Science.gov

Sample records for acute lc50 values

  1. LC50 values for rats acutely exposed to vapors of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Oberly, R.; Tansy, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Acute exposure studies were conducted using adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to obtain LC50/24 concentrations for the common esters of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The order of acute toxicity was determined to be methyl acrylate > ethyl acrylate > butyl acrylate > butyl methacrylate > methyl methacrylate > ethyl methacrylate. Four-hour daily exposures (excluding weekends) of young adult male rats to 110 ppm methyl acrylate in air over a period of 32 d failed to produce significant differences in body or tissue weights, blood chemistries, gross metabolic performance, and spontaneous small-intestinal motor activities when compared with a sham-exposed group.

  2. Introduction of moribund category to OECD fish acute test and its effect on suffering and LC50 values.

    PubMed

    Rufli, Hans

    2012-05-01

    It has become common practice in many laboratories in Europe to introduce the criterion "moribund" to reduce the suffering in fish acute lethality tests. Fish with severe sublethal symptoms might be declared moribund and are removed from the test as soon as this occurs (premature discontinuation of experiment). Moribund fish affect main study outcomes as the median lethal concentration (LC50) derived on fish declared as moribund may be lower than the conventional LC50. This was evaluated by a retrospective analysis of 328 fish acute toxicity tests of an industry laboratory based on five different definitions of moribund, and of 111 tests from 10 other laboratories from Europe and the United States. Using the criterion of moribund 10 to 23% of the fish were being declared as moribund in 49 to 79% of the studies. In 36 to 52% of the studies, the LC50(moribund) was lower than the conventional LC50 depending on the definitions of moribund. An inclusion of the moribund criterion in an updated Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline for the acute fish toxicity test would reduce the period of suffering by up to 92 h, lowering the value of the main toxicity endpoint by a factor of approximately 2, and maximal by a factor of approximately 16.

  3. Estimation of human blood LC50 values for use in modeling of in vitro-in vivo data of the ACuteTox project.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Michael; Kolman, Ada; Clemedson, Cecilia; Clothier, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The main aim of the ACuteTox project, under EU 6th Framework programme, is to investigate whether animal toxicity tests for acute systemic toxicity could be replaced by a combination of alternative assays. Data for 97 reference chemicals was collected in the ACuteTox database (Acutoxbase), designed to handle invitro and invivo (human and animal) lodged data. The principal basis for demonstration of the applicability of invitro tests is the invitro-invivo modeling, by using statistical correlation between invitro IC50 molar values (the 50% inhibitory concentration for the endpoints measured) and human blood molar concentrations LC50 (50% lethal concentrations). The LC50 values were calculated from time-related sub-lethal and lethal blood concentrations determined from human acute poisoning cases. The 3T3 standard NRU assay (3T3 NRU) was chosen, among the various basal cytotoxicity assays, applied in the ACuteTox project, to demonstrate the applicability of the IC50/LC50 values for invitro-invivo modeling. Linear regression analysis between IC50 (x) and LC50 (y) gave an explained variance R2=0.56 for the 67 reference chemicals, for which both sets of data were available. The results demonstrated usefulness of human LC50 values for invitro-invivo evaluation of the predictability of basal cytotoxicity assays for human acute systemic toxicity. The R2 value of 0.56 shows, as in the MEIC study, that additional organ-specific and biokinetic tests are needed in order to improve the predictability.

  4. Chlorosilane acute inhalation toxicity and development of an LC50 prediction model.

    PubMed

    Jean, Paul A; Gallavan, Robert H; Kolesar, Gary B; Siddiqui, Waheed H; Oxley, Jon A; Meeks, Robert G

    2006-07-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of 10 chlorosilanes was investigated in Fischer 344 rats using a 1-h whole-body vapor inhalation exposure and a 14-day recovery period. The median lethal concentration (LC50(1)) for each material was calculated from the nominal exposure concentrations and mortality. Experimentally derived LC50(1) values for monochlorosilanes (4257-4478 ppm) were greater than those for dichlorosilanes (1785-2092 ppm), which were greater than those for trichlorosilanes (1257-1611 ppm). Apparent was a strong structure-activity relationship (r2 = .97) between chlorine content and LC50(1) value. Estimated LC50(1) values for mono-, di-, and trichlorosilanes were determined to be 3262, 1639, and 1066 ppm, respectively, utilizing this relationship and the lower limit of the 95% prediction interval. The LC50(1) values determined in this series of studies were greater than that reported for hydrogen chloride (3124 ppm), when expressed on a chlorine equivalence basis (3570-5248 ppm), demonstrating that the acute toxicity of these chlorosilanes is similar to or less than that for hydrogen chloride. The good correlation between chlorine content and LC50(1) provides a sound basis for estimation of LC50(1) for chlorosilanes not already evaluated. The use of structure-activity relationships is consistent with the chemical industry and federal agency initiatives to reduce, refine, and/or replace the use of animals in testing without compromising the quality of health and safety assessments.

  5. European Chemicals Agency dossier submissions as an experimental data source: refinement of a fish toxicity model for predicting acute LC50 values.

    PubMed

    Austin, Thomas; Denoyelle, Marieva; Chaudry, Amjad; Stradling, Sam; Eadsforth, Charles

    2015-02-01

    As a result of the stringent data requirements of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, a vast amount of ecotoxicological data has become available through the dissemination portal of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). As of April 2014, the database contained 12,439 unique substances from 47,909 dossiers. This vast database could be used to refine existing, or to create new, non-testing methods, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Acute fish toxicity data were mined from the ECHA database using the eChemPortal; after filtering for single organic substances, 1159 experimental data points remained, representing 564 compounds. To evaluate the quality and accessibility of this data, the authors used the data to refine and improve an existing QSAR. The reliability of the data submitted to the ECHA database, as well as the effectiveness of the Klimisch scoring system, were assessed by comparing the refined QSAR with established QSAR benchmarks. The model developed meets all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles, has strong internal (leave-one-out internally cross-validated correlation coefficient [Q(2)(LOO)] = 0.91) and external (external coefficient of determination (predicted vs experimental [test set])) validation statistics, and can provide reliable fish median lethal concentration (LC50) predictions for non-polar narcotics. Although some issues with dossier misinformation were discovered, it was found that the ECHA dissemination portal is a valuable and reliable data source. When queried using the eChemPortal, chemical dossiers containing reliable data could be found quickly. The ECHA dissemination portal holds great potential for future QSAR development and improvement, such as updating QSARs within the Ecological Structure-Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) program.

  6. Assessment of diclofenac LC50 reference values in juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praskova, E; Voslarova, E; Siroka, Z; Plhalova, L; Macova, S; Marsalek, P; Pistekova, V; Svobodova, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the acute toxicity of diclofenac to juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity tests were performed on the aquarium fish Danio rerio, which is one of the model organisms most commonly used in toxicity testing. The tests were performed using a semi-static method according to OECD guideline No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test). Embryo toxicity tests were performed in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) in compliance with OECD No. 212 methodology (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages). The results were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 programme to determine 96hLC50 and 144hLC50 (median lethal concentration, 50% mortality after a 96 h or 144 h interval, respectively) values of diclofenac. The statistical significance of the difference between LC50 values in juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test implemented in the Unistat 5.1 programme. The LC50 mean value of diclofenac was 166.6 +/- 9.8 mg/L in juvenile Danio rerio, and 6.11 +/- 2.48 mg/L in embryonic stages of Danio rerio. The study demonstrated a statistically higher sensitivity to diclofenac (P < 0.05) in embryonic stages compared to the juvenile fish.

  7. Probabilistic neural networks modeling of the 48-h LC50 acute toxicity endpoint to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, S P; Lewis, M A; Tigner, J

    2008-01-01

    Two modeling experiments based on the maximum likelihood estimation paradigm and targeting prediction of the Daphnia magna 48-h LC50 acute toxicity endpoint for both organic and inorganic compounds are reported. The resulting models computational algorithms are implemented as basic probabilistic neural networks with Gaussian kernel (statistical corrections included). The first experiment uses strictly D. magna information for 971 structures as training/learning data and the resulting model targets practical applications. The second experiment uses the same training/learning information plus additional data on another 29 compounds whose endpoint information is originating from D. pulex and Ceriodaphnia dubia. It only targets investigation of the effect of mixing strictly D. magna 48-h LC50 modeling information with small amounts of similar information estimated from related species, and this is done as part of the validation process. A complementary 81 compounds dataset (involving only strictly D. magna information) is used to perform external testing. On this external test set, the Gaussian character of the distribution of the residuals is confirmed for both models. This allows the use of traditional statistical methodology to implement computation of confidence intervals for the unknown measured values based on the models predictions. Examples are provided for the model targeting practical applications. For the same model, a comparison with other existing models targeting the same endpoint is performed.

  8. Using Microtox to predict LC50`s

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, C.M.; Evans, K.A.; Lyons, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The ability of Microtox to predict Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout LC50`s has been evaluated with a variety of industrial process chemicals biocides, polymers, amines, dispersants, corrosion and scale inhibitors. The LC50`s of these materials range from less than 1.0 mg/L to greater than 5,000 mg/L. A correlation between Microtox EC50`s and acute LC50`s indicate that Microtox can be used as an effective tool for estimating LC50 values. However, correlations are limited for certain kinds of chemical formulations, such as oil-based materials, surfactant-based materials and some amines.

  9. Genotoxic effects and LC50 value of NaOCl on Orthrias angorae (Steindachner 1897).

    PubMed

    Gül, Süleyman; Ozkan, Oktay; Nur, Gökhan; Aksu, Pinar

    2008-06-01

    Studies show that different organisms used as bio-indicators have indicated several genotoxic and mutagenic effects of disinfected waters. In this study, the 96 h LC(50 )mean value of NaOCl for Orthrias angorae was calculated to be 0.5509 mg/L. The results showed that NaOCl is highly toxic to O. angorae specimens. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant increase in micronuclei after the induction of 0.5 mg/L NaOCl concentration after 36 h. The same increase has been reported for 0.37 and 0.5 mg/L NaOCl concentrations after 72 h. Even though the MN frequency of 0.37 mg/L was similar after 36 and 72 h, only 72 h micronuclei frequency was statistically significant. The 72 h MN frequency of the negative control group was smaller than 36 h MN frequency of the negative control group. This discrepancy has led to 72 h MN frequency being statistically significant. MN frequency of 0.25 mg/L NaOCl concentration was insignificant when compared to negative test groups. The benzene treatment also caused a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes.

  10. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  11. Determination of LC50 and LC95 values of fipronil against Haemaphysalis bispinosa based on adult immersion test.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Reghu; Amithamol, Krishnan Kavalimakkil; Sunil, Athalathil Ramankutty; Soorya, Valliparambil Chandran; Nair, Suresh Narayanan; Juliet, Sanis; Arunkumar, Nagarajan Selvam; Ajith Kumar, Karapparambu Gopalan; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-03-01

    The pattern of mortality of Haemaphysalis bispinosa ticks against fipronil was studied based on adult immersion test. Mortality occurred during 10-19 days post-treatment. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 0.53 and 7.045 ppm, respectively.

  12. Alternative acute inhalation toxicity testing by determination of the concentration-time-mortality relationship: experimental comparison with standard LC50 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, A.; Arts, J.H.; Ten Berge, W.F.; Appelman, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    A new design for acute inhalation toxicity testing was evaluated and compared with results obtained according to OECD guideline 403. The new design consists of a range-finding test, which is compatible with a conventional limit test, and can be followed by determination of a concentration-time-mortality relationship, enabling calculation of LC50 (50% mortality exposure concentration) values. By exposing pairs of rats for different periods of time to about four different test concentrations in a nose-only exposure unit, LT50 (50% mortality exposure time) values were obtained for five pairs of animals per concentration. The mortality data of the approximate 20 time-concentration combinations were used to calculate the probit relationship. Estimated mortality responses from these probit relations were compared with mortality figures obtained by exposing groups of five male rats and five female rats whole-body according to conventional toxicity testing. In general, there was good correspondence between the estimated and the observed mortality response. In this study, the determination of the concentration-time-mortality relationship takes about the same number of animals (40-50) as the conventional LC50 procedure according to the OECD guideline 403. However, the new method has several additional advantages such as: (A) LC50 values are obtained over a 10-fold range in time, with the potential of decreasing the number of animals used when regulations require acute toxicity data for different periods of exposure. (B) The obtained relationship contains considerably more valuable information for risk assessment than the LC50 value.

  13. Toxicity of an anionic detergent, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, to a freshwater fish, Rita rita: determination of LC50 values by different methods.

    PubMed

    Roy, D

    1988-04-01

    LC50 values and their 95% confidence limits for various intervals of exposure to an anionic detergent, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, have been determined using recommended methods. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in light of the variations in the values. Different visible behaviors of the fish under the influence of the detergent have also been explained.

  14. Prediction of the acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of organic compounds to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using a group contribution method.

    PubMed

    Martin, T M; Young, D M

    2001-10-01

    A group contribution method has been developed to correlate the acute toxicity (96-h LC50) to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 397 organic chemicals. Multilinear regression and computational neural networks (CNNs) were used for model building. The models were able to achieve a fairly good correlation of the data (r2 > 0.9). The linear model, which included four specific interaction terms, provided a rapid means of predicting the toxicity of a compound. The CNN model was able to yield virtually the same predictions with or without the four interaction terms that were included in the multilinear model.

  15. A QSAR model for predicting toxicity (LC50) to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Xi, Xiaohuan; Xu, Fuliu; Dawson, Richard

    2002-06-01

    A fragment constant method for prediction of toxicity (LC50) to rainbow trout was developed based on the experimental LC50 values of 258 chemicals obtained from the literature. The dataset was randomly divided into a training set and a validation set for purposes of model development and validation. The final model was established using all of the experimental LC50 values by pooling the two sets together. The coefficient of the determination for the final model was 0.9495 with a mean residual of 0.42 log-units. The model's robustness was tested using jackknife tests.

  16. Determination of wastewater LC50 of the different process stages of the textile industry.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Navarro, A; Ramírez-M, Y; Salvador-S, M S; Gallardo, J M

    2001-01-01

    Textile plants are very important sources of toxic discharges. The purpose of the research described in this paper was to use bioassays with daphnids to determine the LC50 values of textile wastewater samples taken from different stages of the finishing textile industry. Toxicity due to dyeing, chlorination, and the absence of adequate physicochemical conditions for daphnid survival were considered. Wastewater samples corresponding to each process stage were collected at five finishing textile industries and assayed according to previously published procedures. The sensitivity of daphnids to chemicals was assayed using sodium dodecyl sulfate and was similar to other reports (14.6+/-6.8 vs 14.5+/-2.3 mg/L). All effluents from the five company samples were toxic in terms of LC50 and exhibited very high toxicity with acute toxicity unit (ATU) levels between 2.2 and 960, indicating that the five textile industries produced toxic water. The sensory characteristics indicated that the dyes contributed to overall sample toxicity at all process stages. The most toxic contaminant seemed to be ClO- at levels between 0.2 and 6.8 mg/L, suggesting that further research is needed on the economic costs of stage-by-stage and total effluent treatments.

  17. LC50 Determination of tert-Butyl Acetate using a Nose Only Inhalation Exposure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Su; Lee, Jinsoo; Kwon, Soonjin; Seo, Heung-Sik; Choi, Seong-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Song, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Cho, Kyu-Hyuk; Song, Chang-Woo

    2010-12-01

    tert-Butyl acetate (TBAc) is an organic solvent, which is commonly used in architectural coatings and industrial solvents. It has recently been exempted from the definition of a volatile organic compound (VOC) by the Air Resources Board (ARB) . Since the use of TBAc as a substitute for other VOCs has increased, thus its potential risk in humans has also increased. However, its inhalation toxicity data in the literature are very limited. Hence, inhalation exposure to TBAc was carried out to investigate its toxic effects in this study. Adult male rats were exposed to TBAc for 4 h for 1 day by using a nose-only inhalation exposure chamber (low dose, 2370 mg/m(3) (500 ppm) ; high dose, 9482 mg/m(3) (2000 ppm) ) . Shamtreated control rats were exposed to clean air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. The animals were killed at 2, 7, and 15 days after exposure. At each time point, body weight measurement, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, histopathological examination, and biochemical assay were performed. No treatment-related abnormal effects were observed in any group according to time course. Based on those findings, the median lethal concentration (LC50) of TBAc was over 9482 mg/m(3) in this study. According to the MSDS, the 4 h LC50 for TBAc for rats is over 2230 mg/m(3). We suggested that this value is changed and these findings may be applied in the risk assessment of TBAc which could be beneficial in a sub-acute study.

  18. Incorporating variability in point estimates in risk assessment: Bridging the gap between LC50 and population endpoints.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger I; Banks, John E

    2015-07-01

    Historically, point estimates such as the median lethal concentration (LC50) have been instrumental in assessing risks associated with toxicants to rare or economically important species. In recent years, growing awareness of the shortcomings of this approach has led to an increased focus on analyses using population endpoints. However, risk assessment of pesticides still relies heavily on large amounts of LC50 data amassed over decades in the laboratory. Despite the fact that these data are generally well replicated, little or no attention has been given to the sometime high levels of variability associated with the generation of point estimates. This is especially important in agroecosystems where arthropod predator-prey interactions are often disrupted by the use of pesticides. Using laboratory derived data of 4 economically important species (2 fruit fly pest species and 2 braconid parasitoid species) and matrix based population models, the authors demonstrate in the present study a method for bridging traditional point estimate risk assessments with population outcomes. The results illustrate that even closely related species can show strikingly divergent responses to the same exposures to pesticides. Furthermore, the authors show that using different values within the 95% confidence intervals of LC50 values can result in very different population outcomes, ranging from quick recovery to extinction for both pest and parasitoid species. The authors discuss the implications of these results and emphasize the need to incorporate variability and uncertainty in point estimates for use in risk assessment.

  19. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hermens, J.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms.32 references.

  20. The relationship of total copper 48-h LC50s to Daphnia magna dry weight

    SciTech Connect

    Lazorchak, J.M. ); Waller, W.T. )

    1993-05-01

    A study was conducted with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of neonate weight loss or lack of weight gain on experimentally derived copper 48-h LC50s. Standard unfed tests as well as algal-fed (Selenastrum capricornutum) tests were used to look at weight loss and gain. No significant relationship was found between amount of weight loss and copper LC50s. However, dry weight of unfed and algal-fed control organisms could be used to predict total copper LC50s.

  1. Correlation between heavy metal acute toxicity values in Daphnia magna and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species have been of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian tests system. The cladoceran Daphnia magna bioassays have several practical advantages. D. magna has been used as a useful test species and its sensitivity to environmental pollutants have been recognized as a general representative of other freshwater zooplankton species. The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of various heavy metals to Daphnia magna for 48 h of exposure and to compare these values with the existing LC50 values for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); which is commonly used as a test animal in aquatic bioassay studies.

  2. Quantitative comparisons of acute toxicity of organic chemicals to rat and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Janardan, S.K.; Olson, C.S.; Schaeffer, D.J.

    1984-12-01

    Relationships between the acute toxicity of chemicals to fish (LC50) and rat (LD50) were analyzed using a Model II regression analysis after logarithmic transformation. (Model II regression assumes errors in both variables.) Significant correlations were found among bluegill and fathead minnow LC50S and rat LD50 values for the priority pollutants. Fathead minnow and bluegill LC50S for 48 pesticides were highly correlated. No correlations were found between fishes and rats for carbamate plus organophosphate pesticides. Correlations were obtained among all species for the combined priority pollutant plus pesticide data and for chlorinated pesticides.

  3. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days.

  4. Comparison of the Microtox test with the 96-hr LC50 test for the harpacticoid Nitocra spinipes

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Hansson, M.; Samuelsson, B.

    1986-04-01

    A comparison between the static 96-hr LC50 test with the brackish water harpacticoid Nitocra spinipes and the Microtox (Beckman Instruments, Inc.) screening method has been done. The relationship between the two bioassays were evaluated for 16 pure and technical chemicals and 11 complex effluents from different types of industries. The correlation between the 96-hr LC50 values for Nitocra and the 5-, 15-, and 30-min effective concentration (EC50) for pure and technical chemicals had R2 values ranging between 0.751 and 0.796. A somewhat better correlation was shown between the two test methods for the complex effluents with R2 values ranging from 0.903 to 0.927. The sensitivity of the two tests for the actual types of samples were found to be in the same order of magnitude. Investigations concerning pretreatments of three chemicals (dibutyl phthalate, 1-octanol, and pentachlorophenol) fairly insoluble in water (less than 1000 mg/liter) have been done. Three solvents, acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and propylene glycol, were studied with the Microtox system in a low concentration (500 mg/liter). Acetone exerted a slightly stimulatory effect and propylene glycol a slight reduction effect on bacterial luminescence.

  5. Interclonal variation in the acute and delayed toxicity of cadmium to the European prosobranch gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray).

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Forbes, V E

    2001-02-01

    The lethal responses of three European clones--A, B, and C-of the prosobranch snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to acute cadmium exposure were examined by the use of a conventional LC50 test and a delayed toxicity test. The questions addressed were: (1) Are there differences in susceptibility (LC50 values and uniformity of response) among the three European clones of P. antipodarum? (2) Are the patterns of differences in susceptibility among clones observed in the LC50 test also observed for the delayed toxicity test? (3) Is there concordance in the ranking of susceptibility among clones under acute cadmium exposure and under chronic cadmium exposure? The results showed that the widths of the tolerance distribution differed among clones. Clones A and B had a steeper slope than clone C (for clone A the difference was marginally significant), which indicates that individuals from clones A and B showed a more uniform response to acute lethal cadmium stress than individuals from clone C. On the basis of the measured differences in LC50 values, clone A individuals showed the highest tolerance to acute cadmium (LC50 value: 1.92 mg Cd L(-1)) followed by clone B (LC50 value: 1.29 mg Cd L(-1)) and clone C (LC50 value: 0.56 mg Cd L(-1)). Clone C was significantly less tolerant than clones A and B. The delayed toxicity test showed a similar pattern to the LC50 test with regard to tolerance differences among clones; however, mortality continued following transfer to clean water, indicating that cadmium was lethal at much lower concentrations than indicated by the conventional LC50 test. Results of the LC50 test and the delayed toxicity test in the present study were in general agreement with results from chronic cadmium exposure experiments (Jensen et al. [2000] Ecol Appl [submitted]), i.e., the least susceptible clone A in the acute cadmium exposure test was also the least susceptible clone in the chronic cadmium exposure test. Based on the dramatic differences between the LC50

  6. A review of available LC/50/ data. [on toxic gases encountered in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several gaseous products of pyrolysis and combustion have been evaluated for LC/50/, defined as the concentration of toxic gas in the atmosphere being inhaled by test animals that will produce death in 50% of the animals within a given time period. The products tested included CO, HCl, HF, HCN, NO2, and SO2. It was found that HCN and NO2 were consistently the most toxic of the gases reviewed, and that mice were more susceptible than rats to HCl and HF, although less susceptible than rats to NO2. Extrapolation of LC/50/ data to humans indicates that metabolic rate may be a valid basis for extrapolation when the toxicity mechanism is interference with oxygen transport and utilization, or pulmonary edema, but not when it is irritation and damage to the upper respiratory tract.

  7. [Estimation of LC50 of chemicals to rainbow trout by fragment constant method].

    PubMed

    Xi, X; Xu, F; Cao, J; Tao, S

    2001-07-01

    A fragment constant model for prediction of 96 h LC50 of chemicals to rainbow trout was developed based on measured experimental data of 258 chemicals collected from the literature. The accuracy and the robustness of the model were discussed. The coefficient of determination of the model is 0.9495 and the mean residual is 0.42 log-unit. The model is robust for both individual chemical or chemical class.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  9. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing.

  10. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. PMID:23932508

  11. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  12. Acute toxicity of heavy metals for benthic epiphytic foraminifera Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) and influence of seaweed-derived DOC

    SciTech Connect

    Bresler, V.; Yanko, V.

    1995-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury to the benthic epiphytic foraminiferan Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) was investigated using seven different vital cytophysiological and cytochemical methods. The ability to enzymatically hydrolyze the fluorogenic substrates fluorescein diacetate or fluorescein dibutyrate was the most sensitive method of LC50 value determination. The LC50 (24-h) values for cadmium, copper, and mercury determined by this assay with fluorescein diacetate was 0.56, 1.4, and 0.07 {micro}M, respectively. The content of seaweed-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC), measured by absorbance at 436 nm, produced a dramatic increase of LC50 values for the heavy metals in a dose-dependent manner. ``Intact`` epiphytic foraminifera attached to seaweeds are less sensitive to acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury than are ``detached`` foraminifera.

  13. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  14. Studies on the acute toxicity of fluoride ion to stickleback, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.; Holsen, T.M.; Ibay, N.C.; Block, R.M.; De Leon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have studied the acute toxicity of fluoride ion to Gasterosteus aculeatus, Fimephales promelas, and juvenile Salmo gairdneri. LC50 values varied with species and (due to precipitation) initial water hardness. Exposure to elevated fluoride levels in water resulted in increased blood fluoride levels in Salmo gairdneri.

  15. Determination of LC50 and sub-chronic neurotoxicity of diesel exhaust nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Durga, M; Devasena, T; Rajasekar, A

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a major problem faced globally and is seen associated with central nervous system (CNS) disorders like neuropathology and neuro-inflammation. Here, we investigated the CNS disorders as a result of sub-chronic exposure (90 days) to diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENPs) and explored the minimal levels of DENPs needed to exhibit the early mediators of neuro-inflammation and neuropathology. Male and female wistar rats (6 rats per group) were exposed to DENPs (1/5th, 1/10th and 1/15th LC50) by inhalation for 4h per day, 5 days per week over 90 days and neurotoxicity end-points were analyzed. DENP exposure caused elevation in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ 42), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrite (NO2(-)) and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP) at varying degrees at different sections of rat brain. Hence, exposure to DENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity and was closely correlated to increased inflammation, DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  16. Compliance of LC50 and NOEC data with Benford's Law: an indication of reliability?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of research data is essential, especially when potentially far-reaching conclusions will be based on them. This is also, amongst others, the case for ecotoxicological data used in risk assessment. Currently, several approaches are available to classify the reliability of ecotoxicological data. The process of classification, such as using the Klimisch score, is time-consuming and focuses on the application of standardised protocols and the documentation of the study. The presence of irregularities and the integrity of the performed work, however, are not addressed. The present study shows that Benford's Law, based on the occurrence of first digits following a logarithmic scale, can be applied to ecotoxicity test data for identifying irregularities. This approach is already successfully applied in accounting. Benford's Law can be used as reliability indicator, in addition to existing reliability classifications. The law can be used to efficiently trace irregularities in large data sets of interpolated (no) effect concentrations such as LC50s (possibly the result of data manipulation), without having to evaluate the source of each individual record. Application of the law to systems in which large amounts of toxicity data are registered (e.g., European Commission Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) can therefore be valuable.

  17. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    PubMed

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level.

  18. A mechanistic explanation for the In(LC50) vs In(hardness) adjustment equation for metals

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.

    1999-03-15

    The author demonstrates that a combination of (a) competitive binding of transition-metal cations, hardness cations, and protons to transition-metal-binding sites on fish gills and (b) aqueous complexation of transition-metal cations by HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} explains why the regression slopes of In(LC50) vs In(hardness) for five divalent transition metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are {approximately}1, where LC50 is the median lethal concentration. For these calculations, the author assumed the amount of the transition metal bound to the fish gill at 50% mortality is constant (i.e., independent of water quality). Although the slopes theoretically should vary between 0 and 2, a slope of {approximately}1 is expected at midrange hardness if alkalinity covaries with hardness--a common condition in most laboratory toxicity tests. But if alkalinity is held constant while hardness is varied, a slope of {approximately}0.5 is expected at midrange hardness. Although predictions of LC50s using regressions of In(LC50) vs In(hardness) might be acceptable for regulating discharges of transition metals to waters in the midrange of hardness, extrapolations beyond this range might drastically overpredict metal toxicity.

  19. Incorporating variability in point estimates in risk assessment: bridging the gap between LC50 and population endpoints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the use of point estimates such as the LC50 has been instrumental in assessing the risk associated with toxicants to rare or economically important species. In recent years, growing awareness of the shortcomings of this approach has led to an increased focus on analyses using populatio...

  20. Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioral changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Atindra Kumar; Nagpure, N S; Trivedi, Sunil P; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Lakra, Wazir S

    2011-10-01

    Acute toxicity of an organophosphate pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2- chlorophenyl-O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) to freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch), was studied in a static bioassay. Estimated 96-hour LC(50) of profenofos was found to be 2.68 μgL(-1). On the basis of the obtained LC(50) values for 96-hour exposure intervals, profenofos can be rated as highly toxic to C. punctatus. Fish exposed to profenofos showed hyper excitability, discoloration, erratic swimming, and secretion of excess amounts of mucus on the body and gills with eventual exhaustion and death. PMID:21770742

  1. Per- and polyfluoro toxicity (LC(50) inhalation) study in rat and mouse using QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-03-15

    Fully or partially fluorinated compounds, known as per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are widely distributed in the environment and released because of their use in different household and industrial products. Few of these long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are classified as emerging pollutants, and their environmental and toxicological effects are unveiled in the literature. This has diverted the production of long chain compounds, considered as more toxic, to short chains, but concerns regarding the toxicity of both types of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are alarming. There are few experimental data available on the environmental behavior and toxicity of these compounds, and moreover, toxicity profiles are found to be different for the types of animals and species used. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is applied to a combination of short and long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals, for the first time, to model and predict the toxicity on two species of rodents, rat (Rattus) and mouse (Mus), by modeling inhalation (LC(50)) data. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models using the ordinary-least-squares (OLS) method, based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA), were used for QSAR studies. Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori, and these sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the model was verified on a larger set of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals retrieved from different databases and journals. The descriptors involved, the similarities, and the differences observed between models pertaining to the toxicity related to the two species are discussed. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were used to select most toxic compounds from those within the AD of both models, which will be subjected to experimental tests

  2. Application of a sigmapolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon model and a logistic regression model to sediment toxicity data based on a species-specific, water-only LC50 toxic unit for Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Landrum, P F; Field, L J; Koh, C H

    2001-09-01

    Two models, a sigmapolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) model based on equilibrium partitioning theory and a logistic-regression model, were developed and evaluated to predict sediment-associated PAH toxicity to Hyalella azteca. A sigmaPAH model was applied to freshwater sediments. This study is the first attempt to use a sigmaPAH model based on water-only, median lethal concentration (LC50) toxic unit (TU) values for sediment-associated PAH mixtures and its application to freshwater sediments. To predict the toxicity (i.e., mortality) from contaminated sediments to H. azteca, an interstitial water TU, calculated as the ambient interstitial water concentration divided by the water-only LC50 in which the interstitial water concentrations were predicted by equilibrium partitioning theory, was used. Assuming additive toxicity for PAH, the sum of TUs was calculated to predict the total toxicity of PAH mixtures in sediments. The sigmaPAH model was developed from 10- and 14-d H. azteca water-only LC50 values. To obtain estimates of LC50 values for a wide range of PAHs, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model (log LC50 - log Kow) with a constant slope was derived using the time-variable LC50 values for four PAH congeners. The logistic-regression model was derived to assess the concentration-response relationship for field sediments, which showed that 1.3 (0.6-3.9) TU were required for a 50% probability that a sediment was toxic. The logistic-regression model reflects both the effects of co-occurring contaminants (i.e., nonmeasured PAH and unknown pollutants) and the overestimation of exposure to sediment-associated PAH. An apparent site-specific bioavailability limitation of sediment-associated PAH was found for a site contaminated by creosote. At this site, no toxic samples were less than 3.9 TU. Finally, the predictability of the sigmaPAH model can be affected by species-specific responses (Hyalella vs Rhepoxynius); chemical specific (PAH vs DDT in

  3. Acute toxicity of 31 different nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) tested in adulthood and in early life stages – comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-01-01

    At present, nanoparticles are beginning to influence our lives in many ways and understanding the environmental health and safety aspect of nanomaterials has become a crucial issue. The aim of the work was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of 31 different nanomaterials to fish mature individuals Danio rerio with that to fish early life stages on using evaluation of the 48- and 96- hour LC50 values. A further aim was to evaluate teratogenicity of the nanoparticles tested to fish eggs. The nanoparticles tested were: 8 pure metals, 10 metal oxides, 5 other metal compounds and their mixtures, 2 silicon compounds, 3 calcium compounds, and 3 carbon compounds. Using 48-h and 96-h tests of acute toxicity (according to OECD 203), we evaluated mortality data, LC50 values, occurrence of malformations, as well as hatching time. In our study, 6 kinds of nanoparticles – calcium oxide, copper, copper in the form of oxide and CuZnFe4O4, magnesium oxide, and nickel – caused cumulative mortality. Two kinds of nanoparticles – copper and silver – were toxic for fish with LC50 values of approximately 3 mg/L. We did not observe marked differences between the 48-hour and 96-hour acute toxicity LC50 values, yet the possibility to evaluate hatching time in the 96-h acute fish toxicity test seems to be an advantage against that of the 48-hour toxicity. PMID:24179431

  4. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: meta-analysis and model.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Traas, Theo P; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2005-05-01

    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C50) by a model for accumulation in lipid or non-lipid phases versus water Kpw. The model indicates that affinity for neutral body components such as storage fat yields steep Kpw-Kow relationships, whereas slopes for accumulation in polar phases such as proteins are gentle. This pattern is confirmed by LC50 QSARs for different modes of action, such as neutral versus polar narcotics and organochlorine versus organophosphor insecticides. LC50 QSARs were all between 0.00002 and 0.2Kow(-1). After calibrating the model with the intercepts and, for the first time also, with the slopes of the LC50 QSARs, critical concentrations in organisms C50 are calculated and compared to an independent validation data set. About 60% of the variability in lethal body burdens C50 is explained by the model. Explanations for differences between estimated and measured levels for 11 modes of action are discussed. In particular, relationships between the critical concentrations in organisms C50 and chemical (Kow) or species (lipid content) characteristics are specified and tested. The analysis combines different models proposed before and provides a substantial extension of the data set in comparison to previous work. Moreover, the concept is applied to species (e.g., plants, lean animals) and substances (e.g., specific modes of action) that were scarcely studied quantitatively so far.

  5. Comparative acute toxicity of twenty-four insecticides to earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Zhao, Xueping; Yu, Ruixian; Chen, Liping; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we used two different types of bioassay, a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay and a soil toxicity bioassay, to compare the acute toxicity of twenty-four insecticides belonging to six chemical categories on earthworm species, Eisenia fetida. Results of the contact filter paper toxicity bioassay indicated that neonicotinoids were super toxic to E. fetida (48 h-LC(50) value ranged from 0.0088 to 0.45 μg cm(-2)), pyrethroids were very toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 10.55 to 25.7 μg cm(-2)) and insect growth regulators (IGRs) were moderately toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 117.6 to 564.6 μg cm(-2)) to the worms. However, antibiotics, carbamates and organophosphates induced variable toxicity responses in E. fetida, and were very to extremely toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 3.64 to 75.75 μg cm(-2)). Results of the soil toxicity bioassays showed a different pattern of toxicity except that neonicotinoids were the most toxic even under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The acute toxicity of neonicotinoids was higher than those of antibiotics, carbamates, IGRs and organophosphates. In contrast, pyrethroids were the least toxic to the worms under the soil toxicity bioassay system. It was concluded that irrespective of bioassay systems, earthworms were more susceptible to neonicotinoids than other modern synthetic insecticides.

  6. Acute pancreatitis: prognostic value of CT

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Ranson, J.H.C.; Naidich, D.P.; Megibow, A.J.; Caccavale, R.; Cooper, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    In 83 patients with acute pancreatitis, the initial computed tomographic (CT) examinations were classified by degree of disease severity (grades A-E) and were correlated with the clinical follow-up, objective prognostic signs, and complications and death. The length of hospitalization correlated well with the severity of the initial CT findings. Abscesses occurred in 21.6% of the entire group, compared with 60.0% of grade E patients. Pleural effusions were also more common in grade E patients. Abscesses were seen in 80.0% of patients with six to eight prognostic signs, compared with 12.5% of those with zero to two. The use of prognostic signs with initial CT findings results in improved prognostic accuracy. Early CT examination of patients with acute pancreatitis is a useful prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality.

  7. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists.

    PubMed

    Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

    2006-05-01

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC50 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l(-1), LC50) and lead (0.12 mg l(-1), LC50), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l(-1), LC50). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies.

  8. Pathogenicity, Ovicidal Action, and Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50) of Entomopathogenic Fungi against Exotic Spiralling Whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Karuppuchamy; Manickavasagam Pillai, Kalyanasundaram; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Madhaiyan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be a promising alternative to chemical control. Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerm.) Zare and Gams, and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, were tested for their pathogenicity, ovicidal effect, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) against exotic spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. The applications were made at the rate of 2 × 109 conidia mL−1 for evaluating the pathogenicity and ovicidal effect of entomopathogenic fungi against A. dispersus. The results of pathogenicity test showed that P. fumosoroseus (P1 strain) was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus recording 100% mortality at 15 days after treatment (DAT). M. anisopliae (M2 strain) had more ovicidal effect causing 37.3% egg mortality at 8 DAT. However, L. lecanii (L1 strain) caused minimum egg hatchability (23.2%) at 10 DAT as compared to control (92.6%). The lowest LC50 produced by P. fumosoroseus (P1 strain) as 8.189 × 107 conidia mL−1 indicated higher virulence against A. dispersus. Hence, there is potential for use of entomopathogenic fungi in the field conditions as an alternate control method in combating the insect pests and other arthropod pests since they are considered natural mortality agents and are environmentally safe. PMID:24455279

  9. Subacute toxicity testing with young birds: Response in relation to age and intertest variability of LC50 estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The variability in toxic response of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to a standardized 5-day subacute feeding trial was studied while age was increased at weekly intervals from 1 to 21 days and at different times with 14-day-old birds. The objectives were to identify the strengths and limitations of this subacute toxicity protocol and to provide possible explanations for differences in response among the various classes of pesticides. The variables included the median lethal concentration (LC50), the dose-response slope, food consumption, mortality patterns, and procedures of preparing toxic diets. Carbamate, organophosphate, chlorinated hydrocarbon, and organic mercury compounds were represented. A total of 60 subacute tests were involved in this evaluation. The general conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The basic protocol yields good within-laboratory reproducibility of results. (2) The LC50s increase as birds grow older, and the change was reasonably predictable between 7 and 21 days of age. (3) Monitoring of time-related response patterns, such as food consumption, onset and remission of overt toxicity, and mortality, is critical to the evaluation of potential hazard. (4) Different orders of toxicity may occur at different ages for an array of compounds, but differences do not appear to be large enough to seriously alter the interpretation. (5) For optimal comparisons, all testing should be conducted on birds of a single age.

  10. [Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids on the acute toxicity and weight of earthworm].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruo-Nan; Fan, Jun-Jie; Tu, Hong-Zhi; Tang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Dong-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Standard contact filter paper test of OECD and artificial soil test were used to study the acute lethal effect of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids, 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), 1-hexyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim] Cl), and 1-octyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim] Cl) on earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and the weight of the earthworms was measured after subtle exposure. The 24 h-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl using the contact filter paper method were 109.60, 50.38 and 7.94 microg x cm(-2), respectively. The 48 h-LC50 values were 98.52, 39.14 and 3.61 microg x cm(-2), respectively. Using the artificial soil method, the 7 d-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl were 447.78, 245.56 and 180.51 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the 14 d-LC50 values were 288.42, 179.75, 150.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There were differences in poisoning symptoms of the three ionic liquids on earthworms. The growth of Eisenia fetida was inhibited and declined with increasing ionic liquid concentration. The toxicity of ionic liquids on Eisenia fetida increased with the length of carbon chain.

