duration >10 yr (OR 3.7, p<0.05), manual material handling (OR 3, p<0.05), and poor machinery safety (OR 11, p<0.05), contributed to occurrence of MSDs amongst powerloom weavers. Among the handloom weavers, age >25 yr (OR 3.2, p<0.05), poor machinery design (OR 2.2, p<0.01), mental overload (OR 5.7, p<0.001), skill requirement to perform jobs (OR 20.7, p<0.05) had significant influence in the occurrence of pain. Gender differences exist in the prevalence of MSDs and the perception of work and psycho-social stresses among the weavers.

  19. Acute pancreatitis: The stress factor

    PubMed Central

    Binker, Marcelo G; Cosen-Binker, Laura I

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas that may cause life-threatening complications. Etiologies of pancreatitis vary, with gallstones accounting for the majority of all cases, followed by alcohol. Other causes of pancreatitis include trauma, ischemia, mechanical obstruction, infections, autoimmune, hereditary, and drugs. The main events occurring in the pancreatic acinar cell that initiate and propagate acute pancreatitis include inhibition of secretion, intracellular activation of proteases, and generation of inflammatory mediators. Small cytokines known as chemokines are released from damaged pancreatic cells and attract inflammatory cells, whose systemic action ultimately determined the severity of the disease. Indeed, severe forms of pancreatitis may result in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, characterized by a progressive physiologic failure of several interdependent organ systems. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened, and stressors can include physical or mental forces, or combinations of both. Depending on the timing and duration, stress can result in beneficial or harmful consequences. While it is well established that a previous acute-short-term stress decreases the severity of experimentally-induced pancreatitis, the worsening effects of chronic stress on the exocrine pancreas have received relatively little attention. This review will focus on the influence of both prior acute-short-term and chronic stress in acute pancreatitis. PMID:24914340

  20. The maintaining of the active laboratory-based surveillance of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Romania in the framework of the strategic plan of the global polio eradication initiative.

    PubMed

    Băicuş, Anda; Persu, Ana; Combiescu, Mariana; Aubert-Combiescu, A

    2007-01-01

    Until 2008 poliomyelitis was controlled in Romania by predominantly using Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Sabin (OPV); the alternative vaccination schedule (IPV formalin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine/OPV) will be implemented starting September 2008. The vaccination coverage with 4 doses of TOPV (trivalent oral polio vaccine) in the first 14 months of life has been > 90% since 1980. In Romania, the risk of the Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis cases (VAPP) decreased from less than 2 VAPP cases/year in the 1995-2006 interval to 0 VAPP cases in 2007. The serological study was performed in 2006-2007 only in cases with pair serum samples from 28 acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases (age = 3 months - 14 years) and from 45 facial paralysis (FP) cases (age -6 months - 4 years 9 months). A high level of vaccinal coverage was shown for all poliovirus serotypes: >95% in AFP serum samples investigated; and for FP serum samples investigated the levels of antibodies against poliovirus (PV) serotypes were 98% for PV type 1; 87% for PV type 2: and 89% for PV type 3. If the European region is polio free since 2002, the risk of wild PV importation from endemic region remains present. The laboratory capacity for the fast detection and molecular investigations of the emergence of the new epidemic strains and a high level of population immunity must be maintained. A national seroprevalence study concerning all three PV serotypes must be performed.

  1. Mother knows best, even when stressed? Effects of maternal exposure to a stressor on offspring performance at different life stages in a wild semelparous fish.

    PubMed

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Middleton, C T; Hills, J A; Patterson, D A

    2014-06-01

    The environment mothers are exposed to has resonating effects on offspring performance. In iteroparous species, maternal exposure to stressors generally results in offspring ill-equipped for survival. Still, opportunities for future fecundity can offset low quality offspring. Little is known, however, as to how intergenerational effects of stress manifest in semelparous species with only a single breeding episode. Such mothers would suffer a total loss of fitness if offspring cannot survive past multiple life stages. We evaluated whether chronic exposure of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to a chase stressor impaired offspring performance traits. Egg size and early offspring survival were not influenced by maternal exposure to the repeated acute stressor. Later in development, fry reared from stressed mothers swam for shorter periods of time but possessed a superior capacity to re-initiate bouts of burst swimming. In contrast to iteroparous species, the mechanisms driving the observed effects do not appear to be related to cortisol, as egg hormone concentrations did not vary between stressed and undisturbed mothers. Sockeye salmon appear to possess buffering strategies that protect offspring from deleterious effects of maternal stress that would otherwise compromise progeny during highly vulnerable stages of development. Whether stressed sockeye salmon mothers endow offspring with traits that are matched or mismatched for survival in the unpredictable environment they encountered is discussed. This study highlights the importance of examining intergenerational effects among species-specific reproductive strategies, and across offspring life history to fully determine the scope of impact of maternal stress.

  2. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context.

  3. The Influence of Work-Related Stressors on Clergy Husbands and Their Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Blanton, Priscilla White

    1994-01-01

    Assessed predictive power of 5 work-related stressors identified in clergy family literature on criterion variables of marital, parent, and life satisfaction among 272 clergy husbands and their wives from 6 denominations. Findings supported hypotheses that work-related stressors were inversely related to marital, parental, and life satisfaction…

  4. Family Stressors and Adolescent Cannabis Use: A Pathway to Problem Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jennifer E.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates the direct impact of family stressors on the progression to problem cannabis use among adolescents in Ontario. Results suggest that family stressors have direct and indirect effects increasing the probability of cannabis use outcomes. The implications of these more complex associations between factors believed to influence adolescent…

  5. Development of an Instrument Measuring Student Teachers' Perceived Stressors about the Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Stavropoulos, George; Davazoglou, Aggeliki

    2016-01-01

    The Stressors about Practicum Inventory, a self-report measure of perceived stressors about the practicum, was designed to provide those responsible for the training of primary school teachers with an informative, inexpensive and psychometrically sound tool. The present study describes the development and validation of the 94-item inventory in a…

  6. Deployment Stressors of the Iraq War: Insights from the Mainstream Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Bash, Heidi A. J.; Vogt, Dawne S.; King, Lynda A.; King, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the stressors of the Iraq War is needed to ensure appropriate postdeployment assessments and to inform empirical inquiries. Yet we are unaware of any published studies that address the range of stressors experienced by this cohort. Thus, in the present study, we report the results of an interpretive literature…

  7. A Study of Stress, Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Middle School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane; Bradley, Misty; Collada, Cristina; Dunn, Lynne; Kubota, Julie; Hollister, Valerie; Miltenberger, Julie; Pulley, Jerry; Susskind, Andrew; Thompson, Lisa A.; Wadsworth, Tina

    1997-01-01

    Examined Los Angeles area middle school students' (N=54) stress, environmental stressors, and coping strategies. Results indicate the presence of gender differences, with girls indicating higher levels of stress; boys and girls reported different behavioral and affective responses to stress. School-related stressors were highest in frequency,…

  8. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reef...

  9. Psychometric Issues in Organizational Stressor Research: A Review and Implications for Sport Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Organizational stressors can potentially elicit a number of undesirable consequences for sport performers. It is, therefore, imperative that psychologists better understand the demands that athletes encounter via their exploration and assessment. However, although researchers have identified a wide range of organizational stressors in competitive…

  10. The Achievement Gap among Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: Life Stressors Hinder Latina/o Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Barrera, Alinne Z.; Strambler, Michael J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Macciomei, Erynn

    2016-01-01

    This study compares life stressors and school outcomes among newcomer immigrant adolescents from Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean. Participants attended a predominantly low-income, urban international public high school in the northeast. The Latina/o students were exposed to more life stressors and had lower attendance and achievement than…

  11. Anticipated Coping with Interpersonal Stressors: Links with the Emotional Reactions of Sadness, Anger, and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Morris, Helen; Thomas, Rae

    2013-01-01

    The same stressor can evoke different emotions across individuals, and emotions can prompt certain coping responses. Responding to four videotaped interpersonal stressors, adolescents ("N" = 230, the average values of "X"[subscript age] = 10 years) reported their sadness, fear "and" anger, and 12 coping strategies.…

  12. Non-Chemical Stressors in a Child’s Social Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-chemical stressors exist in the built, natural and social environments including physical factors (e.g., noise, temperature and humidity) and psychosocial factors (e.g., poor diet, smoking, illicit drug use)[1]. Scientists study how non-chemical stressors (e.g., social suppor...

  13. Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

  14. Acculturation, Stressors, and Somatization Patterns among Students from Extreme South Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Gary T.

    1992-01-01

    Cervantes and Castro's model proposes that acculturation level functions both as external stressor and internal mediator influencing one's appraisal of environmental stressors and somatic/health outcomes. The model was supported by surveys of headache causes, severity, symptoms, and coping strategies among 844 Mexican-American high school and…

  15. Investigations of HPA Function and the Enduring Consequences of Stressors in Adolescence in Animal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cheryl M.; Mathews, Iva Z.; Thomas, Catherine; Waters, Patti

    2010-01-01

    Developmental differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to stressors and ongoing development of glucocorticoid-sensitive brain regions in adolescence suggest that similar to the neonatal period of ontogeny, adolescence may also be a sensitive period for programming effects of stressors on the central nervous system.…

  16. The Negative Impact of Community Stressors on Learning Time: Examining Inequalities between California High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirra, Nicole; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocated classroom time is not the same as time available for learning--a host of economic and social stressors undermine learning time in schools serving low-income students. When time is limited, it is hard to meet rigorous learning standards. The challenge is compounded in high-poverty schools where community stressors place additional demands…

  17. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO IDENTIFY AND ASSESS MULTPLE STRESSORS, SECTION 1.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Every ecosystem is subject to multiple stressors arising from the interactions of biological, physical, and socioeconomic processes (e.g. exploitation and development). These stressors and their interactions need to be identified if risks associated with a planned activity are to...

  18. Stress Transmission: The Effects of Husbands' Job Stressors on the Emotional Health of Their Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Karen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of husbands' job stressors on emotional health of their wives using interview data from 1,383 married women and panel data from a subset of 92 women who were reinterviewed. Results indicated husbands' stressors were associated with significantly elevated symptom levels in their wives. (Author/ABL)

  19. Coping with Daily Stressors: Modeling Intraethnic Variation in Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Using daily diary methodology, 67 Mexican American adolescents completed measures assessing daily stressors experienced, specific coping strategies employed with reference to these stressors, and indices of psychological health over 5 consecutive days. With respect to coping usage, adolescents reported they most often used planning and least often…

  20. Examining Linkages between Psychological Health Problems, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Workplace Stressors in Pakistan's Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…

  1. Stress responses of the fish Nile tilapia subjected to electroshock and social stressors.

    PubMed

    Barreto, R E; Volpato, G L

    2006-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and glucose levels were measured in 36 adult Nile tilapia males, Oreochromis niloticus (standard length, mean +/- SD, 14.38 +/- 1.31 cm), subjected to electroshock and social stressors. Pre-stressor levels were determined 5 days after the adjustment of the fish to the experimental aquaria (1 fish/aquarium). Five days later, the effects of stressors on both cortisol and glucose levels were assessed. The following stressors were imposed for 60 min: pairing with a larger resident animal (social stressor), or a gentle electroshock (AC, 20 V, 15 mA, 100 Hz for 1 min every 4 min). Each stressor was tested in two independent groups, one in which stress was quantified immediately after the end of the 60-min stressor imposition (T60) and the other in which stress was quantified 30 min later (T90). Pre-stressor values for cortisol and glucose were not statistically different between groups. Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly and were of similar magnitude for both electroshock and the social stressor (mean +/- SD for basal and final samples were: electroshock T60 = 65.47 +/- 15.3, 177.0 +/- 30.3; T90 = 54.8 +/- 16.0, 196.2 +/- 57.8; social stress T60 = 47.1 +/- 9.0, 187.6 +/- 61.7; T90 = 41.6 +/- 8.1, 112.3 +/- 26.8, respectively). Plasma glucose levels increased significantly for electroshock at both time points (T60 and T90), but only at T90 for the social stressor. Initial and final mean (+/- SD) values are: electroshock T60 = 52.5 +/- 9.2, 115.0 +/- 15.7; T90 = 35.5 +/- 1.1, 146.3 +/- 13.3; social stress T60 = 54.8 +/- 8.8, 84.4 +/- 15.0; T90 = 34.5 +/- 5.6, 116.3 +/- 13.6, respectively. Therefore, electroshock induced an increase in glucose more rapidly than did the social stressor. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between cortisol and glucose was detected only at T90 for the social stressor. These results indicate that a fish species responds differently to different stressors, thus suggesting specificity of fish stress

  2. Protracted effects of juvenile stressor exposure are mitigated by access to palatable food.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Jennifer Christine; James, Jonathan Stewart; Cayer, Christian; Kent, Pamela; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2014-01-01

    Stressor experiences during the juvenile period may increase vulnerability to anxiety and depressive-like symptoms in adulthood. Stressors may also promote palatable feeding, possibly reflecting a form of self-medication. The current study investigated the short- and long-term consequences of a stressor applied during the juvenile period on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim test (FST). Furthermore, the effects of stress on caloric intake, preference for a palatable food and indices of metabolic syndrome and obesity were assessed. Male Wistar rats exposed to 3 consecutive days of variable stressors on postnatal days (PD) 27-29, displayed elevated anxiety-like behaviors as adults, which could be attenuated by consumption of a palatable high-fat diet. However, consumption of a palatable food in response to a stressor appeared to contribute to increased adiposity.