  11. A comparison of acute toxicity of biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nalissa; Warith, Mostafa A; Luk, Grace

    2007-03-01

    The increased demand of alternative energy sources has created interest in biodiesel and biodiesel blends; biodiesel is promoted as a diesel substitute that is safer, produces less harmful combustion emissions, and biodegrades more easily. Like diesel spills, biodiesel can have deleterious effects on the aquatic environments. The effect of neat biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on Oncorhynchus mykiss and Daphnia magna was evaluated using acute toxicity testing. Static nonrenewal bioassays of freshwater organisms containing B100, B50, B20, B5, and conventional diesel fuel were used to compare the acute effects of biodiesel to diesel. Mortality was the significant end point measured in this study; percent mortality and lethal concentration (LC50) at different exposure times were determined from the acute toxicity tests performed. Trials were considered valid if the controls exhibited > 90% survival. Based on percentage of mortality and LC50 values, a toxicity ranking of fuels was developed.

  12. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    PubMed

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  13. [Application of biotic ligand model for the acute toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna in water of Liaohe River and Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Teng-Yao; Cao, Ying; Qin, Lu-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Zeng, Hong-Hu; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Liu, Zheng-Tao

    2014-05-01

    The acute toxicity (48 h-LC50 ) of copper to Daphnia magna predicted by the biotic ligand model (BLM) was compared with the 48 h-LC50 measured in water samples from Liaohe River and Taihu Lake at four specific sites in wet and dry seasons. The results showed that 48 h-LC50 values predicted by BLM were 232.75-411.49 microgL-1 and 48 h-LC50 values measured in the water samples were 134. 55-350. 00 microg L-1 in three sites of Hongmiaozi of Liaohe River, Pingtaishan and Tuoshan of Taihu Lake, which had a better consistency. While for Tongjiangkou of Liaohe River, there was a difference between the BLM predictions and the measured values in wet and dry seasons. According to the predictions and the experimental results, water effect ratios (WERs) were in the range of 2. 18-5.79 and 1.88-11.15 which all were higher than 1. The acute toxicity of Cu of all sites in dry season was greater than those in wet season, which might be that Cu complexation with dissolved organic matter (DOC) reduced the toxicity of Cu.

  14. Aquatic toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates: quantitative structure-activity relationships based on Kow and LC50

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, K.H.

    1987-12-01

    Recent EPA scrutiny of acrylate and methacrylate monomers has resulted in restrictive consent orders and Significant New Use Rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act, based on structure-activity relationships using mouse skin painting studies. The concern is centered on human health issues regarding worker and consumer exposure. Environmental issues, such as aquatic toxicity, are still of concern. Understanding the relationships and environmental risks to aquatic organisms may improve the understanding of the potential risks to human health. This study evaluates the quantitative structure-activity relationships from measured log Kow's and log LC50's for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Carassius auratus (goldfish). Scientific support of the current regulations is also addressed. Two monomer classes were designated: acrylates and methacrylates. Spearman rank correlation and linear regression were run. Based on this study, an ecotoxicological difference exists between acrylates and methacrylates. Regulatory activities and scientific study should reflect this difference.

  15. In vitro tests to establish LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization.

    PubMed

    Castro-Janer, E; Rifran, L; Piaggio, J; Gil, A; Miller, R J; Schumaker, T T S

    2009-05-26

    Laboratory test was carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT, N=26), larval immersion test (LIT, N=71) and larval packet test (LPT, N=41) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Dose-response curves were compared with a fipronil resistant strain. Four variables were analyzed from AIT results: mortality, weight of eggs on day 7 and on day 14, index of fertility, and index of fecundity. For larval test, dose mortality curves were analyzed. In spite of the high LC(50) variability, all variables determined for AIT were appropriate to discriminate both strains. AIT and LIT had more sensitivity than LPT, with larger resistance factors. It was used two times LC(99.9) as discriminating doses (DCs) following FAO suggestion. For mortality by AIT, LIT and LPT the DCs were estimated: 4.98ppm, 7.64ppm and 2365.8ppm, respectively, for Mozo strain. DCs mortality values estimated for resistant strain by AIT, LIT and LPT were: 6.96x10(5)ppm, 343.26ppm and 5.7x10(3)ppm, respectively and their respective resistant factors were: 202.4, 5.36 and 1.52. Protocols for AIT, LIT and LPT have been presented in this paper.

  16. Influence of light in acute toxicity bioassays of imidacloprid and zinc pyrithione to zooplankton crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Kouichi

    2006-06-30

    The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no significant influence on the outcome of toxicity bioassays, although in the case of imidacloprid both EC(50) and LC(50) calculated values were twice as high under the light as in the dark. No influence of UV light was observed on bioassays conducted with Zpt, in spite of the fast aqueous photolysis exhibited by this compound. Imidacloprid 48-h LC(50) for cladocerans (65-133mg/L) were two orders of magnitude higher than for ostracods (301-715microg/L); values of EC(50) for cladocerans and ostracods were 2-6mg/L and 3-16microg/L, respectively. Toxicity of Zpt to both ostracod and cladoceran species appears to be similar, with 48-h LC(50) in the range 137-524 and 75-197microg/L for ostracods and cladocerans, respectively, and similar values for EC(50)s. The mortality endpoint (LC(50)), however, is not a reliable predictor of the effects of imidacloprid under field situations (e.g. rice paddies), because the paralysis effect induced by this insecticide takes place at much lower concentrations than those required to cause the death of the animals: regardless of the taxa, differences as large as 100- or 600-fold were observed between the EC(50) and LC(50) for the same exposures. As a consequence, immobilization tests and EC(50) values are recommended for this class of compounds, while caution should be exercised in environmental risk assessments of this and possibly other related neonicotinoid insecticides with similar activity. PMID:16690142

  17. A strategy to reduce the numbers of fish used in acute ecotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Barrett, Sarah; Buzby, Mary; Constable, David; Hartmann, Andreas; Hayes, Eileen; Huggett, Duane; Laenge, Reinhard; Lillicrap, Adam D; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Thompson, Roy S

    2003-12-01

    The pharmaceutical industry gives high priority to animal welfare in the process of drug discovery and safety assessment. In the context of environmental assessments of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), existing U.S. Food and Drug Administration and draft European regulations may require testing of APIs for acute ecotoxicity to algae, daphnids, and fish (base-set ecotoxicity data used to derive the predicted no-effect concentration [PNECwater] from the most sensitive of three species). Subject to regulatory approval, it is proposed that testing can be moved from fish median lethal concentration (LC50) testing (typically using > or = 42 fish/API) to acute threshold tests using fewer fish (typically 10 fish/API). To support this strategy, we have collated base-set ecotoxicity data from regulatory studies of 91 APIs (names coded for commercial reasons). For 73 of the 91 APIs, the algal median effect concentration (EC50) and daphnid EC50 values were lower than or equal to the fish LC50 data. Thus, for approximately 80% of these APIs, algal and daphnid acute EC50 data could have been used in the absence of fish LC50 data to derive PNECwater values. For the other 18 APIs, use of an acute threshold test with a step-down factor of 3.2 is predicted to give comparable PNECwater outcomes. Based on this preliminary scenario of 91 APIs, this approach is predicted to reduce the total number of fish used from 3,822 to 1,025 (approximately 73%). The present study, although preliminary, suggests that the current regulatory requirement for fish LC50 data regarding APIs should be succeeded by fish acute threshold (step-down) test data, thereby achieving significant animal welfare benefits with no loss of data for PNECwater estimates.

  18. Comparative acute toxicities of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Suprenant, D.

    1983-06-01

    Investigations of the toxicity of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates have been limited primarily to determining the effects on a few species. In this study, the 48-hr LC50 values for three surfactants are reported for six species of aquatic invertebrates. The acute toxicities (LC50) for each surfactant (mg/liter) varied 159 to 580 X and were as follows: C11.8LAS (anionic), 1.7 (Dero sp.) to 270 (Asellus sp.); C14-15 alkylethoxylate (nonionic), 1.0 (Dugesia sp.) to 6.8 (Rhabditis sp.); CTAC (cationic), 0.1 (Gammarus sp.) to 58 (Asellus sp.). When compared to previously developed data, Daphnia magna was typically found to be the most sensitive of all species tested, including fish, to the surfactants.

  19. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  20. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  1. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

  2. Demographic diversity, value congruence, and workplace outcomes in acute care.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michael G; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes. PMID:22377771

  3. Demographic Diversity, Value Congruence, and Workplace Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Michael G.; Mark, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes. PMID:22377771

  4. Demographic diversity, value congruence, and workplace outcomes in acute care.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michael G; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes.

  5. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  6. [What value does laboratory diagnosis have in acute abdomen?].

    PubMed

    Staib, I; Kann, W

    1981-11-01

    1. We found in a prospective study with routine laboratory tests: As a single test only amylase is of certain value, but there are 27% false positive results in peritonitis and intestinal obstruction. 2. Our standardized program can help to evaluate disturbed vital functions and so far improve pre- and postoperative treatment. 3. A high risk is given by simultanously alterated acid-base-balance, blood sugar and creatinine; but these findings are showing shock, not acute abdomen. 4. Laboratory procedures are of no help to the practitioner; they must not delay the early lifesaving operation.

  7. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin in acutely hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Steichen, O; Bouvard, E; Grateau, G; Bailleul, S; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin as an adjunct to diagnose bacterial infections in older patients. One hundred seventy-two patients admitted to an acute-care geriatric unit during a 6-month period were prospectively included, 39 of them with an invasive bacterial infection. The best cut-off value to rule in a bacterial infection was 0.51 microg/l with sensitivity 64% and specificity 94%. The best cut-off value to rule out a bacterial infection was 0.08 microg/l with sensitivity 97% and specificity 20%. Procalcitonin was inconclusive (between 0.08 and 0.51 microg/l) for 112 admissions. Procalcitonin over 0.51 microg/l was useless 22 times out of 33 (infection already ruled in on clinical grounds) and misleading in eight of the 11 remaining cases (no infection). Procalcitonin below 0.08 microg/l was useless 23 times out of 27 (infection already ruled out on clinical grounds) and misleading in one of the four remaining cases (infection). Despite a good overall diagnostic accuracy, the clinical usefulness of PCT to diagnose invasive bacterial infections in elderly patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric ward appears to be very limited. PMID:19727867

  8. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Walthall, William K

    2003-12-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental concentration (EEC) of 0.79 mg/L, indicating that none of these adjuvants should cause high levels of mortality in wild D. pulex populations. Extinction, defined as negative population growth rate, occurred after exposure to 0.9 mg/L R-11, 13 mg/L X-77, 25 mg/L Kinetic, 28 mg/L Silwet, 18 mg/L Sylgard, 450 mg/L Bond, 610 mg/L Plyac, and 1,600 mg/L WaterMaxx. Concentrations that caused extinction were substantially below the acute LC50 for R-11, Kinetic, Plyac, X-77, and Bond. The no-observable-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effects concentration (LOEC) for the number of offspring per surviving female after exposure to R-11 were 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for population size after exposure to R-11 were (1.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Both of these values were lower than the EEC, indicating that R-11 does have the potential to cause damage to D. pulex populations after application at recommended field rates. The wide range of concentrations causing extinction makes it difficult to generalize about the potential impacts that agricultural adjuvants might have on aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional studies that examine effects on other nontarget organisms and determine residues in aquatic ecosystems may be warranted.

  9. General-linear-models approach for comparing the response of several species in acute-toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, K.L.; Goyert, J.C.; Farrell, M.P.; Strand, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests (bioassays) estimate the concentration of a chemical required to produce a response (usually death) in fifty percent of a population (the LC50). Simple comparisons of LC5C values among several species are often inadequate because species can have identical LC50 values while their overall response to a chemical may differ in either the threshold concentration (intercept) or the rate of response (slope). A sequential approach using a general linear model is presented for testing differences among species in their overall response to a chemical. This method tests for equality of slopes followed by a test for equality of regression lines. This procedure employs the Statistical Analysis System's General Linear Models procedure for conducting a weighted least squares analysis with a convariable.

  10. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  11. Exposure medium: key in identifying free Ag+ as the exclusive species of silver nanoparticles with acute toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-10

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L(-1) NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag(+) of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L(-1)) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L(-1)), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag(+), and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag(+) is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  12. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L-1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L-1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L-1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  13. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-01-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L−1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37–0.44 μg L−1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L−1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials. PMID:25858866

  14. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts.

  15. Evaluation of acute effects of four pharmaceuticals and their mixtures on the copepod Tisbe battagliai.

    PubMed

    Trombini, Chiara; Hampel, Miriam; Blasco, Julián

    2016-07-01

    The individual and combined toxicities of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, diclofenac and ibuprofen have been examined in neonate nauplii (<24 h-old) of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe battagliai. Based on acute toxicity data (LC50) obtained, diclofenac was the most toxic compound with an LC50 value of 9.5 mg·L(-1); this is between 5 and 7 times lower than the LC50 value for acetaminophen, carbamazepine and ibuprofen (67.8 mg·L(-1), 59 mg·L(-1) and 49.7 mg·L(-1) respectively). The environmental risk posed by the selected pharmaceuticals was assessed by calculating risk quotients (RQs) based on MEC (the highest exposure concentration of the compound in the medium)/PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) ratios. Results suggest that, at environmental concentrations, none of the compounds is harmful for the aquatic environment (low or no risk). Toxicity data obtained for mixtures were compared with predictions derived from three different models: Concentration Addition (CA), Independent Action (IA) and Combination Index (CI). The classical modeling approaches CA and IA failed to predict the observed mixture toxicity, thus indicating that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient to predict toxicity of drug mixtures on Tisbe species. However, the use of the CI seems to provide better predictions of pharmaceutical toxicity. PMID:27135693

  16. Acute toxicity and accumulation of the piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Diane L.; Rach, Jeffrey J.; Luoma, James A.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity and initial accumulation of the piscicide TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) in the freshwater unionacean mussels, Obliquaria reflexa and Fusconaia flava. Acute 48 h toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LC50 values for each species. The initial uptake clearances of TFM were measured by exposing the mussels to [14C]-TFM and counting the radioactivity in four organ tissues (foot, gill, mantle and viscera) over 48 h. TFM was about 2-fold more toxic to O. reflexa (LC50 1.80 mg l-1) than to F. flava (LC50 3.81 mg L-1) and the difference was not explained by accumulation patterns. The initial uptake clearance rates (0–6 h) for the whole body were similar between the species (11.2 ml g-1 h-2 in O. reflexa and 9.5 ml g-1 h-1 in F. flava). The accumulation of TFM residues among the organ tissues was also similar between species. The uptake clearance rates (ml g-1 h-1) of TFM equivalents were generally highest in the gill, but not significantly different than other organ tissues. The normalized concentration of TFM residues (μg per g whole body) was highest in the viscera. The toxicity data suggest that the mortality of both species would be minimal from sea lamprey control treatments with TFM. However, the behavioural effects and accumulation rates also indicate that mussels do not effectively avoid TFM exposure by valve closure.

  17. Acute toxicity and accumulation of the piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity and initial accumulation of the piscicide TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) in the freshwater unionacean mussels, Obliquaria reflexa and Fusconaia flava. Acute 48 h toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LC50 values for each species. The initial uptake clearances of TFM were measured by exposing the mussels to [14C]-TFM and counting the radioactivity in four organ tissues (foot, gill, mantle and viscera) over 48 h. TFM was about 2-fold more toxic to O. reflexa (LC50 1.80 mg I-1) than to F. flava (LC50 3.81 mg L-1) and the difference was not explained by accumulation patterns. The initial uptake clearance rates (0-6 h) for the whole body were similar between the species (11.2 ml g-1 h-2 in O. reflexa and 9.5 ml g-1 h-1 in F. flava). The accumulation of TFM residues among the organ tissues was also similar between species. The uptake clearance rates (ml g-1 h-1) of TFM equivalents were generally highest in the gill, but not significantly different than other organ tissues. The normalized concentration of TFM residues (??g per g whole body) was highest in the viscera. The toxicity data suggest that the mortality of both species would be minimal from sea lamprey control treatments with TFM. However, the behavioural effects and accumulation rates also indicate that mussels do not effectively avoid TFM exposure by valve closure.

  18. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  19. Prognostic value of computed tomography in acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Plasencia-Martínez, J M; Carmona-Bayonas, A; Calvo-Temprano, D; Jiménez-Fonseca, P

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being the standard reference for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries can also provide valuable information about the patient's prognosis. Although which imaging findings are useful for prognosis remains controversial, signs of right ventricular dysfunction on CT are now included in clinical algorithms for the management of pulmonary thromboembolism. However, the optimal method for obtaining these measurements while maintaining a balance between the ease of use necessary to include their evaluation in our daily activity and the loss of precision in its predictive capacity remains to be determined. Moreover, other variables associated with pulmonary thromboembolism that often go unobserved can complement the prognostic information we can offer to clinicians. This review aims to clarify some of the more controversial aspects related to the prognostic value of CT in patients with pulmonary embolisms according to the available evidence. Knowing which variables are becoming more important in the prognosis, how to detect them, and why it is important to include them in our reports will help improve the management of patients with pulmonary embolism.

  20. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Zakaria, Zuraini; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots) methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control) had LC50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (%) and absolute (g) organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05). Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions: E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice. PMID:22923956

  1. Clinical value of severity markers in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lempinen, M; Puolakkainen, P; Kemppainen, E

    2005-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common digestive disease of which the severity may vary from mild, edematous to severe, necrotizing disease. An improved outcome in the severe form of the disease is based on early identification of disease severity and subsequent focused management of these high-risk patients. However, the ability of clinicians to predict, upon presentation, which patient will have mild or severe acute pancreatitis is not accurate. Prospective systems using clinical criteria have been used to determine severity in patients with acute pancreatitis, such as the Ranson's prognostic signs, Glasgow score, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II). Their application in clinical practise has been limited by the time delay of at least 48 h to judge all parameters in the former two and by being cumbersome and time-consuming in the latter. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is presently the most accurate non-invasive single method to evaluate the severity of acute pancreatitis. It cannot, however, be performed to all patients with acute pancreatitis. Therefore, considerable interest has grown in the development of reliable biochemical markers that reflect the severity of acute pancreatitis. In this article we critically appraise current and new severity markers of acute pancreatitis in their ability to distinguish between mild and severe disease and their clinical utility.

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  3. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  4. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  5. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A

    1979-01-01

    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  6. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency.

  7. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  8. Nurse Value-Added and Patient Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Yakusheva, Olga; Lindrooth, Richard; Weiss, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to (1) estimate the relative nurse effectiveness, or individual nurse value-added (NVA), to patients’ clinical condition change during hospitalization; (2) examine nurse characteristics contributing to NVA; and (3) estimate the contribution of value-added nursing care to patient outcomes. Data Sources/Study Setting Electronic data on 1,203 staff nurses matched with 7,318 adult medical–surgical patients discharged between July 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011 from an urban Magnet-designated, 854-bed teaching hospital. Study Design Retrospective observational longitudinal analysis using a covariate-adjustment value-added model with nurse fixed effects. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted from the study hospital's electronic patient records and human resources databases. Principal Findings Nurse effects were jointly significant and explained 7.9 percent of variance in patient clinical condition change during hospitalization. NVA was positively associated with having a baccalaureate degree or higher (0.55, p = .04) and expertise level (0.66, p = .03). NVA contributed to patient outcomes of shorter length of stay and lower costs. Conclusions Nurses differ in their value-added to patient outcomes. The ability to measure individual nurse relative value-added opens the possibility for development of performance metrics, performance-based rankings, and merit-based salary schemes to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. PMID:25256089

  9. Acute toxicity of current and alternative oil spill chemical dispersants to early life stage blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Pie, Hannah V; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of five oil spill chemical dispersants on the ecologically and economically important coastal and estuarine species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Static, non-renewal 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed on stage-II blue crab zoea. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated for each dispersant at 24 h and 48 h using nominal concentrations for each dispersant tested. The 48 h LC50 values from the most to the least toxic ranged from 10.1 mg L(-1) for Dispersit SPC 1000 to 76.5 mg L(-1) for Orca. For all dispersants, the swimming activity and mobility of larvae decreased with increasing dispersant concentration within 24h of exposure and reached relative immobility at concentrations below LC50 values. These results show that the dispersants examined in this study are only slightly toxic after 48 h exposure to the earliest life stage of blue crabs that might likely be exposed to dispersants in the environment, with the exception of Dispersit SPC 1000 that bordered between slightly and moderately toxic. Although the dispersants themselves appear to not cause substantial acute toxicity, sublethal and potentially delayed impacts, such as, reduced mobility or food source availability could indirectly remove larvae from the population and need to be further examined, as do larval responses in standard chronic toxicity tests. Furthermore, dispersants are not released into the environment in isolation and so the impact of dispersed-oil using these dispersant formulations also needs to be investigated to translate into real-world situations. PMID:25637788

  10. Acute toxicity of current and alternative oil spill chemical dispersants to early life stage blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Pie, Hannah V; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of five oil spill chemical dispersants on the ecologically and economically important coastal and estuarine species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Static, non-renewal 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed on stage-II blue crab zoea. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated for each dispersant at 24 h and 48 h using nominal concentrations for each dispersant tested. The 48 h LC50 values from the most to the least toxic ranged from 10.1 mg L(-1) for Dispersit SPC 1000 to 76.5 mg L(-1) for Orca. For all dispersants, the swimming activity and mobility of larvae decreased with increasing dispersant concentration within 24h of exposure and reached relative immobility at concentrations below LC50 values. These results show that the dispersants examined in this study are only slightly toxic after 48 h exposure to the earliest life stage of blue crabs that might likely be exposed to dispersants in the environment, with the exception of Dispersit SPC 1000 that bordered between slightly and moderately toxic. Although the dispersants themselves appear to not cause substantial acute toxicity, sublethal and potentially delayed impacts, such as, reduced mobility or food source availability could indirectly remove larvae from the population and need to be further examined, as do larval responses in standard chronic toxicity tests. Furthermore, dispersants are not released into the environment in isolation and so the impact of dispersed-oil using these dispersant formulations also needs to be investigated to translate into real-world situations.

  11. Human hydration indices: acute and longitudinal reference values.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Pumerantz, Amy C; Fiala, Kelly A; Roti, Melissa W; Kavouras, Stavros A; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-04-01

    It is difficult to describe hydration status and hydration extremes because fluid intakes and excretion patterns of free-living individuals are poorly documented and regulation of human water balance is complex and dynamic. This investigation provided reference values for euhydration (i.e., body mass, daily fluid intake, serum osmolality; M +/- SD); it also compared urinary indices in initial morning samples and 24-hr collections. Five observations of 59 healthy, active men (age 22 +/- 3 yr, body mass 75.1 +/- 7.9 kg) occurred during a 12-d period. Participants maintained detailed records of daily food and fluid intake and exercise. Results indicated that the mean total fluid intake in beverages, pure water, and solid foods was >2.1 L/24 hr (range 1.382-3.261, 95% confidence interval 0.970-3.778 L/24 hr); mean urine volume was >1.3 L/24 hr (0.875-2.250 and 0.675-3.000 L/24 hr); mean urine specific gravity was >1.018 (1.011-1.027 and 1.009-1.030); and mean urine color was > or = 4 (4-6 and 2-7). However, these men rarely (0-2% of measurements) achieved a urine specific gravity below 1.010 or color of 1. The first morning urine sample was more concentrated than the 24-h urine collection, likely because fluids were not consumed overnight. Furthermore, urine specific gravity and osmolality were strongly correlated (r2 = .81-.91, p < .001) in both morning and 24-hr collections. These findings provide euhydration reference values and hydration extremes for 7 commonly used indices in free-living, healthy, active men who were not exercising in a hot environment or training strenuously. PMID:20479488

  12. Phase-based metamorphosis of diffusion lesion in relation to perfusion values in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Luby, Marie; Carpenter, Trevor K; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-01-01

    Examining the dynamics of stroke ischemia is limited by the standard use of 2D-volume or voxel-based analysis techniques. Recently developed spatiotemporal models such as the 4D metamorphosis model showed promise for capturing ischemia dynamics. We used a 4D metamorphosis model to evaluate acute ischemic stroke lesion morphology from the acute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to final T2-weighted imaging (T2-w). In 20 representative patients, we metamorphosed the acute lesion to subacute lesion to final infarct. From the DWI lesion deformation maps we identified dynamic lesion areas and examined their association with perfusion values inside and around the lesion edges, blinded to reperfusion status. We then tested the model in ten independent patients from the STroke Imaging Repository (STIR). Perfusion values varied widely between and within patients, and were similar in contracting and expanding DWI areas in many patients in both datasets. In 25% of patients, the perfusion values were higher in DWI-contracting than DWI-expanding areas. A similar wide range of perfusion values and ongoing expansion and contraction of the DWI lesion were seen subacutely. There was more DWI contraction and less expansion in patients who received thrombolysis, although with widely ranging perfusion values that did not differ. 4D metamorphosis modeling shows promise as a method to improve use of multimodal imaging to understand the evolution of acute ischemic tissue towards its fate. PMID:26288755

  13. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  14. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  15. Individual and Joint Acute Toxicities of Selected Insecticides Against Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, R X; Wang, Y H; Hu, X Q; Wu, S G; Cai, L M; Zhao, X P

    2016-02-01

    As widely used pesticides, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides have different modes of action. In the present study, we evaluated individual and joint acute toxicities of two organophosphates, two pyrethroids, and two neonicotinoids against the second-instar silkworm by feeding silkworm with the insecticide-treated mulberry leaves. The 96-h lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) values of chlorpyrifos, acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin against silkworm were 3.45 (2.95-4.31), 44.45 (39.34-48.56), 1.27 (1.19-1.35), 2.38 (2.19-2.54), 0.36 (0.30-0.43), and 0.037 (0.033-0.041) mg/liter, respectively. Moreover, the 96-h LC(50) values of 50:50 binary mixtures of insecticides against silkworm ranged from 0.048 (0.043-0.054) to 3.52 (2.09-4.51) mg/liter. In addition, the combination coefficient (Q) values of all tested mixtures ranged from 0.36 to 3.37. According to the obtained Q values, the binary mixture of deltamethrin-chlorpyrifos showed antagonistic effects at 96-h interval, while the other binary mixtures had additive effects. Taken together, our results provided valuable guidelines in assessing the ecological risk of these insecticide mixtures against silkworm.

  16. Evaluation of Caenorhabditis elegans as an acute lethality and a neurotoxicity screening model

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    This investigation evaluated C. elegans as a lethality and neurotoxicity screening model. The lethality experiments were performed in both agar and an aquatic medium. The salts of 8 metals (Hg, Be, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Sr) were used in the agar studies and the salts of 14 metals (Ag, Hg, Cu, Be, Al, Pb, Cr, As, Tl, Zn, Cd, Ni, Sr, and Sb) were used in the aquatic tests. In each of these tests an LC50 value was determined. The data from the agar plates were compared to the published mammalian oral LD50 values for salts of the same metals. Within this set of chemicals C. elegans was found to be a predictor of mammalian acute lethality, generating LC50 values parallel to the rat and mouse LD50 values. The aquatic data were compared to data from EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria documents. C. elegans was found to be less sensitive than Daphnia but generally more sensitive than the other invertebrate organisms that are presently used. The neurotoxicity testing also was performed in both agar and an aquatic media. The testing in agar was conducted with the salts of 4 metals (Cu, Be, Pb, and Hg) and 2 organophosphate pesticides (malathion and vapona). The studies in an aquatic medium tested the salts of 4 metals (Cu, Be, Pb, and Hg).

  17. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests. PMID:26370277

  18. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests.

  19. Acute toxicities of four metals on the early life stages of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata from Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Laura; Andrade, Santiago; Asteasuain, Raúl; Marcovecchio, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    Acute semistatic toxicity tests were carried out for 96 h with first zoeae and young crabs of Chasmagnathus granulata. Survival curves and LC50 (lethal concentration 50, the concentration which produces the death of 50% of the exposed population) indices for copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined. Furthermore, mixture toxicity tests (Cd/Cu and Cd/Zn) with first-stage larvae were also carried out. The LC50-96 h values determined in this study were 1093.4 (881-1319) microg Pb2+ L(-1), 219.2 (188.9-248.9) microg Cu2+ L(-1), 172.1 (141.3-203.6) microg Zn2+ L(-1), and 47.8 (37.9-58.0) microg Cd2+ L(-1) for zoeae I and 130.1 (121.7-139.0) mg Cu2+ L(-1), 51.0 (41.9-61.6) mg Zn2+ L(-1), and 35.7 (30.1-41.9) mg Cd2+ L(-1) for young crabs. The LC50-96 h indices for mixture tests with zoeae I were 260.6 (227.3-286.3) microg Cd2+/Zn2+ L(-1) and 41.3 (37.4-60.7) microg Cd2+/Cu2+ L(-1). Cadmium presented the highest acute toxicity for both stages of the life cycle examined. The toxicity of the metals analyzed followed the order cadmium >zinc>copper>lead. First zoeae were more sensitive than young crabs to acute exposure to all metals analyzed. The young crabs were considered potentially dangerous agents of transference to the associated trophic chain because of their relatively elevated resistance and their capacity to bioaccumulate heavy metals in their tissues. Mixed toxicity tests carried out on first-stage larvae showed different kinds of interactions. Cadmium/copper presented an additive interaction trend while the mixture cadmium/zinc showed an antagonistic interaction. PMID:16098589

  20. Acute toxicity of low pH to the brown darter Etheostoma edwini under flow-through conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kase, J.; Burnett, M.; Shortelle, A.B.; Beach, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Okaloosa darter, Etheostoma okaloosae, is found exclusively in the Rocky and Boggy Bayou stream systems entering Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. Due to its limited range and habitat degradation, E. okaloosae was added to the List of Endangered Species in 1973. The Air Force controls several active test areas situated near streams known to contain Okaloosa darters. The possible release and deposition of strong acids such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid to stream surface water during some testing activities has raised concerns that the Okaloosa darter population may be adversely affected by episodic pH depression as a result of testing activities. To evaluate the sensitivity of the Okaloosa darter to pH depression, acute toxicity tests using a closely related species, E. edwini, were conducted. Ninety-six hour and 200 min acute pH depression flow-through toxicity tests were performed with surface water collected from the Rocky Bayou stream system. The 96 h test was conducted using six concentrations held at constant pH throughout the duration of the exposure. The 200 min test used an episodic exposure; pH in the exposure chambers were initially dropped and allowed to return to normal. Mortality data obtained during the studies were used to determine the pH depression necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC50) in each scenario. The 96 h and 200 min LC50 values are, respectively, 3.79 and 2.99 s.u. The 200 min LC50 calculations are based on the lowest achieved pH in each exposure during the test. The results of these tests are part of an effort by the Air Force to make risk-based management decision regarding testing activities.

  1. Comparison of the acute toxicities of novel algicides, thiazolidinedione derivatives TD49 and TD53, to various marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong J; Yim, Eun C; Park, In T; Kim, Si W; Cho, Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Acute toxicity assessments of new algicides, thiazolidinedione derivatives TD49 and TD53, to the marine ecological system were conducted. The toxicity assessments were performed using two of the new International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods employing Ulva pertusa Kjellman and three species representative of the marine ecological system, with the results compared by calculating the 50% effective concentration (EC50), 50% lethal concentration (LC50), no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC), and predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC). In the acute toxicity assessment using the Kjellman, the EC50, NOEC, and PNEC of TD53 were 1.65 µM, 0.08 µM, and 1.65 nM, and those of TD49 were 0.18 µM, 0.63 µM, and 0.18 nM. In the assessments using Skeletonema costatum, Daphnia magna, and Paralichthys olivaceus fry, the EC50 or LC50 of TD53 were 1.53, 0.61, and 2.14 µM, respectively, indicating that D. magna was the most sensitive. The calculated NOEC and PNEC to D. magna were 0.25 µM and 6.10 nM, respectively. The LC50s (or EC50) of TD49 for the three species were 0.34, 0.68, and 0.58 µM. The NOEC and PNEC to S. costatum, the most sensitive species, were 0.2 µM and 3.4 nM, respectively. The slight difference in the chemical structures of the algicides caused significantly different sensitivities and specificities in the toxicities to the employed species. The results of the toxicity assessments showed that application concentrations for algiciding of red tide blooms were higher than the corresponding PNEC values. Therefore, we suggest that a formulization study of the algicides with high specificity should be conducted to reduce the surrounding ecological toxicity. PMID:21932297

  2. Acute effects of chlorinated resin acid exposure on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.J.; Sweeting, R.M.; Farrell, A.P.; McKeown, B.A.; Johansen, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of an acute exposure to either 14-monochlorodehydroabietic acid (MCDHAA) or 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (DCDHAA) were examined in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The experimentally determined 96-h LC50 values (and their 95% confidence limits) were 1.03 (0.72, 1.48) and 0.91 (0.70, 1.21) mg/L, for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively. To measure effects on several biochemical parameters, swimming performance, and disease resistance, juvenile trout were exposed for 24 h to sublethal concentrations of one or the other resin acid in an intermittent-flow respirometer. Hematocrit, plasma lactate, and liver protein were significantly affected by exposure to the highest dose (80% of the 96-h LC50 value) of either of the resin acids. Plasma cortisol levels were 14- and 3-fold higher than were controls. Resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida was significantly reduced; the cumulative percent mortalities due to furunculosis in fish exposed to MCDHAA or DCDHAA reached 20 and 26%, respectively. Swimming performance, measured as critical swimming speed (mean values 6.32 {+-} 0.20 and 5.93 {+-} 0.15 body lengths per second for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively), was not significantly affected by resin acid exposure.

  3. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  4. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. PMID:24929227

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity of arsenite and zinc to tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum both alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, Julie Céline; Asorey, Cynthia Melina; Sztrum, Abelardo; Herkovits, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated acute and subchronic toxicity of arsenite (As(3+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) to stage 25 tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum in both single and joint laboratory exposures. LC50 values obtained for As(3+) were elevated and remained within the range of 46 to 50 mg/L of As(3+) between 4 and 17 d of exposure. Growth of tadpoles was completely inhibited with 30 mg/L of As(3+), demonstrating the presence of ecologically relevant sublethal effects at concentrations lower than those resulting in lethality. With respect to Zn(2+), a 96-h LC50 value of 2.49 mg/L was calculated in soft water. Contrary to results obtained for As(3+), LC50 values of Zn(2+) gradually decreased with increasing exposure duration, from 2.49 mg/L at 96 h to 1.30 mg/L after 21 d. In joint exposures to both metals, the type of interaction observed between As(3+) and Zn(2+) was concentration dependent. Lethal effects of As(3+) were mitigated, unaffected, or potentiated by 0.01, 0.1, and 1-2 mg/L of Zn(2+), respectively. However, although 0.01 mg/L of Zn(2+) significantly reduced lethality of As(3+)-exposed tadpoles, the same concentration of Zn(2+) did not help to reverse the stunt growth of these animals. Further studies need to examine which are the lowest concentrations As(3+) required to reduce growth and whether Zn(2+) serves to antagonize growth effects in this range of concentrations. PMID:19557616

  6. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests.

  7. Value of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in the Acute Phase of Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Alex; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U.; Böhme, Johannes; Mürle, Bettina; Groden, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) in TGA in the acute phase. Methods From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV)) were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN). CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB) Software Library (FSL). Results Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women). On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus. Conclusions Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in

  8. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to early life stages of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratorys studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F), and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex) to early life stages of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in hard and soft water. Regardless of water type, swim-up fry and juveniles (60 and 90 d posthatch) exhibited similar sensitivities to each chemical and these life stages were more sensitive than eyed eggs. Foam suppressants were more toxic to each life stage than the fire retardants in both water types. The descending rank order of toxicity for these chemicals tested with swim-up fry and juveniles (range of 96-h median lethal concentrations [LC50s]) was Phos-Chek WD-881 (7–13 mg/L) > Ansul Silv-Ex (11–22 mg/L) > Phos-Chek D75-F (218–305 mg/L) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (218–412 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (685–1,195 mg/L). Water type had a minor effect on the toxicity of these chemicals. Comparison of acute toxicity values with recommended application concentrations indicates that accidental inputs of these chemicals into stream environments would require substantial dilution (237- to 1,429-fold) to reach concentrations equivalent to their 96-h LC50s.

  9. Acute exposure of water soluble fractions of marine diesel on Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus: effects on survival and biomarker response.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Jager, Tjalling; Nordtug, Trond

    2013-04-01

    The use of marine diesels in Arctic areas is expected to increase due to increased shipping transport, oil and gas activities, and the ban of heavy bunker oils in many areas. This project aimed at gathering information regarding the sensitivity of an Arctic copepod to marine diesel. The approach undertaken was to study the effects on survival (LC50s) and gene expression of a known detoxification gene (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) in Calanus glacialis following exposure to water soluble fractions (WSFs) of marine diesel (at 2 °C). We compared the observed LC-values of C. glacialis to the identical experimental data of the boreal Calanus finmarchicus (at 10 °C), and to the predicted LC50-values using regression models. The C. glacialis appeared more tolerant to the acute effects of marine diesel WSF compared to the "average pelagic crustacean" as predicted by regression models, and compared to C. finmarchicus. Although these results may be explained by a slower equilibration of petrogenic chemicals from the WSF at lower temperatures, C. glacialis also displayed higher GST expression following exposure than C. finmarchicus. In addition, the lipid content of the test organisms appears to be an important factor for the determination of acute toxicity, as copepods with high lipid content survived longer than copepods with low lipid content. PMID:23434578

  10. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  11. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weir, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of measuring muscle strength. The reliability of HHD has not been determined in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. Objectives To determine the intertester reliability and the prognostic value of hamstring HHD strength measurement in acute hamstring injuries. Methods We measured knee flexion strength with HHD in 75 athletes at 2 visits, at baseline (within 5 days of hamstring injury) and follow-up (5 to 7 days after the baseline measurement). We assessed isometric hamstring strength in 15° and 90° of knee flexion. Reliability analysis testing was performed by 2 testers independently at the follow-up visit. We recorded the time needed to return to play (RTP) up to 6 months following baseline. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of the strength measurements in injured hamstrings were between 0.75 and 0.83. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between the time to RTP and the strength deficit at 15° of knee flexion measured at baseline (Spearman r = 0.25, P = .045) and at the follow-up visit (Spearman r = 0.26, P = .034). Up to 7% of the variance in time to RTP is explained by this strength deficit. None of the other strength variables were significantly correlated with time to RTP. Conclusion Hamstring strength can be reliably measured with HHD in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. The prognostic value of strength measurements is limited, as there is only a weak association between the time to RTP and hamstring strength deficit after acute injury. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):689-696. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6363.

  12. Prognostic value of intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute myocardial ischemic event

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.

    1989-07-15

    Seventy-seven patients recovering from an acute coronary event were studied by intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy to evaluate the prognostic value and safety of the test in this patient subset. Forty-four patients (58%) had unstable angina and 33 (42%) had an acute myocardial infarction. One death occurred within 24 hours of testing. Sixty-eight patients were followed for an average of 12 months; 25, 31 and 23% had a fixed, reversible or combined thallium defect on their predischarge thallium scan. During follow-up, 10 patients died or had a nonfatal myocardial infarction; in each case, a reversible or combined myocardial thallium defect was present. Univariate analysis of 17 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables showed that a reversible thallium defect and the angiographically determined extent of coronary artery disease were predictors of future cardiac events. The extent of coronary disease and global left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of subsequent reinfarction or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that a reversible thallium defect (p less than 0.001) and the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.009) were the only significant predictors of a cardiac event. When death or reinfarction were the outcome variables, the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.06) were the only variables selected. Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute coronary ischemic syndrome is a useful and relatively safe noninvasive test to predict subsequent cardiac events.

  13. The acute toxicity of fenitrothion on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823) in association with biomarkers of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Rabia; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Caǧlan Karasu Benli, A; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoç, Figen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute toxicity of fenitrothion to the crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823), which is chosen as an alternative aquatic organism to fish by using the static test system and evaluate the basic lipid peroxidation parameters for the first 24 h. Crayfish of 27.3 ± 0.56 g mean weight and 10.0 ± 0.72 cm mean length were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated three times in 20 liters of tap water. The temperature of water was 21 ± 1°C. The data obtained were statistically evaluated by using a computer program developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, based on Finney's probit analysis method and the 96-h LC(50) value for crayfish was calculated to be 15.75 μg/L. The 95% lower and upper confidence limits for the LC(50) were 9.45 to 25.01 μg/L. In addition to the acute toxicity bioassay experiments, 24-h oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and ferrous oxidation assay (FOX HP [hydrogen peroxide] equivalents) were also determined. Only MDA levels of hepatopancreas decreased at 5, 10, and 20 μg/L of fenitrothion doses. We can conclude that fenitrothion is highly toxic to crayfish, a nontarget organism in the ecosystem, and the lipid peroxidation indicators can be easily used for monitoring environmental effects. PMID:20957683

  14. Prognostic Value of the Interaction between Galectin-3 and Antigen Carbohydrate 125 in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Julio; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Sandino, Justo; Mainar, Luis; Palau, Patricia; Santas, Enrique; Villanueva, Maria Pilar; Núñez, Eduardo; Bodí, Vicent; Chorro, Francisco J.; Miñana, Gema; Sanchis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aims Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) have emerged as robust prognostic biomarkers in heart failure. Experimental data have also suggested a potential molecular interaction between CA125 and Gal-3; however, the biological and clinical relevance of this interaction is still uncertain. We sought to evaluate, in patients admitted for acute heart failure, the association between plasma Gal-3 with all-cause mortality and the risk for rehospitalizations among high and low levels of CA125. Methods and Results We included 264 consecutive patients admitted for acute heart failure to the Cardiology Department in a third-level center. Both biomarkers were measured on admission. Negative binomial and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect of the interaction between Gal-3 and CA125 (dichotomized by its median) with hospital readmission and all-cause mortality, respectively. During a median follow-up of 2 years (IQR = 1-2.8), 108 (40.9%) patients deaths and 365 rehospitalizations in 171 (69.5%) patients were registered. In a multivariable setting, the effect of Gal-3 on mortality and rehospitalization was differentially mediated by CA125 (p = 0.007 and p<0.001, respectively). Indeed, in patients with CA125 above median (>67 U/ml), values across the continuum of Gal-3 showed a positive and almost linear relationship with either the risk of death or rehospitalization. Conversely, when CA125 was below median (≤67 U/ml), Gal-3 lacked any prognostic effect on both endpoints. Conclusion In patients with acute heart failure, Gal-3 was strongly associated with higher risk of long-term mortality and repeated rehospitalizations, but only in those patients exhibiting higher values of CA125 (above 67 U/ml). PMID:25875367

  15. Cerebral CT angiography and CT perfusion in acute stroke detection: a systematic review of diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Cantiriga; Sun, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the diagnostic value of cerebral CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) examinations in the detection of acute stroke based on a systematic review of the current literature. The review was conducted based on searching of seven databases for articles published between 1993 and 2013. Diagnostic value in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy was analysed from 21 articles which were found to meet selection criteria. The mean sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for CTA were significantly higher than those for CTP with 83.2% (95% CI: 57.9-100.0%), 95.0% (95% CI: 74.4-100%), 84.1% (95% CI: 50.0-100%), 97.1 (95% CI: 94.0-100%) and 94.0% (95% CI: 83.0-99.0) versus 69.9% (95% CI: 20.0-97.0%), 87.4 (95% CI: 61.0-100.0%), 76.4% (95% CI: 48.0-95.4%), 78.2% (95% CI: 55.8-93.9%) and 89.8% (95% CI: 75.7-97.1%), respectively. This analysis shows that CTA has high diagnostic value in detecting high degree of cerebral arterial stenosis (>70%) whereas CTP provides high specificity in the detection of ischemia and infarct tissue of brain. PMID:25202664

  16. In vitro sensitivity of granulo-monocytic progenitors as a new toxicological cell system and endpoint in the ACuteTox Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrato, Laura; Valeri, Antonio; Bueren, Juan A.; Albella, Beatriz

    2009-07-15

    The ACuteTox Project (part of the EU 6th Framework Programme) was started up in January 2005. The aim of this project is to develop a simple and robust in vitro strategy for prediction of human acute systemic toxicity, which could replace animal tests used for regulatory purposes. Our group is responsible for the characterization of the effect of the reference chemicals on the hematopoietic tissue. CFU-GM assay based on the culture of human mononuclear cord blood cells has been used to characterize the effects of the selected compounds on the myeloid progenitors. Previous results have shown the relevance of the CFU-GM assay for the prediction of human acute neutropenia after treatment of antitumoral compounds, and this assay has been recently approved by the ECVAM's Scientific Advisory Committee. Among the compounds included in the study there were pharmaceuticals, environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Eleven out of 55 chemicals did not show any cytotoxic effect at the maximum concentration tested. The correlation coefficients of CFU-GM IC50, IC70 and IC90 values with human LC50 values (50% lethal concentration calculated from time-related sublethal and lethal human blood concentrations) were 0.4965, 0.5106 and 0.5142 respectively. Although this correlation is not improve respect to classical in vitro basal cytotoxicity tests such as 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake, chemicals which deviate substantially in the correlation with these assays (colchicine, digoxin, 5-Fluorouracil and thallium sulfate) fitted very well in the linear regression analysis of the CFU-GM progenitors. The results shown in the present study indicate that the sensitivity of CFU-GM progenitors correlates better than the sensitivity of HL-60 cells with human LC50 values and could help to refine the predictability for human acute systemic toxicity when a given chemical may affect to the hematopoietic myeloid system.

  17. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. . Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  18. Acute toxicity of crude oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: the relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibing; Huang, Yijun; Chen, Quanzhen; Zeng, Jiangning; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2012-10-01

    Recent oil spillage accidents around the world greatly increase harmful risks to marine ecology. This study evaluated the influences of petroleum water accommodated fraction (WAF) on 15 typical species of marine copepods collected from a subtropical bay in East China Sea at different seasons. Copepods showed impaired swimming ability, restlessness, loss of balance, anoxic coma, and even death when they were acutely exposed to the crude oil WAF under laboratory conditions. The LC(50) values (expressed in total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration) indicated that the tolerances of copepods to WAF decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased exposure duration and natural water temperatures (acclimatization temperature). The sensitivity of the copepods was species-specific (P < 0.01), and there was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the 48-h LC(50) and body size. Therefore, the small copepod species confront more survival challenges under oil contamination stress, especially in the warm months or regions.

  19. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Li; SHAO, Wei-Wei; DING, Guo-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; YU, Miao-Ling; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas. PMID:25017745

  20. Acute toxicity and anti acetylcholinesterase potential of some biphenyl derivatives to non target species.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Anjum, F; Qadri, S S; Sidky, M M; Osman, F H

    1989-02-01

    Five newly synthesised biphenyl derivatives were evaluated for their acute contact toxicity (LC50) against rice weevil and honey bee and anti acetylcholinesterase potential (I50) against honey bee, fish, pigeon and rat. Amongst, O,O-dimethyl-O, p-Nitro-biphenyl phosphate was most potent against rice weevil, whereas p-(4-Nitrophenyl) phenyl-N-methyl carbamate against honey bee. Based on I50 values the biphenyl derivatives of phosphoric acid esters were more potent anti acetylcholinesterase (AChE) agents against rat and fish brain AChE while derivative of carbamic esters towards pigeon brain AChE. The anti AChE potency of both groups appear to be of the same order towards bee head AChE.

  1. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  2. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. PMID:21488924

  3. Perspectives on the value of biomarkers in acute cardiac care and implications for strategic management.

    PubMed

    Kossaify, Antoine; Garcia, Annie; Succar, Sami; Ibrahim, Antoine; Moussallem, Nicolas; Kossaify, Mikhael; Grollier, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers in acute cardiac care are gaining increasing interest given their clinical benefits. This study is a review of the major conditions in acute cardiac care, with a focus on biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessment. Through a PubMed search, 110 relevant articles were selected. The most commonly used cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin, natriuretic peptides, and C-reactive protein) are presented first, followed by a description of variable acute cardiac conditions with their relevant biomarkers. In addition to the conventional use of natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponin, and C-reactive protein, other biomarkers are outlined in variable critical conditions that may be related to acute cardiac illness. These include ST2 and chromogranin A in acute dyspnea and acute heart failure, matrix metalloproteinase in acute chest pain, heart-type fatty acid binding protein in acute coronary syndrome, CD40 ligand and interleukin-6 in acute myocardial infarction, blood ammonia and lactate in cardiac arrest, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha in atrial fibrillation. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the physiopathology of most cardiac diseases, whether acute or chronic. In summary, natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponin, C-reactive protein are currently the most relevant biomarkers in acute cardiac care. Point-of-care testing and multi-markers use are essential for prompt diagnostic approach and tailored strategic management.

  4. Prognostic Value of TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Osmancik, Pavel; Teringova, Elena; Tousek, Petr; Paulu, Petra; Widimsky, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Apoptosis plays an important role in the development of heart failure. The aim of the prospectively designed study was to assess whether the concentration of apoptotic markers apoptosis-stimulating fragment (Fas, CD95/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) can predict prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Methods The concentrations of soluble Fas and TRAIL were determined in 295 patients with acute coronary syndromes. The status of all patients was evaluated at 6 months. The primary goal was a composite end-point of death and hospitalization for heart failure. The secondary end-points were re-MI, death alone and stroke alone. Results During the median follow-up of 6 months, 26 patients experienced the composite end-point. Using multivariate logistic regression, the concentration of TRAIL was the strongest significant and independent predictor of composite end-point (OR 0.11 (95% CI 0.03–0.45), p = 0.002). Low concentration was associated with poor prognosis of patients. Other significant predictors of composite end-point were serum creatinine (OR 7.7 (95% CI 1.1–54.5, p = 0.041) and complete revascularization (OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.05–0.78, p = 0.02). Independent significant predictors of death in the multivariate analysis were the concentration of TRAIL (OR 0.053 (95% CI 0.004–0.744), p = 0.029), older age (OR 1.20 (95% CI 1.02–1.41, p = 0.026) and serum creatinine (OR 15.1 (95% CI 1.56–145.2), p = 0.0193). Re-MI or stroke could not be predicted by any combination of obtained parameters. Conclusions Low concentrations of soluble TRAIL represent a strong predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The predictive value of TRAIL concentration is independent of age, ejection fraction, index peak troponin level, concentration of BNP or serum creatinine. PMID:23441146

  5. Developmental and acute toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos. PMID:27399156

  6. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  7. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  8. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Baasai, Nansalmaa; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II. Results In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7%) died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10) and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335), and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg). Conclusions Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one. PMID:26866472

  9. The prognostic value of hematogones in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chantepie, Sylvain P; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Salaun, Véronique; Benabed, Khaled; Cheze, Stéphane; Gac, Anne-Claire; Johnson-Ansah, Hyacinthe; Macro, Margaret; Damaj, Gandhi; Vilque, Jean-Pierre; Reman, Oumedaly

    2016-06-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), new prognostic tools are needed to assess the risk of relapse. Hematogones (HGs) are normal B-lymphocyte precursors that increase in hematological diseases and may influence remission duration in AML. HG detection was prospectively investigated in 262 AML patients to determine its prognostic value. Flow cytometric HG detection was performed in bone marrow aspiration after intensive chemotherapy at the time of hematological recovery. Patients with HGs in bone marrow samples had a significantly better relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients without HGs (P = 0.0021, and P = 0.0016). Detectable HGs independently predicted RFS (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.42 - 0.89, P = 0.012) and OS (HR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.38 - 0.92, 0.019) controlling for age, ELN classification, the number of chemotherapy cycles to achieve CR, performance status, secondary AML and flow cytometric minimal residual disease (MRD). In intensively treated AML, individual determination of HGs could be useful to stratify the optimal risk-adapted therapeutic strategy after induction chemotherapy. Am. J. Hematol. 91:566-570, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26934680

  10. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN.

  11. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  12. Comparative study on acute effects of water accommodated fractions of an artificially weathered crude oil on Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Rørvik, Siv F; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Olsen, Anders J; Nordtug, Trond

    2011-01-15

    Extrapolation of ecotoxicological data from temperate species for use in risk assessment in the polar environments may be difficult since polar organisms as a rule differ from temperate species in terms of life span length, developmental time, surface-to-volume ratios, metabolic rates, total energy usage and lipid content for energy storage. In the current work we performed a comparative study where two closely related and morphologically similar copepod species, Calanus finmarchicus (temperate-boreal) and Calanus glacialis (arctic), were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) of oil in a series of parallel experiments. The two species, adapted to 10°C and 2°C, respectively, were compared on the basis of acute ecotoxicity (LC(50)) and the WAF-mediated induction of the gene encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST). In addition, an experiment was conducted in order to reveal relationships between lipid content and acute toxicity. LC(50) values differed between the two species, and the Arctic copepod appeared less sensitive than the temperate-boreal species. The lipid contents of the two species, measured biometrically, were comparable, and the relationships between lipid content and response (reduced survival) to acute WAF exposure followed the same trend: Lipid-rich copepods survived longer than lipid-poor copepods at the same exposure concentration. In terms of GST expression, both species showed concentration-dependent and exposure time-dependent trends. However, as for the acute toxicity data, the Arctic copepod appeared to respond slower and with a lower intensity. From the study it can be concluded that temperature and lipid content are important factors for assessing differences between temperate and Arctic species, and that a delayed response in organisms adapted to low temperatures needs to be corrected for when extrapolating toxicity data from species with other temperature optimums for use in Arctic environments.

  13. Acute toxic effects of the herbicide formulation and the active ingredient used in cycloxydim-tolerant maize cultivation on embryos and larvae of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan; Veith, Michael; Viertel, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Most genetically engineered herbicide-tolerant crops are still awaiting approval in Europe. There is, however, a recent trend for the cultivation of cycloxydim-tolerant maize hybrids for use in maize production. We studied the acute toxic effects of the complementary herbicide Focus(®) Ultra and its active ingredient cycloxydim on embryos and early-stage larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). The results indicate that the herbicide formulation is significantly more toxic than the active ingredient alone. Therefore, it is suggested that the added substances either solely or in a synergistic action with the active ingredient are responsible for adverse effects. The formulation was found to be moderately toxic to embryos but highly toxic to early larvae. Based on calculated teratogenic indices, both cycloxydim and Focus(®) Ultra seem to be non-teratogenic and also the minimum Focus(®) Ultra concentration to inhibit growth in embryos and larvae was close to the LC50 values. The data suggest that tests with the rainbow trout are not in all cases appropriate to assess the risk in aquatically developing anurans. This is demonstrated by 96-h LC50 values, which are for rainbow trout more than 50- to 20-fold higher than for early X. laevis larvae. However, based on worst-case predicted environmental concentrations for surface waters, there is apparently a large safety margin in field use of Focus(®) Ultra if buffer strips between the farm land and the amphibian habitats are regarded. PMID:25634323

  14. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical.

  15. Protectiveness of species sensitivity distribution hazard concentrations for acute toxicity used in endangered species risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Delos, Charles; Barron, Mace G

    2008-12-01

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate species, safety factors, and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of chemical toxicity; however, the protectiveness of these approaches can be uncertain. We comprehensively evaluated the protectiveness of SSD first and fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC1, HC5) relative to the application of safety factors using 68 SSDs generated from 1,482 acute (lethal concentration of 50%, or LC50) toxicity records for 291 species, including 24 endangered species (20 fish, four mussels). The SSD HC5s and HCls were lower than 97 and 99.5% of all endangered species mean acute LC50s, respectively. The HC5s were significantly less than the concentrations derived from applying safety factors of 5 and 10 to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) toxicity data, and the HCls were generally lower than the concentrations derived from a safety factor of 100 applied to rainbow trout toxicity values. Comparison of relative sensitivity (SSD percentiles) of broad taxonomic groups showed that crustaceans were generally the most sensitive taxa and taxa sensitivity was related to chemical mechanism of action. Comparison of relative sensitivity of narrow fish taxonomic groups showed that standard test fish species were generally less sensitive than salmonids and listed fish. We recommend the use of SSDs as a distribution-based risk assessment approach that is generally protective of listed species.

  16. The human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 mediates in vitro cytarabine sensitivity in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Hubeek, I; Stam, R W; Peters, G J; Broekhuizen, R; Meijerink, J P P; Wering, E R van; Gibson, B E S; Creutzig, U; Zwaan, C M; Cloos, J; Kuik, D J; Pieters, R; Kaspers, G J L

    2005-01-01

    Cytarabine (ara-C) is the most effective agent for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Aberrant expression of enzymes involved in the transport/metabolism of ara-C could explain drug resistance. We determined mRNA expression of these factors using quantitative-real-time-PCR in leukemic blasts from children diagnosed with de novo AML. Expression of the inactivating enzyme pyrimidine nucleotidase-I (PN-I) was 1.8-fold lower in FAB-M5 as compared to FAB-M1/2 (P=0.007). In vitro sensitivity to deoxynucleoside analogues was determined using the MTT-assay. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1) mRNA expression and ara-C sensitivity were significantly correlated (rp=−0.46; P=0.001), with three-fold lower hENT1 mRNA levels in resistant patients (P=0.003). hENT1 mRNA expression also seemed to correlate inversely with the LC50 values of cladribine (rp=−0.30; P=0.04), decitabine (rp=−0.29; P=0.04) and gemcitabine (rp=−0.33; P=0.02). Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and cytidine deaminase (CDA) mRNA expression seemed to correlate with in vitro sensitivity to gemcitabine (rp=−0.31; P=0.03) and decitabine (rp=0.33; P=0.03), respectively. The dCK/PN-I ratio correlated inversely with LC50 values for gemcitabine (rp=−0.45, P=0.001) and the dCK/CDA ratio seemed to correlate with LC50 values for decitabine (rp=−0.29; 0.04). In conclusion, decreased expression of hENT1, which transports ara-C across the cell membrane, appears to be a major factor in ara-C resistance in childhood AML. PMID:16333246

  17. Assessing acute toxicity potential of persulfate ISCO treated water.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Wang, Chi-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Persulfate anion (S2O8(2-)), a widely used in situ chemical oxidation agent, is increasingly applied for environmental remediation. However, limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available for the evaluation of the environmental risk of exposure to S2O8(2-), particularly after its application. In this study, the acute toxic effects on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were employed as a model to investigate S2O8(2-), sulfate ion (decomposition product of S2O8(2-)), hydrogen/hydroxide ions and also the mixtures of these ion species. Acute toxicity test results showed 96h median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 540±23mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 4100±110mgL(-1) for SO4(2-). S2O8(2-) was considerably more toxic than its decomposition product SO4(2-). Additionally, solution pH was also an important factor influencing toxicity, and S2O8(2-) posed reduced acute toxicity when pH was in the range of 6-10. Water conductivity up to approximately 8000μScm(-1) did not appear to significantly increase fish mortality. In the mixture toxicity test (i.e., S2O8(2-)/OH(-)), LC50 values of 130±10mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 23±2mgL(-1) for OH(-) were lower than those obtained from the individual toxicity tests and therefore exhibited higher toxicity to fish. However, upon complete decomposition of S2O8(2-) in the mixture, a reduction in acute toxicity may be expected. The results of this study revealed that it may be necessary and/or desirable to control the residual S2O8(2-)and pH after S2O8(2-) addition when potential exposure to an aquatic system is a concern.

  18. The acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium and zinc to two hydra species.

    PubMed

    Holdway, D A; Lok, K; Semaan, M

    2001-01-01

    The potential of two hydra species, Hydra vulgaris (pink) and Hydra viridissima (green), for use as invertebrate models for toxicity testing of waterborne metals was investigated. The acute and subchronic toxicities of cadmium (a nonessential metal) and zinc (an essential metal) were determined. Results showed that both the hydra species were more sensitive to cadmium than to zinc, and that green hydra were more sensitive than pink hydra. The mean (SE) 96 h LC50 values of cadmium and zinc for pink hydra were 83 (8.5) and 2300 (150) micrograms/L, respectively. For green hydra, the respective 96 h LC50 values for cadmium and zinc were 3.0 (0.0) and 935 (46.5) micrograms/L. The respective 7-day no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) for pink hydra were < 13 and 13 micrograms/L for cadmium, and < 250 and 250 micrograms/L for zinc. The respective 7-day NOEC and LOEC values for green hydra were 0.4 and 0.8, microgram/L for cadmium, and 38 and 75 micrograms/L for zinc. Neither 1, 2, or 3 x 90-min pulse-exposures to 0.4, 0.8, or 1.5 micrograms/L of cadmium had any significant deleterious effect on total green hydra numbers after seven days in clean water. Green hydra appeared to be excellent freshwater invertebrate models for testing dissolved metals based on their sensitivity and the ability to rapidly assess population reproduction in the laboratory.

  19. The value of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A R

    1978-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis usually confronts the clinician with a difficult diagnostic task. For years, the primary laboratory diagnostic tests were the serum and urine amylase and the serum lipase determinations. Recent studies have introduced the concept of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio as a means of increasing the specificity of the laboratory diagnosis. This paper reviews the laboratory evaluation of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on the rationale, derivation, and specificity of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio.

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  1. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to ecological risk assessment because data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ge...

  2. PREDICTION OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMALAS) USING A GROUP CONTRIBUTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group contribution method has been developed to correlate the acute toxicity (96 h LC50) to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 379 organic chemicals. Multilinear regression and computational neural networks (CNNs) were used for model building. The multilinear linear m...

  3. Acute toxicity of a commercial glyphosate formulation on European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aromatases (cyp19a and cyp19b).

    PubMed

    Prevot-D'Alvise, N; Richard, S; Coupé, S; Bunet, R; Grillasca, J P

    2013-12-31

    Acute toxicity of Roundup, a commercial glyphosate--based herbicide, was evaluated in a teleost marine fish, the European sea bass, after 96 h of exposure. The LC50 96-h value of Roundup was 529 mg/L. Juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were exposed to a sublethal concentration (35% of the LC50, i.e. 193 mg/L) of Roundup for 96-h. The study of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) gene expression was performed in four tissues (liver, gills, brain and gonads) and highlighted the disruption of antioxidant defence system. Results showed that ho-1 mRNA levels in liver and gills significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) in fish exposed to 193 mg/L of Roundup, whereas in brain and gonads, ho-1 mRNA level was not altered. The analysis of acetylcholinesterase expression was used to evaluate the overall neurotoxicity of the herbicide and aromatase genes to assess the alteration of the endocrine system. Results showed that AChE and cyp19b gene transcriptions significantly increased (p<0.01) in brain of sea bass, whereas aromatase gene expression (cyp19a) in gonads was not significantly altered. Our results showed complex tissue-specific transcriptional responses after 96 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration. All these disruptions confirmed the deleterious effects of this glyphosate-based herbicide in a marine species.

  4. Prognostic and diagnostic value of plasma soluble ST2 concentrations in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Volk, Jessica A.; Christiani, David C.; Harris, R. Scott; Matthay, Michael A.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Januzzi, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Soluble ST2 (sST2) is a biomarker of myocardial strain and inflammation. The characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. We sought to determine whether plasma sST2 concentration is associated with outcome and response to conservative fluid management, and whether sST2 concentration discriminates ARDS from decompensated heart failure (HF). Design, Setting, and Patients We assayed plasma sST2 concentrations in 826 patients in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT), a multi-center randomized controlled trial of conservative fluid management in ARDS, as well as a cohort of patients with decompensated HF. We tested whether sST2 was associated with outcome, response to therapy, and diagnostic utility for ARDS vs. HF. Measurements and Main Results Non-survivors had higher day 0 (P<.0001) and day 3 (P<.0001) sST2 concentrations. After adjustment for severity of illness, higher sST2 concentration was associated with mortality, with odds ratio (ORadj) 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 – 2.20, P=.06) at day 0, 2.94 (95% CI 2.00 – 4.33, P<.0001) at day 3, and 3.63 (95% CI 2.38 – 5.53, P<.0001) if sST2 increased between days. Cumulative fluid balance was more positive among patients with higher day 0 (median 5212 mL, interquartile range [IQR] 200 – 12284 vs. 2020 mL, −2034 – 7091; P<0.0001), and day 3 sST2 (median 7678 mL, IQR 2217 – 14278 vs. 1492 mL, −2384 – 6239; P<0.0001). sST2 showed excellent discriminative ability between the FACTT and HF populations (Area under ROC curve=0.98, P<0.0001). Conclusions Higher sST2 concentrations are associated with worse outcome in ARDS and may have value for discriminating ARDS from heart failure. PMID:23939353

  5. Development of miniaturized acute toxicity tests for Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.; McKee, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard EPA methods for conducting static, 48-hour, acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) can be miniaturized to successfully yield accurate LC50/EC50 values. The screening procedure involves exposing the test organisms to 1 mL of test solution, in test chambers which consist of the wells on 48-well microliter plates. Toxicity of the microliter plates and solvent, DO concentration, organism biomass to test solution ratio, partitioning of the chemicals and dilution of the test solution during transfer of the test organisms were examined. Survival and exposure were not significantly altered using non-standard test chambers. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), kepone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was determined using D. magna and fathead minnows. Serial dilutions were made and 1 mL aliquots pipetted into the wells. Daphnia magna, < 24 hours old, and newly hatched fathead minnows, were transferred into the wells, twenty individuals per concentration, one per well. Dose-response curves were established for all test compounds. LC50/EC50`s values obtained using miniaturized methods strongly correlated with those obtained using standard EPA procedures. The tests were repeated a number of times with coefficient of variances for D. magna ranging from 10% with kepone to 64% with SLS. For fathead minnows CVs ranged from 0% with PCP to 23% with kepone. It was concluded that current methods can be miniaturized, yet still provide accurate information regarding toxicity for compounds in limited supply. This method may also be amenable to effluent testing i.e. TIE fractions. Other benefits include reducing the amount of equipment and space needed to conduct a test and the time involved.

  6. The prognostic value of the Glasgow coma scale, serum acetylcholinesterase and leukocyte levels in acute organophosphorus poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Cander, Basar; Dur, Ali; Yildiz, Mesut; Koyuncu, Feridun; Girisgin, Abdullah Sadik; Gul, Mehmet; Okumus, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organophosphate poisoning (OP) is a serious clinical condition that may sometimes be fatal. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and serum acetylcholinesterase and leukocyte levels have prognostic value in acute OP poisoning. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review of records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Selcuk University, Meram Medical Faculty, Emergency Department, Konya, Turkey, between January 2006 and January 2009. METHODS: We studied acutely OP-poisoned patients admitted within 24 hours after OP exposure. RESULTS: The mean age of the 25 patients was 37 years (range, 20-80 years). Three (12%) of the 25 patients (male-female ratio, 12:13) died. The mean GCS values of the patients who died were significantly lower compared to those of the group that survived (4 vs 11.7, respectively P<.05). While the mean serum acetylcholinesterase levels were lower in the patients who died, the difference in the mean serum acetylcholinesterase levels between the patients who died and the ones who survived was not statistically significant (3841 IU/L vs. 1768 IU/L, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although serum cholinesterase values can be used in the quick diagnosis, their efficiency at predicting outcome in patients with OP poisoning has not been established. It has also been determined that serum leukocyte values have no prognostic value in OP poisoning, but GCS values have been found to be effective in predicting the outcome. PMID:21422653

  7. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes.

  8. [The prognostic value of content of acute phase proteins in development of puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Anokhova, L I; Pateiuk, A V; Zagorodnaia, E D

    2012-07-01

    The analysis was made of the content of proteins in inflammation acute phase in 100 healthy puerperants and 157 women with endometritis after cesarean section. The established disproportion in protein concentration during acute phase in healthy puerperants is considered as a female organism adaptive reaction to pregnancy and delivery. As for patients with endometritis, this condition testifies the compensatory resources stress, development of pathophysiological reactions of organism and intensity of local damages. The concentration of C-reactive protein and prealbumin in patients with endometritis provides an opportunity to forecast the degree of severity of course of disease. PMID:22988794

  9. Acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, dichlorvos in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Girraj Prasad; Jain, Khyali Lal

    2008-11-01

    Toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, i.e. dichlorvos has been investigated in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters such as Moina, Daphnia, cyclops and nauplii. Results revealed that dichlorvos was highly toxic to the tested zooplankters, as the LC50 values are noticed in ppb. Trend of sensitivity for different zooplankters to dichlorvos was recorded as Moina < Daphnia < nauplii < cyclops. The LC50 were found to change significantly with the change in water hardness. The zooplankters were more susceptible to dichlorvos at water hardness of 275 mgl(-1) as compared to water hardness of 540 mgl(-1) as revealed from low LC50 values. The range of safe dischargeable concentrations (1.063-1.137ppb) were too low as compared to harmless or safe concentrations (43.895-89.194 ppb) for the zooplankters at both the hardness.

  10. Acute toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, dichlorvos in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Girraj Prasad; Jain, Khyali Lal

    2008-11-01

    Toxicity of organophosphate insecticide, i.e. dichlorvos has been investigated in relation to selected water hardness for the freshwater zooplankters such as Moina, Daphnia, cyclops and nauplii. Results revealed that dichlorvos was highly toxic to the tested zooplankters, as the LC50 values are noticed in ppb. Trend of sensitivity for different zooplankters to dichlorvos was recorded as Moina < Daphnia < nauplii < cyclops. The LC50 were found to change significantly with the change in water hardness. The zooplankters were more susceptible to dichlorvos at water hardness of 275 mgl(-1) as compared to water hardness of 540 mgl(-1) as revealed from low LC50 values. The range of safe dischargeable concentrations (1.063-1.137ppb) were too low as compared to harmless or safe concentrations (43.895-89.194 ppb) for the zooplankters at both the hardness. PMID:19297975

  11. Acute toxicity of fipronil to the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Cynthia Renata Oliveira; Soares, Hellen Maria; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2013-01-01

    Fipronil is an insecticide widely used to control a great number of pests, thus the aim of this study was to determine the lethal dose and lethal concentration (LD(50) and LC(50)) of this insecticide to the stingless bees Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The LD(50) and LC(50) values obtained after 24 h of exposition were of 0.54 ng a.i./bee and 0.24 ng a.i./μL diet, respectively. These values were considered highly toxic to stingless bees.

  12. Prognostic value of predischarge low-level exercise thallium testing after thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Tilkemeier, P.L.; Guiney, T.E.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A. )

    1990-11-15

    Low-level exercise thallium testing is useful in identifying the high-risk patient after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To determine whether this use also applies to patients after thrombolytic treatment of AMI, 64 patients who underwent early thrombolytic therapy for AMI and 107 patients without acute intervention were evaluated. The ability of both the electrocardiogram and thallium tests to predict future events was compared in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 374 days, there were 25 and 32% of cardiac events in the 2 groups, respectively, with versus without acute intervention. These included death, another AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty with 75% of the events occurring in the 3 months after the first infarction. The only significant predictors of outcome were left ventricular cavity dilatation in the intervention group and ST-segment depression and increased lung uptake in the nonintervention group. The sensitivity of exercise thallium was 55% in the intervention group and 81% in the nonintervention group (p less than 0.05). Therefore, in patients having thrombolytic therapy for AMI, nearly half the events after discharge are not predicted by predischarge low-level exercise thallium testing. The relatively weak correlation of outcome with unmasking ischemia in the laboratory before discharge may be due to an unstable coronary lesion or rapid progression of disease after the test. Tests considered useful for prognostication after AMI may not necessarily have a similar value if there has been an acute intervention, such as thrombolytic therapy.

  13. Comparison of R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl in acute, chronic, and sublethal effect on aquatic organisms: Daphnia magna, Scenedesmus quadricanda, and Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Zhu, Lin; Duan, Zhenghua; Chen, Zhongzhi; Li, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2009-04-01

    Chiral pesticides are used widely in the world, and at present, older racemic products are being replaced by enantiopure products because of accelerated development of asymmetry synthesis techniques. Pesticides as xenobiotic released into environment impose a great stress on nontarget organisms. Although it is a necessary procedure for pesticides to have a registration based on toxicological data from nontarget organism, until now ecological risk assessment about metalaxyl only depend on racemic products. Hence, we investigated the acute, chronic, and sublethal toxicity of R-metalaxy and rac-metalaxyl on aquatic organisms such as D. magna (Daphnia magna), algae (Scenedesmus quadricanda), and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results showed a significant difference in toxicity between R-metalaxyl and rac-metalaxyl. R-Metalaxy was about 20-fold more toxic to algae than rac-metalaxyl with IC(50) of 222.89 +/- 1.18 mg/L and 19.95 +/- 1.12 mg/L, respectively. Similarly, R-metalaxyl was about fourfold toxic to D. magna than rac-metalaxyl according to the individual 24-h-LC(50) values, and sixfold toxic than rac-metalaxyl based on 24-h-EC(50) values. In the light of 48-h-LC(50) and EC(50), this difference in toxicity was more significant. As for adult zebrafish, there was no pronounced difference in acute toxicity, in addition, at sublethal level a different pattern in inducing Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity between them was found. In general, R-metalaxyl seemed more toxic to aquatic organisms than rac-metalaxyl. PMID:18563802

  14. Diagnostic Value of Elevated D-Dimer Level in Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Acute or Subacute Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Jin; Im, Sun; Jang, Yong Jun; Park, So Young; Sohn, Dong Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the risk factors that influence the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with acute or subacute brain lesions and to determine the usefulness of D-dimer levels for VTE screening of these patients. Methods Medical data from January 2012 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Mean D-dimer levels in those with VTE versus those without VTE were compared. Factors associated with VTE were analyzed and the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. The D-dimer cutoff value for patients with hemiplegia was defined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Of 117 patients with acute or subacute brain lesions, 65 patients with elevated D-dimer levels (mean, 5.1±5.8 mg/L; positive result >0.55 mg/L) were identified. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of VTE was 3.9 times higher in those with urinary tract infections (UTIs) (p=0.0255). The risk of VTE was 4.5 times higher in those who had recently undergone surgery (p=0.0151). Analysis of the ROC showed 3.95 mg/L to be the appropriate D-dimer cutoff value for screening for VTE (area under the curve [AUC], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.8) in patients with acute or subacute brain lesions. This differs greatly from the conventional D-dimer cutoff value of 0.55 mg/L. D-dimer levels less than 3.95 mg/L in the absence of surgery showed a negative predictive value of 95.8% (95% CI, 78.8-99.8). Conclusion Elevated D-dimer levels alone have some value in VTE diagnosis. However, the concomitant presence of UTI or a history of recent surgery significantly increased the risk of VTE in patients with acute or subacute brain lesions. Therefore, a different D-dimer cutoff value should be applied in these cases. PMID:26798616

  15. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  16. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  17. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  18. [Critical evaluation and predictive value of clinical presentation in out-patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Mayaud, C; Fartoukh, M; Prigent, H; Parrot, A; Cadranel, J

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic probability of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depends on data related to age and clinical and radiological findings. The critical evaluation of data in the literature leads to the following conclusions: 1) the prevalence of CAP in a given population with acute respiratory disease is 5% in outpatients and 10% in an emergency care unit. This could be as low as 2% in young people and even higher than 40% in hospitalized elderly patients; 2) the collection of clinical data is linked to the way the patient is examined and to the expertise of the clinician. The absolute lack of "vital signs" has a good negative predictive value in CAP; presence of unilateral crackles has a good positive predictive value; 3) there is a wide range of X-ray abnormalities: localized alveolar opacities; interstitial opacities, limited of diffused. The greatest radiological difficulties are encountered in old people with disorders including chronic respiratory or cardiac opacities and as a consequence of the high prevalence of bronchopneumonia episodes at this age; 4) among patients with lower respiratory tract (LRT) infections, the blood levels of leukocytes, CRP and procalcitonine are higher in CAP patients, mainly when their disease has a bacterial origin. Since you have not a threshold value reliably demonstrated in large populations with LRT infections or acute respiratory disease, presence or absence of these parameters could only be taken as a slight hint for a CAP diagnosis. PMID:17084571

  19. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  20. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2–421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26–49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  1. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J.; Biddinger, G.R.; Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  2. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  3. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN AND ELECTROPHORESIS PROTEIN FRACTION VALUES FOR CAPTIVE AMERICAN FLAMINGOS (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Kass, Philip H; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Protein electrophoresis has recognized applications in determining the health status of various species. While reference intervals for electrophoresis have been determined for psittacine and raptor species, there are none reported for Phoenicopteriformes species. Reference intervals for haptoglobin and protein fractions obtained by electrophoresis were determined for the American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on plasma samples from 39 captive birds. The reference intervals were as follows: haptoglobin, 0.17-0.8 mg/ml; total protein, 3.65-6.38 g/dl; prealbumin, 0.26-1.9 g/dl; albumin, 1.51-3.12 g/dl; α-1 globulin, 0.06-0.38 g/dl; α-2 globulin, 0.17-0.67 g/dl; β globulin, 0.38-1.33 g/dl; γ globulin, 0.26-0.68 g/dl; albumin : globulin ratio, 0.93-2.17. As captive flamingos often suffer from pododermatitis, feet of all flamingos were scored to determine if pododermatitis would be reflected in the acute phase proteins. Spearman rank correlation was performed on each of the protein fractions and pododermatitis scores, and only albumin had a significant correlation. This indicates that albumin, as a negative acute phase protein, may be a marker for this disease process.

  4. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  5. Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: Implications for daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milam, C.D.; Farris, J.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC 50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  6. Value of serological tests in the diagnosis of viral acute respiratory infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Căruntu, F; Dogaru, D; Stefan, D; Căruntu, V; Angelescu, C; Streinu-Cercel, A; Colţan, G; Petrescu, A L; Tarţă, D; Bârnaure, F

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of the antibody response to influenza viruses A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B, to parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, to adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus was studied in paired serum samples collected from 110 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and in 40 patients suffering from other diseases. Rises in serum antibody titers to 1--5 of the above mentioned antigens were detected in many of the patients of both groups. The fact is most likely due to the presence of some epidemiologically and clinically uncharacteristic viral ARI (influenza included); simultaneous or successive infections with influenza virus and different other viruses were very frequent. A greater efficiency of the etiological diagnosis of viral ARI can be achieved only by the association of epidemiological and clinical criteria with serological data, the visualization of viral antigens and virus isolation. PMID:3727398

  7. The prognostic value of high sensitivity troponin T 7 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Michelle P C; Dow, Ellie; Lang, Chim; Struthers, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) in the convalescence phase after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. The authors aim to assess the prognostic utility of a single hs-TnT level at 7-week post-ACS. Second, the authors evaluated whether any serial changes in hs-TnT between the index admission and 7 weeks post-ACS had any link with the prognosis. Third, the authors assessed whether the prognostic utility of hs-TnT is independent of various echocardiographic abnormalities. Methods The authors measured hs-TnT levels in 326 consecutive patients at 7 weeks after an ACS event. The composite end point of death from any cause or acute myocardial infarction was evaluated over a median duration of 30 months. Results A high 7-week hs-TnT (>14 ng/l) predicted adverse clinical outcomes independent of conventional risk factors, left ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography (adjusted RR: 2.69 (95% CI 1.45 to 5.00)). Patients with persistent hs-TnT elevation at 7 weeks were also at an increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with an initial high hs-TnT which then normalised (unadjusted RR 3.39 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.68)). Conclusion The authors have demonstrated the prognostic utility of a single 7-week hs-TnT measurement in routine ACS patients and that it could be used to assist medium term risk stratification in this patient cohort. In addition, the authors also showed that hs-TnT predicted long-term adverse prognosis independent of various echo parameters. Future studies should evaluate whether tailoring specific treatment interventions to higher risk individuals as identified by an elevated hs-TnT during the convalescence phase of ACS would improve clinical outcomes. PMID:22689713

  8. Evaluating Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Plasma miRNA133a in Acute Chest Pain Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ke-Gang, Jia; Zhi-Wei, Li; Xin, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Ping, Shi; Xue-Jing, Han; Hong-Xia, Tang; Xin, Tang; Xiao-Cheng, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Circulating microRNA has recently emerged as a promising biomarker for cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating miR-133a as a marker of acute myocardial infarction in acute chest pain patients undergoing coronary angiography. Plasma was collected from 312 patients with chest pain on admission in the emergency department and 67 healthy controls. MiR-133a was detected using real-time quantitative PCR and enhanced accu-TnI, creatinine kinase-MB mass, and myoglobin were measured by immunoassay. End-point events (serious adverse cardiovascular events which require hospitalization or cardiovascular death) were examined in the AMI (acute myocardical infarction) group within 1, 6, 12, and 24 months. The miR-133a level was higher in AMI patients than in non-AMI patients (P < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the sensitivity of miR-133a in diagnosis of AMI is 0.61 and the specificity is 0.68. In the prognostic analysis, only 1 endpoint event was observed in the non-AMI group; the amount of cases with end-point events in the AMI group at 1,6,12, and 24 months were 8, 19, 28, and 35, respectively. The cutoff value of miR-133a was determined using the median value of the AMI group and separated the patients into a positive group and a negative group. The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed no significant difference in survival was detected in AMI patients between the miR-133a positive group and negative group after follow-up (12-month: x2 = 1.353, P = 0.245; 24-month: x2 = 3.722, P = 0.054). After adjusting for age, gender, Killip classes, prior myocardiac infarction history, myoglobin, LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction), diabetes, hypertension, smoking and systolic blood pressure, miR133a had a significant association with the risk of events at 12 months (HR = 2.869, P = 0.024) and 24 months (HR = 3.936, P = 0.001). In patients undergoing coronary angiography

  9. Acute toxicity of 54 industrial chemicals to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmuller, P.T.; Hollister, T.A.; Parrish, P.R.