  3. Deployment stressors of the Iraq War: insights from the mainstream media.

    PubMed

    La Bash, Heidi A J; Vogt, Dawne S; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the stressors of the Iraq War is needed to ensure appropriate postdeployment assessments and to inform empirical inquiries. Yet we are unaware of any published studies that address the range of stressors experienced by this cohort. Thus, in the present study, we report the results of an interpretive literature review of mainstream media reports published from the beginning of the Iraq War in March 2003 to March 2005. This literature revealed a combination of stressors associated with traditional combat, insurgency warfare, and peacekeeping operations. The increasing deployment of National Guard/Reservist personnel, older soldiers, and women highlights additional stressors associated with sexual harassment and assault, preparedness and training, and life and family disruptions. This is a cause for concern as war-zone stressors have been implicated in postdeployment health outcomes, including intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, immediate physical and mental health, and long-term adjustment.

  4. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  5. Influence of acute stress on spatial tasks in humans.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anthony E; VanderKaay Tomasulo, Melissa M

    2011-07-06

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between stress and spatial performance in humans. In this study, participants were exposed to an acute laboratory stressor (Star Mirror Tracing Task) or a control condition (watching a nature video) and then performed two spatial tasks. In the first task, participants navigated through a virtual reality (VR) environment and then returned to the environment to make directional judgments relating to the learned targets. In the second task, perspective taking, participants made directional judgments to targets after imagined body rotations with respect to a map. Compared to the control condition, participants in the Stress condition showed increases in heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating sympathetic adrenal medulla (SAM) axis activation. Participants in the Stress condition also reported being more anxious, angry, frustrated, and irritated than participants in the Non-Stress condition. Salivary cortisol did not differ between conditions, indicating no significant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis involvement. In the VR task, memory encoding was unaffected as directional error was similar in both conditions; however, participants in the Stress condition responded more slowly, which may be due to increases in negative affect, SAM disruption in spatial memory retrieval through catecholamine release, or a combination of both factors. In the perspective taking task, participants were also slower to respond after stress, suggesting interference in the ability to adopt new spatial orientations. Additionally, sex differences were observed in that men had greater accuracy on both spatial tasks, but no significant Sex by Stress condition interactions were demonstrated.

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of SARS.

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, A; Heinen, P; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Gray, J; Appleton, H; Zambon, M C

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of new viral infections of man requires the development of robust diagnostic tests that can be applied in the differential diagnosis of acute illness, or to determine past exposure, so as to establish the true burden of disease. Since the recognition in April 2003 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), enormous efforts have been applied to develop molecular and serological tests for SARS which can assist rapid detection of cases, accurate diagnosis of illness and the application of control measures. International progress in the laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV infection during acute illness has led to internationally agreed World Health Organization criteria for the confirmation of SARS. Developments in the dissection of the human immune response to SARS indicate that serological tests on convalescent sera are essential to confirm SARS infection, given the sub-optimal predictive value of molecular detection tests performed during acute SARS illness. PMID:15306394

  7. Multiple stressor effects of herbicide, pH, and food on wetland zooplankton and a larval amphibian.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Hathaway, K M; Thompson, D G; Folt, C L

    2008-09-01

    Interactions of herbicides and natural environmental stressors such as pH and food availability are poorly understood. We tested a chemical formulation of triclopyr (Release) at environmentally relevant test concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 mg L(-1)) in combination with two levels of pH (pH 5.5 and 7.5), and two levels of food availability (high and low). Population level effects of each stressor alone and in combination with the others were investigated using Simocephalus vetulus, a zooplankton species, and Rana pipiens tadpoles (Gosner stage 25), both common to forest ponds and wetlands. Herbicide treatments resulted in significant decreases in survival of both test species as well as reproduction and development time for S. vetulus at levels 5-10x below predicted worst case environmental concentrations (2.6 mg L(-1)). This laboratory study demonstrates a probable risk of toxic effects of Release herbicide which may be significantly increased by low food availability and by low pH at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  8. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  9. Net effects of multiple stressors in freshwater ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michelle C; Loewen, Charlie J G; Vinebrooke, Rolf D; Chimimba, Christian T

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating rate of global change has focused attention on the cumulative impacts of novel and extreme environmental changes (i.e. stressors), especially in marine ecosystems. As integrators of local catchment and regional processes, freshwater ecosystems are also ranked highly sensitive to the net effects of multiple stressors, yet there has not been a large-scale quantitative synthesis. We analysed data from 88 papers including 286 responses of freshwater ecosystems to paired stressors and discovered that overall, their cumulative mean effect size was less than the sum of their single effects (i.e. an antagonistic interaction). Net effects of dual stressors on diversity and functional performance response metrics were additive and antagonistic, respectively. Across individual studies, a simple vote-counting method revealed that the net effects of stressor pairs were frequently more antagonistic (41%) than synergistic (28%), additive (16%) or reversed (15%). Here, we define a reversal as occurring when the net impact of two stressors is in the opposite direction (negative or positive) from that of the sum of their single effects. While warming paired with nutrification resulted in additive net effects, the overall mean net effect of warming combined with a second stressor was antagonistic. Most importantly, the mean net effects across all stressor pairs and response metrics were consistently antagonistic or additive, contrasting the greater prevalence of reported synergies in marine systems. Here, a possible explanation for more antagonistic responses by freshwater biota to stressors is that the inherent greater environmental variability of smaller aquatic ecosystems fosters greater potential for acclimation and co-adaptation to multiple stressors.

  10. Development of stressor-response models for an ecological risk assessment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.E.; Munns, W.R.; Cayula, S.; Serbst, J.; Johnston, R.K.; Walker, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    An estuarine ecological risk assessment for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (Kittery, ME) is being conducted following the US EPA`s Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). As part of the Analysis phase of the ERA, laboratory studies were conducted to develop stressor-response models for lead, the primary contaminant of concern. Thirty-day exposures to adult sea urchins, Arbacia punctulata, occurred via food or suspended sediment. Exposure media were amended with lead sulfate to 10--100 or 100--300 times uncontaminated levels for the Feeding or Sediment Experiments, respectively. The sea urchin experimental model was selected because it permitted the measurement of biological endpoints with significance at the population level (e.g., adult survival and reproduction success), including those used in standard marine bioassays (i.e., fertilization and larval development). Feeding Experiment treatments produced few effects. Sediment Experiment treatments resulted in reductions in survival, growth and reproductive output of exposed adults and were directly toxic to early lifestages. However, in uncontaminated sea water, gametes from Sediment Experiment adults fertilized and completed larval development normally. Data from these experimental systems will be used to produce models relating lead exposure to specific biological responses and, ultimately, ecological risk.

  11. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine adjustment to public speaking and mental arithmetic stressors.

    PubMed

    Al'Absi, M; Bongard, S; Buchanan, T; Pincomb, G A; Licinio, J; Lovallo, W R

    1997-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and psychological adjustment to repeated presentations of a public speaking and a mental arithmetic task. Brief versions of mental arithmetic tasks have been used widely in previous reactivity studies, and growing attention to more socially salient tasks has led to the increased use of public speaking tasks. However, psychophysiological adjustment during extended and repeated exposure to these tasks has not been delineated. In the present study, 52 healthy men worked on three 8-min presentations of public speaking and of mental arithmetic in a repeated measure design. Both tasks produced substantial cardiovascular, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol responses; public speaking produced greater changes. Repeated presentations of public speaking produced a stable pattern of cardiac activation, whereas repetitions of the mental arithmetic initially produced large cardiac responses that changed to a more vascular tonus across task periods. Both tasks increased negative moods. However, correlations between the endocrine, cardiovascular, and negative moods were significant only during the public speaking stressor. The public speaking task is a socially relevant experimental protocol for studying reactivity in the laboratory setting and elicits relatively high, stable, and homogeneous responses.

  12. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  13. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health.

  14. Wartime stressors and health outcomes: women in the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G

    1998-08-01

    This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.

  15. Advanced digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants: Risk- sensitivities to environmental stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant`s risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I&C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF). We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I&C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment`s reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I&C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located.

  16. Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystem services to enhance restoration effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Allan, J. David; McIntyre, Peter B.; Smith, Sigrid D. P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Boyer, Gregory L.; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G. A.; Campbell, Linda M.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Ciborowski, Jan J. H.; Doran, Patrick J.; Eder, Tim; Infante, Dana M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Joseph, Christine A.; Marino, Adrienne L.; Prusevich, Alexander; Read, Jennifer G.; Rose, Joan B.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Sowa, Scott P.; Steinman, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing pressure placed on natural systems by growing human populations, both scientists and resource managers need a better understanding of the relationships between cumulative stress from human activities and valued ecosystem services. Societies often seek to mitigate threats to these services through large-scale, costly restoration projects, such as the over one billion dollar Great Lakes Restoration Initiative currently underway. To help inform these efforts, we merged high-resolution spatial analyses of environmental stressors with mapping of ecosystem services for all five Great Lakes. Cumulative ecosystem stress is highest in near-shore habitats, but also extends offshore in Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan. Variation in cumulative stress is driven largely by spatial concordance among multiple stressors, indicating the importance of considering all stressors when planning restoration activities. In addition, highly stressed areas reflect numerous different combinations of stressors rather than a single suite of problems, suggesting that a detailed understanding of the stressors needing alleviation could improve restoration planning. We also find that many important areas for fisheries and recreation are subject to high stress, indicating that ecosystem degradation could be threatening key services. Current restoration efforts have targeted high-stress sites almost exclusively, but generally without knowledge of the full range of stressors affecting these locations or differences among sites in service provisioning. Our results demonstrate that joint spatial analysis of stressors and ecosystem services can provide a critical foundation for maximizing social and ecological benefits from restoration investments. PMID:23248308

  17. Cense: a tool to assess combined exposure to environmental health stressors in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Banias, G; Athanasiadis, A; Achillas, Ch; Akylas, V; Moussiopoulos, N

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the structure of the Combined Environmental Stressors' Exposure (CENSE) tool. Individuals are exposed to several environmental stressors simultaneously. Combined exposure represents a more serious hazard to public health. Consequently, there is a need to address co-exposure in a holistic way. Rather than viewing chemical and physical health stressors separately for decision making and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure assessment is herein considered. Towards this aim, the CENSE tool is developed in the programming environment of Delphi. The graphical user's interface facilitates its tractable application. Studying different scenarios is easy since the execution time required is negligible. The tool incorporates co-exposure indicators and takes into account the potential dose of each chemical stressor by considering the physical activities of each citizen in an urban (micro)environment. The capabilities of the CENSE tool are demonstrated through its application for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece. The test case highlights usability and validation insights and incorporates health stressors and local characteristics of the area considered into a well identified user/decision maker interface. The main conclusion of the work reported is that a decision maker can trust CENSE for urban planning and environmental sustainability considerations, since it supports a holistic assessment of the combined potential damage attributed to multiple health stressors. CENSE abandons the traditional approach of viewing chemical and physical stressors separately, which represents the most commonly adopted strategy in real life decision support cases.

  18. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  19. Workplace Discrimination: An Additional Stressor for Internationally Educated Nurses.

    PubMed

    Baptiste, Maria M

    2015-08-18

    Discrimination against internationally educated nurses (IENs) remains a seldom-explored topic in the United States. Yet, the literature describing experiences of IENs indicates that some do experience workplace discrimination as an additional workplace stressor. IENs view this discrimination as an obstacle to career advancement and professional recognition. Consequences of workplace discrimination affect IENs' physical and psychological well being, the quality of patient care, and healthcare organizational costs. In anticipation of future nursing shortages, understanding and minimizing workplace discrimination will benefit nurses, patients, and healthcare organizations. In this article the author addresses motivation and challenges associated with international nurse migration and immigration, relates these challenges to Roy's theoretical framework, describes workplace discrimination, and reviews both consequences of and evidence for workplace discrimination. Next, she considers the significance of this discrimination for healthcare agencies, and approaches for decreasing stress for IENs during their transition process. She concludes that workplace discrimination has a negative, multifaceted effect on both professional nursing and healthcare organizations. Support measures developed to promote mutual respect among all nurses are presented.

  20. Stress hormones and sociality: integrating social and environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-04-07

    In cooperatively breeding species, reproductive decisions and breeding roles may be influenced by environmental (food resources) or social factors (reproductive suppression of subordinates by dominants). Studies of glucocorticoid stress hormones in cooperatively breeding species suggest that breeding roles and hormone levels are related to the relative costs of dominance and subordination, which are driven primarily by social interactions. Few studies, however, have considered how environmental factors affect glucocorticoid levels and breeding roles in cooperative breeders, even though environmental stressors modulate seasonal glucocorticoid release and often influence breeding roles. I examined baseline and stress-induced levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) across 4 years in the plural breeding superb starling, Lamprotornis superbus, to determine whether (i) environmental factors (namely rainfall) directly influence breeding roles or (ii) environmental factors influence social interactions, which in turn drive breeding roles. Chronic baseline and maximal stress-induced CORT changed significantly across years as a function of pre-breeding rainfall, but dominant and subordinate individuals responded differently. Pre-breeding rainfall was also correlated directly with breeding roles. The results are most consistent with the hypothesis that environmental conditions influenced the relative costs of dominance and subordination, which in turn affected the degree and intensity of social interactions and ultimately reproductive decisions and breeding roles.

  1. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  2. Stress hormones and sociality: integrating social and environmental stressors

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, reproductive decisions and breeding roles may be influenced by environmental (food resources) or social factors (reproductive suppression of subordinates by dominants). Studies of glucocorticoid stress hormones in cooperatively breeding species suggest that breeding roles and hormone levels are related to the relative costs of dominance and subordination, which are driven primarily by social interactions. Few studies, however, have considered how environmental factors affect glucocorticoid levels and breeding roles in cooperative breeders, even though environmental stressors modulate seasonal glucocorticoid release and often influence breeding roles. I examined baseline and stress-induced levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) across 4 years in the plural breeding superb starling, Lamprotornis superbus, to determine whether (i) environmental factors (namely rainfall) directly influence breeding roles or (ii) environmental factors influence social interactions, which in turn drive breeding roles. Chronic baseline and maximal stress-induced CORT changed significantly across years as a function of pre-breeding rainfall, but dominant and subordinate individuals responded differently. Pre-breeding rainfall was also correlated directly with breeding roles. The results are most consistent with the hypothesis that environmental conditions influenced the relative costs of dominance and subordination, which in turn affected the degree and intensity of social interactions and ultimately reproductive decisions and breeding roles. PMID:17251100

  3. DOES EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS PREDICT CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSREGULATION?

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Background The allostatic load framework implies that cumulative exposure to stressors results in multi-system physiological dysregulation. Purpose To investigate the effect of stress burden on subsequent changes (2000-2006) in physiological dysregulation. Methods Data came from a population-based cohort study in Taiwan (n=521, aged 54+ in 2000, re-examined in 2006). Measures of stressful events and chronic strain were based on questions asked in 1996, 1999, and 2000. A measure of trauma was based on exposure to the 1999 earthquake. Dysregulation was based on 17 biomarkers (e.g., metabolic, inflammatory, neuroendocrine). Results There were some small effects among men: chronic strain was associated with subsequent increases in dysregulation (standardized β=0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.20), particularly inflammation; life events were also associated with increased inflammation (β=0.10, CI = 0.01 to 0.26). There were no significant effects in women. Conclusions We found weak evidence that stress burden is associated with changes in dysregulation. PMID:23526059

  4. Effects of Multiple Stressors on Eelgrass Restoration Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Southard, John A.; Blanton, Susan L.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Droscher, Toni

    2001-06-28

    We have been monitoring several restored eelgrass meadows in Puget Sound and in the Northwest, and have found variable success in terms of the systems achieving identified goals. The monitoring has shown (1) early transplant survival is moderate, and no greater than 80% under optimal circumstances; (2) spread of eelgrass transplants is slow, and under optimal (mesocosm) conditions may take 2 years to occur; (3) spread may depend on below-ground organic matter and processes, as well as on grazers and predators; (4) as the meadow matures, plant size may increase as density decreases, indicating that measures in addition to shoot density should be used; (5) higher than normal summer temperatures, seaweed blooms, bioturbator activity, propeller scars, anchor chain drag, and boat wakes may act as cumulative multiple stressors of eelgrass transplants; (6) sites with marginal conditions for eelgrass may support eelgrass in''good'' years but may be unsuitable during other years; (7) site assessments and experimental plantings are useful in evaluating a site prior to full transplanting; (8) monitoring should be conducted for at least 5 years following planting to understand long-term sustainability of the system; and, (9) reference sites are critical to interpreting results.

  5. Aquatic hazard assessment of MON 0818, a commercial mixture of alkylamine ethoxylates commonly used in glyphosate-containing herbicide formulations. Part 1: Species sensitivity distribution from laboratory acute exposures.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jose L; Prosser, Ryan; Poirier, David; Lissemore, Linda; Thompson, Dean; Hanson, Mark; Solomon, Keith R

    2017-02-01

    The sensitivity of 15 aquatic species, including primary producers, benthic invertebrates, cladocerans, mollusks, and fish, to MON 0818, a commercial surfactant mixture of polyoxyethylene tallow amines, was evaluated in standard acute (48-96-h) laboratory tests. In addition, the potential for chronic toxicity (8 d) was evaluated with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Exposure concentrations were confirmed. No significant effects on any endpoint were observed in the chronic test. A tier-1 hazard assessment was conducted by comparing species sensitivity distributions based on the generated data, as well as literature data, with 4 exposure scenarios. This assessment showed moderate levels of hazard (43.1% of the species exposed at or above median effective concentration levels), for a chosen worst-case scenario-unintentional direct over-spray of a 15-cm-deep body of water with the maximum label application rate for the studied formulations (Roundup Original, Vision Forestry Herbicide; 12 L formulation ha(-1) , equivalent to 4.27 kg acid equivalent [a.e.] ha(-1) ). The hazard decreased to impairment of 20.9% of species under the maximum application rate for more typical uses (6 L formulation ha(-1) , 2.14 kg a.e. ha(-1) ), and down to 6.9% for a more frequently employed application rate (2.5 L formulation ha(-1) , 0.89 kg a.e. ha(-1) ). Finally, the percentage (3.8%) was less than the hazardous concentration for 5% of the species based on concentrations of MON 0818 calculated from maximum measured concentrations of glyphosate in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:501-511. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Multiple anthropogenic stressors exert complex, interactive effects on a coral reef community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishnan, Ranjan; Fong, Peggy

    2014-12-01

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors impact coral reefs across the globe leading to declines of coral populations, but the relative importance of different stressors and the ways they interact remain poorly understood. Because coral reefs exist in environments commonly impacted by multiple stressors simultaneously, understanding their interactions is of particular importance. To evaluate the role of multiple stressors we experimentally manipulated three stressors (herbivore abundance, nutrient supply, and sediment loading) in plots on a natural reef in the Gulf of Panamá in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Monitoring of the benthic community (coral, macroalgae, algal turf, and crustose coralline algae) showed complex responses with all three stressors impacting the community, but at different times, in different combinations, and with varying effects on different community members. Reduction of top-down control in combination with sediment addition had the strongest effect on the community, and led to approximately three times greater algal biomass. Coral cover was reduced in all experimental units with a negative effect of nutrients over time and a synergistic interaction between herbivore exclosures and sediment addition. In contrast, nutrient and sediment additions interacted antagonistically in their impacts on crustose coralline algae and turf algae so that in combination the treatments limited each other's effects. Interactions between stressors and temporal variability indicated that, while each stressor had the potential to impact community structure, their combinations and the broader environmental conditions under which they acted strongly influenced their specific effects. Thus, it is critical to evaluate the effects of stressors on community dynamics not only independently but also under different combinations or environmental conditions to understand how those effects will be played out in more realistic scenarios.

  7. HMX: Acute Toxicity Tests in Laboratory Animals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1 (Appendix 1) but were deprived of food for a 16 h period prior to dosing. Water was available...humidity was 57% (extremes of 52%-74%). The animals were fed on BP Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1 but were deprived of food for a... Nutrition expanded Rat and Mouse Maintenance Diet No. 1. Food and water were avail- able ad libitum throughout the study. c) Method The application site

  8. Do cortisol and corticosterone play the same role in coping with stressors? Measuring glucocorticoid serum in free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Ovejero, Ramiro; Novillo, Agustina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Mosca-Torres, Maria E; Cuello, Pablo; Gregório, Pablo; Jahn, Graciela; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Habitat can constrain and shape successful ecological and physiological strategies, thus providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits. However, unpredictable challenges, such as storms, natural disasters, and human activities can also have great effects on stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones that play an important role in how vertebrates cope with these predictable and unpredictable environmental challenges. Although assessing GCs levels can have many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals, with or without capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific complete validation (analytical and biological) before its use. In this work, our aim was to: (a) validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring GCs levels in L. guanicoe serum; (b) assess cortisol and corticosterone levels (if present) in serum of wild L. guanicoe individuals; and (c) compare the response to acute stressors (handling, shearing, and release). Our results successfully: (a) validated RIA for asses GCs levels in wild ungulates; (b) confirmed the presence for cortisol and corticosterone and showed that both GCs are differently affected by environmental stimuli in L. guanicoe; and (c) showed that GCs exhibit different patterns in the field and in response to acute stressors, making these camelids an interesting endocrinological model when seeking the adaptive functions of a given variation and further emphasizing the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals.

  9. Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Su, Shaobing

    2014-01-01

    Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSW) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSW, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSW faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSW to improve their psychological well-being. PMID:24180467

  10. An Ecological Model of Stressors Experienced by Youth Newly Diagnosed With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Harper, Gary W.; Lemos, Diana; Martinez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study qualitatively examined the social-ecological stressors that youth experience during the first year following an HIV diagnosis. Thirty HIV-positive youth (16 males, 14 females) between the ages of 16–24 participated in either focus groups or individual interviews. All sessions were transcribed and themes were identified through cross-case and comparative analyses. Participants reported experiencing stressors within multiple social-ecological systems, including interactions with their families, sexual partners, health care providers, work, and school. The results from this study highlight the need for youth-focused services that assist with multiple layers of stressors during the first year following an HIV diagnosis. PMID:20216916

  11. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-09-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  13. ASSESSING STRESSORS IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: AN APPROACH TO THE PATIENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medicine employs an approach to diagnose, give a prognosis, and develop a treatment for human patients. Specific signs and symptoms determined from medical examinations, laboratory tests, and patient history are utilized to predict the outcome of a potential pathological disorder...

  14. Laboratory interferences with the newer cyanide antidote: hydroxocobalamin.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Nathan; Leikin, Scott M; Aitchinson, Robert; Yen, May; Wills, Brandon K

    2009-02-01

    Cyanide poisoning occurs in many smoke inhalation victims. The newest FDA-approved treatment for acute cyanide intoxication is hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit). However, hydroxocobalamin exhibits chemical properties that can disrupt several clinical laboratory tests. Knowledge of these effects on laboratory tests can be useful in assisting laboratory technicians and clinicians in managing these patients. This article briefly discusses acute cyanide poisoning and treatment, and summarizes laboratory interferences that have been reported with the use of hydroxocobalamin.