    1981-12-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted with sheepshead minnows to develop a data base from which water quality criteria could be established and to help determine priorites for further reseach efforts. Chemicals were generally those used by industry in relatively large quantities that pose potential or suspected environmental hazards, such as, chlorinated benzenes, phenols, and phthalates. The acute toxicity of the 54 chemicals varied widely. The most toxic chemical groups were the chlorinated phenols and the chlorinated benzenes with 96-h LC50's (based on nominal concentrations) ranging from 1.7-5.4 ppm and 0.8-21 ppm, respectively. The most toxic chemical tested appeared to be 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene with a 96-h LC50 of 0.8 ppm (95% confidence limits of 0.7-1.1 ppm). The 96-h LC50 for pentachlorobenzene was the same (0.8 ppm; 95% confidence limits of 0.4-1.8 ppm), but its effect early in the exposure was not as severe as the effect of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The majority of the chemicals had 96-h LC50's in the range of 10-500 ppm and were considered to be slightly toxic to practically nontoxic. Ten of the chemicals had no apparent effect at highest concentrations tested. (JMT)

  10. [Clinical value of rapid clearance in resting sestamibi cardiac SPECT in patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Itagane, H; Yamagishi, H; Otsuka, M; Minami, S; Suto, Y; Hato, K; Tojo, O; Okumachi, F; Haze, K

    1995-07-01

    Resting 99mTc sestamibi (MIBI) SPECT and exercise-reinjection thallium-201 (T1) SPECT were performed in fourteen patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). MIBI SPECT were obtained 90 min (MIBI-90) and 300 min (MIBI-300) after injection of 370 MBq of MIBI at rest. MIBI-90 and MIBI-300 were compared with exercise T1 imaging (T1-EX) and T1 reinjection imaging (REINJ). Each SPECT image was divided into 22 segments and myocardial uptake was scored visually. Abnormal perfusion defects were observed in 94 myocardial regions. Worsening of the score was observed in 79 segments (84%) on MIBI-300 compared with MIBI-90. Total MIBI-300 uptake score per person was significantly greater than that at MIBI-90 (14.8 +/- 8.6 vs. 7.7 +/- 7.9, p = 0.001). The concordance rate of defect score between MIBI-90 and REINJ was significantly higher than that between MIBI-300 and REINJ (55% vs. 17%, p = 0.001). In nine patients without recanalization of an infarct-related artery, perfusion defects were seen in 74 segments. The concordance rate of defect scores between MIBI-300 and T1-EX was significantly higher than that between MIBI-90 and T1-EX (45% vs. 16%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, rapid clearance of MIBI was observed frequently in patients with AMI. MIBI-90 and MIBI-300 may reflect myocardial viability and areas at risk for AMI, respectively.

  11. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (<7 days post hatching (dph)), juvenile (>7 dph and <20 dph) and adult (>40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  12. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  13. Prognostic value of left ventricular diastolic function and association with heart rate variability after a first acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, S; Jensen, S; Moller, J; Egstrup, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and its relation with autonomic balance expressed by heart rate variability (HRV) in patients after a first acute myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—The study population consisted of 64 consecutive patients with first acute myocardial infarction and 31 control subjects. Long and short term HRV indices were evaluated by 24 hour Holter monitoring, and LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography before discharge. Patients were divided into two groups: those with restrictive LV filling characteristics (deceleration time ⩽ 140 ms) and those with non-restrictive LV filling characteristics (deceleration time > 140 ms).
RESULTS—Both long and short term HRV indices were significantly reduced in patients with restrictive LV filling compared with the non-restrictive group and control subjects. Mitral deceleration time and isovolumetric relaxation time correlated weakly but significantly with all indices of HRV whereas ejection fraction correlated weakly with the long term HRV indices. The mean follow up time was 14.9 (8.7) months. Multivariate analysis showed that mitral deceleration time (χ2 = 6.4, p < 0.001) and ejection fraction ⩽ 40% (χ2 = 4.4, p < 0.05) were independent predictors of cardiac death and readmission to hospital with congestive heart failure.
CONCLUSIONS—A restrictive LV filling pattern was found to be the strongest predictor of adverse outcome independent of HRV and ejection fraction during follow up after a first acute myocardial infarction. Patients with restrictive LV filling characteristics had more reduced HRV than those with non-restrictive diastolic filling.


Keywords: diastole; infarction; autonomic balance PMID:11559672

  14. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) and simple PESI (sPESI) are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events) in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15), PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17) and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41), with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14), 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51), respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16), 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21), and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38), respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916), 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415), and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978), 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388), and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0.845), 0

  15. Value of Different Comorbidity Indices for Predicting Outcome in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Maxi; Hitz, Friederike; Schaffrath, Judith; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Müller, Lutz P.

    2016-01-01

    Age is a dominant predictor of outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, it is not clear to which extent comorbidities contribute to this effect. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of pretreatment comorbidities on survival of AML patients. In a single-center retrospective study 194 adult AML patients were included. The Hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI), the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) as well as data on demographics, cytogenetics, treatment and outcome were evaluated at the time of initial diagnosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. The study included 102 male and 92 female (median age 60.9 years) of which 173 (89.2%) received intensive chemotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was 17 months. In univariate analysis, cardiovascular disease (26 vs 12 months, p = .005), severe hepatic disease (19 vs 4 months, p = .013) and renal impairment (17 vs 7 months, p = .016) was associated with inferior OS. For each index, the highest comorbidity burden was associated with reduced OS. However, in multivariate analysis only the ACE-27 score was associated with outcome. Besides ECOG ≥ 2 and poor cytogenetics only the ACE-27 score but not higher age was associated with OS in the group of patients receiving intensive therapy. Adjusted hazard ratios were 3.1, 3.5 and 4.0 for mild, moderate and severe ACE-27-assessed comorbidities, respectively (p = .012). Our study confirms that comorbidities significantly impact survival of AML patients and a pretreatment assessment of comorbidities may help to identify patients with poor outcome. PMID:27732646

  16. Prognostic Value of Rising Serum Albumin During Hospitalization in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Satoshi; Kuragaichi, Takashi; Shiba, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Sato, Yukihito

    2016-04-15

    Hypoalbuminemia is an important predictor of a poor long-term prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF). However, changes in serum albumin levels in AHF have not been described to date. Therefore, we investigated the changes in serum albumin levels in patients hospitalized for AHF. This observational study included 115 consecutive patients admitted with AHF. Serum albumin was measured on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 of their hospitalization, and the changes in its levels were assessed. Cox multivariate analysis was used to compare the long-term mortality and readmission rate between 2 groups defined according to whether their serum albumin changes showed a rising pattern (serum albumin level increased from day 2 to day 7) or not. The mean serum albumin levels were 3.51 mg/dl on day 1, 3.21 mg/dl on day 2, 3.23 mg/dl on day 4, and 3.35 mg/dl on day 7 (p <0.001 by multivariate analysis of variance). The rising pattern group including 66 patients (60.6%) was independently associated with a lower mortality and readmission rate (hazard ratios 0.450 and 0.522; p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, based on multiple linear regression analysis, the changes in hemoglobin and C-reactive protein levels during days 1 to 7 were independently correlated with the changes in serum albumin levels over the same period. In conclusion, a rising pattern of serum albumin change in a patient with AHF was correlated with a good long-term prognosis. Furthermore, the change in serum albumin levels was also associated with changes in cachectic factors. PMID:27020611

  17. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  18. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L(-1) for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P < 0.05) except in the group treated with 1.00 mg L(-1) Zn (P < 0.05), where the increase of OCR was observed. The OCRs in groups chronically exposed to metals were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The activity of both pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) in sea cucumbers followed: respiratory tree > muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained. PMID:27382568

  19. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P < 0.05) except in the group treated with 1.00 mg L−1 Zn (P < 0.05), where the increase of OCR was observed. The OCRs in groups chronically exposed to metals were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The activity of both pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) in sea cucumbers followed: respiratory tree > muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained. PMID:27382568

  20. Establishing a Point of Departure for Risk Assessment Using Acute Inhalation Toxicology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bast, Cheryl B; Rusch, George M.; Cavender, Finis

    2009-01-01

    A simple method is presented for estimating a non-lethal level for inhalation toxicity studies. By reviewing 209 LC50 studies representing 96 chemicals that also reported a non-lethal level, it has been shown that taking 1/3 of the LC50 is a conservative estimate for a non-lethal exposure level. This approach was also compared to studies with LC01 and BMCL05 calculations. In the 38 studies that reported either of these values, again taking 1/3 of the LC50 provided a more conservation estimate for the non-lethal threshold. The studies included time intervals from 5 minutes out to 8 hours and utilized multiple species such as the rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig and dog. In all but 13 cases, taking 1/3 of the LC50 provided a more conservative estimate for a non-lethal exposure level compared to the experimentally observed value. In all but one of the 13 cases, the higher values were consequences of the selection of the exposure levels.

  1. Prognostic value of immunophenotypic characteristics of blast cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lanza, F; Rigolin, G M; Moretti, S; Latorraca, A; Castoldi, G

    1994-01-01

    In order to elucidate the prognostic role of cytofluorimetry analysis of leukemic cells in AML, the immunophenotypic characteristics of blast cells obtained from 66 AML patients belonging to M0-M2 and M4-M5 FAB subtypes have been investigated by flow cytometry using a large panel of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) utilized in single, double, and triple fluorescence experiments. On a univariate analysis, four different immunophenotypic blast cell characteristics were found to be associated with a poor prognosis: expression of CD34 "bright" (ratio > 10 between fluorescence emission of positive cells and that of negative (isotypic) control-P/N ratio: mean MESF value: 265,000) in > 15% blast cells, co-expression of CD34 and CD33 in > 60% blast cells, expression of CD14 in > 30% leukemic cells, the MDR+ ("multiple drug resistant") phenotype. In contrast, the duration of remission, and overall survival of AML patients showing a "dim" CD34 expression (P/N ratio: 3-10: mean MESF value: 49,000) was similar to that of CD34- AML patients, irrespective of the percentage of positivity for CD34, which was, however, a predictive factor of survival in patients with higher CD34 fluorescence intensities in their blastic population. No correlation between FAB subtypes, prognosis and immunophenotype was found. The multivariate regression analysis showed that, besides age, only the combined expression of CD34 and CD33 had independent prognostic meaning. Indeed, in each FAB subtypes the CD34+/CD33+ phenotype was associated with a shorter survival and a lower mitotic rate. These data may contribute to the understanding of the discrepancies so far observed in the literature regarding the prognostic role played by the CD34 expression on leukemic AML blasts. PMID:7521238

  2. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  3. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (< or =50 mg/L as CaCO3). Hence, the objective of the present research was to evaluate the influences of water quality on acute Cu toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in low-hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p < 0.0001) and seasonal (p = 0.026) differences among LC50 values were determined for eight sites that had multiple toxicity results for one year. All modified WERs were greater than 1.0, suggesting that the site waters were more protective of Cu toxicity than the matched laboratory water. Some WERs generated using recommended methods were less than 1.0, suggesting limited site-specific protection. Based on these observations, extrapolation of the hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  4. Comparative acute toxicity and primary irritancy of the ethylidene and vinyl isomers of norbornene.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Myers, R C; Klonne, D R

    1997-01-01

    The acute toxicity and primary irritancy of the industrial chemicals 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) and 5-vinyl-2-norbornene (VNB) were studied. They are of moderate acute peroral toxicity in the rat, with LD50 values for ENB of 2.54 (male) and 5.66 (female) ml kg(-1), and for VNB of 5.90 (male) and 11.9 (female) ml kg(-1). Percutaneous toxicity is slight in the rabbit by 24-h occluded contact, with no mortalities for ENB up to 8.0 ml kg(-1) and only one mortality (male) at 16.0 ml kg(-1) VNB. Dynamically generated saturated vapor atmosphere LT50 values for ENB in the rat were 75 (male) and 125 (female) min, and for VNB they were 28 (male) and 37 (female) min. The 4-h LC50 values for ENB were 2717 (male) and 3015 (female) ppm, and for VNB they were 2231 (male) and 2518 (female) ppm. Intravenously, the ENB LD50 ranged from 0.09 (male rabbit) to 0.11 ml kg(-1) (female); corresponding LD50 values for VNB were 0.10-0.05 mg kg(-1). Acute neurotoxic signs were seen by the intravenous and inhalation routes of exposure, including tremors, ataxia and convulsions; the latter were sufficient to cause vertebral column luxation or fracture, producing spinal cord compression and resultant hindlimb paralysis. Both ENB and VNB are moderately irritating to the skin (rabbit), causing erythema and edema, but not necrosis. Both materials cause slight conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis in rabbits, but not corneal injury. PMID:9285533

  5. No Added Value of Novel Biomarkers in the Diagnostic Assessment of Patients Suspected of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Poldervaart, Judith M.; Röttger, Emma; Dekker, Marieke S.; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P. A.; Verheggen, Peter W. H. M.; de Vrey, Evelyn A.; Wildbergh, Thierry X.; van ‘t Hof, Arnoud W. J.; Mosterd, Arend; Hoes, Arno W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of high-sensitive troponin (hs-cTnT), there is still room for improvement in the diagnostic assessment of patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Apart from serial biomarker testing, which is time-consuming, novel biomarkers like copeptin have been proposed to expedite the early diagnosis of suspected ACS in addition to hs-cTnT. We determined whether placenta derived growth factor (PlGF), soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), myoglobin, N-terminal prohormone B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and copeptin improved early assessment of chest pain patients. Methods This prospective, single centre diagnostic FAME-ER study included patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of ACS. Blood was collected to measure biomarkers, notably, hs-cTnT was retrospectively assessed. Added value of markers was judged by increase in AUC using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 453 patients enrolled, 149 (33%) received a final diagnosis of ACS. Hs-cTnT had the highest diagnostic value in both univariable and multivariable analysis. PPVs of the biomarkers ranged from 23.5% (PlGF) to 77.9% (hs-cTnT), NPVs from 67.0% (PlGF) to 86.4% (hs-cTnT). Only myoglobin yielded diagnostic value in addition to clinical symptoms and electrocardiography (ECG) (AUC of clinical model 0.80) with AUC of 0.84 (p<0.001). However, addition of hs-cTnT was superior (AUC 0.89, p<0.001). Addition of the biomarkers to our clinical model and hs-cTnT did not or only marginally (GDF-15) improved diagnostic performance. Conclusion When assessing patients suspected of ACS, only myoglobin had added diagnostic value beyond clinical symptoms and ECG. However, when combined with hs-cTnT, it yields no additional diagnostic value. PlGF, sFlt-1, NT-proBNP, GDF-15 and copeptin had no added value to the clinical model or hs-cTnT. PMID:26177390

  6. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  7. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  8. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  9. The value of simple microbiological studies for on-site screening of acute neonatal conjunctivitis in Angola

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal conjunctivitis or ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) is an acute bacterial conjunctivitis contracted by newborns during delivery. In non-industrialized countries, detection of the etiological agent is difficult due to the unavailability of modern diagnostic resources. Therefore, we analyzed the effectiveness of Gram and methylene blue staining techniques, which are simple microbiological methods in suspecting the aetiology of ON in a maternity ward in Luanda, Angola. Findings Neonatal conjunctival smears (n = 95), maternal data, and perinatal factors were collected. Slides were air-dried and sent to the Microbiology Department of the Hospital Clinico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain, where trained personnel performed Gram and methylene blue staining methods. Findings were interpreted by two expert microbiologists. Ophthalmological examination of all children showed five newborns with clinical signs of ON. Fourteen mothers reported were suspected with vulvo-vaginitis, and 27 had a urinary infection during pregnancy. Gram staining revealed the presence of epithelial cells in 87.6% and leukocytes in 15% of the conjunctival smears. These values were significantly higher than those shown by methylene blue staining. No rods, cocci, or yeasts were identified by either staining method. Chlamydia trachomatis DNA was also undetected in a small sub-sample with clinical suspicion of ON. There was no correlation among the presence of ON, ON microbes, maternal data, or perinatal factors. Conclusions Basic microbiological techniques did not provide enough information for screening cases of ON in Angola. Therefore, the use of molecular biology or other techniques is warranted for this purpose. PMID:24460893

  10. Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia reticulata, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. reticulata.

  11. Acute and Chronic Changes and Predictive Value of Tpeak-Tend for Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Cong; Hua, Wei; Cai, Chi; Ding, Li-Gang; Liu, Zhi-Min; Fan, Xiao-Han; Zhao, Yun-Zi; Zhang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolongation of the Tpeak-Tend (TpTe) interval as a measurement of transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) is an independent risk factor for chronic heart failure mortality. However, the cardiac resynchronization therapy's (CRT) effect on TDR is controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate CRTs acute and chronic effects on repolarization dispersion. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between TpTe changes and ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: The study group consisted of 101 patients treated with CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D). According to whether TpTe was shortened, patients were grouped at immediate and 1-year follow-up after CRT, respectively. The echocardiogram index and ventricular arrhythmia were observed and compared in these subgroups. Results: For all patients, TpTe slightly increased immediately after CRT-D implantation, and then decreased at the 1-year follow-up (from 107 ± 23 to 110 ± 21 ms within 24 h, to 94 ± 24 ms at 1-year follow-up, F = 19.366, P < 0.001). No significant difference in the left ventricular reverse remodeling and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) episodes between the TpTe immediately shortened and TpTe immediately nonshortened groups. However, patients in the TpTe at 1-year shorten had a higher rate of the left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (65% vs. 44%, χ2 = 4.495, P = 0.038) and less VT/VF episodes (log-rank test, χ2 = 10.207, P = 0.001) compared with TpTe 1-year nonshortened group. TpTe immediately after CRT-D independently predicted VT/VF episodes at 1-year follow-up (hazard ratio [HR], 1.030; P = 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with TpTe shortened at 1-year after CRT had a higher rate of LV reverse remodeling and less VT/VF episodes. The acute changes of TpTe after CRT have minimal value on mechanical reverse remodeling and ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:27625093

  12. [Acute toxicity of three typical pollutants to aquatic organisms and their water quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Two species of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and a red worm Chironomidae larvae were selected as test organisms in determining the acute toxicity effects of Cr (VI), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and nitrobenzene. The results were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. The 96 h-EC50 values of Cr (VI), TCP and nitrobenzene on C. pyrenoidosa were 1.34 mg x L(-1, 4.55 mg x L(-1) and 86.58 mg x L(-1), respectively, while those of S. obliqnus were 19.52 mg x L(-1), 3.71 mg x L(-1) and 74.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The mortality of C. larvae was 15% when the concentration of Cr(VI) was increased to 1,500 mg x L(-1). The 48 h-LC50 values of TCP and nitrobenzene on C. larvae were 9.29 mg x L(-1) and 98.34 mg x L(-1), respectively. These results indicated that Cr( VI) showed higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa, while only moderate toxicity to S. obliqnus; TCP had higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa and S. oblignus; while nitrobenzene was only moderately toxic to both species of microalgae. The toxicity among the three pollutants to C. larvae was in the order of TCP > nitrobenzene > Cr (VI). PMID:24720216

  13. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Helena; Runesson, Johan; Lundqvist, Jessica; Lindegren, Helene; Axelsson, Viktoria; Forsby, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  14. Acute, chronic and reproductive toxicity of complex cyanobacterial blooms in Daphnia magna and the role of microcystins.

    PubMed

    Smutná, Marie; Babica, Pavel; Jarque, Sergio; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Haeba, Maher; Bláha, Ludek

    2014-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a global threat to human health and aquatic biota. While the ecotoxicity of cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins has been studied extensively, little is known about the risks they pose in the wild, i.e. within complex biomasses. In this work, crustaceans (Daphnia magna) were exposed to varying concentrations (0-405 mg d.w L(-1)) of eight complex cyanobacterial water bloom samples in a series of acute (48 h) and chronic (21 day) toxicity experiments. Further acute and chronic exposure assays were performed using aqueous extracts of the crude biomass samples and two fractions prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE) of the aqueous extracts. The cyanobacterial biomasses differed with respect to their dominant cyanobacterial species and microcystin contents. High acute toxicity was observed for 6 of the 8 crude biomass samples. Chronic exposure assays were performed using one complex biomass sample and its various subsamples/fractions. The complex biomass, the crude aqueous extract, and the microcystin-free SPE permeate all elicited similar and significant lethal effects, with LC50 values of around 35.6 mg biomass d.w L(-1) after 21 days. The cyanobacterial biomass samples also affected reproductive health, significantly increasing the time to the first brood (LOEC = 45 mg d.w L(-1) exposure) and inhibiting fecundity by 50% at 15 mg d.w L(-1). Conversely, the microcystin-containing C18-SPE eluate fraction had only weak effects in the chronic assay. These results indicate that cyanobacterial water blooms are highly toxic to zooplankton (both acutely and chronically) at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, the effects observed in the acute and chronic assays were independent of the samples' microcystin contents. Our results thus point out the importance of other cyanobacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, various peptides and depsipeptides, polar alkaloid metabolites or other unidentified metabolites in the

  15. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  16. Value of bronchoalveolar lavage in the management of severe acute pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis in the immunocompromised child.

    PubMed Central

    de Blic, J; McKelvie, P; Le Bourgeois, M; Blanche, S; Benoist, M R; Scheinmann, P

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic value of 73 bronchoalveolar lavages was assessed in 67 immunocompromised children (aged 3 months to 16 years) with pulmonary infiltrates. Thirty one children had primary and 19 secondary immune deficiency, 14 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and three AIDS related complex. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed during fibreoptic bronchoscopy, under local anaesthesia in all but two. One or more infective agents was found in eight of 11 patients with severe acute pneumonia and in 26 of 62 patients with interstitial pneumonitis. In interstitial pneumonitis, the most frequently encountered agents were Pneumocystis carinii (12), cytomegalovirus (8), and Aspergillus fumigatus (3). The yield was related to the severity of interstitial pneumonitis. The mean cellular count and cytological profile in lavage returns from patients with varying infective agents or underlying pathological conditions showed no significant difference, except in those children with AIDS and AIDS related complex who had appreciable lymphocytosis (mean percentage of lymphocytes 28 (SD 17]. In children with AIDS and chronic interstitial pneumonitis lymphocytosis without pneumocystis infection was observed in eight of nine bronchoalveolar lavage returns and was suggestive of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage produced a specific diagnosis from the microbiological or cytological findings in 44 instances (60%). Transient exacerbation of tachypnoea was observed in the most severely ill children but there was no case of respiratory decompensation attributable to the bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and rapid examination for the investigation of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised children. It should be performed as a first line investigation and should reduce the use of open lung biopsy techniques. PMID:2827334

  17. The Prognostic Value of the Charlson's Comorbidity Index in Patients with Prolonged Acute Mechanical Ventilation: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung Eon; Lee, Sang Hee; Jo, Eun-Jung; Eom, Jung Seop; Mok, Jeong Ha; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Min Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of Charlson's weighted index of comorbidities (WIC) in patients with prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (PAMV, ventilator care ≥96 hours). Methods We retrospectively enrolled 299 Korean PAMV patients who were admitted in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2013. Survivors were defined as patients who survived for 60 days after ICU admission. Results The patients' mean age was 65.1±14.1 years and 70.6% were male. The mean ICU and hospital length of stay was 21.9±19.7 and 39.4±39.1 days, respectively. In addition, the 60-day mortality rate after ICU admission was 35.5%. The mean WIC was 2.3±1.8, with significant differences between nonsurvivors and survivors (2.7±2.1 vs. 2.1±1.7, p<0.05). The area under the curve of receiver-operating-characteristics curve for WIC was 0.593 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.523–0.661; p<0.05). Based on Kaplan-Meier curves of 60-day survival, WIC ≥5 had statistically lower survival than WIC <5 (log-rank test, p<0.05). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, WIC ≥5 was associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio, 1.901; 95% CI, 1.140–3.171; p<0.05). The mortality rate of patients with WIC ≥5 was 54.2%. Conclusion Our study showed a WIC score ≥5 might be helpful in predicting 60-day mortality in PAMV patients. PMID:27790281

  18. Hydrazine: acute toxicity to bluegills and sublethal effects on dorsal light response and agression

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.W.; Harrah, C.B.; Berry, W.O.

    1980-05-01

    The effects of hydrazine on bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, were assessed in terms of acute toxicity and by examining the alterations hydrazine induced in the dorsal light response and agressiveness. The static 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of hydrazine was 1.08 mg/liter and the 96-hour continuous-flow no-lethal-effect concentration was 0.43 mg/liter. The dorsal light response in the presence of an artificial prey was significantly decreased within 15 minutes of exposure to hydrazine concentrations well below the 96-hour static LC50. This was true both in static and in continuous-flow conditions. In addition, aggresiveness, as measured by the number of attacks on the prey, was increased in a dose-related manner. Control fish made no attacks, but attacks increased as the hydrazine concentrations increased. These behavioral measurements offer some promise as monitors of subtle, sublethal effects of hydrazine and possibly other aquatic pollutants on fish.

  19. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Darsana, R; Chandrasehar, G; Deepa, V; Gowthami, Y; Chitrikha, T; Ayyappan, S; Goparaju, A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95% confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L(-1), respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L(-1). Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea. PMID:26350898

  20. The value of selected in vitro and in silico methods to predict acute oral toxicity in a regulatory context: results from the European Project ACuteTox.

    PubMed

    Prieto, P; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, A; Stanzel, S; Albella, B; Artursson, P; Campillo, N; Cecchelli, R; Cerrato, L; Díaz, L; Di Consiglio, E; Guerra, A; Gombau, L; Herrera, G; Honegger, P; Landry, C; O'Connor, J E; Páez, J A; Quintas, G; Svensson, R; Turco, L; Zurich, M G; Zurbano, M J; Kopp-Schneider, A

    2013-06-01

    ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification of the most promising ones. Thirty-two chemicals were tested blind in the battery of in vitro and in silico methods selected during the first phase of the project. This paper describes the classification approaches studied: single step procedures and two step tiered testing strategies. In summary, four in vitro testing strategies were proposed as best performing in terms of predictive capacity with respect to the European acute oral toxicity classification. In addition, a heuristic testing strategy is suggested that combines the prediction results gained from the neutral red uptake assay performed in 3T3 cells, with information on neurotoxicity alerts identified by the primary rat brain aggregates test method. Octanol-water partition coefficients and in silico prediction of intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier passage are also considered. This approach allows to reduce the number of chemicals wrongly predicted as not classified (LD50>2000 mg/kg b.w.).

  1. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels.

  2. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. PMID:27243931

  3. [Acute Toxicity and Safety Assessment of Three Typical Organic Pollutants to Two Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ya-jie; Cui, Yi-bin; Li, Mei

    2015-08-01

    Acute toxic effects of three typical organic pollutants 1 ,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB), nitrobenzene and chlorpyrifos were investigated using Tetrahymena thermophila and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri as living test organisms under laboratory conditions. The results showed that with the increase of pollutants' concentration and the extension of time, toxicity of the three kinds of pollutants significantly enhanced, and the mortality of two kinds of aquatic organisms also had a rising trend, and an obvious dose-effect relationship. The 96 h-LC50. values of 1 ,2, 4-TCB, nitrobenzene and chlorpyrifos were 71.88, 285.76, and 5.50 mg x L(-1) for L. hoffmeisteri and 15.58, 140.22, and 14.69 mg x L(-1) for T. thermophila. These results showed that the toxicity among the three typical pollutants to T. thermophila was 1 , 2,4-TCB > chlorpyrifos > nitrobenzene. Findings were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. PMID:26592043

  4. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  5. The potential of clofarabine in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Stumpel, Dominique J P M; Schneider, Pauline; Pieters, Rob; Stam, Ronald W

    2015-09-01

    MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in infants is the most difficult-to-treat type of childhood ALL, displaying a chemotherapy-resistant phenotype, and unique histone modifications, gene expression signatures and DNA methylation patterns. MLL-rearranged infant ALL responds remarkably well to nucleoside analogue drugs in vitro, such as cytarabine and cladribine, and to the demethylating agents decitabine and zebularine as measured by cytotoxicity assays. These observations led to the inclusion of cytarabine into the treatment regimens currently used for infants with ALL. However, survival chances for infants with MLL-rearranged ALL do still not exceed 30-40%. Here we explored the in vitro potential of the novel nucleoside analogue clofarabine for MLL-rearranged infant ALL. Therefore we used both cell line models as well as primary patient cells. Compared with other nucleoside analogues, clofarabine effectively targeted primary MLL-rearranged infant ALL cells at the lowest concentrations, with median LC50 values of ∼25 nM. Interestingly, clofarabine displayed synergistic cytotoxic effects in combination with cytarabine. Furthermore, at concentrations of 5-10nM clofarabine induced demethylation of the promoter region of the tumour suppressor gene FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad), a gene typically hypermethylated in MLL-rearranged ALL. Demethylation of the FHIT promoter region was accompanied by subtle re-expression of this gene both at the mRNA and protein level. We conclude that clofarabine is an interesting candidate for further studies in MLL-rearranged ALL in infants.

  6. Negative prognostic value of CD34 antigen also if expressed on a small population of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Raponi, Sara; Molica, Matteo; Colafigli, Gioia; Minotti, Clara; Latagliata, Roberto; Diverio, Daniela; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-11-01

    Potential clinical significance of CD34 expression in acute promyelocitic leukemia (APL) has not been deeply investigated. We hereby analyzed the clinico-biological features and treatment outcome of APL patients in relation to CD34 expression, even when expressed in a small subpopulation: 114 APL patients homogeneously treated with the AIDA schedule were included in the study and prognostic correlation with respect to CD34 expression, both when expressed in association with CD2 and as isolated expression (cutoff ≥2 to <10 % or ≥10 %), were investigated. CD34 was associated to CD2 in 30 patients and was isolated in 19 patients. When compared to the CD34-negative population, CD34/CD2 expression identified a subgroup with characteristic features: M3 variant subtype (26 vs 7 % in the negative group, p = 0.02), bcr3 transcript subtype (73 vs 32 %, p = 0.001), high risk according to the risk of relapse (66 vs 17 %, p = 0.002), high incidence of differentiation syndrome (26 vs 12 %, p = 0.01), lower overall survival (88 vs 95 %), and a significantly higher rate of relapse (22 vs 13.8 %, p = 0.05). We then evaluated the prognostic value of isolated CD34 expression: it was detected in nine patients with a cutoff of expression ≥10 % and in 10 patients with a cutoff ≥2 but <10 %. Isolated CD34 positivity identified a subgroup with a classic morphology (79 %), bcr1 prevalence (53 %), higher rate of relapse (37 vs 13.8 % in the negative group, p = 0.002), higher incidence of differentiation syndrome (55 vs 12 %, p = 0.03), and lower overall survival (60 vs 95 %, p = 0.001). The results of our study confirm that CD34/CD2 expression characterizes a subset of APL with a high WBC count and a variant morphological subtype, associated with an unfavorable clinical course. We also show that the isolated expression of CD34, even at a low cutoff, identifies a group of classic APL with a negative prognosis. Further studies aimed at identifying other

  7. Negative prognostic value of CD34 antigen also if expressed on a small population of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Raponi, Sara; Molica, Matteo; Colafigli, Gioia; Minotti, Clara; Latagliata, Roberto; Diverio, Daniela; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-11-01

    Potential clinical significance of CD34 expression in acute promyelocitic leukemia (APL) has not been deeply investigated. We hereby analyzed the clinico-biological features and treatment outcome of APL patients in relation to CD34 expression, even when expressed in a small subpopulation: 114 APL patients homogeneously treated with the AIDA schedule were included in the study and prognostic correlation with respect to CD34 expression, both when expressed in association with CD2 and as isolated expression (cutoff ≥2 to <10 % or ≥10 %), were investigated. CD34 was associated to CD2 in 30 patients and was isolated in 19 patients. When compared to the CD34-negative population, CD34/CD2 expression identified a subgroup with characteristic features: M3 variant subtype (26 vs 7 % in the negative group, p = 0.02), bcr3 transcript subtype (73 vs 32 %, p = 0.001), high risk according to the risk of relapse (66 vs 17 %, p = 0.002), high incidence of differentiation syndrome (26 vs 12 %, p = 0.01), lower overall survival (88 vs 95 %), and a significantly higher rate of relapse (22 vs 13.8 %, p = 0.05). We then evaluated the prognostic value of isolated CD34 expression: it was detected in nine patients with a cutoff of expression ≥10 % and in 10 patients with a cutoff ≥2 but <10 %. Isolated CD34 positivity identified a subgroup with a classic morphology (79 %), bcr1 prevalence (53 %), higher rate of relapse (37 vs 13.8 % in the negative group, p = 0.002), higher incidence of differentiation syndrome (55 vs 12 %, p = 0.03), and lower overall survival (60 vs 95 %, p = 0.001). The results of our study confirm that CD34/CD2 expression characterizes a subset of APL with a high WBC count and a variant morphological subtype, associated with an unfavorable clinical course. We also show that the isolated expression of CD34, even at a low cutoff, identifies a group of classic APL with a negative prognosis. Further studies aimed at identifying other

  8. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2013-09-15

    The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4-8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na(+) followed by K(+) (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na(+) and K(+). Overall, whole body Na(+) loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis may be a common mechanism underlying the acute additive toxicity of many contaminants in fish.

  9. Influence of dissolved organic matter on acute toxicity of zinc to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Bringolf, Robert B; Morris, Brady A; Boese, Connie J; Santore, Robert C; Allen, Herbert E; Meyer, Joseph S

    2006-10-01

    We conducted laboratory toxicity tests in support of the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of zinc (Zn) to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). To test the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on Zn toxicity, we exposed larval fathead minnows to Zn in water containing elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in 96-h static-renewal toxicity tests. We tested DOM isolated from four surface waters: Cypress Swamp, Delaware; Edisto River, South Carolina; Suwannee River, Georgia; and Wilmington, Delaware, wastewater treatment effluent. The DOM isolates from the Edisto River and Wilmington wastewater treatment effluent contained elevated concentrations of NaCl (20-110x control NaCl) due to the use of a Na+-exchange resin to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ during the DOM isolation process. Therefore, we also performed Zn toxicity tests in which we added up to 20 mM NaCl to exposure solutions containing Cypress Swamp and Suwannee River DOM. A threshold concentration of 11 mg DOC/L was needed to decrease Zn toxicity, after which the 96 h Zn LC50 was positively correlated with DOC concentration. Elevated NaCl concentrations did not alter Zn toxicity in the presence of DOM. In conjunction with data from other studies with fish and invertebrates, results of this study were used to calibrate Version 2.1.1 of the Zn BLM. BLM-predicted LC50s for our exposure waters containing elevated DOM concentrations were within the range of acceptable deviation relative to the observed LC50s (i.e., 0.5-2x observed LC50s); however, BLM-predicted LC50s for our exposure waters containing < 1 mg DOC/L were 2-3x lower than the observed LC50s (i.e., the BLM over-predicted the toxicity). Therefore, the current composite-species BLM for Zn could be improved for fathead minnows if that species were modeled separately from the other species used to calibrate Version 2.1.1. PMID:16788742

  10. An evaluation of the influence of substrate on the response of juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) in acute water exposures to ammonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.

    2010-01-01

    Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity to three-month-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was evaluated in four treatments (water-only, water-only with feeding, water and soil, and water and sand) using an exposure unit designed to maintain consistent pH and ammonia concentrations in overlying water and in pore water surrounding the substrates. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for total ammonia nitrogen in the four treatments ranged from 5.6 to 7.7mg/L and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 7.0 to 11mg/L at a mean pH of 8.4. Similar EC50s or LC50s with overlapping 95% confidence intervals among treatments indicated no influence of substrate on the response of mussels in acute exposures to ammonia. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  11. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms.

  12. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  13. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Agustín; Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  14. Effect of acclimation period on the relationship of acute copper toxicity to water hardness for fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.; Kleiner, C.F.; Fiandt, J.T.; Highland, T.L.

    1997-04-01

    The acute toxicity of copper sulfate to fathead minnows was tested in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment, with factors being low and high water hardness during an acclimation period and low and high hardness during the exposure period. Acclimation hardness was found to have no significant effects on copper lethality, except that the 24-h LC50 at high exposure hardness was 44% higher for fish subject to low acclimation hardness than fish subject to high acclimation hardness. In contrast, exposure hardness was found to have major effects, with LC50s being two or three times greater at high exposure hardness than at low, regardless of the acclimation hardness. These results suggest that the extent of the acclimation period is not a general, severely confounding factor for previous reports of the effects of hardness on copper toxicity to fish, although it may assume some importance for some species and test conditions.

  15. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Isaza, Ramiro; Wiedner, Ellen; Hiser, Sarah; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3-12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0-47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0-1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care.

  16. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Isaza, Ramiro; Wiedner, Ellen; Hiser, Sarah; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3-12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0-47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0-1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care. PMID:25057161

  17. Winter third- to fourth-instar larvae of Chironomus plumosus as bioassay tools for assessment of acute toxicity of metals and their binary combinations.

    PubMed

    Fargasová, A

    2001-01-01

    The ecotoxicological effect expressed as mortality of four metal ions (Cd, Cu, Zn, Al) and their associations on winter third- to fourth-instar larvae of Chironomus plumosus was determined. The effect of individual metals was introduced as acute toxicological effect and expressed as LC(50) and LC95 values with 95% intervals of confidence. On the basis of the LC50 values the toxicity of metals after 96 h treatment was ranked Cu>Cd>Zn>Al. Copper was at least 100 times more toxic than other metals tested. When the acute toxic effect of metal pairs was observed, in general, deleterious effects were directly proportional to metal concentrations. The toxicity of metals in combinations was different from that of individual metals, because of either antagonism or synergism. From the results obtained it can be concluded that when in metal pairs in which the original metal (the metal for which the interaction was determined) is at the lower concentration (Cd 10 mg x L(-1), Zn 25 mg x L(-1), Al 25 mg x L(-1), Cu 0.1 mg x L(-1)), the prevailing interaction is synergism (mortality was higher for metal combinations than for individual metals). Except for an overadditive effect (synergism), additivity was also confirmed in some cases (Al25+Cd10; Al25+Cd25; Al25+Cu0.1; Cu0.1+Cd10; Cu0.1+Cd25; Cu0.1+Al50). Synergism, in combinations in which the original metal is at the higher concentration (Cd 25 mg x L(-1), Zn 50 mg x L(-1), Al 50 mg x L(-1), Cu 1.0 mg x L(-1)), was observed only for the pairs Zn50+Al25 and Zn50+Cu1.0. Reciprocal additivity was observed after 96 h of treatment only for the combination Zn50+Al50. For all other binary combinations in which the original metal was at the higher concentration, an antagonistic effect was confirmed.