  15. Short-term variations of phytoplankton communities in response to anthropogenic stressors in a highly altered temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongsik; Jeong, Byungkwan

    2015-04-01

    Data for phytoplankton size classes, taxonomy, and water properties were collected through an episodic freshwater discharge event (4 days) in the temperate Youngsan River estuary, which is highly disturbed by manually regulated inputs of freshwater from a sea dike, to investigate the effects of an acute change in anthropogenic stressors on the short-term dynamics of phytoplankton and their surrounding environments. The salinity of the well-mixed saline water (33.2-33.5) decreased to as low as 4.0 and water temperature increased to 24.0 °C during the freshwater discharge, resulting in a stratified water column in the upper region of the estuary. During the discharge, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations increased to as much as 15.66 μg L-1 with micro-sized phytoplankton being dominant due to the presence of micro-sized freshwater phytoplankton, mostly Aulacoseira ambigua (98% in cell abundance), transported from the reservoir. Primary production decreased to as little as 87.9 mg C m-2 d-1, although nutrients such as NO2- + NO3- were supplied by the freshwater inputs of the discharge. Following the discharge, dinoflagellate blooms, dominated by Heterocapsa sp. (>88%), a nano-sized red tide species, developed in the upper regions of the estuary with peaks in chl a concentrations reaching as high as 30.33 μg L-1. Another red tide species, Prorocentrum micans, was also dominant in the estuary, suggesting that harmful algal blooms (HABs) are associated with anthropogenic stressors related to the freshwater inputs. The Shannon diversity index decreased to 0.18 while the Simpson dominance index increased to 0.94 during the discharge, but the diversity increased again following the discharge. The phytoplankton communities and diversity changed along the salinity gradient, corresponding to an "ecocline" pattern. The results of multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phytoplankton species and size structure were controlled mainly by salinity, water temperature

  16. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  17. Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions.

  18. Predicting the persistence of coastal wetlands to global change stressors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, G.; McKee, K.; Cahoon, D.; Grace, J.; Megonigal, P.

    2006-01-01

    Despite progress toward understanding the response of coastal wetlands to increases in relative sea-level rise and an improved understanding of the effect of elevated CO2 on plant species allocation patterns, we are limited in our ability to predict the response of coastal wetlands to the effects associated with global change. Static simulations of the response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise using LIDAR and GIS lack the biological and physical feedback mechanisms present in such systems. Evidence from current research suggests that biotic processes are likely to have a major influence on marsh vulnerability to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise and the influence of biotic processes likely varies depending on hydrogeomorphic setting and external stressors. We have initiated a new research approach using a series of controlled mesocosm and field experiments, landscape scale studies, a comparative network of brackish coastal wetland monitoring sites and a suite of predictive models that address critical questions regarding the vulnerability of coastal brackish wetland systems to global change. Specifically, this research project evaluates the interaction of sea level rise and elevated CO2 concentrations with flooding, nutrient enrichment and disturbance effects. The study is organized in a hierarchical structure that links mesocosm, field, landscape and biogeographic levels so as to provide important new information that recognizes that coastal wetland systems respond to multiple interacting drivers and feedback effects controlling wetland surface elevation, habitat stability and ecosystem function. We also present a new statistical modelling technique (Structural Equation Modelling) that synthesizes and integrates our environmental and biotic measures in a predictive framework that forecasts ecosystem change and informs managers to consider adaptive shifts in strategies for the sustainable management of coastal wetlands.

  19. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment. PMID:20504303

  20. Stressors and counseling needs of undergraduate nursing students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Onibokun, Adenike C; Yusuf, Bidemi O; Odukogbe, Akintunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O

    2004-09-01

    Existing evidence suggests that nursing students have high levels of stress and that counseling and other support services should be made available to them. However, the stressors and counseling needs of undergraduate nursing students in Nigeria have yet to be explored. This study used a questionnaire to investigate the stressors, counseling needs, and desired counseling facilities of undergraduate nursing students at the University of Ibadan. Common stressors included excessive schoolwork, financial problems, inadequate recreational facilities, and overcrowded accommodations. There was an association between reporting inconsiderate, insensitive lecturers as stressors and evidence of psychological distress. Nearly 60% of the respondents felt counseling would help them, and most desired counseling for academics, finances, and relationships. Most (78%) of the respondents preferred an independent facility with trained counselors. Desired characteristics for the services included accessibility, affordability, confidentiality, and a friendly atmosphere. Educators and administrators should use this information to design counseling facilities for students.

  1. Rates and impact of trauma and current stressors among Darfuri refugees in Eastern Chad.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Nguyen, Leanh; Wilkinson, John; Vundla, Sikhumbuzo; Raghavan, Sumithra; Miller, Kenneth E; Keller, Allen S

    2010-04-01

    Darfur refugees face hardships associated with chronic displacement, including lack of basic needs and safety concerns. Psychiatric research on refugees has focused on trauma, but daily stressors may contribute more to variance in distress. This article reports rates of past trauma and current stressors among Darfur refugees and gauges the contribution of each to psychological distress and functional impairment. A representative sample of 848 Darfuris in 2 refugee camps were interviewed about traumatic events, stressors faced in the camps, psychological distress, and functional impairment. Basic needs and safety concerns were more strongly correlated with measures of distress (rs = .19-.31) than were war-related traumatic events (rs = .09-.20). Hierarchical regression supported models in which effects of trauma on distress were mediated by current stressors. Although war-related traumatic events are the initial causes of refugees' hardship, findings suggest that the day-to-day challenges and concerns in camps mediate psychological distress associated with these events.

  2. Targeting Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients: Stream Survey Design, Ecological Responses, and Implications of Land Cover Resolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a stream survey in the Narragansett Bay Watershed designed to target a gradient of development intensity, and to examine how associated changes in nutrients, carbon, and stressors affect periphyton and macroinvertebrates. Concentrations of nutrients, cations, and ani...

  3. Technology Assessment On Stressor Impacts To Green Infrastructure BMP Performance, Monitoring And Integration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will document, benchmark and evalute state-of-the-science research and implementation on BMP performance, monitoring, and integration for green infrastructure applications, to manage wet weather flwo, storm-water-runoff stressor relief and remedial sustainable w...

  4. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  5. NEW APPROACHES IN RISK ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS TO HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We explore the application of novel techniques for improving and integrating risk analysis of environmental stressors to human and ecological systems. Environmental protection decisions are guided by risk assessments serving as tools to develop regulatory policy and other relate...

  6. A geospatial modelling approach to predict seagrass habitat recovery under multiple stressor regimes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of estuarine seagrass habitats requires a clear understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We have developed and demonstrated a geospatial modeling a...

  7. “Life Grows Between the Rocks” Latino adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives on mental health stressors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    Latino adolescents, an increasingly larger proportion of youth in the US, are at special risk for mental health problems, including depression and suicidal ideation. Little is known about the meaning of mental health stressors for Latino adolescents and their parents. We conducted a descriptive study to elicit Latino adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives regarding mental health stressors as a basis for future preventive interventions. Eight focus groups were conducted with 53 Latino participants, two per sub-group (boys, girls, mothers, fathers). Three categories of mental health stressors included discrimination, immigration, and familial disconnection. Findings support the need for collaborative interventions and multi-level strategies (individual, family, and community) to address stressors in Latino adolescents’ experiences. PMID:19170104

  8. Technology Assessment On Stressor Impacts to Green Infrastructure BMP Performance, Monitoring, and Integration (Cincinnati, OH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster presentation will document, benchmark and evaluate state-of-the-science research and implementation on BMP performance, monitoring and integration for green infrastructure applications, to manage wet weather flow, storm-water runoff stressor relief and remedial sustai...

  9. Estimating the risks of multiple, covarying stressors in the National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) used relative and attributable risks to measure the apparent nationwide effects of excess nitrogen, reduced lakeshore habitat, and other stressors, on planktonic assemblages in lakes. The risk measures, borrowed from human health research,...

  10. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE INDICATORS IN OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrate indicators are used as assessment endpoints for surface water quality monitoring in Ohio. The purpose of this study is to explain and predict the impact of environmental stressors on macroinvertebrate communities as measured by the Ohio Environmental Protection...

  11. Density Dependent Functional Forms Drive Compensation in Populations Exposed to Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between density dependence (DD) and environmental stressors can result in a compensatory or synergistic response in population growth, and population models that use density-independent demographic rates or generic DD functions may be introducing bias into managem...

  12. Job-Related Stressors of Classical Instrumental Musicians: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Vervainioti, A; Alexopoulos, E C

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies among performing artists have found elevated stress levels and health effects, but scarcely the full range of stressors has been reported. We review here the existing literature on job-related stressors of classical instrumental musicians (orchestra musicians). PubMed, Google Scholar and JSTOR databases were screened for relevant papers indexed up to August 2012. A total of 122 papers was initially identified which, after exclusion of duplicates and those not meeting eligibility criteria, yielded 67 articles for final analysis. We identified seven categories of stressors affecting musicians in their everyday working lives: public exposure, personal hazards, repertoire, competition, job context, injury/illness, and criticism, but with interrelated assigned factors. The proposed categories provide a framework for future comprehensive research on the impact and management of musician stressors.

  13. Inflammatory Cytokines as Preclinical Markers of Adverse Responses to Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The in vivo cytokine response to chemical stressors is a promising mainstream tool used to assess potential systemic inflammation and immune function changes. Notably, new instrumentation and statistical analysis provide the selectivity and sensitivity to rapidly diff...

  14. METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

  15. ASSESSING RISKS TO WILDLIFE POPULATIONS FROM MULTIPLE STRESSORS: OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM AND RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indi...

  16. ASSESSING RISKS TO WILDLIFE POPULATIONS FROM MULTPLE STRESSORS: OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife is experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors such as agricultural and urban land use, introduction of invasive and exotic species, alteration of nutrient cycles, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemical exposure directly...

  17. Workforce Disengagement Stressors and Retiree Alcohol Misuse: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Problems and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    PubMed Central

    Belogolovsky, Elena; Bamberger, Peter; Bacharach, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We generate and test a moderated mediation model of the effects of two retirement-related stressors (namely, financial and marital) on the severity of alcohol misuse among retirees. We posit that in addition to using alcohol to cope with stressors in retirement, alcohol may also be used to self-medicate the secondary, sleep-related effects of such stressors, and that gender serves as a key boundary condition, moderating the impact of such stressors on sleep-related problems, and of sleep-related problems on alcohol misuse. Using longitudinal data collected from a sample of 292 retirees, our findings generally support this model, suggesting that both stressors are associated with the severity of alcohol misuse among male retirees. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that -- for male retirees -- the effect of both stressors on the severity of alcohol misuse is to a large extent secondary to the stressors themselves, mediated by the sleep-related problems they may generate. PMID:24532849

  18. The commensal microbiota exacerbate infectious colitis in stressor-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Galley, Jeffrey D; Parry, Nicola M; Ahmer, Brian M M; Fox, James G; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to a prolonged restraint stressor disrupts the colonic microbiota community composition, and is associated with an elevated inflammatory response to colonic pathogen challenge. Since the stability of the microbiota has been implicated in the development and modulation of mucosal immune responses, we hypothesized that the disruptive effect of the stressor upon the microbiota composition directly contributed to the stressor-induced exacerbation of pathogen-induced colitis. In order to establish a causative role for stressor-induced changes in the microbiota, conventional mice were exposed to prolonged restraint to change the microbiota. Germfree mice were then colonized by microbiota from either stressor-exposed or non-stressed control mice. One day after colonization, mice were infected with the colonic pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. At six days post-infection, mice that received microbiota from stressor-exposed animals had significant increases in colonic pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. IL-1β) and chemokine (e.g. CCL2) levels after C. rodentium infection in comparison with mice that received microbiota from non-stressed mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that microbial communities from stressed mice did not have any detectable Bifidobacterium present, a stark contrast with the microbial communities from non-stressed mice, suggesting that stressor-induced alterations in commensal, immunomodulatory Bifidobacterium levels may predispose to an increased inflammatory response to pathogen challenge. This study demonstrates that the commensal microbiota directly contribute to excessive inflammatory responses to C. rodentium during stressor exposure, and may help to explain why gastrointestinal disorders are worsened during stressful experiences.

  19. The role of the commensal microbiota in adaptive and maladaptive stressor-induced immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Mackos, Amy R; Maltz, Ross; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that there are extensive bidirectional interactions between the body and its microbiota. These interactions are evident during stressful periods, where it is recognized that commensal microbiota community structure is significantly changed. Many different stressors, ranging from early life stressors to stressors administered during adulthood, lead to significant, community-wide differences in the microbiota. The mechanisms through which this occurs are not yet known, but it is known that commensal microbes can recognize, and respond to, mammalian hormones and neurotransmitters, including those that are involved with the physiological response to stressful stimuli. In addition, the physiological stress response also changes many aspects of gastrointestinal physiology that can impact microbial community composition. Thus, there are many routes through which microbial community composition might be disrupted during stressful periods. The implications of these disruptions in commensal microbial communities for host health are still not well understood, but the commensal microbiota have been linked to stressor-induced immunopotentiation. The role of the microbiota in stressor-induced immunopotentiation can be adaptive, such as when these microbes stimulate innate defenses against bacterial infection. However, the commensal microbiota can also lead to maladaptive immune responses during stressor-exposure. This is evident in animal models of colonic inflammation where stressor exposure increases the inflammation through mechanisms involving the microbiota. It is likely that during stressor exposure, immune cell functioning is regulated by combined effects of both neurotransmitters/hormones and commensal microbes. Defining this regulation should be a focus of future studies.

  20. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. Results The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Conclusion Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors. PMID:27737424

  1. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  2. Poverty-related stressors and HIV/AIDS transmission risks in two South African communities.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Jooste, Sean; Cherry, Chauncey; Cain, Demetria

    2005-06-01

    Community stress associated with poverty is related to health risks and poor health outcomes. Perceived community stress is specifically related to HIV transmission risk behaviors in the United States, but research has not examined these relationships in southern Africa, the region of the world with the highest rates of HIV infection and among the greatest poverty. Men (N=464) and women (N=531) living in impoverished adjacent communities distinguished by race (e.g., indigenous African and Coloured) completed anonymous surveys of perceptions of 10 poverty-related community stressors and measures of HIV risk-related behaviors. Indigenous African and Coloured communities differed in their perceptions of stressors, with Africans consistently viewing the 10 community stressors as more serious problems. In addition, perceived seriousness of lacking basic living resources was related to higher risk for HIV among Africans. Perceived community stress was also related to alcohol and drug use, but substance use did not mediate the association between perceived community stress and HIV risks. In the Coloured community, perceived community stressors were related to drug use, but perceived community stressors were not associated with HIV risks. These findings extend the findings of previous research to show that poverty-related stressors are associated with HIV transmission risks in some poverty-stricken communities and that these associations are not mediated by substance use.

  3. The relative impact of workplace bullying as a social stressor at work.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to workplace bullying has been argued to be a severe social stressor and a more crippling and devastating problem for affected individuals than the effects of all other work-related stressors put together. However, few studies have explicitly investigated this assumption. In a representative sample of the Norwegian working population, the present study investigated the relative contribution of workplace bullying as a predictor of individual and organizational related outcomes after controlling for the well-documented job stressors of job demands, decision authority, role ambiguity and role conflict. Bullying was found to be a significant predictor of all the outcomes included, showing a substantial relative contribution in relation to anxiety and depression, while for job satisfaction, turnover intention and absenteeism, more modest relative contributions were identified. Workplace bullying is indeed a potent social stressor with consequences similar to, or even more severe than, the effects of other stressors frequently encountered within organizations. Thus, the finding that bullying has a considerable effect on exposed individuals also when controlling for the effects of other job stressors demonstrates bullying as a serious problem at workplaces that needs to be actively prevented and managed in its own right.

  4. A review of hydrological and chemical stressors in the Adige catchment and its ecological status.

    PubMed

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Cano Paoli, Karina; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Mallucci, Stefano; Lencioni, Valeria; Zandonai, Fabiana; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of multiple stressors on Alpine freshwater ecosystems is challenging, due to the lack of tailored field campaigns for the contemporaneous measurement of hydrological, chemical and ecological parameters. Conducting exhaustive field campaigns is costly and hence most of the activities so far have been performed addressing specific environmental issues. An accurate analysis of existing information is therefore useful and necessary, to identify stressors that may act in synergy and to design new field campaigns. We present an extended review of available studies and datasets concerning the hydrological, chemical and ecological status of the Adige, which is the second longest river and the third largest river basin in Italy. The most relevant stressors are discussed in the light of the information extracted from a large number of studies. The detailed analysis of these studies identified that hydrological alterations caused by hydropower production are the main source of stress for the freshwater ecosystems in the Adige catchment. However, concurrent effects with other stressors, such as the release of pollutants from waste water treatment plants or from agricultural and industrial activities, have not been explored at depth, so far. A wealth of available studies address a single stressor separately without exploring their concurrent effect. It is concluded that a combination of extended experimental field campaigns, focusing on the coupled effects of multiple stressors, and modeling activities is highly needed in order to quantify the impact of the multifaceted human pressures on freshwater ecosystems in the Adige river.

  5. How stressors are dynamically appraised within a team during a game: An exploratory study in basketball.

    PubMed

    Doron, J; Bourbousson, J

    2016-11-18

    Little is known about how team sport athletes individually and collectively experience sources of stress during competitive sport encounters. This study aimed to examine the nature of the stressors team sport athletes appraised during games at individual and team levels, as well as their degree of synchronization during an unfolding game. Through individual self-confrontation interviews, the activities of nine basketball players of the same team were examined in detail. The results revealed that 12 categories of stressors were reported, and categorized into two larger units reflecting stressors perceived as affecting (a) "the team functioning as a whole" and (b) "a player's own functioning". Thus, the nature and degree of similarity of the game-specific stressors experienced by basketball players within a single team were identified during a game. In addition, the findings showed six different patterns of synchronizations of team members' stressors, as well as their changes over the course of the game. They provided support for the synchronized appraisal and experience of stressors within a team during a game. By adopting an interpersonal perspective and examining the temporal interplay in team members' activities, this study shed light on stress within teams.

  6. Identifying Perceived Neighborhood Stressors Across Diverse Communities in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Yonas, Michael A; Newman, Ogonnaya Dotson; Kubzansky, Laura D; Joseph, Evelyn; Parks, Ana; Callaway, Charles; Chubb, Lauren G; Shepard, Peggy; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing interest in the role of psychosocial stress in health disparities. Identifying which social stressors are most important to community residents is critical for accurately incorporating stressor exposures into health research. Using a community-academic partnered approach, we designed a multi-community study across the five boroughs of New York City to characterize resident perceptions of key neighborhood stressors. We conducted 14 community focus groups; two to three in each borough, with one adolescent group and one Spanish-speaking group per borough. We then used systematic content analysis and participant ranking data to describe prominent neighborhood stressors and identify dominant themes. Three inter-related themes regarding the social and structural sources of stressful experiences were most commonly identified across neighborhoods: (1) physical disorder and perceived neglect, (2) harassment by police and perceived safety and (3) gentrification and racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that multiple sources of distress, including social, political, physical and economic factors, should be considered when investigating health effects of community stressor exposures and psychological distress. Community expertise is essential for comprehensively characterizing the range of neighborhood stressors that may be implicated in psychosocial exposure pathways.

  7. Biomechanical and organisational stressors and associations with employment withdrawal among pregnant workers: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2016-12-01

    The distribution of exposure to biomechanical and organisational job stressors (BOJS) and associations with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave, unemployment) was examined in a case-control study of 1114 pregnant workers in California. We performed descriptive and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses. At pregnancy onset, 57% were exposed to one or more biomechanical stressors, including frequent bending, heavy lifting and prolonged standing. One-third were simultaneously exposed to BOJS. Exposure to biomechanical stressors declined as pregnancy progressed and cessation often (41%) coincided with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave and unemployment). In multivariate modelling, whether we adjusted for or considered organisational stressors as coincident exposures, results showed that pregnant workers exposed to biomechanical stressors had increased employment withdrawal compared to the unexposed. Work schedule accommodations moderate this association. Paid antenatal leave, available to few US women, was an important strategy for mitigating exposure to BOJS. Implications for science and policy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This case-control study showed that exposure to biomechanical stressors decline throughout pregnancy. Antenatal leave was an important strategy used for mitigating exposure among sampled California women with access to paid benefits. Employment withdrawal among workers exposed to BJOS may be reduced by proactive administrative and engineering efforts applied early in pregnancy.

  8. Prospective relations between growth in drinking and familial stressors across adolescence

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Chassin, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Although there is much empirical support for the relation between stress and alcohol consumption in adolescence, it is unclear whether exposure to stressors is associated with overall trajectories or temporary elevations in drinking. Moreover, little research has explored whether the stress-alcohol use association in adolescence may be explained by shared risk factors that produce both individual differences in stress exposure and elevated risk for alcohol use. The current study tested these hypotheses within the context of a state-trait model of family stressors in a prospectively studied sample of children at high risk for alcoholism: children of alcoholic parents and matched controls (n = 451). Levels and growth in alcohol use were modeled longitudinally from ages 13 to 17. Results indicated that shared risk factors accounted for 53% of the impact of trait family stressors on growth in adolescent drinking, but time-specific exposure to familial stressors still predicted short-term boosts in alcohol use in adolescence. These findings imply that trait familial stressors mark adolescents at risk for alcohol use, and also impact adolescent alcohol use within a short time frame (i.e. over a year versus over many years) when they occur above and beyond the adolescent’s “usual load” of stressors. PMID:19685957

  9. Cardiovascular and affective consequences of ruminating on a performance stressor depend on mode of thought.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Rabideau, Erin M; Figueroa, Wilson S; Woody, Alex

    2014-08-01

    Psychological detachment from work is important for facilitating recovery. This can be threatened by rumination, or thinking about the day's stressors. Rumination may lead to distress, fatigue and extended activation of stress-related systems, but findings are not unequivocal. Level of construal (abstract or concrete) and type of mentation (imagery or verbal thought) used during stressor-focused rumination may shape physiological and affective responses and impact recovery. This study tested whether blood pressure (BP) and anxiety responses to stressor-focused rumination differ by mentation type and construal level. Healthy undergraduates (n = 136) performed a speech stressor and then completed a rumination task in one of four randomly assigned conditions: concrete imagery, abstract imagery, concrete verbal thought or abstract verbal thought. Anxiety and continuous BP were assessed. Concrete rumination led to greater BP, whereas rumination with abstract construals led to lower BP. Furthermore, participants in the abstract conditions had greater increases in anxiety following stressor-focused rumination than in the concrete conditions. Results suggest that the immediate physiological and psychological consequences of stressor-focused rumination depend upon mode of thought.