  18. Acute toxicity of arsenic and oxidative stress responses in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Ferrari, Ana; Bongiovanni, Guillermina Azucena; Venturino, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic (As), a natural element of ecological relevance, is found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 mg/L and 15 mg/L. The autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the acute toxicity of As and the biochemical responses elicited by the exposure to As in water during its embryonic development. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value averaged 24.3 mg/L As and remained constant along the embryonic development. However, As toxicity drastically decreased when embryos were exposed from heartbeat-stage on day 4 of development, suggesting the onset of detoxification mechanisms. Given the environmental concentrations of As in Argentina, there is a probability of exceeding lethal levels at 1% of sites. Arsenic at sublethal concentrations caused a significant decrease in the total antioxidant potential but generated an increase in endogenous glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. This protective response might prevent a deeper decline in the antioxidant system and further oxidative damage. Alternatively, it might be linked to As conjugation with GSH for its excretion. The authors conclude that toad embryos are more sensitive to As during early developmental stages and that relatively high concentrations of this toxic element are required to elicit mortality, but oxidative stress may be an adverse effect at sublethal concentrations.

  19. Values of using QTc and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide as markers for early detection of acute antipsychotic drugs-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mohamed A M; Abdelrahman, Tarek M; Abbas, Mohamed F

    2011-03-01

    We aimed at studying the acute cardiotoxicity of the most commonly used antipsychotics in Egypt using QTc interval and NT-proBNP as markers for the early detection of such cases. Eighty-two admitted patients, at El-Minia PCC (period from 1-7-2005 to 30-6-2010), were classified into 3 groups: I: acute thioridazine overdose (n = 28), II: acute pimozide overdose (n = 23), and III: acute clozapine overdose (n = 31). Patients were investigated for NT-proBNP level and QTc on admission (day 0) and after 24 h (day 1). All the studied drugs had the ability to induce cardiotoxicity in the form of hypotension and dysrhythmias. Thioridazine and pimozide had potentially serious cardiotoxic effects than clozapine. NT-proBNP levels were elevated significantly in all groups on days 0 and 1 when compared with the reference value and a significant decrease in the same parameter on day 1 when compared with that of day 0 within the same group. QTc showed a significant prolongation in all studied groups on days 0 and 1, and there was a significant shortening of QTc on day 1 when compared with that of day 0 within the same group. A significant positive correlation of NT-proBNP level elevation with QTc prolongation was reported in all groups on days 0 and 1. Serious dysrhythmias were associated with QTc prolongation greater than 500 ms. And it was concluded that NT-proBNP, in adjunction with QTc measurement, may be a valuable and sensitive laboratory biomarker to predict cardiotoxicity of antipsychotic overdose. Larger multicenter studies are still needed to verify this possible relationship.

  20. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  1. Prognostic value of plasma biomarkers in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a review of advances in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Cao, Richard Y; Zheng, Hongchao; Guo, Junjun; Redfearn, Damian P

    2016-05-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a serious life-threatening cardiovascular disease. Despite dramatic therapeutic advances, there have still been more than 20% patients with ACS suffering recurrent adverse cardiovascular events 3 years after disease onset. Therefore, the aim to prevent cardiac death caused by the heart attack remains challenging. Plasma biomarkers, originally developed to complement clinical assessment and electrocardiographic examination for the diagnosis of ACS, have been reported to play important prognostic roles in predicting adverse outcomes. These biomarkers mirror different pathophysiological mechanisms in association with ACS. In this review, we focus on advances of prognostic biomarkers in the past decade for short- and long-term risk assessment and management of patients with ACS. PMID:27089223

  2. Comparative evaluation of antipruritic protocols in acute burns. The emerging value of gabapentin in the treatment of burns pruritus.

    PubMed

    Goutos, Ioannis; Eldardiri, Mohammed; Khan, Aadil A; Dziewulski, Peter; Richardson, Patricia M

    2010-01-01

    Pruritus is a distressing symptom in burns rehabilitation and its treatment represents a challenge for the multidisciplinary burns team. We conducted a comparative study of two different therapeutic approaches in hospitalized burns patients using a combination of pharmacological agents. The observed symptomatic response to gabapentin as monotherapy as well as in combination therapy with two antihistamines was higher than chlorpheniramine alone and in combination with another two antihistamines (t = 3.70, df = 89, P < .001 for monotherapy and chi(2) = 12.2, df = 1, P = .001 for polytherapy). Patients with higher initial itch scores needed a combination of pharmacologic agents for effective symptomatic relief. A linear regression model showed that the likelihood of failure of monotherapy was marginally associated with decreasing patient age (P = .013) and increasing TBSA (P = .021, sum of square = 1.986, df = 2, P = .04). A combined approach using centrally and peripherally acting agents is most effective in the treatment of acute burns pruritus.

  3. Incremental Value of Left Atrial Global Longitudinal Strain for Prediction of Post Stroke Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Darae; Cho, In Jeong; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Ha, Jong-Won; Heo, Ji Hoe; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-established risk factor for stroke. Interestingly, ischemic stroke increases risk of incident AF in patients without prior diagnosed AF. For better risk stratification for post-stroke AF, we studied left atrial (LA) size and mechanical function using two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking imaging in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods A total of 227 patients (132 males, age 67 ± 12) with acute ischemic stroke without a history of AF underwent 2D transthoracic echocardiography and speckle tracking imaging for the assessment of LA volume index and global LA longitudinal strain (LALS). From clinical variables, the CHA2DS2-VASc score and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were calculated in each patient. Post-stroke AF was defined as newly diagnosed AF during the course after ischemic stroke. Results Post-stroke AF occurred in 25 patients (11%). Patients with post-stroke AF were older and showed a higher tendency of CHA2DS2-VASc score, significantly higher log NIHSS, larger LA volume index and lower global LALS than those without. In multivariate analysis, global LALS was an independent predictor for post-stroke AF (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.83.0.97, p < 0.01) after controlling for confounding factors. Furthermore, global LALS provided incremental predictive value for post-stroke AF over the CHA2DS2-VASc score, NIHSS, and LA volume index. The global LALS < 14.5% better distinguished post-stroke AF (area under the curve 0.837, sensitivity 60%, specificity 95%, p < 0.01) than CHA2DS2-VASc score. Conclusion Global LALS as a marker of LA mechanical function has incremental predictive value for post-stroke AF in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27081440

  4. Late prognostic value of scintigraphic parameters of acute myocardial infarction size in complicated myocardial infarction without heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Perez-Gonzalez, J.F.; Dunn, R.; Ports, T.; Chatterjee, K.; Parmley, W.

    1983-04-01

    Perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201, infarct scintigraphy with technetium-99m pyrophosphate (TcPYP), and equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy were performed during the initial hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) in 25 patients without evidence of heart failure who presented with advanced electrocardiographic rhythm and conduction disturbances requiring treatment. Scintigraphic findings during short-term hospitalization were related to the late clinical follow-up performed an average of 14 months later, where patients were grouped as asymptomatic, 8 patients; symptomatic, 9 patients; and deceased, 8 patients. Quantitation of perfusion abnormalities, TcPYP image abnormalities, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) revealed that the deceased group had significantly larger TcPYP abnormalities (36 +/- 20 cm2), absolute perfusion abnormalities (32 +/- 16 cm2), and perfusion abnormalities expressed as a percentage of the projected left ventricular area (42 +/- 8%) than the asymptomatic group (13 +/- 8 cm2, 14 +/- 6 cm2, and 20 +/- 9%; p less than 0.05, p greater than 0.05, and p less than 0.01, respectively). The percent perfusion abnormality was significantly larger in the deceased group (42 +/- 8%, p less than 0.01) than in either the symptomatic group (35 +/- 13%, p less than 0.01) or the asymptomatic group (20 +/- 9%), and this parameter in the symptomatic group also differed from that in the asymptomatic group (p less than 0.01). The study indicates that patients with rhythm and conduction disturbances and without congestive heart failure during acute MI may follow an uncomplicated or a complicated late clinical course. Early scintigraphic measurements of MI and perfusion correlate well with this outcome; however, EF could not differentiate among prognostic subgroups.

  5. A single center analysis of nucleophosmin in acute myeloid leukemia: value of combining immunohistochemistry with molecular mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Woolthuis, Carolien M; Mulder, André B; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Rosati, Stefano; Diepstra, Arjan; van den Berg, Eva; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo; Kluin, Philip M; Huls, Gerwin

    2013-10-01

    Mutations of nucleophosmin 1 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia and lead to aberrant cytoplasmic accumulation of nucleophosmin protein. Immunohistochemical staining is therefore recommended as the technique of choice in front-line screening. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed bone marrow biopsies compared with gold standard molecular analysis to predict nucleophosmin 1 mutation status in 119 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discrepant cases were further characterized by gene expression analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A large overlap between both methods was observed. Nevertheless, nine patients demonstrated discordant results at initial screening. Five cases demonstrated nuclear staining of nucleophosmin 1 by immunohistochemistry, but a nucleophosmin 1 mutation by molecular analysis. In two cases this could be attributed to technical issues and in three cases minor subpopulations of myeloblasts had not been discovered initially. All tested cases exhibited the characteristic nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern. Four cases had cytoplasmic nucleophosmin 1 staining and a nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern without a detectable nucleophosmin 1 mutation. In two of these cases we found the chromosomal translocation t(3;5)(q25;q35) encoding the NPM-MLF1 fusion protein. In the other discrepant cases the aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin staining and gene expression could not be explained. In total six patients (5%) had true discordant results between immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. We conclude that cytoplasmic nucleophosmin localization is not always caused by a conventional nucleophosmin 1 mutation and that in the screening for nucleophosmin 1 abnormalities, most information will be obtained by combining immunohistochemistry with molecular analysis. PMID:23716555

  6. Acute toxicity, biochemical and gene expression responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to polycyclic musks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Shuo; Xiu, Zongming

    2011-05-01

    AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (galaxolide) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and have potential adverse impacts on soil organisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AHTN and HHCB on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) as an important soil animal with attention to the acute toxicity, biochemical and transcriptional changes of representative antioxidant enzymatic (SOD, CAT) and stress-response gene (Hsp70). The 48 h-LC(50) value was 20.76 μg cm(-2) for AHTN and 11.87 μg cm(-2) for HHCB respectively in the acute lethal studies. The time-dependent elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular oxidative injury of E. fetida might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. SOD and CAT were both up-regulated at low exposure dose (0.6 μg cm(-2) AHTN and 0.3 μg cm(-2) HHCB) during 48 h testing period, which protected earthworms from oxidative stresses. However, the down-regulation of SOD and CAT after 48 h exposure to high dose contaminants might be caused by the extreme oxidative stress levels (maximum up-regulation 1.70-fold and 1.40-fold for MDA levels at 6.0 μg cm(-2) AHTN and 3.0 μg cm(-2) HHCB compared to the controls, respectively). The Hsp70 gene expression did not show variation during 48 h, except that it had a significant down-regulation (P<0.05) after 48 h of exposure to high doses of contaminants. These results showed that the dermal contact of AHTN and HHCB could result in pronounced biochemical and physiological responses to earthworms, and the transcriptional level changes in antioxidant genes could be potential molecular biomarkers for the stress of the pollutants.

  7. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  8. Acute toxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida of 18 common pharmaceuticals in artificial soil.

    PubMed

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Val, Jonatan; Mainar, Ana Ma; Zuriaga, Estefanía; Español, Cecilia; Langa, Elisa

    2015-06-15

    Following soil applications of recycled water and biosolids, pharmaceutical residues can eventually enter the terrestrial environment. In vitro and in vivo assays have largely focused on the acute ecotoxicity of these compounds in aquatic systems. However, studies on the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals in soil biota are especially scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of 18 pharmaceuticals (4 NSAIDs, 5 blood lipid-lowering agents, 6 β-blockers and 3 antibiotics) that are usually found in the environment by using an Eisenia fetida bioassay. In addition, the presence of these pharmaceuticals in artificial soil was verified at the end of the test. Our results indicate that seven of the studied drugs cause acute adverse effects in E. fetida, in particular, the NSAIDs and the blood lipid-lowering agents. Ibuprofen (LC50=64.80 mg/kg) caused the highest acute toxicity for all tested compounds, followed by diclofenac (LC50=90.49 mg/kg) and simvastatin (LC50=92.70 mg/kg). Other tested pharmaceuticals from NSAIDs and blood lipid-lowering families have toxicity effects, from a LC50=140.87 mg/kg for gemfibrozil to 795.07 mg/kg for lovastatin. Atorvastatin, bezafibrate, β-blockers and antibiotics showed no detectable lethality in E. fetida. The four NSAIDs showed evidence of modification of their original chemical structure after 14 days so the detected toxicity may be due to the original product as well as their degradation products. The three blood lipid-lowering agents seem to be more stable in soil. From an environmental perspective, the lethal concentrations of the tested drugs are much greater than those reported in wastewater and biosolids, therefore acute toxic effects may be improbable. However, little is known about the accumulation of these substances in soils after regular applications, so accumulative and chronic effects cannot be excluded. Moreover, more studies are needed to determine the role of the degradation

  9. A Comparison of Prognostic Value of the Levels of ProBNP and Troponin T in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Dapcevic, Irena; Datsios, Antonis; Koutsambasopoulos, Kostas; Gontopoulos, Argirios; Grigoriadis, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The propeptide of brain natriuretic peptide (ProBNP) is used for the diagnosis of left ventricle dysfunction and heart failure. In patients with an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) it can contribute to both short and long term prognosis of cardiovascular events that could be very important for management and therapy of these patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ProBNP for the clinical course after an acute coronary syndrome, compared with that of cardiac troponine T (cTnT) and the risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndrome, both during hospitalization and six months later. Methods: We studied 390 patients (256 men, 134 women, mean age 66.04+12.38) with an acute coronary syndrome who were hospitalized in the Coronary Unit of our cardiology clinic. We studied epidemiological and clinical data and biochemical markers were examined as prognostic factors for clinical course intrahospital and during six months follow-up. Results: In the majority of patients, a myocardial infarction without ST elevation was diagnosed (NSTEMI) (193 patients 49.49%) while 167 patients (42.82%) had a myocardial infarction with ST elevation (STEMI) and the remaining 30 patients (7.69%) had unstable angina. Patients had multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease. The levels of ProBNP were significantly elevated in patients with STEMI (p=0.003) and NSTEMI (p=0.002) who died or experienced an adverse event (angina, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias) during hospitalization. After six months of follow-up, patients who had an adverse event had higher levels of ProBNP. There was no difference in troponine T levels in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI who had adverse events compared with the others, either during hospitalization or after six months. Conclusion: The level of ProBNP is an important predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study

  10. [Acute Kidney Injury: the nephrology plus value and competence and a good organization can ameliorate the prognosis].

    PubMed

    Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Guastoni, Carlo Maria; Battistoni, Sara; Patera, Francesco; Quintaliani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) has changed radically in the past 15 years: we have observed an exponential increase of cases with high mortality and residual disability, particularly in those patients who need dialysis treatment. Those who survive AKI have an increased risk of requiring dialysis after hospital discharge over the short term as well as long term. They have an increased risk of deteriorating residual kidney function and cardiovascular events as well as a shorter life expectancy. Given the severe prognosis, difficulties of treatment, high level of resources needed, increased workload and consequently costs, several aspects of AKI have not been sufficiently investigated. Any national register of AKI has not been developed and its absence has an impact on provisional strategies. Specific training should be planned beginning with University, which should include practical training in Intensive Care Units. A definition of the organizational characteristics and requirements for the care of AKI is needed. Treatment of AKI is not based exclusively on dialysis efficiency or technology, but also on professional skills, volume of activity, clinical experience, model of healthcare organizations, continuity of processes and medical activities to guarantee such as a closed-staff system. Progress in knowledge and technology has only partially modified the outcome and prognosis of AKI patients; consequently, new strategies based on increased awareness, on the implementation of professional skills, and on revision, definition and updating of resources for the organization of AKI management are needed and expected over the short term. PMID:27545634

  11. Utility of serum procalcitonin values in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cautionary note

    PubMed Central

    Falsey, Ann R; Becker, Kenneth L; Swinburne, Andrew J; Nylen, Eric S; Snider, Richard H; Formica, Maria A; Hennessey, Patricia A; Criddle, Mary M; Peterson, Derick R; Walsh, Edward E

    2012-01-01

    Background Serum procalcitonin levels have been used as a biomarker of invasive bacterial infection and recently have been advocated to guide antibiotic therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, rigorous studies correlating procalcitonin levels with microbiologic data are lacking. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) have been linked to viral and bacterial infection as well as noninfectious causes. Therefore, we evaluated procalcitonin as a predictor of viral versus bacterial infection in patients hospitalized with AECOPD with and without evidence of pneumonia. Methods Adults hospitalized during the winter with symptoms consistent with AECOPD underwent extensive testing for viral, bacterial, and atypical pathogens. Serum procalcitonin levels were measured on day 1 (admission), day 2, and at one month. Clinical and laboratory features of subjects with viral and bacterial diagnoses were compared. Results In total, 224 subjects with COPD were admitted for 240 respiratory illnesses. Of these, 56 had pneumonia and 184 had AECOPD alone. A microbiologic diagnosis was made in 76 (56%) of 134 illnesses with reliable bacteriology (26 viral infection, 29 bacterial infection, and 21 mixed viral bacterial infection). Mean procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia compared with AECOPD. However, discrimination between viral and bacterial infection using a 0.25 ng/mL threshold for bacterial infection in patients with AECOPD was poor. Conclusion Procalcitonin is useful in COPD patients for alerting clinicians to invasive bacterial infections such as pneumonia but it does not distinguish bacterial from viral and noninfectious causes of AECOPD. PMID:22399852

  12. Incremental value of the bone marrow trephine biopsy in detecting residual leukemia following treatment for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Saini, Lalit; Brandwein, Joseph; Turner, Robert; Larratt, Loree; Hamilton, Marlene; Peters, Anthea; Wu, Cynthia; Zhu, Nancy; Taparia, Minakshi; Patterson, Jeffery M; Bolster, Lauren; Mant, Michael; Ritchie, Bruce; Liew, Elena; Mirza, Imran; Quest, Graeme; Nahirniak, Susan; Ghosh, Sunita; Sandhu, Irwindeep

    2016-06-01

    Most guidelines suggest that only the bone marrow aspirate (BMA) is necessary to assess residual disease following intensive chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with the bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMTB) recommended in cases of a poor quality BMA. We performed a retrospective study evaluating this in a cohort of patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for AML. Residual disease was assessed by morphological examination of the BMA and BMTB±immunohistochemistry. Of the 647 marrows 32.6% were interim marrows performed prior to peripheral count recovery, 41.7% were end of induction (EOI) marrows and the remaining were 'other marrows'. The BMA and BMTB findings were concordant in 92.8% of cases. The BMTB led to a change in diagnosis from 'no leukemia' to 'residual leukemia' in 5.2% of interim, 3.7% of EOI and 2.4% of 'other' marrows. The BMA alone had a sensitivity of 86.8% in detecting residual leukemia and of 82.3%, 82.5% and 94.2% for interim, EOI and 'other marrows', respectively. Despite the high concordance between the BMA and the BMTB the poor sensitivity of the BMA in detecting residual leukemia, particularly at EOI, may lead to an overestimation of the complete remission rates which may have therapeutic and clinical trial implications.

  13. Predictive value of indium-111 antimyosin uptake for improvement of left ventricular wall motion after thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; Baas, J.; Visser, C.A.; van Royen, E.; Delemarre, B.J.; Bot, H.; Dunning, A.J.

    1989-07-15

    In 21 patients treated with thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the degree of myocardial uptake of indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibodies injected within 24 hours after onset of AMI was compared with the degree and extent of regional asynergy on admission and discharge, as assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. On the first day of AMI, 80 MBq of indium-111 antimyosin was injected and planar images were made 24 hours later. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was evaluated for count density index (count density of infarct zone/left lung count density) in the left anterior oblique projection, in which the infarction zone was well displayed in all patients. Using 2-dimensional echocardiography, the left ventricle was divided into 13 segments and evaluated for regional asynergy, which was considered severe (akinesia or dyskinesia) or mild (hypokinesia). The extent of regional asynergy was measured by the number of asynergic segments. All 21 patients had severe regional asynergy on admission. Nine of 21 showed only mild regional asynergy on discharge and 12 of 21 had persistent severe regional asynergy in at least 1 segment. The count density index was significantly lower in patients with mild regional asynergy on discharge compared with patients with severe regional asynergy (1.63 +/- 0.27 vs 2.50 +/- 0.42, p less than 0.01).

  14. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Jan-Peter; Manka, Paul; Katsounas, Antonios; Syn, Wing-Kin; Führer, Dagmar; Gieseler, Robert K.; Bechmann, Lars P.; Gerken, Guido; Moeller, Lars C.; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF) and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF. Methods 84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR). TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), T4, and T3 were determined. Results More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression. Conclusions In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity. PMID:26147961

  15. Validation of laboratory versus field avoidance behavior of schooling fathead minnows to heavy metal blends relative to acute toxicity during long term exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    Avoidance and toxicity of four metals (relative proportions: 1.00 copper, 0.54 chromium, 1.85 arsenic, 0.38 selenium) were determined for schools of fathead minnows (Pimephalese promelas) in laboratory chamber, artificial stream and natural stream settings during continuous exposure to the metal blend. Laboratory avoidance responses were determined seasonally in a steep-gradient, laminar-flow chamber. Unexposed fish avoided 29 ug/L total metals. Fish exposed to 49 ug/L total metals for 3 months failed to avoid concentrations up to 245 ug/L total metals. Activity was not affected by long term exposure. Artificial stream avoidance responses were determined seasonally during 7 months of field laboratory holding in New River water for unexposed (control) fish and exposed (98 ug/L total metals) fish. In-stream avoidance responses were determined in the summer for unexposed (control) and exposed (98 ug/L total metals) fish in a second order tributary to the New River. Hardness, turbidity and physical setting are implicated as possible causative factors for differences between control fish responses tested in different seasons and locations. Laboratory exposed fish had a 96-hr LC50 1.25x higher than laboratory control fish. Control fish avoided metals levels at 0.4% of their 96-hr LC50. Field exposed fish had a 96-hr LC50 value 1.41x higher than field controls. Field control fish avoided metals levels between 0.7 and 2.5% of their 96-hr LC50 depending upon test location and season. There was no difference between the 96-hr LC50s of laboratory vs field control fish or between laboratory vs field exposed fish.

  16. Aqueous CO{sup 2} vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO{sup 2} (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox{reg_sign} EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox{reg_sign} to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox{reg_sign}. The best correlation (r{sup 2} > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log K{sub ow} of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils.

  17. Predictive value of CHADS2 score for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome and documented coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Pyun, Wook Bum; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The CHADS2 score, used to predict the risk of ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, has been reported recently to predict ischemic stroke in patients with coronary heart disease, regardless of the presence of AF. However, little data are available regarding the relationship between the CHADS2 score and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 104 patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent coronary angiography, carotid ultrasound, and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.1 ± 12.6 years. The CHADS2 score was as follows: 0 in 46 patients (44.2%), 1 in 31 (29.8%), 2 in 18 (17.3%), and ≥ 3 in 9 patients (8.7%). The left atrial volume index (LAVi) showed a positive correlation with the CHADS2 score (20.8 ± 5.9 for 0; 23.2 ± 6.7 for 1; 26.6 ± 10.8 for 2; and 30.3 ± 8.3 mL/m2 for ≥3; p = 0.001). The average carotid total plaque area was significantly increased with CHADS2 scores ≥ 2 (4.97 ± 7.17 mm2 vs. 15.52 ± 14.61 mm2; p = 0.002). Eight patients experienced cardiovascular or cerebrovascular (CCV) events during a mean evaluation period of 662 days. A CHADS2 score ≥ 3 was related to an increase in the risk of CCV events (hazard ratio, 14.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.53 to 58.06). Furthermore, LAVi and the severity of coronary artery obstructive disease were also associated with an increased risk of CCV events. Conclusions: The CHADS2 score may be a useful prognostic tool for predicting CCV events in ACS patients with documented coronary artery disease. PMID:26767860

  18. Prognostic value of early response to treatment combined with conventional risk factors in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akira; Kuriyama, Kikuko; Hibi, Shigeyoshi; Todo, Shinjiro; Yoshihara, Takao; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Imashuku, Shibsaku

    2005-04-01

    To determine useful prognostic factors in treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we correlated conventional risk factors and bone marrow response 14 days after induction chemotherapy. Our study included 116 precursor B-cell (n = 104) and T-cell (n = 12) ALL patients treated with our protocol between 1988 and 1999. The patients were classified into 3 initial risk groups on the basis of conventional risk factors (56 in the low-risk, 33 in the high-risk, and 27 in the very high-risk groups). All patients received similar systemic chemotherapy regimens before the evaluation of their bone marrow on day 14. We evaluated the marrow of 69 patients as M1 (less than 5% blasts), 25 as M2 (5%-25% blasts), and 22 as M3 (more than 25% blasts). Although all patients attained an initial complete remission (CR), relapse was noted in 33 of the 116 patients, and 15 patients died. All of the M1 marrow patients, irrespective of the initial risk group, showed the best event-free survival rate (85.1% +/- 3 4.4%), the lowest relapse rate (14.5%), and the highest attainment of a second CR (100%); they were defined as the new R1 prognostic group. The low-risk patients with M2 or M3 marrow (R2 group) had a relatively high relapse rate, but all of these relapsed patients were treated successfully with subsequent therapy. High- or very high-risk patients with M2 or M3 marrow (R3 group) had the worst prognosis. Our new prognostic definition (R1, R2, R3) incorporating day 14 marrow findings is useful to tailor early-phase treatments for better therapeutic results in childhood ALL.

  19. Acute Toxic Effects of the Herbicide Formulation Focus(®) Ultra on Embryos and Larvae of the Moroccan Painted Frog, Discoglossus scovazzi.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan; Veith, Michael; Viertel, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    For regulatory and scientific purposes, there is a need to understand the sensitivity of a wider variety of wild species of amphibians and the sensitivities within their life stages to chemicals of widespread use such as herbicides. We investigated the acute toxic effects of the herbicide formulation Focus Ultra [with the active ingredient (a.i.) cycloxydim plus solvent naphtha and sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as added substances] on embryos and early stage larvae of the Moroccan painted frog (Discoglossus scovazzi). Different clinical signs (twitching, convulsion, and narcosis) occurred at 40 and 80 mg/L in embryos (4 and 8 mg a.i./L) and narcotic effects (total immobilization or irregular escape responses) at 10, 15, and 20 mg/L in larvae (1, 1.5, and 2 mg a.i./L). Growth inhibition (total length), starting at 20 mg/L in embryos and 2.5 mg/L in larvae (2 and 0.25 mg a.i./L, respectively) was understood as sign of toxicity (retardation) and not as sign of teratogenicity. However, the connection to teratogenesis remained unclear though total length reduction occurred at concentrations <20 % of the 96-h LC50 value and at a minimum concentration that inhibits growth of only 17 % of the 96-h LC50 value. Starting at 20 mg/L, mortality in embryos significantly increased and at 15 mg/L in early larvae (2 and 1.5 mg a.i./L, respectively). Mortality of larvae was enhanced during the first 24 h of exposure to 15 and 20 mg/L (1.5 and 2 mg a.i./L). Morphology of the embryos remained unobtrusive. In contrary, axial malformations significantly increased in the early larvae starting at 10 mg/L (1 mg a.i./L), a concentration free of lethal effects. In all considered end points, larvae were significantly more sensitive than embryos, probably because of developmental and physiological properties or different exposure and bioavailability of the compound. Focus Ultra induced comparable lethal and immobilization effects in D. scovazzi as it does to standard test

  20. [Comparative studies on the value of acute phase proteins and CA-125 for monitoring patients with ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, H; Tatra, G; Schieder, K; Bieglmayer, C

    1988-12-01

    In a study of 71 patients with malignant ovarian tumors serum levels of CA-125, C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin and coeruloplasmin were analysed. In contrast to the tumor-free group significantly higher values of CA-125, CRP and alpha-1-antitrypsin were found in the group with recurrent disease. However, the serum-concentrations of coeruloplasmin remained unchanged in both groups. In the group with progressive disease the median values of CA-125 were greater than 65 U/ml and of CRP greater than 12 micron/ml, respectively. The median serum concentrations of alpha-1-antitrypsin (2 to 4 mg/ml) and coeruloplasmin (150 to 600 ng/ml) did not reach their cut-off levels. Beside CA-125 the analysis of CRP and alpha-1-antitrypsin is an additional helpful procedure for the monitoring of patients with malignant ovarian tumors.

  1. Costing nursing care: using the clinical care classification system to value nursing intervention in an acute-care setting.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jacqueline; Saba, Virginia

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine an established methodology for coding nursing interventions and action types using the Clinical Care Classification System with a reliable formula (relative value units) to cost nursing services. Using a flat per-diem rate to cost nursing care greatly understates the actual costs and fails to address the high levels of variability within and across units. We observed nurses performing commonly executed nursing interventions and recorded these into an electronic database with corresponding Clinical Care Classification System codes. The duration of these observations was used to calculate intervention costs using relative value unit calculation formulas. The costs of the five most commonly executed interventions were nursing care coordination/manage-refer ($2.43), nursing status report/assess-monitor ($4.22), medication treatment/perform-direct ($6.33), physical examination/assess-monitor ($3.20), and universal precautions/perform-direct ($1.96). Future studies across a variety of nursing specialties and units are needed to validate the relative value unit for Clinical Care Classification System action types developed for use with the Clinical Care Classification System nursing interventions as a method to cost nursing care.

  2. Admission Values of D-dimer and C-reactive Protein (CRP) Predict the Long-term Outcomes in Acute Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kentaro; Tamune, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Admission D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) values have been reported to predict the short-term outcomes in acute aortic dissection (AAD). However, the association between D-dimer values and the long-term outcomes has not been investigated. Methods The primary endpoints included events determined to be all-cause death, recurrence of aortic dissection, aortic rupture, and surgical intervention for the aortic aneurysm following the first hospital discharge. We performed a receiver operating characteristic analysis and determined the optimal cut-off levels of admission D-dimer, admission CRP and peak CRP values in terms of the sensitivity and specificity for predicting the presence of events. Using the optimal cut-off values, we performed a multiple Cox analysis and investigated the hazard ratio of admission D-dimer, admission CRP and peak CRP. Patients We retrospectively identified 173 AAD patients hospitalized between January 2005 and December 2013. Results A multiple Cox regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratios were 3.4 for admission D-dimer [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5 to 7.3, p=0.004] and 2.7 for admission CRP (95% CI 1.2 to 5.5, p=0.014). Conclusion Admission D-dimer and CRP values may predict the long-term outcomes in AAD. Moreover, admission D-dimer values may be a valuable marker to predict not only the short-term outcomes, but also the long-term outcomes in AAD. PMID:27432090

  3. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  4. Acute effect of mercury toxicity on some enzymes in liver of teleost Sarotherodon mossambicus

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, K.A.; Naidu, K.A.; Ramamurthi, R.

    1984-06-01

    The effects of 1.5 ppm of mercuric chloride (LC50/48 hr) on some enzymes and organic substances of liver tissue of Sarotherodon mossambicus were studied. Significant decreases in the activities of succinate dehydrogenases, lactate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase and in the levels of organic substances like total anthrone-positive substances, glycogen, and total ninhydrin-positive substances were observed. The results indicate impaired oxidative and transphosphorylative activities and utilization of carbohydrates during acute mercury toxicosis in fish.

  5. Urine hepcidin has additive value in ruling out cardiopulmonary bypass-associated acute kidney injury: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Conventional markers of acute kidney injury (AKI) lack diagnostic accuracy and are expressed only late after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Recently, interest has focused on hepcidin, a regulator of iron homeostasis, as a unique renal biomarker. Methods We studied 100 adult patients in the control arm of a randomized, controlled trial http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00672334 who were identified as being at increased risk of AKI after cardiac surgery with CPB. AKI was defined according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease classification of AKI classification stage. Samples of plasma and urine were obtained simultaneously (1) before CPB (2) six hours after the start of CPB and (3) twenty-four hours after CPB. Plasma and urine hepcidin 25-isoforms were quantified by competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results In AKI-free patients (N = 91), urine hepcidin concentrations had largely increased at six and twenty-four hours after CPB, and they were three to seven times higher compared to patients with subsequent AKI (N = 9) in whom postoperative urine hepcidin remained at preoperative levels (P = 0.004, P = 0.002). Furthermore, higher urine hepcidin and, even more so, urine hepcidin adjusted to urine creatinine at six hours after CPB discriminated patients who did not develop AKI (area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic curve 0.80 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.71 to 0.87] and 0.88 [95% CI 0.78 to 0.97]) or did not need renal replacement therapy initiation (AUC 0.81 [95% CI 0.72 to 0.88] 0.88 [95% CI 0.70 to 0.99]) from those who did. At six hours, urine hepcidin adjusted to urine creatinine was an independent predictor of ruling out AKI (P = 0.011). Plasma hepcidin did not predict no development of AKI. The study findings remained essentially unchanged after excluding patients with preoperative chronic kidney disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that urine hepcidin is an early

  6. The influence of etofenprox on narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823): Acute toxicity and sublethal effects on histology, hemolymph parameters, and total hemocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Benli, Aysel Caglan Karasu

    2015-07-01

    The acute and sublethal effects of etofenprox, a nonester pyrethroid, was determined in narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). Semistatic bioassay procedures were followed in both experiments, and the 24, 48, 72, and 96 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of technical etofenprox for crayfish were calculated as 0.68, 0.61, 0.45, and 0.41 µg/L, respectively based on Finney's probit analysis. Two concentrations of etofenprox (0.04 and 0.1 µg/L) were tested to determine sublethal effects due to 96 hours exposure. After exposure to sublethal etofenprox, hemolymph glucose, and lactate levels increased while total hemocyte counts and sodium levels decreased (p < 0.05). Hemolymph calcium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride concentrations did not change significantly. Histological alterations were evident in the gills and hepatopancreas after exposure to sublethal etofenprox concentrations. Lamellar hyperplasia and lining in the afferent and efferent branchial vessels were recorded in gills; whilst tubule necrosis was obvious in hepatopancreas. Etofenprox was found to be very highly toxic to crayfish, a nontarget organism. Exposure to sublethal concentrations for 96 h affected circulating hemocytes and hemolymph stress parameters via histological response, to compansate for the adverse effects of etofenprox. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 887-894, 2015.

  7. Effect of Lipid Partitioning on Predictions of Acute Toxicity of Oil Sands Process Affected Water to Embryos of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Morandi, Garrett D; Zhang, Kun; Wiseman, Steve B; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2016-08-16

    Dissolved organic compounds in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) are known to be responsible for most of its toxicity to aquatic organisms, but the complexity of this mixture prevents use of traditional bottom-up approaches for predicting toxicities of mixtures. Therefore, a top-down approach to predict toxicity of the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW was developed and tested. Accurate masses (i.e., m/z) determined by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry in negative and positive ionization modes were used to assign empirical chemical formulas to each chemical species in the mixture. For each chemical species, a predictive measure of lipid accumulation was estimated by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) to poly(dimethyl)siloxane, or by partitioning to solid-supported lipid membranes (SSLM). A narcosis mode of action was assumed and the target-lipid model was used to estimate potencies of mixtures by assuming strict additivity. A model developed using a combination of the SBSE and SSLM lipid partitioning estimates, whereby the accumulation of chemicals to neutral and polar lipids was explicitly considered, was best for predicting empirical values of LC50 in 96-h acute toxicity tests with embryos of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Model predictions were within 4-fold of observed toxicity for 75% of OSPW samples, and within 8.5-fold for all samples tested, which is comparable to the range of interlaboratory variability for in vivo toxicity testing. PMID:27420640

  8. Preengraftment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) value may predict acute graft-versus-host disease and nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kim, Sung-Won; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mori, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Morita-Hoshi, Yuriko; Ohara-Waki, Fusako; Heike, Yuji; Tobinai, Kensei; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Takaue, Yoichi

    2008-05-01

    In a mouse model, inflammatory cytokines play a primary role in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Here, we retrospectively evaluated whether the preengraftment C-reactive protein (CRP) value, which is used as a surrogate marker of inflammation, could predict posttransplant complications including GVHD. Two hundred twenty-four adult patients (median age, 47 years; range: 18-68 years) underwent conventional stem cell transplantation (CST, n = 105) or reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST, n = 119). Patients were categorized according to the maximum CRP value during neutropenia: the "low-CRP" group (CRP < 15 mg/dL, n = 157) and the "high-CRP" group (CRP >or= 15 mg/dL, n = 67). The incidence of documented infections during neutropenia was higher in the high-CRP group (34% versus 17%, P = .004). When patients with proven infections were excluded, the CRP value was significantly lower after RIST than after CST (P = .017) or after related than after unrelated transplantation (P < .001). A multivariate analysis showed that male sex, unrelated donor, and HLA-mismatched donor were associated with high CRP values. The high-CRP group developed significantly more grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .01) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P < .001), but less relapse (P = .02). The present findings suggest that the CRP value may reflect the net degree of tissue damage because of the conditioning regimen, infection, and allogeneic immune reactions, all of which lead to subsequent aGVHD and NRM.

  9. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Schmidt, Stine N; Stinckens, Evelyn; Maho, Walid; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries

    2015-11-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120hpf was 310μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72mmol/kg fresh wt and La50 (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity was not attributed to impaired swim bladder inflation, but rather to baseline toxicity. We conclude that silicone O-rings (1) produce a linear dilution series of phenanthrene in the 120hpf FET test, (2) generate and maintain aqueous concentrations for reliable determination of effect concentrations, and allow for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals. PMID:26026258

  10. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  12. Refining the Value of Secretory Phospholipase A2 as a Predictor of Acute Chest Syndrome in Sickle Cell Disease: Results of a Feasibility Study (PROACTIVE)

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Lori; Wager, Carrie G.; Labotka, Richard J.; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Thompson, Alexis A.; Lane, Peter A.; McMahon, Lillian E.C; Miller, Robin; Roseff, Susan; Iyer, Rathi; Hsu, Lewis L.; Castro, Oswaldo; Ataga, Kenneth; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Okam, Maureen; Bellevue, Rita; Miller, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is defined as fever, respiratory symptoms and a new pulmonary infiltrate in an individual with sickle cell disease (SCD). Nearly half of ACS episodes occur in SCD patients already hospitalized, potentially permitting pre-emptive therapy in high-risk patients. Simple transfusion of red blood cells may abort ACS if given to patients hospitalized for pain who develop fever and elevated levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). In a feasibility study (PROACTIVE; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00951808), patients hospitalized for pain who developed fever and elevated sPLA2 were eligible for randomization to transfusion or observation; all others were enrolled in an observational arm. Of 237 enrolled, only 10 were randomized; one of the four to receive transfusion had delayed treatment. Of 233 subjects receiving standard care, 22 developed ACS. A threshold level of sPLA2 ≥ 48 ng/ml gave optimal sensitivity (73%), specificity (71%) and accuracy (71%), but a positive predictive value of only 24%. The predictive value of sPLA2 was improved in adults and patients with chest or back pain, lower haemoglobin concentration and higher white blood cell counts; and those receiving less than two-thirds maintenance fluids. The hurdles identified in PROACTIVE should facilitate design of a larger, definitive, phase 3 randomized controlled trial. PMID:22463614

  13. Acute sleep deprivation increases the rate and efficiency of cocaine self-administration, but not the perceived value of cocaine reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Matthew D; Fang, Jidong; Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2009-12-01

    Relapse to drug seeking and drug taking is elicited by exposure to stress, drug-associated cues, or drugs of abuse themselves. According to the clinical literature, relapse also can be elicited in humans by sleep deprivation. Even so, the effect of sleep deprivation on drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors has received relatively little attention in the laboratory (i.e., currently, no animal model exists) and the underlying circuitry remains unexplored. In the present study, 42 naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and were then divided, on the basis of their behavior, into low (n=20) and high (n=22) drug-taking groups. Self-administration behavior was extinguished, and the effect of acute sleep deprivation (0, 4, or 8h) on drug-induced reinstatement and on progressive ratio responding (i.e., on the motivation to work for drug) was investigated. The results showed that, relative to low drug-takers, high drug-takers took more drug in acquisition, made more infusion attempts during drug-induced reinstatement, worked harder for drug, and exhibited greater goal-directed behavior. Acute sleep deprivation had little impact on high drug-takers beyond increasing the rate of infusions self-administered during progressive ratio (PR) testing. Conversely, in low drug-takers, acute sleep deprivation completely abolished cocaine-induced reinstatement during extinction testing. During PR testing, however, sleep deprivation increased the speed with which low drug-taking rats initiated responding for drug, increased the rate of infusions, and increased goal-directed behavior. It did not, however, increase the perceived value of the cocaine reward (i.e., neither sleep-deprived low drug-takers nor high drug-takers exhibited a higher break point for cocaine than their non-deprived counterparts). These data are the first to demonstrate a direct link between sleep deprivation and responding for cocaine, particularly in subjects that would otherwise

  14. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-07-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR.