  10. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  11. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  12. Secondary stressors and extreme events and disasters: a systematic review of primary research from 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Sarah; Rubin, G. James; Murray, Virginia; Rogers, M. Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Extreme events and disasters, such as earthquakes and floods, cause distress and are associated with some people developing mental disorders. Primary stressors inherent in many disasters can include injuries sustained or watching someone die. The literature recognises the distress which primary stressors cause and their association with mental disorders. Secondary stressors such as a lack of financial assistance, the gruelling process of submitting an insurance claim, parents’ worries about their children, and continued lack of infrastructure can manifest their effects shortly after a disaster and persist for extended periods of time. Secondary stressors, and their roles in affecting people’s longer-term mental health, should not be overlooked. We draw attention in this review to the nature of secondary stressors that are commonly identified in the literature, assess how they are measured, and develop a typology of these stressors that often affect people after extreme events. Methods We searched for relevant papers from 2010 and 2011 using MEDLINE®, Embase and PsycINFO®. We selected primary research papers that evaluated the associations between secondary stressors and distress or mental disorders following extreme events, and were published in English. We extracted information on which secondary stressors were assessed, and used thematic analysis to group the secondary stressors into a typology. Results Thirty-two relevant articles published in 2010 and 2011 were identified. Many secondary stressors were poorly defined and difficult to differentiate from primary stressors or other life events. We identified 11 categories of secondary stressors, though some extend over more than one category. The categories include: economic stressors such as problems with compensation, recovery of and rebuilding homes; loss of physical possessions and resources; health-related stressors; stress relating to education and schooling; stress arising from media

  13. Stability of active prophages in industrial Lactococcus lactis strains in the presence of heat, acid, osmotic, oxidative and antibiotic stressors.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chun-Hoong; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Beatson, Scott A; Bansal, Nidhi; Turner, Mark S

    2016-03-02

    Lactococcus lactis is a starter bacterium commonly used in cheese making where it has an important role in acid-mediated curd formation as well as the development of flavour compounds. Industrial L. lactis strains can harbour one or more inducible prophages which when induced can affect cell growth and possibly lead to cell lysis. This is undesirable during growth and fermentation, but can beneficially lead to faster release of enzymes during cheese ripening. Lactococci can encounter multiple stress inducing conditions during the production of cheese, such as low and high temperatures, low pH, high osmotic pressure and long-term incubation. In this study, we tested the effect of these industrial stressors on prophage induction in two cheese making L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains (ASCC890049 and ASCC890310) as well as the laboratory strain L. lactis MG1363. Firstly, in order to identify inducible prophages in these strains we exposed them to the prophage inducing chemical mitomycin C (MMC) for 1 and 2h and then subjected the total genomic DNA to next-generation Illumina sequencing. Mapping of sequence reads back to the genome sequences revealed regions which contained a much higher fold coverage indicating DNA replication. These regions were amplified by up to 332-fold per cell (relative to the control tufA gene) and were identified as having similarities to different subgroups of P335 phages including MG-5, TP901-1, ul36.k1, bIL286, TP712 and BK5-T. Next, quantitative PCR was used to confirm the strong induction of prophages by MMC and then determine the copy number of the inducible prophages following exposure to various growth inhibitory levels of HCl, lactic acid, high temperature, NaCl, hydrogen peroxide and bacitracin. With the exception of a slight induction (2 to 4-fold) with hydrogen peroxide and long-term incubation after 21days in one industrial strain, none of the other stressors induced prophage DNA replication. These findings show that the repression

  14. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  15. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In adult correctional facilities, correctional officers (COs) are responsible for the safety and security of the facility in addition to aiding in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. COs experience higher rates of job stress and burnout that stem from organizational stressors, leading to negative outcomes for not only the CO but the organization as well. Effective interventions could aim at targeting organizational stressors in order to reduce these negative outcomes as well as COs’ job stress and burnout. This paper fills a gap in the organizational stress literature among COs by systematically reviewing the relationship between organizational stressors and CO stress and burnout in adult correctional facilities. In doing so, the present review identifies areas that organizational interventions can target in order to reduce CO job stress and burnout. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. All retrieved articles were independently screened based on criteria developed a priori. All included articles underwent quality assessment. Organizational stressors were categorized according to Cooper and Marshall’s (1976) model of job stress. Results The systematic review yielded 8 studies that met all inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The five categories of organizational stressors among correctional officers are: stressors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, rewards at work, supervisory relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate. The organizational structure and climate was demonstrated to have the most consistent relationship with CO job stress and burnout. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that the organizational structure and climate of correctional institutions has the most consistent relationship with COs’ job stress and burnout. Limitations of the studies reviewed include the

  16. Life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Erfani, Zahra; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition. Symptoms of IBS were evaluated by Talley bowel disease questionnaire. Stressful life event, modified COPE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were also used. About 4763 subjects were completed questionnaires. Analyzing data were done by t-test and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of all returned questionnaire, 1024 (21.5%) were diagnosed with IBS. IBS and clinically-significant IBS (IBS-S) groups have significantly experienced a higher level of perceived intensity of stressors and had a higher frequency of stressors. The mean score of social supports and the mean scores of three coping strategies (problem engagement, support seeking, and positive reinterpretation and growth) were significantly lower in subjects with either IBS-S or IBS than in those with no IBS. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association between frequency of stressors and perceived intensity of stressors with IBS (odds ratio [OR] =1.09 and OR = 1.02, respectively) or IBS-S (OR = 1.09 and OR = 1.03, respectively). Conclusions: People with IBS had higher numbers of stressors, higher perception of the intensity of stressors, less adaptive coping strategies, and less social supports which should be focused in psychosocial interventions. PMID:27761433

  17. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  18. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló Cullerés, Damià; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development in Europe; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens. Some stressors, such as water scarcity, can be a stressor on its own because of its structural character, and drive the effects of other stressors. The relevance of water scarcity as a stressor is more important in semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, which are characterized by highly variable river flows and the occurrence of low flows. This has resulted in increases in frequency and magnitude of extreme flow events. Furthermore, in other European regions such as eastern Germany, western Poland and England, water demand exceeds water availability and water scarcity has become an important management issue. Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management, with resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Within this context, GLOBAQUA has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, sociology, engineering and modeling in order to study the interaction of multiple stressors within the frame of strong pressure on water resources. The aim is to achieve a better understanding how current management practices and policies could be improved by identifying the main drawbacks and alternatives.

  19. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  20. Experienced stressors and coping strategies among Iranian nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Tafreshi, Maryam; Hagani, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    with problems" (66.4%) and "trying to improve themselves" (64.5%). The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%); the social support strategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%), "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%), and "trying to keep up friendships or make new friends" (54.4%); the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%); the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%), the relaxing strategy "day dreaming" (52.5%), and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5%) were each used "often or always" by a majority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7%) and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%), the ventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%), the professional support strategies "getting professional counseling" (74.6%) and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2%) and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9%) were used "seldom or never". Conclusion First year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a student support system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school is necessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should include counseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in these students' future nursing careers. PMID:17999772

  1. Neighborhood stressors, mastery, and depressive symptoms: racial and ethnic differences in an ecological model of the stress process in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Gilster, Megan E

    2014-08-01

    Neighborhood stressors are associated with depressive symptoms and are more likely to be experienced in poor, non-White neighborhoods. Neighborhood stress process theory suggests that neighborhood stressor affect mental health through personal coping resources, such as mastery. Mastery is thought to be both a pathway and a buffer of the ill effects of neighborhood stressors. This research examines the neighborhood stress process with a focus on racial and ethnic differences in the relationship between neighborhood stressors, mastery, and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic sample of Chicago residents. Findings suggest race-specific effects on depressive symptoms. Mastery is found to be a pathway from neighborhood stressors to depressive symptoms but not a buffer against neighborhood stressors. Mastery is most beneficial to Whites and those living in low stress neighborhoods.

  2. The Association between Social Stressors and Drug Use/Hazardous Drinking among Former Prison Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Susan; Beaty, Brenda; Mueller, Shane R.; Min, Sung-Joon; Binswanger, Ingrid A.

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors are associated with relapse to substance use among people receiving addiction treatment and people with substance use risk behaviors. The relationship between social stressors and drug use/hazardous drinking in former prisoners has not been studied. We interviewed former prisoners at baseline, 1 to 3 weeks post prison release, and follow up, between 2 and 9 months following the baseline interview. Social stressors were characterized by unemployment, homelessness, unstable housing, problems with family, friends, and/or significant others, being single, or major symptoms of depression. Associations between baseline social stressors and follow-up drug use and hazardous drinking were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Problems with family, friends, and/or significant others were associated with reported drug use (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.18–7.67) and hazardous drinking (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05–6.87) post release. Further research may determine whether interventions and policies targeting social stressors can reduce relapse among former inmates. PMID:24642070

  3. Healthcare managers' leadership profiles in relation to perceptions of work stressors and stress.

    PubMed

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and differences in managers' own levels of work stress symptoms and perceptions of work stressors causing stress. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data were used. Healthcare managers ( n = 188) rated three dimensions of their leadership behavior and levels of work stressors and stress. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify leadership profiles based on leadership behaviors. Differences in stress-related outcomes between profiles were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Findings Four distinct clusters of leadership profiles were found. They discriminated in perception of work stressors and stress: the profile distinguished by the lowest mean in all behavior dimensions, exhibited a pattern with significantly more negative ratings compared to the other profiles. Practical implications This paper proposes that leadership profile is an individual factor involved in the stress process, including work stressors and stress, which may inform targeted health promoting interventions for healthcare managers. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and work stressors and stress in healthcare managers.

  4. Interactions of environmental stressors impact survival and development of parasitized larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, J

    2010-12-01

    Infected hosts are exposed to many environmental stressors that must be taken into account in order to determine the importance of disease, as various combinations can interact in unpredictable ways. Here, northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles, a species in decline, were exposed to stressors singly or in combination. Stressors included infection by Echinostoma trivolvis (a trematode parasite), exposure to predator chemical cues (larval dragonflies), and exposure to varying concentrations of the herbicide atrazine. Parasitism decreased survival only in combination with exposure to 3 microg/L atrazine, with a negative interaction observed for mass as well. Similarly, a negative interaction of parasitism and predation on survival occurred. However, atrazine exposure alone negatively affected the survival, mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles. These results indicate that certain stressor combinations are particularly deleterious for young parasitized tadpoles. Notably, very common low-intensity parasite infection can be particularly harmful in certain situations. Such negative impacts on larval amphibians in certain scenarios may contribute to ongoing amphibian population declines, emphasizing that the combination of environmental stressors must be considered when evaluating the general role of disease in species extinctions.

  5. Validation of the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised, a contemporary measure of life stressors.

    PubMed

    Berry, C; Shalowitz, M; Quinn, K; Wolf, R

    2001-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish the validity of the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised, a recently developed measure of contemporary life stressors, using the same validation technique as in the original validation and to provide further evidence of construct validity by assessing its relationship to socioeconomic status and residential location. We conducted 124 in-person interviews with parents in three outpatient pediatric asthma clinics affiliated with an academic medical center. The design was cross-sectional and correlational. Total count of life stressors accounted for 19% of the variance in scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression. Respondents using Medicaid and living in the city experienced more objective stressors, but the proportions of stressors rated as negative or positive (Valence), and ongoing (Chronicity) were fairly constant across subsamples, as was the Difficulty rating. Psychologists and health and mental health services researchers are in need of constructs relevant to contemporary society and its issues and tools to measure these constructs. Life stressors appears to be such a construct and the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised a measure with considerable utility.

  6. City Dweller Responses to Multiple Stressors Intruding into Their Homes: Noise, Light, Odour, and Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eja

    2015-01-01

    Urban densification increases exposure to noise, light, odour, and vibration in urban dwellings. Exposure from combined environmental stressors intruding into the home could increase the risk of adverse effects on wellbeing, even when the exposure is at a relatively low level. This study assesses the prevalence of annoyance with a combination of potential environmental stressors common in urban areas and the association with wellbeing. A questionnaire was sent by mail to residents in five areas in Halmstad (Sweden) with similar socioeconomic and housing characteristics but different exposure (response rate 56%; n = 385). Of the respondents, 50% were annoyed to some degree by at least one of the suggested stressors, most commonly by noise and vibration from local traffic. Structural equation modelling showed that annoyance led to lowered quality of life via the mediating construct residential satisfaction, which in turn was influenced by place attachment and perceived restoration possibilities in the dwelling. Stress had a negative impact on quality of life, but was not directly correlated to annoyance. Stress was however correlated with sensitivity. The findings suggest that dose-response relationships for environmental stressors should be studied in a broader context of environmental and individual factors. Also relatively low levels of exposure should be mitigated, especially if several stressors are present. PMID:25794188

  7. Stressors over the life course and neuroendocrine system dysregulation in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Gersten, Omer; Dow, William H.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A key aspect of the increasingly popular allostatic load (AL) framework is that stressors experienced over the entire life course result in physiological dysregulation. Although core to AL theory, this idea has been little tested and where it has been tested the results have been mixed. Methods We analyze the CRELES, a new, cross-sectional, and nationally representative survey of older Costa Rican men and women (ages 60-109). The survey was conducted in 2004-2006 and has a sample size of 2,827. This paper focuses on the relation between a variety of stressors experienced over the life course and cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), epinephrine, and norepinephrine analyzed separately and in an index. Results Some links were found between certain stressors and worse cortisol levels, but overall almost all of the stressors examined were not associated with riskier neuroendocrine biomarker profiles. Discussion More work is needed to attempt to establish the connection between stressors experienced over the life course and resting levels of the neuroendocrine markers. PMID:20511582

  8. Paraquat and psychological stressor interactions as pertains to Parkinsonian co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Rudyk, Chris; Litteljohn, Darcy; Syed, Shuaib; Dwyer, Zach; Hayley, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    A number of epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated the non-selective herbicide, paraquat, in the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). While preclinical research has focused mainly on elucidating the nigrostriatal effects of paraquat, relatively little data are available concerning non-motor brain systems and inflammatory immune processes (which have been implicated in PD). Hence, in the present study, we sought to take a multi-system approach to characterize the influence of paraquat upon extra-nigrostriatal brain regions, as well ascertain whether the impact of the pesticide might be enhanced in the context of chronic intermittent stressor exposure. Our findings support the contention that paraquat itself acted as a systemic stressor, with the pesticide increasing plasma corticosterone, as well as altering neurochemical activity in the locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, and central amygdala. However, with the important exception striatal dopamine turnover, the stressor treatment did not further augment these effects. Additionally, paraquat altered inter-cytokine correlations and, to a lesser extent, circulating cytokine levels, and concomitant stress exposure modulated some of these effects. Finally, paraquat provoked significant (albeit modest) reductions of sucrose preference and weight gain, hinting at possible anhendonic-like or sickness responses. These data suggest that, in addition to being a well known oxidative stress generator, paraquat can act as a systemic stressor affecting hormonal and neurochemical activity, but largely not interacting with a concomitant stressor regimen.