  15. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of profenofos and its effects on the behavioral pattern of fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Muhammad; Ali, Rahat; Ali, Tayyaba; Waheed, Usman; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

    2009-05-01

    Profenofos, an organophosphate insecticide is acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has the potential to contaminate the ground water. The 96 h LC(50) value of profenofos was determined in 3-month-old fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a body weight 1.04 +/- 0.25 g and a body length 4.25 +/- 0.75 cm at 26 +/- 1 degrees C temperature. Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) software was used for the statistical analysis, which calculated the LC(50) value as 62.4 microg/L for three replicates of the assay. The behavioral responses of fish exposed to profenofos included loss of balance, moving in spiral fashion with sudden jerky movements, lying on their sides and rapid flapping of the operculum with the mouth open. PMID:19242633

  16. Association of Lower Fractional Flow Reserve Values With Higher Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events for Lesions Deferred Revascularization Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masrani Mehta, Shriti; Depta, Jeremiah P; Novak, Eric; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Patel, Yogesh; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety of deferring revascularization based on fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We evaluated the association of FFR and adverse cardiac events among patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR in the setting of ACS versus non-ACS. Methods and Results The study population (674 patients; 816 lesions) was divided into ACS (n=334) and non-ACS (n=340) groups based on the diagnosis when revascularization was deferred based on FFR values >0.80 between October 2002 and July 2010. The association and interaction between FFR and clinical outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models within each group (mean follow-up of 4.5±2.1 years). Subsequent revascularization of a deferred lesion was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI), whereas the composite of DLI or myocardial infarction (MI) attributed to a deferred lesion was designated as deferred lesion failure (DLF). In the non-ACS group, lower FFR values were not associated with any increase in adverse cardiac events. In the ACS group, every 0.01 decrease in FFR was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or DLI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.12), MI or DLI (HR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14), DLF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18), MI (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14), and DLI (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18). Conclusion Lower FFR values among ACS patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR are associated with a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiac events. This association was not observed in non-ACS patients. PMID:26289346

  17. The value of 3-dimensional longitudinal strain in the evaluation of complex coronary lesions in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zekun; Dai, Jianwei; Wu, Dan; Qiu, Jian; Ma, Jun; Li, Guoying; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Hongqiang; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Xu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the value of 3-dimensional global peak longitudinal strain (GPLS) derived from the 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the diagnosis of the complex non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) by comparing GPLS to the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score.A total of 59 inpatients with NSTE-ACS in our hospital between October 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled into our study. All these subjects underwent the coronary angiography (CAG) and 3D-STE examination. The results of CAG were used to calculate the SYNTAX scores in each subject. The GPLS was assessed with speckle-tracking analysis using the dedicated software developed by GE Healthcare (Horten, Norway).We grouped all subjects according to the SYNTAX scores. A total of 23 patients (39%) were grouped as complex NSTE-ACS in our experiment. In our analysis, the values of GPLS significantly decreased from low SYNTAX scores to intermediate or high SYNTAX scores (-14.0 ± 2.7% and -9.5 ± 2.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that GPLS and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for complex NSTE-ACS. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for GPLS to evaluate patients with complex NSTE-ACS was 0.882 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.797-0.967, P < 0.001) with an optimal cutoff value of -11.76% (sensitivity 82.6% and specificity 83.3%). The evaluative value of the adjusted AUC for evaluating patients with complex NSTE-ACS improved after inclusion of GPLS (C statistics, 0.827-0.948, P < 0.001).The value of GPLS is significantly associated with the complexity of coronary artery lesions, according to SYNTAX score. Therefore, our study indicates that GPLS could be reproducible and efficient to evaluate the complex coronary artery disease in NSTE-ACS patients. PMID:27684797

  18. A pilot study of prognostic value of non-invasive cardiac parameters for major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Min-Jie; Pan, Ye-Sheng; Hu, Wei-Guo; Lu, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Qing-Yong; Huang, Dong; Huang, Xiao-Li; Wei, Meng; Li, Jing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the combination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and individual electrocardiographic parameters related to abnormal depolarization/repolarization or baroreceptor sensitivity that had the best predictive value for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included in this prospective study. Ventricular late potential (VLP), heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T wave alternans (TWA) parameters were measured using 24 h Holter monitoring 2-4 weeks after onset of ACS. Initial and follow-up LVEF was measured by ultrasound. Patients were followed for at least 6 months to record the occurrence of MACE. Models using combinations of the individual independent prognostic factors found by multivariate analysis were then constructed to use for estimation of risk of MACE. In multivariate analysis, VLP measured as QRS duration, HRV measured as standard deviation of normal RR intervals, and followup LVEF, but none of the other parameters studied, were independent risk factors for MACE. Areas under ROC curve (AUCs) for combinations of 2 or all 3 factors ranged from 0.73 to 0.76. Combinations of any of the three independent risk factors for MACE in ACS patients with PCI improved prediction and, because these risk factors were obtained non-invasively, may have future clinical usefulness. PMID:26885226

  19. Various distinctive cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia aged 60 years and older express adverse prognostic value: results from a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van der Holt, Bronno; Breems, Dimitri A; Berna Beverloo, H; van den Berg, Eva; Burnett, Alan K; Sonneveld, Pieter; Löwenberg, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic cytogenetic abnormalities are considered important prognostic factors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, the prognostic assessments have mainly been derived from patients with AML aged <60 years. Two recent studies of AML patients of 60 years and older proposed prognostic classifications with distinct discrepancies. To further study the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities in this patient population, we have evaluated cytogenetic abnormalities in a series of 293 untreated patients with AML aged 60 years and older, included in a randomised phase 3 trial, also in relation to patient characteristics and clinical outcome. The most frequently observed cytogenetic abnormality was trisomy 8 (+8), in 31 (11%) patients. Abnormalities, such as -5, 5q-, abn(17p) and abn(17q), were almost exclusively present in complex karyotypes. A relatively favourable outcome was only observed in five patients with core-binding factor abnormalities t(8;21) and inv(16)/del(16)/t(16;16). However, most of the other evaluated cytogenetic abnormalities, such as 5q-, -7, +8, abn(17p), abn(17q), and complex aberrations expressed a more adverse prognosis when compared with patients with AML aged 60 years and older with a normal karyotype. Large studies to confirm the prognosis of individual cytogenetic aberrations are warranted.

  20. Value of posterior and right ventricular leads in comparison to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in evaluation of ST-segment elevation in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Rydman, R J; Sloan, E P; Hahn, K H; Cooke, D; Fagan, J; Fligner, D J; Hessions, W; Justis, D; Kampe, L M; Shah, S; Tucker, J; Zwicke, D

    1997-06-15

    In this multicenter prospective trial, we studied posterior (V7 to V9) and right ventricular (V4R to V6R) leads to assess their accuracy compared with standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients aged >34 years with suspected AMI received posterior and right ventricular leads immediately after the initial 12-lead ECG. ST elevation of 0.1 mV in 2 leads was blindly determined and inter-rater reliability estimated. AMI was diagnosed by World Health Organization criteria. The diagnostic value of nonstandard leads was determined when 12-lead ST elevation was absent and present and multivariate stepwise regression analysis was also performed. Of 533 study patients, 64.7% (345 of 533) had AMI and 24.8% received thrombolytic therapy. Posterior and right ventricular leads increased sensitivity for AMI by 8.4% (p = 0.03) but decreased specificity by 7.0% (p = 0.06). The likelihood ratios of a positive test for 12, 12 + posterior, and 12 + right ventricular ECGs were 6.4, 5.6, and 4.5, respectively. Increased AMI rates (positive predictive values) were found when ST elevation was present on 6 nonstandard leads (69.1%), on 12 leads only (88.4%), and on both 6 and 12 leads (96.8%; p <0.001). Treatment rates with thrombolytic therapy increased in parallel with this electrocardiographic gradient. Logistic regression analysis showed that 4 leads were independently predictive of AMI (p <0.001): leads I, II, V3, V5R; V9 approached statistical significance (p = 0.055). The standard ECG is not optimal for detecting ST-segment elevation in AMI, but its accuracy is only modestly improved by the addition of posterior and right ventricular leads. PMID:9202344

  1. Comparative value of maximal treadmill testing, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for distinguishing high- and low-risk patients soon after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Goris, M.L.; Nash, E.; Kraemer, H.C.; DeBusk, R.F.; Berger, W.E.; Lew, H.

    1984-05-01

    The prognostic value of symptom-limited treadmill exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography was compared in 117 men, aged 54 +/- 9 years, tested 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 months, 8 men experienced ''hard'' medical events (cardiac death, nonfatal ventricular fibrillation or recurrent MI) and 14 were hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or coronary bypass surgery (total of 22 combined events). By multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), peak treadmill work load and the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise were significant (p less than 0.01) predictors of hard medical events; these 2 risk factors and recurrent ischemic chest pain in the coronary care unit were also significantly predictive (p less than 0.001) for combined events. A peak treadmill work load of 4 METs or less or a decrease in EF of 5% or more below the value at rest during submaximal effort distinguished 22 high-risk patients (20% of the study population) from 89 low-risk patients. The rate of hard medical events within 12 months was 23% (5 of 22 patients), vs 2% (2 of 89 patients) in the high- and low-risk patient subsets, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, in patients who underwent evaluation 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise radionuclide ventriculography contributed independent prognostic information to that provided by symptom-limited treadmill testing and was superior to exercise thallium scintigraphy for this purpose.

  2. Diagnostic values of chest pain history, ECG, troponin and clinical gestalt in patients with chest pain and potential acute coronary syndrome assessed in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Arash; Dryver, Eric; Söderholm, Martin; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In the assessment of chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED), physicians rely on global diagnostic impressions ('gestalt'). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the ED physician's overall assessment of ACS likelihood, and the values of the main diagnostic modalities underlying this assessment, namely the chest pain history, the ECG and the initial troponin result. 1,151 consecutive ED chest pain patients were prospectively included. The ED physician's interpretation of the chest pain history, the ECG, and the global likelihood of ACS were recorded on special forms. The discharge diagnoses were retrieved from the medical records. A chart review was carried out to determine whether patients with a non-ACS diagnosis at the index visit had ACS or suffered cardiac death within 30 days. The gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in ("Obvious ACS", LR 29) and at ruling out ("No Suspicion of ACS", LR 0.01) ACS. In the "Strong suspicion of ACS" group, 60% of the patients did not have ACS. A positive TnT (LR 24.9) and an ischemic ECG (LR 8.3) were strong predictors of ACS and seemed superior to pain history for ruling in ACS. In patients with a normal TnT and non-ischemic ECG, chest pain history typical of AMI was not a significant predictor of AMI (LR 1.9) while pain history typical of unstable angina (UA) was a moderate predictor of UA (LR 4.7). Clinical gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in and at ruling out ACS, but overestimated the likelihood of ACS when cases were assessed as strong suspicion of ACS. Among the components of the gestalt, TnT and ECG were superior to the chest pain history for ruling in ACS, while pain history was superior for ruling out ACS.

  3. Positive and negative predictive values of HLA-DR and CD34 in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of acute myeloid leukemia with recurrent chromosomal translocations.

    PubMed

    Promsuwicha, Orathai; Auewarakul, Chirayu U

    2009-12-01

    The predictive value of HLA-DR and CD34 in the diagnosis of four distinct genetic entities of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is presently not established. We evaluated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively), sensitivity, specificity, and correlation coefficients of HLA-DR and CD34 in AML patients with t(15;17), t(8;21), inv(16), and abn(11q23). In AML with t(15;17) (n = 64), HLA-DR was expressed in 4.68% and CD34 was expressed in 15.62% and none of the cases expressed both HLA-DR and CD34. In AML with t(8;21) (n = 99), HLA-DR, CD34 or both antigens were expressed in the majority of cases (90.90%, 80.80%, and 79.79%, respectively). AML patients with inv(16) (n = 18) and abn(11q23) (n = 31) also highly expressed HLA-DR and CD34. Eight cases of t(8;21) and 1 case of abn(11q23) did not express either antigen. The highest correlation between CD34 and HLA-DR expression values was observed in cases with t(8;21) (r = 0.72) with the lowest correlation in inv(16) (r = 0.035). The PPV and NPV of HLA-DR-negativity plus CD34-negativity to predict t(15;17) was 85% and 100%, respectively, with 100% sensitivity and 92.74% specificity. The PPV and NPV of other myeloid markers such as CD117, MPO and CD11c to diagnose t(15;17) were much lower than those of HLA-DR and CD34. It was concluded that the absence of double negativity of HLA-DR and CD34 strongly predicts against t(15;17). Rare HLA-DR-positive/CD34-negative cases exist in patients with t(15;17) and 8% of t(8;21) cases expressed neither antigen. Further studies should determine whether HLA-DR-positive t(15;17) and HLA-DR-negative/CD34-negative t(8;21) represent a special entity associated with significant prognostic relevance.

  4. The relative importance of water hardness and chloride levels in modifying the acute toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Galvez, F.; Wood, C.M.

    1997-11-01

    Static-renewal 7-d toxicity tests for silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). The relative influences of calcium and chloride concentrations on median lethal time (LT50) were assessed. For both calcium salts, a 100-fold elevation in concentration increased the LT50 approximately 10-fold. However, a 100-fold elevation in KCl ameliorated silver (Ag) toxicity at least 100-fold, while NaCl protected against Ag toxicity even more substantially, demonstrating the much greater protective effect of chloride relative to calcium. In a separate series of bioassays, fish were exposed to 0.92 {micro}M Ag with varying amounts of NaCl titrated into each tank to alter the free [Ag{sup +}]. The 7-d LC50 occurred at a [NaCl] of 2,500 {micro}M. Using MINEQL{sup +}, the predicted free [Ag{sup +}] at this LC50 value is 0.0285 {micro}M. Further bioassays were performed in which [chloride] was maintained at either 50 or 225 {micro}M, while total [Ag] was independently varied from 0.0092 to 0.0694 {micro}M (1.0--7.5 {micro}g/L). The 7-d LC50 value was calculated at 0.0294 {micro}M Ag (3.18 {micro}g/L) at a chloride concentration of 50 {micro}M, very similar to the free [Ag{sup +}] value of 0.031 {micro}M calculated from an earlier LC50 test at a fixed [chloride] of 730 {micro}M. Elevating chloride concentrations from 50 to 225 {micro}M did not alter the accumulation of Ag in the liver. In addition, there were no significant differences in hepatic Ag accumulation between any of the Ag-exposed fish, irrespective of the total Ag concentration used during the exposure.

  5. Acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Swami, D; Kumar, P; Meena, M K; Maurya, C K; Gupta, P K; Ganesan, K; Jain, A K; Bhattacharya, R

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide) is a synthetic, potent narcotic analgesic agent. However, it is known to have several side effects, which led to synthesis and evaluation of its new analogs for the management of pain. We have earlier reported the comparative bioassay of fentanyl and its eight 1-substituted analogs (1-8) in mice. Three compounds, viz., N-(1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide (2), N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), and N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6) were found to be more effective and less toxic compared to fentanyl. The present study reports the comparative acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its three analogs, viz., 2, 5, and 6 in mice. Animals were exposed to different concentrations of smoke generated by heating the compounds. Exposure was performed in a head only all glass static exposure assembly for 15 min to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50). The breathing pattern and various respiratory parameters of the animals were also monitored online using a polygraph. Out of three compounds tested, analog 5 was found to be most toxic (LC50 = 2820 mg/m3) while 2 was least toxic (LC50 = >8000 mg/m3). All the compounds caused long lasting respiratory depression in a dose-dependent manner, which did not completely resolve even after discontinuation of exposure. Aerodynamic median diameter and geometric standard deviation of smoke particles was determined employing eight-stage Andersen sampler. The particles were found to be within the respirable range. The study, however, concludes that due to possible decomposition of the compounds by heating or its poor absorption by the alveolar surface, the present inhalation technique cannot be employed to generate smoke of fentanyl and its analogs for any medical or surreptitious use. PMID:25208041

  6. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers. 4. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, T.W.; Moffat, B.D.; Janssen, C.; Persoone, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Several aspects of the response to toxicants using a standardized toxicity test with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are described. Test animals are obtained by hatching cysts which produce animals of similar age and physiological condition. The acute toxicity of 28 compounds is described with 24-hr LC50's. The LC50's span five orders of magnitude, from silver at 0.008 mg.liter-1 to benzene at more than 1000 mg.liter-1. Control mortality in 84 tests averaged 2% with a standard deviation of 3%, indicating very consistent test sensitivity. Only once in 84 trials did a test fail because of excessive control mortality, yielding a failure rate of 1.2%. Cyst age from 0 to 18 months had no effect on the sensitivity of neonates to reference toxicants. Both high and low temperatures increased rotifer sensitivity to reference toxicants. Copper sensitivity was greater at 10, 25, and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Likewise, sodium pentachlorophenol toxicity was greater at 10 and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Survivorship curves at 25 degrees C of neonates under control conditions indicated that mortality begins at about 30 hr. This places a practical limit on toxicant exposure for the assay of 24 hr. B. calyciflorus cysts hatch at salinities up to 5 ppt and acute toxicity tests using pentachlorophenol at this salinity yielded LC50's about one-half those of standard freshwater. B. calyciflorus is preferred over Brachionus plicatilis for toxicity tests in salinities up to 5 ppt because it is consistently more sensitive.

  7. The Prognostic Value of a Four-Dimensional CT Angiography-Based Collateral Grading Scale for Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Weili; Tang, Huan; Han, Quan; Yan, Shenqiang; Zhang, Xiaocheng; Chen, Qingmeng; Parsons, Mark; Wang, Shaoshi; Lou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leptomeningeal collaterals, which affects tissue fate, are still challenging to assess. Four-dimensional CT angiography (4D CTA) originated from CT perfusion (CTP) provides the possibility of non-invasive and time-resolved assessment of leptomeningeal collateral flow. We sought to develop a comprehensive rating system to integrate the speed and extent of collateral flow on 4D CTA, and investigate its prognostic value for reperfusion therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods We retrospectively studied 80 patients with M1 ± internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who had baseline CTP before intravenous thrombolysis. The velocity and extent of collaterals were evaluated by regional leptomeningeal collateral score on peak phase (rLMC-P) and temporally fused intensity projections (tMIP) (rLMC-M) on 4D CTA, respectively. The cutoffs of rLMC-P and rLMC-M score for predicting good outcome (mRS score ≤ 2) were integrated to develop the collateral grading scale (CGS) (rating from 0–2). Results The CGS score was correlated with 3-months mRS score (non-recanalizers: ρ = -0.495, p = 0.01; recanalizers: ρ = -0.671, p < 0.001). Patients with intermediate or good collaterals (CGS score of 1 and 2) who recanalized were more likely to have good outcome than those without recanalization (p = 0.038, p = 0.018), while there was no significant difference in outcome in patients with poor collaterals (CGS score of 0) stratified by recanalization (p = 0.227). Conclusions Identification of collaterals based on CGS may help to select good responders to reperfusion therapy in patients with large artery occlusion. PMID:27505435

  8. High prognostic value of minimal residual disease detected by flow-cytometry-enhanced fluorescence in situ hybridization in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML).

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Xu, Sheng; Gong, Shenglan; Liu, Min; Qiu, Huiying; Xu, Xiaoqian; Ni, Xiong; Chen, Li; Lu, Shuqing; Chen, Jie; Song, Xianmin; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2014-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is generally regarded as a disorder of stem cells, known as leukemic initiating cells (LICs), which initiate the disease and contribute to relapses. Although the phenotype of these cells remains unclear in most patients, they are enriched within the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. In core-binding factor (CBF) AML, the cytogenetic abnormalities also exist in LIC. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic power of minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells sorted by flow cytometry at different periods during therapy. Thirty-six patients under 65 years of age with de novo CBF-AML treated with intensive chemotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. FISH efficiently identified LICs in the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. The presence of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation was negatively associated with cumulative incidence of relapse (64 vs 18 %, P = .012), which showed prognostic value for RFS (12 vs 68 %, P = .008) and OS (11 vs 75 %, P = .0005), and retained prognostic significance for RFS in multivariate analysis. The detection of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation therapy significantly correlated with long-term survival. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-FISH could be potentially adopted as a MRD monitor approach in clinical practice to identify CBF-AML patients at risk of treatment failure during therapy.

  9. One year outcome in mild to moderate head injury: the predictive value of acute injury characteristics related to complaints and return to work

    PubMed Central

    van der Naalt, J; van Zomeren, A H; Sluiter, W; Minderhoud, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work.
METHODS—Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of 9-14 were included. Post-traumatic amnesia was assessed prospectively. Follow up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 1 year after injury and compared with a more detailed outcome scale (DOS) comprising cognitive and neurobehavioural aspects.
RESULTS—Sixty seven patients were included, mean age 33.2 (SD 14.7) years and mean PTA 7.8 (SD 7.3) days. One year after injury, 73% of patients had resumed previous work although most (84%) still reported complaints. The most frequent complaints were headache (32%), irritability (34%), forgetfulness and poor concentration (42%), and fatigue (45%). According to the GOS good recovery (82%) or moderate disability (18%) was seen. Application of the DOS showed more cognitive (40%) and behavioural problems (48%), interfering with return to work. Correlation between the GOS and DOS was high (r=0.87, p<0.01). Outcome correlated with duration of PTA (r=−0.46) but not significantly with GCS on admission (r=0.19). In multiple regression analysis, PTA and the number of complaints 3 months after injury explained 49% of variance on outcome as assessed with the GOS, and 60% with the DOS.
CONCLUSIONS—In mild to moderate head injury outcome is determined by duration of PTA and not by GCS on admission. Most patients return to work despite having complaints. The application of a more detailed outcome scale will increase accuracy in predicting outcome in this category of patients with head injury.

 PMID:10071101

  10. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  11. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  12. Acute and chronic effects of sodium tungstate on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Clements, Leslie N; Lemus, Ranulfo; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Kate; Rebstock, Matthew R; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Although aquatic toxicity data exists for tungstate substances, insufficient data of high quality and relevancy are available for conducting an adequate risk assessment. Therefore, a series of acute and chronic toxicity tests with sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)) were conducted on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Collectively, the data from these studies suggest that sodium tungstate exhibits a relatively low toxicity to these taxa under these test conditions. All studies were conducted in the same laboratory under good laboratory practice standards using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines with the same stock of test material and the same analytical methods. All results are reported as mg W/L. The following toxicity values were based on mean measured concentrations. For D. magna, the 21 day test no-observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 25.9 mg W/L, and the 48-h median effective concentration (EC(50)) from the acute test was >95.5 mg W/L (the highest concentration tested). The P. subcapitata test yielded an ErC(50) of 31 mg W/L. A 38-day test with zebrafish resulted in an NOEC ≥5.74 mg W/L with no effects at any concentration. The 96-h LC(50) from the acute test with zebrafish was >106 mg W/L. The results of the current acute study for daphnids and fish are consistent with published literature, whereas the algae results are different from previously reported values. Transformation/dissolution (T/D) studies, which were conducted according to United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals protocol, confirmed that the WO (4) (-2) anion accounted for most of the tungsten in solution. For classification purposes, the algae ecotoxity reference value was then compared with T/D data and would not classify Na(2)WO(4) as an aquatic toxicant under the European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging scheme. PMID

  13. Acute and chronic effects of sodium tungstate on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Clements, Leslie N; Lemus, Ranulfo; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Kate; Rebstock, Matthew R; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Although aquatic toxicity data exists for tungstate substances, insufficient data of high quality and relevancy are available for conducting an adequate risk assessment. Therefore, a series of acute and chronic toxicity tests with sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)) were conducted on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Collectively, the data from these studies suggest that sodium tungstate exhibits a relatively low toxicity to these taxa under these test conditions. All studies were conducted in the same laboratory under good laboratory practice standards using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines with the same stock of test material and the same analytical methods. All results are reported as mg W/L. The following toxicity values were based on mean measured concentrations. For D. magna, the 21 day test no-observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 25.9 mg W/L, and the 48-h median effective concentration (EC(50)) from the acute test was >95.5 mg W/L (the highest concentration tested). The P. subcapitata test yielded an ErC(50) of 31 mg W/L. A 38-day test with zebrafish resulted in an NOEC ≥5.74 mg W/L with no effects at any concentration. The 96-h LC(50) from the acute test with zebrafish was >106 mg W/L. The results of the current acute study for daphnids and fish are consistent with published literature, whereas the algae results are different from previously reported values. Transformation/dissolution (T/D) studies, which were conducted according to United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals protocol, confirmed that the WO (4) (-2) anion accounted for most of the tungsten in solution. For classification purposes, the algae ecotoxity reference value was then compared with T/D data and would not classify Na(2)WO(4) as an aquatic toxicant under the European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging scheme.

  14. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  15. Acute and population level toxicity of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on an important egg parasitoid, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Saber, Moosa

    2011-08-01

    One focus of integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of biological and chemical control in an optimal way. The availability of selective pesticides is important as is information about both lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on biocontrol agents. Acute and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate exposure were studied on adult stage of egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal and the emergence rate and life table parameters were determined. The adult wasps were exposed to field recommended concentration (FRC) of the pesticides on glass plates. Field rates of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate caused 100 and 32% adult mortality, respectively. Based on concentration-response experiments, the LC(50) values of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate were 6.25 and 1,949 ppm, respectively. The effect of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on larvae, prepupae and pupae of the parasitoid was tested by exposing parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier or Cydia pomonella L. to the FRC. Imidacloprid and fenpyroximate reduced adult emergence by 10.7 and 29%, respectively, when S. cerealella eggs were used as the host and 10.9 and 24.9%, respectively, when C. pomonella eggs were used as the host. Population parameters of emerged adults from treated pre-imaginal stages by FRC of the pesticides were also studied. The parameters were longevity and progeny production of emergent adults and also intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )), generation time (T) and doubling time (DT). Longevity and progeny production of the emergent adults was not affected by pesticide exposure in comparison to the control. In addition, none of population parameters such as r ( m ), T and DT were affected by pesticide exposure. The intrinsic rate of increase for the control, fenpyroximate and imidacloprid exposed populations were 0.388, 0.374, and 0.372 female offspring per female per day, respectively. Overall, results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between fenpyroximate

  16. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  17. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ogali, Regina E; Osuji, Leo C; Ayodele, Olufemi

    2007-12-01

    Static tests were employed to assess the acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of spent automotive lubricating oil (of mixed SAE grades) on Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater fish commonly cultured in Nigeria. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the WSF were found to decrease as a function of exposure time from 690+/-21 (after 24 h) to 513+/-58 mg/l (after 96 h). The characteristics of the WSF such as mean acidity (pH 6.6), turbidity (40 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS; 40 mg/l) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) dissolved-oxygen (DO) values (1.44 mg/l) were not compliant with existing standards set for discharged effluents. The solubility of the detected straight-chain aliphatics ranked as C14>C16>C32>C18>C28; that of the simple aromatics was ortho-xylene>para-xylene; and that of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was acenaphthylene>9H-fluorene>naphthalene>anthracene>phenanthrene>chrysene>benzo[k]fluoranthene>benzo[a]pyrene>benzo[b]fluoranthene, most of which being serious carcinogens. These oil constituents and the overall physico-chemical properties of the WSF are expected to act synergistically on the test organism (C. gariepinus), eliciting the quantal responses observed. The toxicity of the WSF points to the base constituent, oxidative degradation, and mechano-chemical reactions associated with aged crankcase oils. These oils, therefore, should definitely no longer be disposed into water streams or landscape, not even at sub-lethal concentrations, because of the inherent toxicity of their soluble fractions and the associated danger of bioaccumulation. PMID:18081085

  18. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup Active) and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Henao Muñoz, Liliana Marcela; Montes Rojas, Claudia Marsela; Bernal Bautista, Manuel Hernando

    2015-03-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux 411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 3904 microg a.e./L; LC50=2 799 pg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203 microg a.e./L; LC50=1424 microgg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76 kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3

  19. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  20. Effects of Acute Exposure to Sublethal Waterborne Cadmium on Energy Homeostasis in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Pi, Jie; Li, Xuelin; Zhang, Ting; Li, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    Effects of acute exposure to sublethal waterborne cadmium (Cd) on energy homeostasis in filter-feeding fishes have rarely been studied. The response patterns of energy substances were investigated in juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd for 96 h. The results showed the 96hLC50 of Cd on juvenile silver carp was 1.723 mg/L. Sublethal acute exposure of Cd significantly affected the energy homeostasis of juvenile silver carp, including increase in plasma glucose and lactate, and decrease in plasma triglyceride, muscle glycogen and triglyceride and liver glycogen. The results indicated that glycogen and triglyceride prior to protein were mobilized to meet the increased demands for detoxication and repair mechanism to sublethal waterborne Cd exposure, and glycogen level depleted faster and restored slower in the liver than in the white muscle in juvenile silver carp. PMID:27488982

  1. Acute and sub-lethal toxicity of landfill leachate towards two aquatic macro-invertebrates: demonstrating the remediation potential of air stripping.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M C; Banks, C J

    2005-10-01

    A specific leachate that contained 1.036 mg l(-1) of 2-chlorobiphenyl was used in the study (255 mg l(-1) COD and 133 mg l(-1) BOD5). Bench scale (20 l) air stripping trials were used to simulate on a small-scale the treatment potential of this method. Air stripping effectively reduced the leachates COD concentration. Regardless of the volume of air supplied (1-5 l of air per minute) the leachates COD reached a <50 mg l(-1) equilibrium after 96-h exposure, however, increasing the volume of air accelerated the process. In untreated leachate, the LC50 for Asellus aquaticus was 57% v/v leachate in deionised water and 5% for Gammarus pulex (96-h, static LC50 tests without nutrition and oxygen depleting conditions). After being exposed to air stripping, these values rose from 90% to below the LC50 threshold for Asellus when 1-5 l of air per minute were applied and 30-90% for Gammarus. Furthermore, in sub-lethal concentrations of air stripped leachate (leachate that had been exposed to 5-l of air per minute for 96-h) the population dynamics of both test species remained unaltered.

  2. Acute lethal and teratogenic effects of tributyltin chloride and copper chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Adema-Hannes, Rachel; Shenker, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were used to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos, a pelagic life stage often found in the surface microlayer where anthropogenic contaminants can accumulate. Acute bioassay testing determined the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test organism after 48 h of exposure. Chronic toxicity tests were used to determine the measurement of sublethal parameters, such as developmental abnormalities after 72-h exposures to the toxicants. Embryos were collected 4 h postfertilization and subsequently exposed to 1, 5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/L of copper chloride and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 50 microg/L of tributyltin chloride. Analysis of hatch rate percentage determined that the mean 48-h LC50 of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride was 32.8 and 16.7 microg/L, respectively, based on the pooled data of four experiments with four replicates for each metal. Consistent abnormalities, such as yolk sac swelling, spinal deformities, and decreased hatch rates, were observed for each metal. Teratogenic responses to copper chloride and tributyltin chloride demonstrate the need to investigate further the impacts of pollution in the open oceans to a species indigenous to, and commercially important to, the Florida (USA) coasts. This information could then lead to the future development of a surface microlayer bioassay using mahi mahi embryos. PMID:18419170

  3. Effect of an acute and chronic toxicity of four commercial detergents on the freshwater fish Gambusia affinis Baird & Gerard.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratibha; Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, Shweta; Suryavathi, V; Grover, Ruby; Soni, Pratima; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, K P

    2005-04-01

    The toxic effects of four commercial detergents (two washing powders and two cakes) are reported in this paper on behavior, mortality and RBC counts of a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis. During acute toxicity studies (96h), surface movements of fish increased markedly for 24h, only at higher concentrations (>10 ppm) of all the four detergents. Thereafter, they were lethargic and bottom dwellers similar to those exposed for a period of 30 days in the longterm ecotoxicological studies made on detergent powders at a sublethal concentration (10 ppm). The detergents exposed to fish were found slippery due to mucous secretion. Hemorrhage regions were also found on their gills. The dissolved oxygen content also decreased (10-18%) in the detergent treatments of higher concentration (> 10 ppm). During acute toxicity studies, cakes (LC50 = 6.69 - 19.98ppm) were found more toxic than powders (LC50 = 18.34-20.72ppm). In comparison to the control fish, RBC counts decreased (12-64%) in the detergent exposed fish, being more pronounced among those exposed to cakes. The chronic exposure (30 days) of the fish also resulted in reduction in the RBC counts (41-58%). It is thus evident that all the four detergents are toxic to the fish Gambusia affinis.

  4. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Papas, Phil J; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC(50) values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC(50) obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC(50)). This LC(50) value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC(50). For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC(50) and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC(50) of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC(50) values. In contrast, LC(50) determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. PMID:15016457

  5. Acute toxicity of arsenic under different temperatures and salinity conditions on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Valentino-Álvarez, Jesús Alberto; Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acute toxicity in the post larvae of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 96 h of exposure to dissolved arsenic under three different temperatures and salinity conditions. Recent reports have shown an increase in the presence of this metalloid in coastal waters, estuaries, and lagoons along the Mexican coast. The white shrimp stands out for its adaptability to temperature and salinity changes and for being the main product for many commercial fisheries; it has the highest volume of oceanic capture and production in Mexican shrimp farms. Lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) were obtained at nine different combinations (3 × 3 combinations in total) of temperature (20, 25, and 30 °C) and salinity (17, 25, and 33) showing mean LC50-96 h values (±standard error) of 9.13 ± 0.76, 9.17 ± 0.56, and 6.23 ± 0.57 mgAs L(-1)(at 20 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); 12.29 ± 2.09, 8.70 ± 0.82, and 8.03 ± 0.59 mgAs L(-1) (at 25 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); and 7.84 ± 1.30, 8.49 ± 1.40, and 7.54 ± 0.51 mgAs L(-1) (at 30 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity), respectively. No significant differences were observed for the optimal temperature and isosmotic point of maintenance (25 °C-S 25) for the species, with respect to the other experimental conditions tested, except for at 20 °C-S 33, which was the most toxic. Toxicity under 20 °C-S 33 conditions was also higher than 25 °C-S 17 and 20 °C (S 17 or 25). The least toxic condition was 25 °C-S 17. All this suggests that the toxic effect of arsenic is not affected by temperature changes; it depends on the osmoregulatory pattern developed by the shrimp, either hyperosmotic at low salinity or hiposmotic at high salinity, as observed at least on the extreme salinity conditions here tested (17 and 33). However, further studies testing salinities near the isosmotic point (between 20 and 30 salinities) are needed to

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  7. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. [Acute toxicity of DDT and its effects on life table demography of Moina macrocopa].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bo; Xi, Yi-Long; Wang, Jin-Xia; Hu, Ke

    2008-06-01

    The 48 h LC50 of DDT to Moina macrocopa was determined by acute toxicity test, and the effects of different concentrations (1, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 microg x L(-1)) of DDT on the life table demography of M. macrocopa was studied by life table demography. The results showed that the 48 h LC50 of DDT to M. macrocopa was 324 microg x L(-1). 1-40 microg x L(-1) of DDT had no significant effects on the life expectancy at birth, generation time, net reproductive rate, and gross productive rate of M. macrocopa (P > 0.05), but significantly affected the intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) (P < 0.05). The rm of M. macrocopa increased markedly at 8, 16 and 40 microg x L(-1) of DDT, compared with the blank control, indicating that when the life table demography of M. macrocopa was used to monitor the ecological effects of sublethal concentrations of DDT, rm could be a sensitive indicator. PMID:18808030

  9. Acute toxicity and ecotoxicological risk assessment of rice pesticides to Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles.

    PubMed

    França, Fernanda Menezes; De Paiva, Teresa C Brazil; Marcantônio, Adriana S; Teixeira, Patrícia C; Ferreira, Cláudia Maris

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of some pesticides used in irrigated rice farming to Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles. The LC 50-96h for commercial formulations containing bentazon, penoxsulam, vegetable oil, permethrin and carbofuran, separately and their mixtures, were determined at the proportions commonly used in the field. The limits of risk concentrations of these products for the studied species were also established. The LC 50-96h for tadpoles was 4,530 mg L(-1) for bentazon; 7.52 mg L(-1) for penoxsulam + 145.66 mg L(-1) of vegetable oil; 81.57 mg L(-1) for vegetable oil; 0.10 mg L(-1) for permethrin; 29.90 mg L(-1) for carbofuran (active ingredients), and 38.79 times the dose used in the field for the mixture of these products. The environmental risk was determined only for permethrin, and care should be taken when using the vegetable oil. PMID:25844861

  10. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  11. The value of serial Doppler ultrasound as a predictor of clinical outcome and the need for transplantation in fulminant and severe acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Deasy, N P; Wendon, J; Meire, H B; Sidhu, P S

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to document the changes in Doppler ultrasound variables of the hepatic artery and portal vein in fulminant and severe acute liver failure, and to assess their prognostic significance. 18 adult patients with fulminant and severe acute liver failure underwent serial Doppler sonography, in the early stages after presentation. 12 hourly measurements of hepatic artery resistance index (HARI), spleen length, portal vein cross-sectional area, time average velocity (TAV) and flow volume were performed. Mean HARI (p = 0.03) and mean maximum HARI (p = 0.03) were significantly higher in those who fulfilled criteria for liver transplantation. Increased portal vein flow was demonstrated, although the difference between the groups was not significant. A significant increase in portal vein cross-sectional area (p < 0.02) and spleen length (p < 0.02) was demonstrated. In summary, an increase in portal blood flow to the damaged liver has been demonstrated. The mean HARI is significantly higher in patients who fulfil transplant criteria and may possibly be used as an indicator of poorer prognosis and the need for liver transplantation in acute severe and fulminant liver failure.

  12. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Wolf, R.E.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (???140 mg/L as CaCO 3) and soft water (???30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1,000 ??g/L) and soft water (0-250 ??g/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 ??g/L) and soft water (110 ??g/L). Following short-term (???3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 ??g/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LC50s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 ??g/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (<1 h) experimental gill Zn accumulation and predicted observed differences in accumulation between hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s). ?? 2009 SETAC.

  13. The value of herbal medicines in the treatment of acute non-purulent rhinosinusitis. Results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tesche, Stefan; Metternich, Frank; Sonnemann, Uwe; Engelke, Jan-Christian; Dethlefsen, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective, randomised, double-blinded controlled study, we compared the efficacy and safety of two different treatment options with the herbal medicines cineole and a combination of five different components for acute viral rhinosinusitis. One hundred and fifty patients with acute and viral rhinosinusitis (75 patients in each treatment group) were enrolled. The diagnosis rhinosinusitis was made according to a defined symptoms-sum-score which was based on rhinoscopic and clinical signs which are characteristic for rhinosinusitis. The primary endpoint was the amelioration of the symptoms-sum-score, which includes all relevant characteristics for rhinosinusitis as headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction, rhino-secretion, secretion quantity, secretion viscosity and fever in a treatment period of 7 days. The mean reduction of the symptoms-sum-score after 4 days was 6.7 (+/-3.4) and after 7 days 11.0 (+/-3.3) in the cineole group and 3.6 (+/-2.8) after 4 days and 8.0 (+/-3.0) after 7 days in the control group. The differences between both groups were clinically relevant and statistically significant after 4 and 7 days (P < 0.0001). This result is validated by the amelioration of the secondary endpoints headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction and rhino-secretion. These findings correlate with the statistically significant difference of the estimation of B-scan ultrasonography. It is safe to use both medications for 7 days in patients with acute viral rhinosinusitis. Treatment with cineole is clinically relevant and statistically significant, more effective in comparison to the alternative herbal preparation with five different components. PMID:18437408

  14. [Empirical therapeutic approach to infection by resistant gram positive (acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and health care pneumonia). Value of risk factors].

    PubMed

    González-DelCastillo, J; Núñez-Orantos, M J; Candel, F J; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic treatment inadequacy is common in these sites of infection and may have implications for the patient's prognosis. In acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the document states that for the establishment of an adequate treatment it must be assessed the severity, the patient comorbidity and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant microorganism. The concept of health care-associated pneumonia is discussed and leads to errors in the etiologic diagnosis and therefore in the selection of antibiotic treatment. This paper discusses how to perform this approach to the possible etiology to guide empirical treatment. PMID:27608306

  15. Theoretical lifetimes and Land{acute e} g values of CsthinspII 5p{sup 5}thinsp6p levels

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    Lifetimes of CsthinspII 5p{sup 5}thinsp6p levels, oscillator strengths to the lower 5p{sup 5}thinsp5d and 5p{sup 5}thinsp6s levels, Land{acute e} g factors and LS compositions of all these levels are presented. Results are in very good agreement with most available experiment. Large correlation effects are associated with those 5p{sup 5}thinsp5d and 5p{sup 5}thinsp6s states, which strongly interact. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Valuing the Economic Costs of Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Bronchitis, and Asthma from Exposure to Indoor Dampness and Mold in the US

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two foundational methods for estimating the total economic burden of disease are cost of illness (COI) and willingness to pay (WTP). WTP measures the full cost to society, but WTP estimates are difficult to compute and rarely available. COI methods are more often used but less likely to reflect full costs. This paper attempts to estimate the full economic cost (2014$) of illnesses resulting from exposure to dampness and mold using COI methods and WTP where the data is available. A limited sensitivity analysis of alternative methods and assumptions demonstrates a wide potential range of estimates. In the final estimates, the total annual cost to society attributable to dampness and mold is estimated to be $3.7 (2.3–4.7) billion for allergic rhinitis, $1.9 (1.1–2.3) billion for acute bronchitis, $15.1 (9.4–20.6) billion for asthma morbidity, and $1.7 (0.4–4.5) billion for asthma mortality. The corresponding costs from all causes, not limited to dampness and mold, using the same approach would be $24.8 billion for allergic rhinitis, $13.5 billion for acute bronchitis, $94.5 billion for asthma morbidity, and $10.8 billion for asthma mortality. PMID:27313630

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  18. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Martins, Camila De Martinez Gaspar; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; de Menezes, Eliana Jaime; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Wood, Chris M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2011-01-17

    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC(50) and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) μM Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) μM Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC(50) values were expressed as the free Cu(2+) ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) μM free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) μM free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu(2+) activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) μM Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) μM Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this "steady-state" period. This finding was corroborated by a significant

  19. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong-Qin; Du, Yang; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Jiang, Wen-Jing; Guo, Yan-Min; Lu, Xi-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Min; Sun, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment. PMID:27657095

  20. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Comparison of on-site and laboratory toxicity tests: derivation of site-specific criteria for un-ionized ammonia in a Colorado transitional stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, Del Wayne R.; Link, Denise; Parrish, Loys P.; Rodriguez, Glenn J.; Wuerthele, William; Davies, Patrick H.

    1989-01-01

    Acute tests with fathead minnows (Pimephales prornelas Rafinesque), johnny darters (Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque), white suckers (Catostomus commersoni Lacépède) and acute and chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to evaluate whether characteristics of the St. Vrain River in Colorado would ameliorate or enhance toxicity of un-ionized ammonia compared to laboratory (well) water and LC50 values found in the literature. Concurrently, tests were conducted on dilutions of Longmont, Colorado, wastewater to evaluate its toxicity in differing ammonia concentrations. Tests were conducted at two temperatures (approximately 6 and 20°C) to simulate seasonal differences. LC50s for fishes in the St. Vrain River water were similar to LC50s in laboratory water, indicating there was no site water effect. LC50s derived for fishes tested in warm conditions were within a factor of about two or three of literature values. However, the constituents in or characteristics of the wastewater appeared to enhance ammonia toxicity. Literature values (LC50s) for resident aquatic organisms and the new LC50 value for johnny darters tested on-site were used to derive site-specific criteria for un-ionized ammonia. Greater sensitivities of species to ammonia at cold versus warm temperatures suggests that colder, low-flow conditions may be a critical period for warm-water aquatic communities with regard to ammonia toxicity.

  2. PREDICTION OF POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE FROM MYSID TOXICITY TEST DATA USING POPULATION MODEL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and the risks of chemical stressors to mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). These include LC50 values from acute tests, chronic values (the geometric mean of the no-obsderved-effect co...

  3. Comparison of Apolipoprotein Concentrations and Values of APOB:APOAI with Traditional Lipid Measures in Women Diagnosed with Acute Cornonary Syndromes – A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Katarzyna; Sypniewska, Grazyna; Sawicki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are the leading cause of hospitalization and death in the modern world. Reliable indicators of risk assessment could be useful in clinical investigation. Results from recent studies suggest that apolipoprotein measurement and apoB:apoI ratio are superior to traditional lipids in the estimation of coronary risk. We compared apolipoprotein concentrations and apoB:apoAI index with traditional lipid measures in ACS patients. METHODS A study group consisted of 94 women diagnosed with ACS (STEMI=21, NSTEMI=25 and UA=48). Clinically healthy volunteers (n=30) served as controls. Measurements of serum cardiac TnI, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein AI and apoB100 concentrations were performed and apoB:apoAI ratio was calculated. RESULTS ACS patients had significantly decreased median HDL-cholesterol, increased atherogenic indexes TC:HDL-C, apoB:apoAI and abnormally high CRP compared to controls. Median LDL-cholesterol and apoAI concentrations, although significantly higher in ACS patients, remained within the normal range. Comparison of atherogenic indexes in ACS patients has shown increased TC:HDL-C (>4) and apoB:apoAI (>0,3) in 60,4% and 96,8% of which 55,4% had moderate and high risk (>0,6). ApoB:apoAI ratio was of good diagnostic utility for discrimination between ACS cases and non-ACS controls (AUC=0,715), and little better than TC:HDL-C. In both groups similar percentage of increased LDL-C and triglycerides was observed whereas increased apoB concentration was three times more likely in ACS cases. The highest apoB:apoAI was observed predominantly in STEMI cases (49%) whereas the lowest in UA and NSTEMI (30%). CONCLUSIONS Determination of apolipoproteins and assessment of apoB:apoAI ratio seems to be useful and better tool than traditional lipid measures in assessing risk of acute coronary syndromes in women.

  4. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  5. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use. PMID:27430075

  6. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use.

  7. Therapy of acromegaly with sandostatin: the predictive value of an acute test, the value of serum somatomedin-C measurements in dose adjustment and the definition of a biochemical 'cure'.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, S W; Uitterlinden, P; Schuijff, P C; Klijn, J G

    1988-10-01

    Fifteen acromegalic patient were treated for a mean of 96 weeks with 200-300 micrograms Sandostatin per day. The mean 24 h GH concentration decreased by 86% from 34.3 +/- 6.6 to 4.8 +/- 0.7 micrograms/l (1 microgram/l = 46 pmol/l). There was a close correlation between the mean GH levels from 2 to 6 h after the acute administration of 50 micrograms Sandostatin and the mean 24 h GH levels after chronic therapy (P less than 0.01). Serum Sm-C levels decreased from 6.9 +/- 0.7 to 2.7 +/- 0.5 U/ml (-61%) and normalized in eight of these 15 patients. There was a close correlation between the Sm-C and mean 24 h GH levels after therapy (P less than 0.001). It is suggested that adjustment of the dose and the number of Sandostatin injections can be made in acromegaly on the basis of the measurement of Sm-C levels during the follow-up. This precludes the need of multiple GH determinations throughout the day and/or night. Biochemical 'cure' (as defined by normalized Sm-C levels) was reached in eight patients in whom mean 24 h GH levels were suppressed to 3.3 micrograms/l or less. The normalization of Sm-C levels was even observed in the presence of two or three GH secretory peaks (never exceeding 7.5-10 micrograms/l) during the 24 h period occurring towards the next Sandostatin injection. PMID:3251673

  8. Acute toxicity, uptake and accumulation kinetics of nickel in an invasive copepod species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami

    2016-02-01

    Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel.

  9. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  10. Relationship of glucose values to sliding scale insulin (correctional insulin) dose delivery and meal time in acute care patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Barbara; Conaway, Mark R; Burns, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest the traditional sliding scale insulin (SSI) method does not improve target glucose values among adult medical inpatients. Timing of blood glucose (BC) measurement does affect the required SSI dose. BC measurement and insulin dose administration should be accomplished immediately prior to mealtime. PMID:23802496

  11. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    PubMed

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F

    1996-02-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function. PMID:8744925

  12. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  13. The Value of Botox-A in Acute Radiation Proctitis: Results From a Phase I/II Study Using a Three-Dimensional Scoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vuong, Te; Waschke, Kevin; Niazi, Tamim; Richard, Carole; Parent, Josee; Liberman, Sender; Mayrand, Serge; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side effect of pelvic radiotherapy, and its management is challenging in daily practice. The present phase I/II study evaluates the safety and efficacy of the botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in ARP treatment for rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients, treated with neoadjuvant HDREBT, 26-Gy in 4 fractions, received the study treatment that consisted of a single injection of BTX-A into the rectal wall. The injection was performed post-HDREBT and prior to the development of ARP. The control group, 20 such patients, did not receive the BTX-A injection. Both groups had access to standard treatment with hydrocortisone rectal aerosol foam (Cortifoam) and anti-inflammatory and narcotic medication. The ARP was clinically evaluated by self-administered daily questionnaires using visual analog scores to document frequency and urgency of bowel movements, rectal burning/tenesmus, and pain symptoms before and after HDREBT. Results: At the time of this analysis, there was no observed systemic toxicity. Patient compliance with the self-administered questionnaire was 100% from week 1 to 4, 70% during week 5, and 40% during week 6. The maximum tolerated dose was established at the 100-U dose level, and noticeable mean differences were observed in bowel frequency (p = 0.016), urgency (p = 0.007), and pain (p = 0.078). Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility and efficacy of BTX-A intervention at 100-U dose level for study patients compared to control patients. A phase III study with this dose level is planned to validate these results.

  14. Value of Neutrophil Counts in Predicting Surgery-Related Acute Kidney Injury and the Interaction of These Counts With Diabetes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Xing; Liu, Xin-yao; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Ya-ping; Kuang, Ze-min; Cao, Dongsheng; Chen, Alex F.; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a component of routine blood cell analyses, the quantity of neutrophils present is a proven predictor of morbidity and mortality in several clinical settings. However, whether episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with higher neutrophil counts in vulnerable groups, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between neutrophil counts and the incidence of surgery-related AKI in CKD patients with hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort study of the relationship between neutrophils and surgery-related AKI. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In total, 119 (11.9%) of 998 patients experienced surgery-related AKI during hospitalization from October 2008 to February 2013. We divided patients into 4 quartiles according to their neutrophil counts. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the patients in the 4th quartile of neutrophil counts had greater ORs for AKI compared to those in the 1st quartile. The incidence of AKI increased 1.59-fold for those patients with neutrophil counts ≥6.30 × 109/L. There was a positive linear association between the neutrophil count upon admission and the predicted probability of AKI. The cross-validation revealed a statistically significant predictive accuracy for AKI (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.67–0.69). The interaction analyses revealed that higher neutrophil counts are associated with a heightened risk of AKI in the presence of diabetes (OR = 3.38, 95% CI, 1.06–10.80). There were no interactions between neutrophil counts and age (P = 0.371), sex (P = 0.335), estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.487), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.950), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.977), the presence of chronic heart failure (P = 0.226), or sepsis (P = 0.796). The neutrophil count upon

  15. Human health screening level risk assessments of tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC): calculated acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) values based on toxicity and exposure scenario evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S; Banton, Marcy I; Faber, Willem D; Kirman, Christopher R; McGregor, Douglas B; Pourreau, Daniel B

    2015-02-01

    A screening level risk assessment has been performed for tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) examining its primary uses as a solvent in industrial and consumer products. Hazard quotients (HQ) were developed by merging TBAC animal toxicity and dose-response data with population-level, occupational and consumer exposure scenarios. TBAC has a low order of toxicity following subchronic inhalation exposure, and neurobehavioral changes (hyperactivity) in mice observed immediately after termination of exposure were used as conservative endpoints for derivation of acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) values. TBAC is not genotoxic but has not been tested for carcinogenicity. However, TBAC is unlikely to be a human carcinogen in that its non-genotoxic metabolic surrogates tertiary-butanol (TBA) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) produce only male rat α-2u-globulin-mediated kidney cancer and high-dose specific mouse thyroid tumors, both of which have little qualitative or quantitative relevance to humans. Benchmark dose (BMD)-modeling of the neurobehavioral responses yielded acute and chronic RfC values of 1.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. After conservative modeling of general population and near-source occupational and consumer product exposure scenarios, almost all HQs were substantially less than 1. HQs exceeding 1 were limited to consumer use of automotive products and paints in a poorly ventilated garage-sized room (HQ = 313) and occupational exposures in small and large brake shops using no personal protective equipment or ventilation controls (HQs = 3.4-126.6). The screening level risk assessments confirm low human health concerns with most uses of TBAC and indicate that further data-informed refinements can address problematic health/exposure scenarios. The assessments also illustrate how tier-based risk assessments using read-across toxicity information to metabolic surrogates reduce the need for comprehensive animal testing.

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of copper in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri under different pH values: Impacts of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Yang, Shaogui; Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Jiaoqin; Wang, Zunyao; Sun, Cheng

    2016-03-15

    Aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (L. hoffmeisteri) has been commonly used as a lethal and/or sub-lethal toxicological model organism in ecological risk assessments in contaminated water environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the potential toxic effects of copper (Cu(II)) with or without perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) under different pH values (6.0, 7.0 and 8.0) on LC50, bioaccumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in L. hoffmeisteri after 3 and 7 days. The LC50 values of Cu(II) decreased with the increasing pH and the addition of PFOS. After each exposure, increasing bioaccumulation of Cu(II) in L. hoffmeisteri was observed in the combined exposure treatments, whereas the bioaccumulation of PFOS decreased. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase, the level of glutathione, and the content of malondialdehyde were significantly altered after these exposures, possibly indicating that the bioaccumulation of Cu(II) and PFOS caused adverse effects on antioxidant defenses of L. hoffmeisteri. The integrated biomarker response index, indicates that the combined effect was proposed as synergism, which is coincided with the results of toxic unit. Moreover, this work showed that aquatic environment may become more livable when water conditions changed from acidic to near-neutral or alkaline.

  17. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  18. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  19. Acute toxicity of ammonia (NH3-N) in sewage effluent to Chironomus riparius: II. Using a generalized linear model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monda, D.P.; Galat, D.L.; Finger, S.E.; Kaiser, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Toxicity of un-ionized ammonia (NH3-N) to the midge, Chironomus riparius was compared, using laboratory culture (well) water and sewage effluent (≈0.4 mg/L NH3-N) in two 96-h, static-renewal toxicity experiments. A generalized linear model was used for data analysis. For the first and second experiments, respectively, LC50 values were 9.4 mg/L (Test 1A) and 6.6 mg/L (Test 2A) for ammonia in well water, and 7.8 mg/L (Test 1B) and 4.1 mg/L (Test 2B) for ammonia in sewage effluent. Slopes of dose-response curves for Tests 1A and 2A were equal, but mortality occurred at lower NH3-N concentrations in Test 2A (unequal intercepts). Response ofC. riparius to NH3 in effluent was not consistent; dose-response curves for tests 1B and 2B differed in slope and intercept. Nevertheless, C. riparius was more sensitive to ammonia in effluent than in well water in both experiments, indicating a synergistic effect of ammonia in sewage effluent. These results demonstrate the advantages of analyzing the organisms entire range of response, as opposed to generating LC50 values, which represent only one point on the dose-response curve.

  20. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  1. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as < 4 days, application of B[a]P induced decrease of zooplankton abundance. However, the recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary.

  2. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC(50) values of other test models.

    PubMed

    Khangarot, B S; Das, Sangita

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48h of 50% of immobilization (EC(50)) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC(50) values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r(2)) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC(50)s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK(sp)), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC(50)s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC(50)s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems. PMID:19683870

  3. 49 CFR 173.132 - Class 6, Division 6.1-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Toxicity. (A) A dust or mist with an LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of not more than 4 mg/L; or (B...-fifth of the LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of vapors and with an LC50 for acute toxicity on... pharmacological practices. The result is expressed in mg/kg body mass. (3) LC50 for acute toxicity on...

  4. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  5. Pathology of acute inhalation exposure to 3-methylfuran in the rat and hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Haschek, W.M.; Morse, C.C.; Boyd, M.R.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Witschi, H.P.

    1983-12-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3MF) was investigated in SPF Fischer-derived and CD/CR rats, and golden Syrian hamsters by determination of the 2-week LC50, and by histologic examination of animals killed 1, 3, and 14 days following a 1-hr exposure to 148 and 322 mumole 3MF/liter for CD/CR rats and hamsters, respectively. The Fischer-derived rat was more sensitive to 3MF-induced lethality than the CD/CR rat with an LC50 in the male rat of 81 mumole/liter-1 hr as compared to 222 mumole/liter-1 hr. No sex difference was found. The hamster was relatively resistant with no lethality at 322 mumole 3MF/liter-2 hr. Pulmonary damage was present in both species. In the hamster, selective necrosis of nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells was seen at 1 day with virtually complete regeneration by 14 days whereas in the rat the bronchiolar epithelial damage was more extensive and was followed by scattered peribronchiolar fibrosis and epithelial mucous metaplasia suggestive of ''small airway disease'' of man. Relatively selective 3MF-induced necrosis of olfactory epithelium occurred in the nasal mucosa of both species. Resolution of this lesion was seen by 14 days in the hamster. In the rat, however, the necrosis was much more extensive and was followed by partially occlusive fibrosis of the nasal cavity as seen at 14 days. 3MF also induced centrilobular hepatic necrosis in both species. In the rat, lymphocyte necrosis in the thymus and spleen, and esophageal necrosis was also seen.

  6. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of gallic and pelargonic acids on the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are naturally found in a variety of plants and food products. Despite their extensive use in man-made applications, little is known regarding their potential risks to aquatic vertebrates. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity of these polyphenolic and fatty acid compounds to the zebrafish. In order to get insights into sublethal effects, the enzyme activity of usual biomarkers related to oxidative stress and biotransformation were also assessed in fish. These latter included total superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as total glutathione peroxidase for antioxidant defence mechanisms and glutathione S-transferase for biotransformation related enzyme. Gallic acid was practically non-toxic (96-h lethal concentration (LC50) > 100 mg/L) whereas pelargonic acid was slightly toxic (96-h LC50 of 81.2 mg/L). Moreover, biomarker analyses indicated enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in fish exposed to 20, 40 and 100 mg/L of gallic acid compared to control. A dose-dependent induction of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was reported following gallic acid exposure at the tested concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, with the exception of 100 mg/L of substance where basal activity levels were reported. In the case of pelargonic acid, there was no change in antioxidant enzyme activity while an inhibition of glutathione S-transferase was observed from organisms exposed to 45, 58 and 76 mg/L of test solution. The results concerning sublethal effects on biological parameters of zebrafish highlighted thereby the need for further investigations following chronic exposure to both organic acids.

  7. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through a test chamber or a holding or acclimation tank, with no recycling. LC50 means the median lethal... the entry of dust or other particulates into the solutions. (ii) Construction materials....

  8. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through a test chamber or a holding or acclimation tank, with no recycling. LC50 means the median lethal... the entry of dust or other particulates into the solutions. (ii) Construction materials....

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  10. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  11. Toxicity assessment and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae acutely exposed to bisphenol A, endosulfan, heptachlor, methoxychlor and tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wing Shan; Chan, Winson Ka-Lun; Chan, King Ming

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants, such as tetrabromobisphenol A and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pose an environmental hazard owing to their persistence, low solubility and estrogenic effects, and concerns have been raised regarding their effects on aquatic biota. In the present study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were used as a model to investigate the sublethal and lethal effects of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely methoxychlor, endosulfan and heptachlor, as well as the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A, and its precursor compound bisphenol A. Preliminary data for chemical exposure tests were obtained by determining the 96 h median effective concentration EC50 (hatching rate) and 96 h median lethal concentration LC50 . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the gene expression levels of the biomarker vitellogenin (vtg1) after 96 h exposures to 10, 25, 50 and 75% of the 96 h EC50 value for embryos and 96 h LC50 value for larvae. The use of vtg1 mRNA induction in zebrafish embryos and larvae was found to be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to these organic compounds, and was helpful in elucidating their adverse effects and setting water quality guidelines.

  12. Fractionating nanosilver: importance for determining toxicity to aquatic test organisms.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Hull, Matthew S; Bednar, Anthony J; Goss, Jennifer D; Gunter, Jonas C; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Vikesland, Peter J; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-15

    This investigation applied novel techniques for characterizing and fractionating nanosilver particles and aggregates and relating these measurements to toxicological endpoints. The acute toxicity of eight nanosilver suspensions of varying primary particle sizes (10-80 nm) and coatings (citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, EDTA, proprietary) was assessed using three aquatic test organisms (Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). When 48-h lethal median concentrations (LC50) were expressed as total silver, both D. magna and P. promelas were significantly more sensitive to ionic silver (Ag(+)) as AgNO(3) (mean LC50 = 1.2 and 6.3 μg/L, respectively) relative to a wide range in LC50 values determined for the nanosilver suspensions (2 -126 μg/L). However, when LC50 values for nanosilver suspensions were expressed as fractionated nanosilver (Ag(+) and/or <4 nm particles), determined by ultracentrifugation of particles and confirmed field-flow-fractograms, the LC50 values (0.3-5.6 μg/L) were comparable to the values obtained for ionic Ag(+) as AgNO(3). These results suggest that dissolved Ag(+) plays a critical role in acute toxicity and underscores the importance of characterizing dissolved fractions in nanometal suspensions.

  13. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  14. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  15. 40 CFR 158.630 - Terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LC50, two avian reproduction studies, two freshwater fish LC50, one freshwater invertebrate EC50, one honeybee acute contact LD50, one freshwater fish early-life stage, one freshwater invertebrate life cycle, and three estuarine acute LC50/EC50 studies -- fish, mollusk and invertebrate. All other...

  16. 40 CFR 158.630 - Terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LC50, two avian reproduction studies, two freshwater fish LC50, one freshwater invertebrate EC50, one honeybee acute contact LD50, one freshwater fish early-life stage, one freshwater invertebrate life cycle, and three estuarine acute LC50/EC50 studies -- fish, mollusk and invertebrate. All other...

  17. 40 CFR 158.630 - Terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LC50, two avian reproduction studies, two freshwater fish LC50, one freshwater invertebrate EC50, one honeybee acute contact LD50, one freshwater fish early-life stage, one freshwater invertebrate life cycle, and three estuarine acute LC50/EC50 studies -- fish, mollusk and invertebrate. All other...

  18. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) If a pesticide intended for outdoor use contains an active ingredient with a fish acute LC50 of 1 ppm... subacute dietary LC50 of 500 ppm or less, the statement, “This pesticide is toxic to wildlife” is...

  19. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) If a pesticide intended for outdoor use contains an active ingredient with a fish acute LC50 of 1 ppm... subacute dietary LC50 of 500 ppm or less, the statement, “This pesticide is toxic to wildlife” is...

  20. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) If a pesticide intended for outdoor use contains an active ingredient with a fish acute LC50 of 1 ppm... subacute dietary LC50 of 500 ppm or less, the statement, “This pesticide is toxic to wildlife” is...

  1. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  3. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  4. Acute and sublethal toxicity tests to monitor the impact of leachate on an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M C; Banks, C J; Krivtsov, V

    2005-02-01

    In this study, a specific landfill leachate (1200 mg l(-1) COD and 600 mg l(-1) BOD(5)) was used to develop a standardised short-term acute and longer-term sublethal ex-situ toxicity testing programme, in order to determine the potential ecological implications of leaching contaminants reaching the water table. Bioassays were undertaken with juvenile Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus macro-invertebrates. Preliminary acute test variables included static and static renewed flow rates for 96-h, starved and fed specimens, and aerobic and oxygen depleting conditions. However, regardless of any test variable, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for A. aquaticus remained at 12.3% v/v leachate in deionized water, whilst that for G. pulex was only 1%. Sublethal toxicity was judged on the basis of frequency of births and the growth rate of newly born individuals. Tests showed that even a dilution as high as 1:66- would influence the fecundity of a Gammarus population, whilst a dilution of 1:20 would affect the size of an Asellus breeding colony.

  5. [Acute toxicological effects of heavy metal pollution in soils on earthworms].

    PubMed

    Song, Yufang; Zhou, Qixing; Xu, Huaxia; Ren, Liping; Sun, Tieheng; Gong, Ping

    2002-02-01

    Acute and sub-acute lethal effects of single and combined Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on earthworm was determined using meadow brown soil. Results indicated that the mortality of earthworm was significantly related with the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the soil (alpha = 0.05, RCu = 0.86, RPb = 0.87), and the inhibition rate of earthworm growth was significantly related with the concentration of Cu in the soil (alpha = 0.05, RCu = 0.84). There was no significant relation between the concentrations of other heavy metals tested and the death rate and the growth-inhibition rate. The degree of individual earthworm enduring the toxicity of heavy metals varied greatly. The threshold concentration of toxicity defined by statistical method, the level to conduce the death of individual earthworm was 300 mg.kg-1 for Cu, 1300 mg.kg-1 for Zn, 1700 mg.kg-1 for Pb, 300 mg.kg-1 for Cd. LC50 was 400-450 mg.kg-1 for Cu, 1500-1900 mg.kg-1 for Zn, 2350-2400 mg.kg-1 for Pb and 900 mg.kg-1 for Cd. Combined effects of single Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd to conduce more than 10% of the death rate of earthworm could result in 100% of the death rate of earthworm, thus showing the strong synergistic joint effect of the heavy metals. PMID:11993124

  6. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew S; Brinkman, Stephen; Wolf, Ruth E; Lamothe, Paul J; Smith, Kathleen S; Ranville, James E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (approximately 140 mg/L as CaCO3) and soft water (approximately 30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1000 microg/L) and soft water (0-250 microg/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs. 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 microg/L) and soft water (110 microg/L). Following short-term (< or =3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 microg/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LCS0s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 microg/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (<1 h) experimental gill Zn accumulation and predicted observed differences in accumulation between hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s).

  7. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  8. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  9. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in larvae and post-larvae of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi.

    PubMed

    Galli, Orlando B S; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (SMB) is used in marine shrimp aquaculture to prevent the occurrence of black spot. The release SMB into the estuarine environment from shrimp farm pond effluents has been reported. This study evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and post-larvae of land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi to this salt. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH occurred with increasing concentration of SMB and exposure time. LC(50) values after 48 h of exposure were 34 ± 1.1 mg/L, 31.1 ± 1.9 mg/L, and 30.6 ± 0.5 mg/L for I zoea larvae, megalopa larvae and stage I juveniles, respectively.

  10. Antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of Crassocephalum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decoction of Crassocephallum vitellinum (Benth.) S. Moore (Asteraceae) is used in Kagera Region to treat peptic ulcers. This study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy. Methods An 80% ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt was evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from acidified ethanol gastric ulceration in comparison with 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract and its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions were also evaluated for acute toxicity in mice, brine shrimp toxicity, and antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholera (clinical isolate), and Streptococcus faecalis (clinical isolate). The groups of phytochemicals present in the extract were also determined. Results The ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against ethanol/HCl insult to a maximum of 88.3% at 800 mg/kg body wt, affording the same level of protection as by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against S. typhi and E. coli, while its ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions showed weak activity against K. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and V. cholera. The extract was non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt, and the total extract (LC50 = 37.49 μg/ml) and the aqueous (LC50 = 87.92 μg/ml), ethyl acetate (LC50 = 119.45 μg/ml) and dichloromethane fractions (88.79 μg/ml) showed low toxicity against brine shrimps. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Conclusion The results support the claims by traditional healers that a decoction of C.vitellinum has antiulcer activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection is yet to be determined but the phenolic compounds present in the

  11. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  12. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota. PMID:27448754

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  15. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  16. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice. PMID:8886227

  17. Rim sign: association with acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Perlman, S.B.; Wilson, M.A.; Polcyn, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 218 hepatobiliary studies in patients clinically suspected of acute cholecystitis, a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gallbladder fossa (the rim sign) has been evaluated as a scintigraphic predictor of confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of 28 cases with pathologic confirmation of acute cholecystitis in this series, 17 (60%) demonstrated this sign. When associated with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr, the positive predictive value of this photon-intense rim for acute cholecystitis was 94%. When the rim sign was absent, the positive predictive value of nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 1 hr for acute cholecystitis was only 36%. As this sign was always seen during the first hour postinjection, it can, when associated with nonvisualization, reduce the time required for completion of an hepatobiliary examination in suspected acute cholecystitis.

  18. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  19. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA. PMID:18461560

  20. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  1. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Harper, David D; Farag, Aïda M; Skaar, Don

    2014-03-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3(-). The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3(-). Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3(-) compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3(-). This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  3. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  4. Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations <LC50 of glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences from the control group in total coelomocyte micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei frequencies of earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) μg cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm.

  5. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  6. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity.

  7. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  8. Acute larvicidal activity against mosquitoes and oxygen consumption inhibitory activity of dihydroguaiaretic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Tabara, Yoshimi; Kishida, Taro; Nishi, Kosuke; Shuto, Yoshihiro; Sugahara, Takuya; Yamauchi, Satoshi

    2015-03-11

    (-)-Dihydroguaiaretic acid (DGA) and its derivatives having 3-hydroxyphenyl (3-OH-DGA) and variously substituted phenyl groups instead of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl groups were synthesized to measure their larvicidal activity against the mosquito Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Culicidae). Compared with DGA and 3-OH-DGA (LC50 (M), 3.52 × 10(-5) and 4.57 × 10(-5), respectively), (8R,8'R)-lignan-3-ol (3) and its 3-Me (10), 2-OH (12), 3-OH (13), and 2-OMe (15) derivatives showed low potency (ca. 6-8 × 10(-5) M). The 4-Me derivative (11) showed the lowest potency (12.1 × 10(-5) M), and the 2-F derivative (4) showed the highest (2.01 × 10(-5) M). All of the synthesized compounds induced an acute toxic symptom against mosquito larvae, with potency varying with the type and position of the substituents. The 4-F derivative (6), which killed larvae almost completely within 45 min, suppressed the O2 consumption of the mitochondrial fraction, demonstrating that this compound inhibited mitochondrial O2 consumption contributing to a respiratory inhibitory activity.

  9. Assessment of acute toxicity and histopathology of the fungicide captan in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Boran, Halis; Capkin, Erol; Altinok, Ilhan; Terzi, Ertugrul

    2012-03-01

    Acute toxicity of the fungicide, captan, to juvenile rainbow trout was evaluated under static-renewal test condition. Actual concentrations of captan ranged from 0.05 to 1.00 mg/L. The concentrations of captan that killed 50% of the rainbow trout (3.11±0.8 g) within 24 (24 h; LC(50)), 48, 72 and 96 h were 0.57±0.09, 0.49±0.10, 0.44±0.11 and 0.38±0.13 mg/L (95% confidence limits), respectively. None of the unexposed control fish died and the first fish died 6 h after exposure to captan (≥0.65 mg/L). Hypertrophy, separation of epithelium from lamellae, lamellar fusion, and epithelial cell necrosis were observed on captan exposed fish. Gills also had scattered areas of focal lamellar hyperplasia. Fish exposed to fungicide had inflammation and necrosis in liver, trunk kidney and spleen. In order, the most affected organs were gill, trunk kidney and liver.

  10. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  11. Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius) exposed to formalin.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rudã F B; Dias, Henrique M; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius). A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40%) (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg.L(-1)) with four replicates and five fish per container (3L) in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (%) were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC(50-96h (I))) estimated was 50.76 mg.L(-1) with regression of y = 0.51x, and r(2) = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects.

  12. Multiple biomarkers responses in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, after acute exposure to a fungicide propiconazole.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Velisek, Josef; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the toxic effects of propiconazole (PCZ), a triazole fungicide present in aquatic environment, were studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute toxicity test with the concentration of 5.04 mg/L (96 h LC50). Morphological indices, hematological parameters, liver xenobiotic-metabolizing response, and tissue antioxidant status were evaluated. Compared with the control group, fish exposed to PCZ showed significantly higher Leuko, PCV, MCHC, and hepatic EROD, and significantly lower MCV. CF and HSI were not significantly different among groups. SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR activities increased significantly in liver of experimental groups, but decreased significantly in gill. In general, antioxidant enzyme activity in intestine was less evident than in liver. Oxidative stress indices (levels of LPO and CP) were significantly higher in gill. Additionally, through chemometrics of all parameters measured in this study, two groups with 67.29% of total accumulated variance were distinguished. In short, the physiological and biochemical responses in different tissues of fish indicated that PCZ-induced the stressful environmental conditions. But according to PCZ residual status in the natural environment, more long-term experiments at lower concentrations will be necessary in the future. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.

  13. Sunlight-driven reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticle by organic matter mitigates the acute toxicity of silver to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoya; Shen, Mohai; Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingfu

    2015-09-01

    Due to the unique antibacterial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used in commercial products. Anthropogenic activities have released considerable AgNPs as well as highly toxic silver ion (Ag(+)) into the aquatic environment. Our recent study revealed that ubiquitous natural organic matter (NOM) could reduce Ag(+) to AgNP under natural sunlight. However, the toxic effect of this process is not well understood. In this work, we prepared mixture solution of Ag(+) and AgNPs with varied Ag(+)% through the sunlight-driven reduction of Ag(+) by NOM and investigated the acute toxicity of the solutions on Daphnia magna. Formation of AgNPs was demonstrated and characterized by comprehensive techniques and the fraction of unconverted Ag(+) was determined by ultrafiltration-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. The formation of AgNPs enhanced significantly with the increasing of solution pH and cumulative photosynthetically active radiation of sunlight. The toxicity of the resulting solution was further investigated by using freshwater crustacean D. magna as a model and an 8hr-median lethal concentration (LC50) demonstrated that the reduction of Ag(+) by NOM to AgNPs significantly mitigated the acute toxicity of silver. These results highlight the importance of sunlight and NOM in the fate, transformation and toxicity of Ag(+) and AgNPs, and further indicate that the acute toxicity of AgNPs should be mainly ascribed to the dissolved Ag(+) from AgNPs.

  14. Histological alterations in gills of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; dos Santos, Jorge Abdala Dergam

    2012-11-01

    Increasing contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals has caused various morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and the gills of fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. In this context, the present work proposed to study the effects of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the histology of gills of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus) after acute exposure. Seventy-two adult males of A. aff. bimaculatus were used, the treatments were six concentrations of Zn: 0; 3; 5; 10; 15; and 20 mg/L of water, by 96 h, and gills, muscle and bone fragments were removed. Fragments of gills were fixed and included, sectioned in a rotary microtome and stained with toluidin blue. Fragments of bone, muscle and gills were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption of Zn. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) 96 h after Zn acute exposure was 10 mg/L of water. Noteworthy, Zn was highly toxic in acute exposure trials starting at the concentration 5 mg/L. The exposure of fish to the metal caused branchial histopathological changes correlated with increasing concentration, caused the death of fish at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg/L. The histological alterations observed in the gills were hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, aneurysm, destruction of the lamellar epithelium, rupture of membrane, deletion of secondary lamellar high, which presented more severity in treatments exposed to the highest concentrations. In conclusion, gills of A. aff. bimaculatus presented profound histological alterations as a result of Zn exposure, and hence, proved to be excellent indicators of environmental contamination.

  15. Gene transcription, metabolite and lipid profiling in eco-indicator daphnia magna indicate diverse mechanisms of toxicity by legacy and emerging flame-retardants.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Leona D; Loguinov, Alexandre V; Teng, Quincy; Antczak, Philipp; Dailey, Kathleen P; Nowinski, Daniel T; Kornbluh, Jonah; Lin, Xin Xin; Lachenauer, Erica; Arai, Audrey; Douglas, Nora K; Falciani, Francesco; Stapleton, Heather M; Vulpe, Chris D

    2015-06-16

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity of seven FR chemicals and formulations was assessed on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Acute 48-h nominal LC50 values for penta- and octabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE, octaBDE), Firemaster 550 (FM550), Firemaster BZ-54 (BZ54), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), and nonbrominated BEH-TEBP analog bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) ranged from 0.058 mg/L (pentaBDE) to 3.96 mg/L (octaBDE). mRNA expression, (1)H NMR-based metabolomic and lipidomic profiling at 1/10 LC50 revealed distinct patterns of molecular response for each exposure, suggesting pentaPBDE affects transcription and translation, octaBDE and BEH-TEBP affect glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and BZ54 affects Wnt and Hedgehog signal pathways as well as glycosaminoglycan degradation. Brominated components of FM550 (i.e., BZ54) were significantly higher in Daphnia after 48 h following 1/10 LC50 exposure. FM550 elicited significant mRNA changes at five concentrations across a range from 1/10(6) LC50 to 1/2 LC50. Analyses suggest FM550 impairs nutrient utilization or uptake in Daphnia.

  16. Acute, sublethal, and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp . kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. PMID:25373177

  17. Acute, Sublethal, and Combination Effects of Azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. PMID:25373177

  18. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  19. Copper acute toxicity tests with Schizothorax o'connori Lloyd and Schizothorax waltoni Regan: a biomonitor of heavy metal pollution in a high altitude area?

    PubMed

    Shao, Jian; Xie, Congxin; Qin, Jianhui; Huo, Bin; Luo, Yangzhi

    2014-09-01

    Fingerlings of two different Schizothorax species, S. o'connori Lloyd and S. waltoni Regan, were exposed to copper for 264 h in a series of static toxicity tests. The mortality rates of these two species increased as the exposure concentrations increased and the exposure time was prolonged. Estimated 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 0.31 and 0.28 mg/L for the two species, respectively. These findings indicated that fingerlings of these species were sensitive to copper, and that both species may be suitable for use as local biomonitors of copper pollution in the high altitude environment. However, S. waltoni may be more useful in indicating the safe concentrations of copper used in aquaculture for therapeutic purposes. Further quantitative studies with measured concentrations of copper are required to verify the results observed in the present study.

  20. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  1. Opposite predictive value of pulse pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity on heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: insights from an Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) substudy.

    PubMed

    Regnault, Veronique; Lagrange, Jérémy; Pizard, Anne; Safar, Michel E; Fay, Renaud; Pitt, Bertram; Challande, Pascal; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Lacolley, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although hypertension contributes significantly to worsen cardiovascular risk, blood pressure increment in subjects with heart failure is paradoxically associated with lower risk. The objective was to determine whether pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) remain prognostic markers, independent of treatment in heart failure with reduced left ventricular function. The investigation involved 6632 patients of the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study. All subjects had acute myocardial infarction with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and signs/symptoms of heart failure. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in a subpopulation of 306 subjects. In the overall population, baseline mean arterial pressure <90 mm Hg was associated with higher all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30]; P<0.05), whereas higher left ventricular ejection fraction or pulse pressure was associated with lower rates of all-cause death, cardiovascular death/hospitalization, and cardiovascular death. In the subpopulation, increased baseline PWV was associated with worse outcomes (all-cause death: 1.16 [1.03-1.30]; P<0.05 and cardiovascular deaths: 1.16 [1.03-1.31]; P<0.05), independent of age and left ventricular ejection fraction. Using multiple regression analysis, systolic blood pressure and age were the main independent factors positively associated with pulse pressure or PWV, both in the entire population or in the PWV substudy. In heart failure and low ejection fraction, our results suggest that pulse pressure, being negatively associated with outcome, is more dependent on left ventricular function and thereby no longer a marker of aortic elasticity. In contrast, increased aortic stiffness, assessed by PWV, contributes significantly to cardiovascular death.