  9. Perspectives of Suicide Bereaved Individuals on Military Suicide Decedents' Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress.

    PubMed

    Sterling, A Graham; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Perera, Kanchana U; DeYoung, Kathryn A; Harrington-LaMorie, Jill; Haigney, Diana; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to pilot the newly developed Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI) in military suicide bereaved (i.e., decedents' family members and significant others) and to determine the association between Male Gender Role Stress (MGRS) and other life stressors observed by survivors. Sixty-five survivors attending a national survivor seminar completed original surveys, reporting demographic information about themselves and the decedent and observations of the decedent's life stressors during the 1-month and 1-year periods prior to death. The MGRSI obtained acceptable internal reliability (α = .76) and indicated that factors including honor, strength, and achievement were the most commonly reported sources of MGRS. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that legal- and trauma-related stressors 1 month prior to suicide were significantly associated with MGRSI score. MGRS may contribute to a better understanding of military male suicide. The Department of Defense and the Veterans Administration may benefit from suicide prevention programs targeting rigid male gender role beliefs and male-specific stressors.

  10. Activation of the arousal response and impairment of performance increase with anxiety and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J T; Barnholt, K R; Enoka, R M

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of trait anxiety and stressor intensity on arousal and motor performance during a pinch task. We examined the steadiness of a precision task in the presence and absence of an imposed stressor on subjects with moderate and low trait anxiety. Subjects with the 26 highest and 14 lowest anxiety scores were assigned to one of three groups: a control group (5 women, 5 men), a moderate-anxiety group (8 women, 8 men), or a low-anxiety group (7 women, 7 men). Subjects in the anxiety groups received electric shocks and experienced significant increases in cognitive and physiological arousal compared with baseline and control subjects, especially subjects in the moderate-anxiety group. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and electrodermal activity were elevated during the stressor, whereas diastolic blood pressure was unchanged. Cognitive and physiological arousal tended to increase with stressor intensity and was accompanied by changes in steadiness. Although steadiness was markedly reduced with the highest intensity of shock, the average electromyogram activity was unaffected by the stressor. These findings indicate that the increase in arousal and the impairment of steadiness increased with trait anxiety and with the intensity of the noxious stimulus.

  11. Relationship of job stressors to job performance: linear or an inverted-U?

    PubMed

    Abramis, D J

    1994-08-01

    This study evaluated the potential positive effects of stressors on job performance by examining the shape of the relation between stressors and job performance. The 281 respondents were a demographically and organizationally heterogeneous group from the Detroit area, who were employed during the study. They were given four structured in-home interviews, approximately 6 weeks apart, over a period of 18 weeks. Interviews were also conducted with a significant other, nonminated by each respondent from work life. Stressors examined were role ambiguity, role conflict, and job insecurity. Strains, also examined as potential stressors, were job dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression, and anger. Technical and social aspects of respondents' job performance were measured separately, as were absenteeism and tardiness. All zero-order Pearson correlations were either statistically significant and in predicted directions or essentially zero. All relationships were monotonic, suggesting that, for these stressors, their optimal amounts are generally zero. Results are discussed in terms of arousal and activation, information-processing, and expectancy theory.

  12. Current challenges in contaminant effects monitoring: Multiple stressors and ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Ham, K.D.

    1996-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are complex entities that are controlled and regulated by a multitude of physicochemical and biological processes. In addition, aquatic organisms experience a variety of natural and man-induced stressors, both of which vary spatially and temporally. The high variability in environmental factors combined with synergistic and cumulative interactions of these factors in aquatic ecosystems complicate the interpretation and evaluation of the effects of contaminant-related stressors on organisms. With this in mind, some main challenges facing those concerned with assessing the effects of environmental contaminants on organisms are (1) the influence of multiple stressors on stress responses in biological systems, (2) determining causal relationships between various levels of biological response to stressors, and (3) identifying early warning indicators or measures of organism impairment that have biological significance before irreversible or serious disability occurs. In all these areas, the health of biological systems (from the individual level to the population and community levels) has as its basis the physiological performance of the organism. Therefore, aspects of contaminant effects monitoring which include physiological measures of health should not only be utilized as measures of deviations from normal function, but should also be applied in the larger context of helping to understand multiple stressor effects, causal relationships between different levels of biological response, and early warning indicators of biologically significant effects.

  13. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette A; Ibsen, Ida B; Hau, Jann; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-05-15

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal study, fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were quantified during periods of rest and exposure to hypothesized stressors. FCM quantification was combined with behavioral analysis to further contextualize the measured increases. It was shown that both daily 5-minute handling/restraint, as well as housing devoid of climbing opportunity, resulted in increased FCM excretion. Behavioral analysis suggested that the iguanas were chronically stressed by the lack of climbing opportunity, whereas handling may have induced only a transient stress response. The experimental design, using repeated periods of stressor-exposure, also revealed a facilitating effect, where the two stressors potentiated one another. Furthermore, the order of the two stressors was found to be important. The study provides insight into the functioning of the hormonal stress response in green iguanas, and to the refining of their housing and handling.

  14. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

  15. [Surgical tactics in acute epididymitis in children].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, A Iu; Nechaeva, T N; Shchedrov, D N

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated surgical policy was applied in the treatment of 147 children aged under 18 years with acute epididymitis. Basing on laboratory, clinical and ultrasound characteristics, three treatment methods were used: conservative treatment, puncture of the scrotum, revision of the scrotum. Puncture treatment of acute epididymitis appeared effective in accurate diagnosis of indications for this therapy and due performance. Ultrasound potential is shown in differential diagnosis in acute scrotum syndrome.

  16. The effects of multiple aerospace environmental stressors on human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, S. E.; Repperger, D. W.; Mccloskey, K.; Tripp, L. D.

    1992-01-01

    An extended Fitt's law paradigm reaction time (RT) task was used to evaluate the effects of acceleration on human performance in the Dynamic Environment Simulator (DES) at Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. This effort was combined with an evaluation of the standard CSU-13 P anti-gravity suit versus three configurations of a 'retrograde inflation anti-G suit'. Results indicated that RT and error rates increased 17 percent and 14 percent respectively from baseline to the end of the simulated aerial combat maneuver and that the most common error was pressing too few buttons.

  17. Multiple stressor effects of predation by rotifers and herbicide pollution on different Chlamydomonas strains and potential impacts on population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beat B; Roffler, Severin; Eggen, Rik I L

    2012-12-01

    Environmental factors can interact with the effects of chemical pollutants on natural systems by inducing multiple stressor effects in individual organisms as well as by altering selection pressure on tolerant strains in heterogeneous populations. Predation is a stressful environmental factor relevant for many species. Therefore, the impact of predation by the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus on tolerance of eight genetically different strains of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to simultaneous exposure to each of the three herbicides (diuron, paraquat, and S-metolachlor) was tested. Interactions of combined stressors were analyzed based on the independent action model; additive, synergistic, and antagonistic effects of the combined exposure could be detected depending on the herbicide and strain tested. If cultures were acclimated (pre-exposed) to one stressor, tolerance to the second stressor could be increased. This indicates that physiological changes can induce cotolerance of predation-exposed algae to herbicides and of herbicide-treated algae to predation depending on the combination of stressors. The strain-specific differences in multiple stressor effects also changed the correlation of strains' tolerances to individual stressors determined during combined and single-stressor exposure. Changes in cotolerance to stressors affect selection pressure and population dynamics during long-term exposure. This shows that predation stress can have adverse effects on the toxicity of chemical pollutants to microalgae on the organism and population levels.

  18. Epigenome: Biosensor of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors Related to Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differential disease susceptibility requires new tools to quantify the cumulative effects of environmental stress. Evidence suggests that social, physical, and chemical stressors can influence disease through the accumulation of epigenetic modifications. Geographically stable epigenetic alterations could identify plausible mechanisms for health disparities among the disadvantaged and poor. Relations between neighborhood-specific epigenetic markers and disease would identify the most appropriate targets for medical and environmental intervention. Complex interactions among genes, the environment, and disease require the examination of how epigenetic changes regulate susceptibility to environmental stressors. Progress in understanding disparities in disease susceptibility may depend on assessing the cumulative effect of environmental stressors on genetic substrates. We highlight key concepts regarding the interface between environmental stress, epigenetics, and chronic disease. PMID:25122010

  19. The Wear-and-Tear of Daily Stressors on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan T.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Mogle, Jacqueline; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers assert that affective responses to seemingly minor daily events have long-term implications for mental health, yet this phenomenon has rarely been investigated. In the current study, we examined how levels of daily negative affect and affective reactivity in response to daily stressors predicted general affective distress and self-reported anxiety and depressive disorders 10 years after they were first assessed. Across eight consecutive evenings, participants (N = 711; age = 25 to 74 years) reported their daily stressors and their daily negative affect. Increased levels of negative affect on nonstressor days were related to general affective distress and symptoms of an affective disorder 10 years later. Heightened affective reactivity to daily stressors predicted greater general affective distress and increased likelihood of reporting an affective disorder. These findings suggest that the average levels of negative affect that people experience and how they respond to seemingly minor events in their daily lives have long-term implications for their mental health. PMID:23531486

  20. ECONOMIC STRESSORS AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES: EXPLORING AGE COHORT DIFFERENCES

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined processes linking age cohort, economic stressors, coping strategies and two drinking-related outcomes (i.e., past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Methods Structural equation models were conducted utilizing data from a national survey. Results Findings revealed the associations between economic stressors and both past-month drinking and problematic drinking were significantly greater for members of the millennial cohort compared to baby boomers. These effects are partly explained by the lesser tendency of members of the millennial cohort to use collective, politically-focused coping strategies. Discussion These findings clarify the circumstances in which age matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, coping strategies and drinking-related outcomes. They highlight how difficult economic circumstances influence the availability of coping strategies and, in turn, alcohol consumption – and differently for younger and older age cohorts. PMID:26291290

  1. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.

    1987-04-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed.

  2. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer’s Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards asking them what they are doing when hanging out (e.g., in the park or playground or on the street corner). Results showed that such stressors made a unique and significant contribution to the experience of somatic symptoms. Future research directions and implications for addressing the larger societal perceptions of young Black males are discussed. PMID:27134517

  3. A comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects.

    PubMed

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C

    1987-04-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed.

  4. The role of coping with social stressors in the development of depressive symptoms: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Camara, Maria; Estevez, Ana; Villardón, Lourdes

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the role of coping with social stressors in the development of depressive symptoms, as well as gender differences in this process. Participants included 978 adolescents (aged 14-18 years), who completed measures of social stressors, coping responses, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of the study and measures of depressive symptoms at a six-month follow-up. High levels of disengagement and low levels of secondary control coping predicted a residual increase in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Interactive effects were weak and moderated by gender: among female adolescents, the use of disengagement coping exacerbated the impact of social stressors on depressive symptoms, whereas the use of secondary control reduced these effects. Female adolescents scored higher than male adolescents on perceived social stress, disengagement, and primary control coping. Moreover, differences in perceived social stress and disengagement coping contributed to explain the female adolescents' higher scores on depressive symptoms. These findings have important implications for interventions.

  5. How do stressors lead to burnout? The mediating role of motivation.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Cristina; Luksyte, Aleksandra; Perry, Sara Jansen; Volpone, Sabrina D

    2009-07-01

    We extend existing stressor-strain theoretical models by including intrinsic motivation as a mediator between well-established job stressors and burnout. Though the link between situational stressors and burnout is well established, little is known about mechanisms behind this relationship. With a sample of 284 self-employed individuals, we examined motivation as a mediator to explain why situational factors impact 3 dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. Motivation is an explanatory mechanism that drives human behavior and thought, and thus may have an impact on important well-being outcomes. As expected, intrinsic motivation was a full mediator for the effect of perceived fit on the inefficacy dimension of burnout. Unexpectedly, neither perceived fit nor motivation was related to the other 2 dimensions of burnout, and role ambiguity had only a direct effect on the inefficacy dimension; it was also unrelated to exhaustion and cynicism. We discuss implications of these findings for researchers as well as for practitioners.

  6. The Trajectory of Coparenting Satisfaction in African American Families: The Impact of Sociocultural Stressors and Supports

    PubMed Central

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Based in family systems and ecological perspectives, this study expands the scope of coparenting research by: (a) charting the trajectory of coparenting satisfaction for mothers and fathers in two-parent African American families during their offspring's adolescence, and (b) examining the role of sociocultural stressors and supports for coparenting satisfaction. Participants were 192 African American mothers and fathers who reported on their coparenting satisfaction and both economic and cultural stressors (economic strain and racial discrimination), and supports (socioeconomic resources and religiosity). Longitudinal growth curves revealed declines in coparenting satisfaction for fathers but not mothers over the course of offspring's adolescence. Findings were generally consistent with hypotheses that stressors were negatively, and supports, positively, related to average levels of coparenting satisfaction. Findings for racial discrimination and income differed by parent and highlighted gender dynamics within couple relationships. We discuss implications for understanding of normative family processes in African American families as these unfold within both family and broader sociocultural contexts. PMID:23066677

  7. Parenting Stressors and Young Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms: Does High Vagal Suppression Offer Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M.; Weymouth, Bridget B.

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. PMID:27979628

  8. Toxic cascades: multiple anthropogenic stressors have complex and unanticipated interactive effects on temperate reefs.

    PubMed

    Shears, Nick T; Ross, Philip M

    2010-09-01

    In a changing environment multiple anthropogenic stressors can have novel and non-additive effects on interacting species. We investigated the interactive effects of fishing and harmful algal blooms on the predator-sea urchin-macroalgae trophic cascade. Fishing of urchin predators had indirect negative effects on macroalgae, whereas blooms of epi-benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis siamensis) were found to have strong negative effects on urchins and indirect positive effects on macroalgae. Based on these opposing effects, blooms were expected to counteract the cascading effects of fishing. However, a large bloom of Ostreopsis led to greater divergence in macroalgae abundance between reserve and fished sites, as urchins declined at reserve sites but remained stable at fished sites. This resulted from enhanced predation rates on bloom-affected urchins at reserve sites rather than direct lethal effects of Ostreopsis on urchins. We argue that interacting stressors can facilitate or attenuate trophic cascades depending on stressor intensity and complex non-lethal interactions.

  9. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  10. Perspectives of Survivors on Military Suicide Decedents’ Life Stressors and Male Gender Role Stress using the Male Gender Role Stressor Inventory (MGRSI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-26

    Disorder ( Manic - Depression ) D Posttraumatic Stress Disorder D Panic Disorder D Schizophrenia DNone D Unknown D Other please specify: 15. Had he...and depression is important to note. Depression —a robust suicide risk factor (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, 2010)—has been correlated...Vilain, 2010). The capacity to endure negative life stressors like depression is, in general, facilitated by emotional expressivity (Kennedy-Moore

  11. Multiple-stressor interactions influence embryo development rate in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M Christina; Murillo, Andrea; Brockmann, H Jane; Julian, David

    2015-08-01

    Fertilized eggs of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are buried in shallow nests above the high tide line, where they are exposed to variations in abiotic conditions during early development. Using a multiple-stressors approach, we examined whether the rate of embryonic development is affected by exposure to combinations of three factors: temperature (25, 30 and 35°C), salinity (5, 15 and 34 ppt) and ambient O2 (5%, 13% and 21% O2). Newly fertilized eggs were incubated under 27 fully factorial stressor combinations for 14 days, then allowed to recover in control conditions (30°C, 34 ppt, 21% O2) for an additional 14 days. Growth rate was measured every 2 days throughout the experiment (N=1289). We found that the effect of isolated stressors (high temperature, low salinity or low O2) reduced developmental success by up to 72% (low salinity), and that stressor combinations showed stronger effects and evidence of complex interactions. For example, low O2 had little effect individually but was lethal in combination with high temperature, and low temperature in isolation slightly decreased the rate of development but reduced the negative effects of low salinity and low O2. Development was delayed under exposure to low O2 but resumed upon return to control conditions after a 10 day lag. These data demonstrate that complex, synergistic interactions among abiotic stressors can substantially alter the development of a coastal invertebrate in ways that may not be predicted from the effects of the stressors in isolation.

  12. Stress-induced activity in the locus coeruleus is not sensitive to stressor controllability

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Ross A; Szot, Patricia; Baratta, Michael V; Bland, Sondra T; White, Sylvia S; Maier, Steven F; Neumaier, John F

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in determining the adverse consequences of a stress experience is the degree to which an individual can exert control over the stressor. Stressor controllability is known to influence brain norepinephrine levels, but its impact on activity in noradrenergic cell bodies is unknown. In the present study we investigated whether noradrenergic neurons within the locus coeruleus (LC), the major source of forebrain norepinephrine, are sensitive to stressor controllability. We exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to escapable or yoked inescapable tailshock and assessed LC activity by measuring changes in the immediate early gene c-fos and the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We used in situ hybridization to measure levels of c-fos mRNA, TH mRNA, and TH primary transcript in the LC. In all three cases stress exposure increased expression relative to an unstressed homecage control group, but expression did not differ between controllable and uncontrollable stress. To further examine whether stressor controllability influences the number of stress-responsive LC neurons we performed double-label immunohistochemistry for TH and Fos protein. Again we detected an overall effect of stress, which did not differ between controllable and uncontrollable stress. We conclude that exposure to stress robustly increases expression of TH and c-fos in the LC, but this effect is not influenced by stressor controllability. To the extent that the expression of these genes reflects degree of neuronal activation, our results suggest that stress-induced activity of noradrenergic cell bodies in the LC is not sensitive to stressor controllability. PMID:19524553

  13. Climate warming and agricultural stressors interact to determine stream periphyton community composition.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Salis, Romana K; Lear, Gavin; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about how the various drivers of global climate change will interact with multiple stressors already affecting ecosystems is the basis for great uncertainty in projections of future biological change. Despite concerns about the impacts of changes in land use, eutrophication and climate warming in running waters, the interactive effects of these stressors on stream periphyton are largely unknown. We manipulated nutrients (simulating agricultural runoff), deposited fine sediment (simulating agricultural erosion) (two levels each) and water temperature (eight levels, 0-6 °C above ambient) simultaneously in 128 streamside mesocosms. Our aim was to determine the individual and combined effects of the three stressors on the algal and bacterial constituents of the periphyton. All three stressors had pervasive individual effects, but in combination frequently produced synergisms at the population level and antagonisms at the community level. Depending on sediment and nutrient conditions, the effect of raised temperature frequently produced contrasting response patterns, with stronger or opposing effects when one or both stressors were augmented. Thus, warming tended to interact negatively with nutrients or sediment by weakening or reversing positive temperature effects or strengthening negative ones. Five classes of algal growth morphology were all affected in complex ways by raised temperature, suggesting that these measures may prove unreliable in biomonitoring programs in a warming climate. The evenness and diversity of the most abundant bacterial taxa increased with temperature at ambient but not with enriched nutrient levels, indicating that warming coupled with nutrient limitation may lead to a more evenly distributed bacterial community as temperatures rise. Freshwater management decisions that seek to avoid or mitigate the negative effects of agricultural land use on stream periphyton should be informed by knowledge of the interactive effects of

  14. Climate warming and agricultural stressors interact to determine stream macroinvertebrate community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is likely to modify the ecological consequences of currently acting stressors, but potentially important interactions between climate warming and land-use related stressors remain largely unknown. Agriculture affects streams and rivers worldwide, including via nutrient enrichment and increased fine sediment input. We manipulated nutrients (simulating agricultural run-off) and deposited fine sediment (simulating agricultural erosion) (two levels each) and water temperature (eight levels, 0-6°C above ambient) simultaneously in 128 streamside mesocosms to determine the individual and combined effects of the three stressors on macroinvertebrate community dynamics (community composition and body size structure of benthic, drift and insect emergence assemblages). All three stressors had pervasive individual effects, but in combination often produced additive or antagonistic outcomes. Changes in benthic community composition showed a complex interplay among habitat quality (with or without sediment), resource availability (with or without nutrient enrichment) and the behavioural/physiological tendency to drift or emerge as temperature rose. The presence of sediment and raised temperature both resulted in a community of smaller organisms. Deposited fine sediment strongly increased the propensity to drift. Stressor effects were most prominent in the benthic assemblage, frequently reflected by opposite patterns in individuals quitting the benthos (in terms of their propensity to drift or emerge). Of particular importance is that community measures of stream health routinely used around the world (taxon richness, EPT richness and diversity) all showed complex three-way interactions, with either a consistently stronger temperature response or a reversal of its direction when one or both agricultural stressors were also in operation. The negative effects of added fine sediment, which were often stronger at raised temperatures, suggest that streams already

  15. Supraphysiological cortisol elevation alters the response of wild bluegill sunfish to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Sarah H; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Iwama, George K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Wild fish are frequently exposed to multiple stressors, but the influence of previous or ongoing stress on an animal's subsequent response is poorly understood. Using wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) as a model, we used exogenous hormone implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for ∼10 days. We also maintained sham-treated and control groups of fish. We subjected all animals to a secondary stressor in the form of either a heat challenge or fasting challenge. We compared survival, body condition, and plasma-borne indicators of physiological status among cortisol-treated, sham-treated, and control groups following the secondary stressor. In order to compare short- and long-term effects of cortisol treatment, we initiated the secondary stressor either 4 or 30 days following initial cortisol treatment. Cortisol-treated fish succumbed to the fasting challenge sooner than sham-treated and control fish at both 4 and 30 days. Interestingly, cortisol-treated fish lost equilibrium sooner than sham-treated and control fish during the heat challenge when conducted at 30 days, but not at 4 days. These results demonstrate that multiple simultaneous stressors have cumulative effects on bluegill sunfish. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological cortisol doses alter the long-term responses of bluegill sunfish to additional challenges, even after apparent recovery. Such cumulative and long-term effects may be an important factor in mediating the response of wild animals to natural and anthropogenic stressors, and should be considered in ecological studies.

  16. Determining, Ranking and Comparing Treatment Stressors in Children and Adolescents with Cancer in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Narges; Mansour, Ladan; Tahmassian, Karineh; Mosavi, Farideh

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies show that cancer treatment procedures could increase stress in children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of stressors in children and adolescents with cancer, and to compare it in boys and girls. Methods Relevant information was collected via a structured interview with 70 children and their mothers. Subjects were divided into four age groups of 0-3; 4-7; 8-12; 13-18. Stressors in physical, social and psychological aspects were determined and ranked. The main question asked was: "During the period of your disease, what has caused you the most suffering?" Whilst interviewing the mothers, this question was altered to:" During the period of your child's disease, what caused him/her to suffer the most?" The answers were reflected back to the respondents, and were categorized in a validated check list after their confirmation. Results The most stressing items in the 0 to 3 age group were found to be worry, pain due to treatment procedures, and separation from their immediate family. In 4 to 7 age group, they were procedural pain, worry and fatigue. For the 8 to 12 age group, pain, separation from family and worry were the most stressing items. For the 13 to 18 age group, the main stressors were worry, pain, and parting from friends and losing them. Analysis by "Mann-Whitney U test" showed no significant differences in stressors between girls and boys. Conclusion Our findings revealed that worry and procedural pain are the most common stressors in children treated for malignancy. Caregivers need to be aware of this fact and should take appropriate steps to relieve these stressors. PMID:25628833

  17. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  18. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  19. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  20. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Christopher R; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the predictive validity

  1. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  2. The Contribution of Psychosocial Stressors to Sleep among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study