  2. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Levels of Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and Their Value for Predicting Short-Term Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Antonia; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; Gomez, Cristina; de la Peña, Monica; Pierola, Javier; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Abad, Jorge; Mediano, Olga; Amilibia, Jose; Masdeu, Maria Jose; Teran, Joaquin; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercè; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PlGF) induces angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair, and plasma PlGF levels change markedly during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with AMI is a subject of debate. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between PlGF levels and both the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and short-term outcomes after ACS in patients with and without OSA. Methods A total of 538 consecutive patients (312 OSA patients and 226 controls) admitted for ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent polygraphy in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. The severity of disease and short-term prognoses were evaluated during the hospitalization period. Plasma PlGF levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results Patients with OSA were significantly older and more frequently hypertensive and had higher BMIs than those without OSA. After adjusting for age, smoking status, BMI and hypertension, PlGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with OSA compared with patients without OSA (19.9 pg/mL, interquartile range: 16.6–24.5 pg/mL; 18.5 pg/mL, interquartile range: 14.7–22.7 pg/mL; p<0.001), and a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was associated with higher PlGF concentrations (p<0.003). Patients with higher levels of PlGF had also an increased odds ratio for the presence of 3 or more diseased vessels and for a Killip score>1, even after adjustment. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with ACS, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of OSA and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335087 PMID:26930634

  3. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp.

  4. Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® to aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, C. J.; Higgins, K. F.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The herbicide Rodeo® provides waterfowl managers with an effective chemical tool for creating open water habitats in wetlands if its use does not adversely affect native invertebrate communities. The survival of caged Chironomus spp. (midge), Hyalella azteca (amphipod),Stagnicola elodes (pond snail), and Nephelopsis obscura (leech) was assessed in prairie pothole wetlands treated by air with a tank mixture of Rodeo®, the surfactant X-77 Spreader®, and the drift retardant Chem-Trol® at a rate recommended for controlling cattails. Laboratory studies were then conducted to determine the acute toxicities of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol®, individually and in simulated tank mixtures, to the same invertebrates and to Daphnia magna in reconstituted water representative of these wetlands. There was no difference in the survival of caged invertebrates between treated and reference wetlands after 21 days. Based on nominal concentrations of the formulations, X-77 Spreader® (LC50s=2.0–14.1 mg/L) was about 83–136 times more toxic than Rodeo® (LC50s=218–1216 mg/L) to aquatic invertebrates. Chem-Trol® killed ≤10% of the animals at 10,000 mg/L and ≤50% of the animals at 28,000 mg/L. Daphnia magna were more sensitive than the other species to X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and the simulated Rodeo® tank mixture (RTM). The joint toxic action of the RTM was additive for amphipods and midges, greater than additive for leeches, and was less than additive for daphnids. X-77 Spreader® was the major toxic component in the RTM. Binary mixtures of X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and Chem-Trol® at tank mixture and equitoxic ratios also showed additive toxicity to amphipods. The use of Rodeo® (applied as a tank mixture with X-77 Spreader® and Chem-Trol®) as a management tool in wetlands does not pose an acute hazard to native aquatic invertebrates because the concentrations of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® found to be acutely toxic to these invertebrates were

  5. New rotifer bioassays for aquatic toxicology. Final report, 16 November 1988-1 June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, T.W.

    1991-07-15

    A standard protocol was developed for assessing acute toxicity using the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. This protocol has several advantages over existing methods in that test animals are obtained by hatching dormant cysts, the test is highly reproducible, it has a low failure rate, and has good sensitivity to a variety of common pollutants. Cyst age up to 18 months had no effect on test animal response to toxicants. LC50s for copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were lower at 10 deg C and 30 deg C than at 20 deg C. B. calyciflorus LC50s were a good predictor of Daphnia magna and fathead minnow LC50s for eight common toxicants. A standard protocol using B. calyciflorus for estimating chronic toxicity of compounds in freshwater has been developed. The rotifer chronic test has several advantages over existing tests including: test animals are obtained from cysts, the test takes only 48 hours to complete, a simple algal food is sufficient for good rotifer reproduction and algae is obtained from a petri dish, the test has good sensitivity to a wide variety of common toxicants. Acute and chronic toxicity of trinitrotoluene has been characterized. The LC50 is 9.1 mg.L-1, the chronic value is 3.3 mg.L-1 and the acute/chronic ratio is 2.8, suggesting that TNT is only weakly chronically toxic. The effects of temperature on rotifer chronic toxicity over the 20 deg-30 deg C range were small.

  6. Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Adams, M.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Church, Stanley E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of metals influences their biological effects. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is a computational approach to predict chemical speciation and acute toxicological effects of metals on aquatic biota. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency incorporated the BLM into their regulatory water-quality criteria for copper. Results from three different laboratory copper toxicity tests were compared with BLM predictions for simulated test-waters. This was done to evaluate the ability of the BLM to accurately predict the effects of hardness and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron on aquatic toxicity. In addition, we evaluated whether the BLM and the three toxicity tests provide consistent results. Comparison of BLM predictions with two types of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests shows that there is fairly good agreement between predicted LC50 values computed by the BLM and LC50 values determined from the two toxicity tests. Specifically, the effect of increasing calcium concentration (and hardness) on copper toxicity appears to be minimal. Also, there is fairly good agreement between the BLM and the two toxicity tests for test solutions containing elevated DOC, for which the LC50 is 3-to-5 times greater (less toxic) than the LC50 for the lower-DOC test water. This illustrates the protective effects of DOC on copper toxicity and demonstrates the ability of the BLM to predict these protective effects. In contrast, for test solutions with added iron there is a decrease in LC50 values (increase in toxicity) in results from the two C. dubia toxicity tests, and the agreement between BLM LC50 predictions and results from these toxicity tests is poor. The inability of the BLM to account for competitive iron binding to DOC or DOC fractionation may be a significant shortcoming of the BLM for predicting site- specific water-quality criteria in streams affected by iron-rich acidic drainage in mined and mineralized areas.

  7. Biochemical markers of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Matull, W R; Pereira, S P; O'Donohue, J W

    2006-04-01

    Serum amylase remains the most commonly used biochemical marker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but its sensitivity can be reduced by late presentation, hypertriglyceridaemia, and chronic alcoholism. Urinary trypsinogen-2 is convenient, of comparable diagnostic accuracy, and provides greater (99%) negative predictive value. Early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis can be made by well validated scoring systems at 48 hours, but the novel serum markers procalcitonin and interleukin 6 allow earlier prediction (12 to 24 hours after admission). Serum alanine transaminase >150 IU/l and jaundice suggest a gallstone aetiology, requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. For obscure aetiologies, serum calcium and triglycerides should be measured. Genetic polymorphisms may play an important role in "idiopathic" acute recurrent pancreatitis.

  8. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  9. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  10. Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report.

    PubMed

    Entz-Werle, N; Suciu, S; van der Werff ten Bosch, J; Vilmer, E; Bertrand, Y; Benoit, Y; Margueritte, G; Plouvier, E; Boutard, P; Vandecruys, E; Ferster, A; Lutz, P; Uyttebroeck, A; Hoyoux, C; Thyss, A; Rialland, X; Norton, L; Pages, M-P; Philippe, N; Otten, J; Behar, C

    2005-12-01

    The first EORTC (European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer) acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) pilot study (58872) was conducted between January 1988 and December 1991. Out of 108 patients, 78% achieved complete remission (CR), and event-free survival (EFS) and survival rates (s.e., %) at 7 years were 40 (5) and 51% (6%), respectively. It indicated that mitoxantrone could be substituted for conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of childhood AML without inducing cardiotoxicity. The aim of the next EORTC 58921 trial was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of idarubicin vs mitoxantrone in initial chemotherapy courses, further therapy consisting of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) in patients with an HLA-compatible sibling donor or chemotherapy in patients without a donor. Out of 177 patients, recruited between October 1992 and December 2002, 81% reached CR. Overall 7-year EFS and survival rates were 49 (4) and 62% (4%), respectively. Out of 145 patients who received the first intensification, 39 had a sibling donor. In patients with or without a donor, the 7-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 63 (8) and 57% (5%) and the 7-year survival rate was 78 (7) and 65% (5%), respectively. Patients with favorable, intermediate and unfavorable cytogenetic features had a 5-year EFS rate of 57, 45 and 45% and a 5-year survival rate of 89, 67 and 53%, respectively.

  11. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... construction materials, test chambers, and testing apparatus to dilution water or to test solutions prior to... tank with no recycling. (7) Incipient LC 50 means that test substance concentration, calculated from... substance. (F) A test substance delivery system for flow-through tests. (ii) Construction...

  12. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... construction materials, test chambers, and testing apparatus to dilution water or to test solutions prior to... tank with no recycling. (7) Incipient LC 50 means that test substance concentration, calculated from... substance. (F) A test substance delivery system for flow-through tests. (ii) Construction...

  13. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  14. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  15. Acute toxicity of lead, chromium, and other heavy metals to ciliates from activated sludge plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madoni, P.; Gorbi, G. ); Davoli, D. )

    1994-09-01

    Numerous papers deal with the occurrence of heavy metals in the various components of freshwater ecosystems and sewage treatment systems. However, few papers refer to the presence and effect of heavy metals in populations of aquatic cilated protozoa. In particular, the lethal concentrations (LC50) of heavy metals in ciliate populations that colonize the activated sludge or the biofilm of waste treatment plants. Ciliated protozoa are very numerous in all types of aerobic biological-treatment systems. They play an important role in the purification process removing, through predation, the major part of dispersed bacteria that cause high turbidity in the final effluent. Changes in the community structure and types of ciliate species may affect the food web of these artifical ecosystems, and may also influence the biological performance of plants. Heavy metals can limit growth of protozoa in aquatic environments. The toxicity of heavy metals in biological treatment depends mainly upon two factors, namely, metal species and concentration. Although the resistance of biological systems to metal toxicity may be enhanced greatly by proper acclimatization, a too-high metal concentration may cause serious upsets in the system. It is important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals causing lethal effects on ciliates. Madoni recently studied the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc on six species of ciliated protozoa from activated sludge plants. The present paper describes the toxic effects of lead and chromium (VI) on 6 cilate species. The acute toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn on two other ciliates (Drepanomonas revoluta and Spirostomum teres) is also reported. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Perron, Monique M; Ho, Kay T; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2012-08-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment-dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water-only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96-h water-only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7-d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96-h LC50 water-only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28-d bioaccumulation study with a biota-sediment accumulation factor of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  17. Repellent and insecticidal effects of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes to Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liang, Yan; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and repellent and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga L. rhizomes against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, and to isolate insecticidal or repellent constituents from the oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight components of the oil were identified. The major compounds in the oil were ethyl-rho-methoxycinnamate (38.6%), ethyl cinnamate (23.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.5%), trans-cinnamaldehyde (5.3%), and borneol (5.2%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, four active constituents were isolated from the oil and identified as 1,8-cineole, ethyl cinnamate, ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate, and trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against the booklouse with an LC50 value of 68.6 microg/cm2. Ethyl cinnamate (LC50 = 21.4 microg/cm2) exhibited stronger contact toxicity than ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 = 44.6 and 43.4 microg/cm2, respectively) while 1,8-cineole showed weak acute toxicity. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against the booklouse with a LC50 value of 1.5 mg/liter air. 1,8-Cineole and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 = 1.1 and 1.3 mg/liter, respectively) possessed stronger fumigant toxicity against the booklouse than ethyl cinnamate and ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate (LC50 = 10.2 and 10.2 mg/liter air, respectively). trans-Cinnamaldehyde was strongly repellent to booklice, whereas ethyl cinnamate and ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate were weakly repellent and 1,8-cineole did not repel booklice. The results indicate that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants and repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  18. Repellent and insecticidal effects of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes to Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liang, Yan; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and repellent and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga L. rhizomes against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, and to isolate insecticidal or repellent constituents from the oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight components of the oil were identified. The major compounds in the oil were ethyl-rho-methoxycinnamate (38.6%), ethyl cinnamate (23.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.5%), trans-cinnamaldehyde (5.3%), and borneol (5.2%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, four active constituents were isolated from the oil and identified as 1,8-cineole, ethyl cinnamate, ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate, and trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against the booklouse with an LC50 value of 68.6 microg/cm2. Ethyl cinnamate (LC50 = 21.4 microg/cm2) exhibited stronger contact toxicity than ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 = 44.6 and 43.4 microg/cm2, respectively) while 1,8-cineole showed weak acute toxicity. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against the booklouse with a LC50 value of 1.5 mg/liter air. 1,8-Cineole and trans-cinnamaldehyde (LC50 = 1.1 and 1.3 mg/liter, respectively) possessed stronger fumigant toxicity against the booklouse than ethyl cinnamate and ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate (LC50 = 10.2 and 10.2 mg/liter air, respectively). trans-Cinnamaldehyde was strongly repellent to booklice, whereas ethyl cinnamate and ethyl rho-methoxycinnamate were weakly repellent and 1,8-cineole did not repel booklice. The results indicate that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants and repellents for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:25195466

  19. The sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is the likely molecular target for the acute toxicity of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

    PubMed

    Al-Mousa, Fawaz; Michelangeli, Francesco

    2014-01-25

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a widely utilised brominated flame retardant (BFR). It has been shown to bio-accumulate within organisms, including man, and possibly cause neurological disorders. The acute neurotoxicity of HBCD, and six other unrelated BFRs, were assessed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by 24h viability assays and HBCD proved to be the most lethal (LC50, 3μM). In addition, the effects of these BFRs were also assessed for their potency at inhibiting the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) derived from the SH-SY5Y cells and again HBCD was the most potent (IC50, 2.7μM). The data for the other BFRs tested showed a direct correlation (coefficient 0.94) between the potencies of inducing cell death and inhibiting the Ca(2+) ATPase, indicating that SERCA is likely to be the molecular target for acute toxicity. Mechanistic studies of HBCD on the Ca(2+) ATPase suggest that it affects ATP binding, phosphorylation as well as the E2 to E1 transition step. PMID:24189551

  20. Toxicity effects of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) to marine organisms: acute and chronic toxicity of p-xylene to the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Capela, R; Pereira, S P P; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spills preparedness and responses, much remains to be done regarding the threat posed by HNS spills on marine biota. Among the identified priority HNS, p-xylene was selected to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the amphipod Gammarus locusta under acute and chronic exposure to p-xylene simulating conditions of a spill incident. In the acute exposure (96 h) the p-xylene LC50 was estimated. In the chronic bioassay (36 d), an integration of organism-level endpoints (survival, growth rate, and sex ratio) with biochemical markers indicative of oxidative stress including catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels was determined. The aim was to increase the xylene ecotoxicological database and better predict its impact in aquatic environments. p-Xylene induced several chronic toxicity effects in G. locusta. Significant alterations in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels as well as growth rate and biased sex-ratio were observed. p-Xylene significantly affected the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in G. locusta and produced oxidative damage by increasing levels of LPO in males. Further, impacts in key ecological endpoints, that is, growth and sex ratio, were noted that might be indicative of potential effects at the population level in a spill scenario. The present data may be useful to assist relevant bodies in preparedness and response to HNS spills. PMID:25208661

  1. [Prediction and monitoring of severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gürlich, R; Maruna, P; Spicák, J

    2006-01-01

    Twenty to thirty percent patients with acute pancreatitis develop severe acute pancreatitis with high mortality and morbidity rate. Markers of severity of acute pancreatitis are clinically important for the early diagnosis of complications. We reviewed the literature for markers of acute pancreatitis. On their relevance for prediction of severe pancreatitis are given. Several markers can predict severe cases of acute pancreatitis with a different positive and negative predictive value. Useful predictors of severity may include serum procalcitonin and urinary trypsinogen activation peptide at the admission, serum interleukins-6 and -8 at 24 h, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in 48 hours interval. The valuable marker for daily monitoring appears to be serum procalcitonin.

  2. Acute toxicity of butachlor and atrazine to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Yu, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Wenyang; He, Jinbo; Li, Huashou

    2012-06-01

    Both single and joint toxicity of atrazine and butachlor to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata isolated from South China were investigated in the present study. The 96 h-EC(50) values of atrazine and butachlor to S. obliquus were 0.0147 and 2.31 mg L(-1), while the 48 h-LC(50) values to D. carinata were 60.6 and 3.40 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that atrazine could be highly toxic to S. obliquus and slightly toxic to D. carinata, while butachlor exhibits moderate toxicity to both organisms. The additive indexes of atrazine and butachlor mixtures were -2.68 (-3.02 to -2.32) to S. obliquus and 0.054 (-0.025 to 0.238) to D. carinata, respectively. Therefore, the joint action of two herbicides was significant antagonism to S. obliquus, while significant synergism was not shown to D. carinata. Moreover, significant linear correlation between the natural logarithm of herbicide concentrations and growth rates of alga S. obliquus was observed. Taken together, it is the first study reporting the toxicity endpoints for mixture of atrazine and butachlor against S. obliquus and D. carinata isolated from south China. The present results would be helpful to provide data to assess the ecological risk of both herbicides to aquatic organisms.

  3. Acute toxicity of acidity in larvae and adults of four stream salamander species (Plethodontidae).

    PubMed

    Green, Linda E; Peloquin, Jennifer E

    2008-11-01

    High levels of acid deposition have severely affected streamwater chemistry in the southern Appalachians. Plethodontid stream salamanders living in and around headwater streams rely on cutaneous respiration and are highly susceptible to changes in water quality. We examined the sensitivity to low pH conditions in four stream salamanders by monitoring the response to six pH treatments ranging from pH 2.75 to 6.5. To quantify acid tolerance, we determined median lethal concentrations (LC50) in 96-h laboratory bioassays. This is the first study to quantify the level of sensitivity of stream salamanders to acidic conditions, indicating that stream salamanders are acid tolerant compared with many other lotic organisms. We found that acid tolerance is a species-specific trait with intraspecific variation shaped by life stage and body size. Mortality occurred at pH levels less than 4.2. The acid sensitivity of Desmognathus quadramaculatus larvae (LC50 = pH 3.95) was highest compared to sensitivity of Eurycea cirrigera larvae (LC50 = 3.6), Gyrinophilus porphyriticus larvae (LC50 = 3.5), and Pseudotriton ruber larvae (LC50 = 3.5). Larval survival was lower than adult survival in low pH treatments for E. cirrigera (adult LC50 = 3.1) and D. quadramaculatus (adult LC50 = 3.5). Salamanders responded to sublethal exposure to acidity with lethargic movements and decreased swimming speed. These results suggest that episodic acid events that cause streamwater pH to drop near 4.2 may cause mortality or induce sublethal effects, such as slower swimming speed. Because salamander larvae are more sensitive to acidic conditions than adults, we recommend that population monitoring programs extend methodology to include reliable estimates of larval population sizes.

  4. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. PMID:27432672

  5. Feeding response in marine copepods as a measure of acute toxicity of four anti-sea lice pesticides.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, Jordana L; Burridge, Les E; Fife, Frederick J; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-10-01

    Anti-sea lice pesticides used in salmon aquaculture are released directly into the environment where non-target organisms, including zooplankton, may be exposed. The toxicity of four pesticides to field-collected copepods was examined in 1-h exposures with lethality and feeding endpoints determined 5-h post-exposure using staining techniques. Copepods were immobilized within 1 h, at aquaculture treatment concentrations of deltamethrin (AlphaMax), cypermethrin (Excis), and hydrogen peroxide (InteroxParamove50). All organisms showed vital staining, indicating immobilized organisms were still alive, thus LC50s were not determined. Feeding on carmine particles was inhibited and EC50s ranged from 0.017 to 0.067 μg deltamethrin/L, 0.098-0.36 μg cypermethrin/L, and 2.6-10 mg hydrogen peroxide/L, representing 30- to 117-fold, 13- to 51-fold, and 120- to 460-fold dilutions of the respective aquaculture treatments. No effects were observed in copepods exposed to azamethiphos (Salmosan) at 5-times the aquaculture treatment. Acute exposure to three of the four pesticides affected feeding and mobility of copepods at environmentally-realistic concentrations.

  6. Change of Serum BNP Between Admission and Discharge After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Is a Better Predictor of 6-Month All-Cause Mortality Than the Single BNP Value Determined at Admission

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is regarded as a reliable predictor of outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, according to some scholars, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP at the time of hospital admission would not be sufficient to provide reliable prognostic information. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on patients hospitalized for ADHF, who had then undergone follow-up of at least 6 months, in order to see if there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Medical records had to be carefully examined to divide the case records into two groups, the former characterized by an increase in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter showing a decrease in BNP from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results Ultimately, 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge relative to admission, whereas 124 (70.06%) exhibited decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention (odds ratio: 3.72; P = 0.0001) and persistent orthopnea at discharge (odds ratio: 2.93; P = 0.0016). Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; P = 0.001 (one-way ANOVA)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the 6-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality after

  7. Change of Serum BNP Between Admission and Discharge After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Is a Better Predictor of 6-Month All-Cause Mortality Than the Single BNP Value Determined at Admission

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is regarded as a reliable predictor of outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, according to some scholars, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP at the time of hospital admission would not be sufficient to provide reliable prognostic information. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on patients hospitalized for ADHF, who had then undergone follow-up of at least 6 months, in order to see if there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Medical records had to be carefully examined to divide the case records into two groups, the former characterized by an increase in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter showing a decrease in BNP from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results Ultimately, 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge relative to admission, whereas 124 (70.06%) exhibited decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention (odds ratio: 3.72; P = 0.0001) and persistent orthopnea at discharge (odds ratio: 2.93; P = 0.0016). Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; P = 0.001 (one-way ANOVA)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the 6-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality after

  8. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  9. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains. PMID:26408136

  10. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  11. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  12. Serum nickle estimation in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Narang, N K; Goyal, R K; Gupta, A K; Balwani, S

    1989-11-01

    Serum nickle was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometer in 20 healthy controls and in 25 cases of acute myocardial infarction at 12 hourly intervals upto 48 hours, after the onset of chest pain. The mean serum nickel was 0.27 micrograms/dl in healthy controls and 0.40,050,049 and 0.30 micrograms/dl in patients of acute myocardial infarction. The serum nickel values were significantly (P less than 0.001) raised upto 36 hours in acute myocardial infarction when compared with controls.

  13. Additive prognostic value of the SYNTAX score over GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, CADILLAC and PAMI risk scores in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Brkovic, Voin; Dobric, Milan; Beleslin, Branko; Giga, Vojislav; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Stankovic, Goran; Nedeljkovic, Milan A; Orlic, Dejan; Tomasevic, Miloje; Stepanovic, Jelena; Ostojic, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated additive prognostic value of the SYNTAX score over GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, CADILLAC and PAMI risk scores in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). All six scores were calculated in 209 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing pPCI. Primary end-point was the major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE--composite of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke); secondary end point was cardiovascular mortality. Patients were stratified according to the SYNTAX score tertiles (≤12; between 12 and 19.5; >19.5). The median follow-up was 20 months. Rates of MACE and cardiovascular mortality were highest in the upper tertile of the SYNTAX score (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). SYNTAX score was independent multivariable predictor of MACE and cardiovascular mortality when added to GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, and PAMI risk scores. However, the SYNTAX score did not improve the Cox regression models of MACE and cardiovascular mortality when added to the CADILLAC score. The SYNTAX score has predictive value for MACE and cardiovascular mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Furthermore, SYNTAX score improves prognostic performance of well-established GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE and PAMI clinical scores, but not the CADILLAC risk score. Therefore, long-term survival in patients after STEMI depends less on detailed angiographical characterization of coronary lesions, but more on clinical characteristics, myocardial function and basic angiographic findings as provided by the CADILLAC score.

  14. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Pogostemon cablin Leaves and Its Constituents Against Blattella germanica (Blattodae: Blattelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Chen, Han; Liu, Qi Zhi; Jiang, Shi Yao; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of P. cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), α-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male B. germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 μg per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 μg per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50 = 339.90 μg per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of P. cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents. PMID:26336284

  15. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending.

  16. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  18. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  19. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  20. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  1. [Radionuclide diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Moskalenko, N I; Tikhonenko, E P

    1986-01-01

    Nephroscintigraphy using a 67Ga-citrate complex and 99mTc-pyrophosphate was performed in 88 patients with acute pyelonephritis. Nuclide hyperfixation was revealed in 97.8% of the cases. Three groups of patients were singled out on the basis of the intensity of incorporation and nature of the distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in the kidneys. In the 1st group the RP incorporation was insignificant but higher than normal values; the RP distribution in the affected kidney was diffuse-inhomogenous. These changes were considered to be typical of acute serous pyelonephritis. In the 2nd and 3rd groups a sharp rise of the RP accumulation was noted, being typical of acute purulent pyelonephritis. One could distinguish between diffuse and focal lesions by the picture of the RP distribution in the renal parenchyma. Diuresis stimulation made it possible to differentiate an actual nuclide fixation during inflammation from nuclide mechanical retention as a result of urine outflow disorder. According to the authors, both radiopharmaceuticals could be applied for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as well as for differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease. PMID:3001474

  2. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  3. Acute toxicity evaluation of copper, arsenic and HCH to paddy field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromus (Herb.).

    PubMed

    Vardhanan, Y Shibu; Radhakrishnan, Tresa

    2002-10-01

    Routine static tests were conducted for determining the median lethal tolerance limit of paddy field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromus exposed to Copper, Arsenic and HCH at different time intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hour. The LC50 values for Copper came to be 28.00, 22.00, 18.20 and 15.70 ppm; Arsenic 136.00, 128.00, 121.500 and 114.00 ppm and HCH 10.00, 8.80, 7.00 and 6.00 ppm, respectively. The safe concentration, application factor and safe application rate were also calculated. They were for, Copper: 5.56, 1.59 and 3.26 ppm, Arsenic: 38.53, 11.40 and 76.00 and HCH : 4.07, 0.06 and 1.28 ppm. Animals exposed to different concentrations of test chemicals (Copper, Arsenic and HCH) showed prominent behavioural/morphological alterations viz., coughing, redness on the ventral side, paralysis and disorientation in scaphognathite activity. Animals exposed to high concentrations showed an avoidance behaviour by keeping away from the direct contact with the toxic solution either by climbing on the wall of aquarium or by mounting over the weak individual and forming a type of pyramid. PMID:12674379

  4. Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species.

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used

  5. Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species.

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used

  6. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  7. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  8. [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET Standard Uptake Value as a Metabolic Predictor of Bone Marrow Response to Radiation: Impact on Acute and Late Hematological Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Elicin, Olgun; Callaway, Sharon; Prior, John O.; Bourhis, Jean; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Herrera, Fernanda G.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relationship between bone marrow (BM) response to radiation and radiation dose by using {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET standard uptake values (SUV) and to correlate these findings with hematological toxicity (HT) in cervical cancer (CC) patients treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen women with a diagnosis of CC were treated with standard doses of CRT. All patients underwent pre- and post-therapy [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT). Hemograms were obtained before and during treatment and 3 months after treatment and at last follow-up. Pelvic bone was autosegmented as total bone marrow (BM{sub TOT}). Active bone marrow (BM{sub ACT}) was contoured based on SUV greater than the mean SUV of BM{sub TOT}. The volumes (V) of each region receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40}, respectively) were calculated. Metabolic volume histograms and voxel SUV map response graphs were created. Relative changes in SUV before and after therapy were calculated by separating SUV voxels into radiation therapy dose ranges of 5 Gy. The relationships among SUV decrease, radiation dose, and HT were investigated using multiple regression models. Results: Mean relative pre-post-therapy SUV reductions in BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} were 27% and 38%, respectively. BM{sub ACT} volume was significantly reduced after treatment (from 651.5 to 231.6 cm{sup 3}, respectively; P<.0001). BM{sub ACT} V{sub 30} was significantly correlated with a reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV (R{sup 2}, 0.14; P<.001). The reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV significantly correlated with reduction in white blood cells (WBCs) at 3 months post-treatment (R{sup 2}, 0.27; P=.04) and at last follow-up (R{sup 2}, 0.25; P=.04). Different dosimetric parameters of BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} correlated with long-term hematological outcome. Conclusions: The volumes of BM

  9. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  10. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  11. Acute and chronic effects of sodium and potassium on the tropical freshwater cladoceran Pseudosida ramosa.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Emanuela Cristina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the toxicities of sodium and potassium to the tropical freshwater cladoceran Pseudosida ramosa were assessed. Acute toxicity tests on this species showed that the 48-h LC(50) of Na(+) was 556 mg l(-1), while that of K(+) was 17.7 mg l(-1). Long-term exposure of female P. ramosa to sodium reduced the total number of survivors from 10 to 6 at a concentration of 249 mg l(-1), 21-day fecundity from 20.4 to 14.3 eggs female(-1) at concentrations ranging from 72 to 249 mg l(-1), 21-day fertility from 20.1 to 6.5 neonates female(-1) at concentrations ranging from 25 to 249 mg l(-1). Furthermore, fecundity of each brood from the second to the fifth was significantly lower at 249 mg l(-1) and fertility of each brood from the first to the fifth at concentrations ranging from 25 to 249 mg l(-1). A significant decrease in fertility was associated with an increase in the number of aborted eggs. Long-term exposure to potassium decreased the 21-day fecundity of P. ramosa from 14.2 to 10.8 eggs female(-1) at a concentration of 11 mg l(-1) and fertility (fourth brood only) at 6.2 and 11 mg l(-1). Tropical reservoirs located near areas where the soil is overloaded with fertilizers and ferti-irrigation with vinasse already show concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) very close to those producing sub-lethal long-term effects on P. ramosa. A possible consequence is that organisms of the aquatic biota cannot adapt and freshwater taxa may become locally extinct, transferring dominance to salt-tolerant taxa. PMID:20978846

  12. Reduction in organic effluent static acute toxicity to fathead minnows by various aeration techniques.

    PubMed

    Belanger, S E; Farris, J L; Cherry, D S

    1988-01-01

    This study compared results of no aeration, intermittent aeration, and constant aeration strategies in determining the static acute (48-h) toxicity of phenolic-based effluents to adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Toxicity was greatest in no aeration tests followed by intermittent aeration and constant aeration. Two factors were considered responsible for the observed patterns of toxicity. First, in side-by-side tests of no versus intermittent aeration and intermittent versus constant aeration, toxicity reductions were directly attributed to maintenance of dissolved oxygen above 5.0 mg litre(-1) in aerated containers. Secondly, toxicity was reduced when treatment system temperatures were warmest, probably due to increased microbial activity and volatilisation during late spring to early autumn (temperatures > 16 degrees C). Effluent was slightly more toxic on- than off-site, presumably due to degradation of phenolic compounds during transport and set-up at the off-site laboratory (approximately 4.5 h). Gill tissue ultrastructure and histopathology were used to determine the extent of effluent-induced damage and the recovery of minnows to short (6-h) effluent exposures. After a 48-h exposure to the approximate LC(50) level, gill tissue lamellae were characteristically desquamated with epithelium lifting from the basement membrane. Gill tissue was similarly damaged after a 6-h exposure to 100% effluent and had recovered to pre-exposure conditions after 42 h in clean water. Aeration strategies in these studies demonstrated potential air-stripping of volatile compounds, although stress to test organisms from low dissolved oxygen was relieved.

  13. The acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew; Handy, Richard D; Shaw, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K.

  14. Acute and chronic cadmium toxicity to a saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday and its relative importance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaosheng; Yan, Changzhou; Zhang, Xian

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests of a saltwater cladoceran Moina monogolica Daday exposed to cadmium were conducted according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guidelines. The 24- and 48-h LC50s and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as 9.59 (8.91-10.26) and 1.87 (1.46-2.32) mg Cd/l, respectively, based on measured cadmium concentrations. When compared with different phyla or classes of saltwater animals, M. monogolica had moderate sensitivity and was suitable to be used as an indicator organism. Eight end points used to evaluate chronic effects were affected at chronic cadmium concentrations. Test organisms ceased to reproduce when exposed to equal to or greater than 308.10 microg Cd/l. Comparisons of chronic effects showed that mechanisms of metal accumulation patterns M. monogolica exposed to cadmium are different from those of dissolved copper exposure. The point estimates using linear regression equations of net reproductive rate generated the maximum-acceptable-toxicant concentration of 1.78 microg Cd/l, the lowest-observed-effect concentration of 3.01 microg Cd/l and the no-observed-effect concentration of 1.11 microg Cd/l. Comparisons among thresholds, cadmium concentrations in natural aquatic systems and water quality criteria showed that aquatic organisms were possibly negatively affected at some sites of higher cadmium concentrations. Further research is needed to focus on risk assessment of cadmium on saltwater aquatic organisms and water quality criteria development of China. PMID:18719993

  15. The acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew; Handy, Richard D; Shaw, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K. PMID:26225743

  16. Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.O.J.

    1987-07-01

    Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

  17. Promising Efficacy of Benznidazole Nanoparticles in Acute Trypanosoma cruzi Murine Model: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Scalise, María L; Arrúa, Eva C; Rial, Marcela S; Esteva, Mónica I; Salomon, Claudio J; Fichera, Laura E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of benznidazole nanoparticles (BNZ-nps) on trypomastigote forms and on intracellular infection in mammalian cells and primary cardiac myocyte cells. Its effectiveness was also evaluated on acute Trypanosoma cruzi Nicaragua mice infection. Trypomastigotes from culture were treated with different concentrations of BNZ-nps to determine the drug concentration that lyses 50% of trypomastigotes (LC50). Infected mammalian cells were incubated with different concentrations of BNZ-nps to determine the percentage of amastigote inhibition. C3H/HeN mice with lethal acute infection were treated with 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day of BNZ-nps for 30 and 15 days to control the survival rate of animals. BNZ-nps having a mean particle size of 63.3 nm, a size distribution of 3.35, and a zeta potential of -18.30 were successfully prepared using poloxamer 188 as a stabilizer. BNZ-nps 25 and 50 μg/mL showed no significant differences in the percentage of inhibition of infected mammalian cells. Infected mice treated with BNZ-nps (50, 25, and 10 mg/kg/day) for 30 days and with BNZ-nps (50 and 25 mg/kg/day) for 15 days presented a 100% survival, whereas the animals treated with 10 mg/kg/day for 15 days of BNZ-nps showed a 70% survival rate. The results obtained demonstrate, for the first time, that benznidazole nanoparticles are a useful and attractive approach to treat Chagas disease in infected mice. PMID:27246447

  18. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  19. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  20. Amylase: creatinine clearance ratio and urinary excretion of lysozyme in acute pancreatitis and acute duodenal perforation.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M; Cowlin, J; Turner, T J

    1976-09-18

    The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis or acute duodenal perforation was higher than normal in both groups of patients. These findings cast doubt on the value of this parameter as a specific index of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism or mechanisms underlying the increased amylase excretion have not been determined. However, the markedly elevated urinary excretion of lysozyme observed in some patients suggests, by analogy, that diminished tubular reabsorption of amylase may contribute towards the elevated amylase:creatinine ratio.

  1. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  2. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  3. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  4. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  5. Accuracies of diagnostic methods for acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Seob; Jeong, Jin Ho; Lee, Jong In; Lee, Jong Hoon; Park, Jea Kun; Moon, Hyoun Jong

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and physical examination for diagnosing acute appendicitis with analyzing their accuracies and negative appendectomy rates in a clinical rather than research setting. A total of 2763 subjects were enrolled. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value and negative appendectomy rate for ultrasonography, computed tomography, and physical examination were calculated. Confirmed positive acute appendicitis was defined based on pathologic findings, and confirmed negative acute appendicitis was defined by pathologic findings as well as on clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography were 99.1, 91.7, 96.5, and 97.7 per cent, respectively; for computed tomography, 96.4, 95.4, 95.6, and 96.3 per cent, respectively; and for physical examination, 99.0, 76.1, 88.1, and 97.6 per cent, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate was 5.8 per cent (5.2% in the ultrasonography group, 4.3% in the computed tomography group, and 12.2% in the physical examination group). Ultrasonography/computed tomography should be performed routinely for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. However, in view of its advantages, ultrasonography should be performed first. Also, if the result of a physical examination is negative, imaging studies after physical examination can be unnecessary.

  6. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  7. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Due to Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Atif Shaikh Iqbal; Kundavaram, Abhilash Paul Prabhakar; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C

    2014-01-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in large parts of India and can cause multi-organ failure and death. Acute pancreatitis as a complication is very rare and is potentially fatal. This case series describes seven adult patients who presented with an acute febrile illness and were diagnosed to have scrub typhus with acute pancreatitis. The mean age of the seven patients with acute pancreatitis was 49.4 years, and mean duration of fever prior to presentation was 7.7 days. All seven patients had abdominal pain, and three had a pathognomonic eschar. The mean serum lipase level was 1,509 U/L (normal value: <190 U/L) and the mean serum amylase level was 434 U/L (normal value: <200 U/L). Six patients had evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Hematological and respiratory system dysfunction was seen in five patients, hepatic and renal dysfunction in four, and central nervous system dysfunction in three patients. Three patients who had ≥4 organs involved, died (mortality rate: 42.8%). Our case series shows that pancreatitis in scrub typhus is an extremely rare complication and when present, is associated with increased mortality (42.8%). Physicians may be familiar with the various complications of scrub typhus but less so with acute pancreatitis and hence may be underdiagnosed. PMID:24741229

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in lambs. Hematology.

    PubMed

    Ulvund, M J; Grønstøl, H

    1984-01-01

    Lambs suffering from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) showed elevated PCV, neutrophilia, a tendency towards lymphopenia, eosinopenia, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia and extremely low serum Ca values during the first couple of days after the outbreak of symptoms. During the very early phase, plasma potassium values were mostly lowered (Figs. 1-3, Table I). The possible involvement of histamine is shortly discussed: either 1) through an atopic reaction, 2) because of acute ruminal acidosis and sudden histamine formation, or 3) involvement of endotoxins.

  10. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  11. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  12. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  13. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  14. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates. The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies. Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a). The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity

  15. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  16. Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Visetson, Suraphon; Milne, John; Milne, Manthana; Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Pronbanlualap, Somchai

    2007-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain. Topical spraying was applied to various stages of nymphal and adult BPH to determine toxicity. An ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp extract gave the best control of BPH, with LC50 of 4.5% w/v (r2 = 0.95) with 3rd instar BPH nymphs when compared with the other solvents, hexane, acetone and dichloromethane. The active compound, alpha-mangostin showed an LC50 of 5.44%w/v (r2 = 0.88). The toxicity of this extract was less than that of Imidacloprid which showed an LC50 of 0.0042% w/v (r2 = 0.99). The toxicity to non-target organisms was determined. This extract showed toxicity to guppies ((LC50 = 2.53 and 4.27 ppm for females and males, respectively; r2 = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), bees (LC50 = 4.38% w/v, r2 = 0.95) and mice (no oral acute toxicity and no dermal inflammation but showed eye irritation in 1 day which became normal within 3 days). In vitro detoxification enzyme activities of carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase from BPH after 24 hours exposure were also observed. Carboxylesterase showed stronger activity than other enzymes. Toxicity in terms of LC50 values of both the extract and imidacloprid treatments increased in each generation. The LC50 values for each generation were 4.22-6.67 after sequential spraying. After the ethanol extract was kept at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 55 degrees C for 3 months, the quantity of alpha-mangostin and the BPH control efficiency was lower at 55 degrees C than those for other temperatures. The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH

  17. Perfluoro-n-butyl iodide: acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Hoffman, Gary; Hardy, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-butyl iodide (PFBI) is a promising alternative to chlorofluorocarbon solvents used in aircraft ground maintenance operations and other military and commercial operations, because it cleans well, has zero ozone depletion potential, and has extremely low global warming properties. Toxicity tests were performed with PFBI to determine and evaluate its health hazard. Using standard testing guidelines (e.g., Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]), tests included acute (4-h) and 4-week (6 h/day, 5 days/week) inhalation (nose-only) toxicity studies in rats, acute (10-min) inhalation cardiac sensitization study in dogs, in vitro chromosomal aberrations experiments in human lymphocytes, and in vitro mutagenic experiments in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. There were no mortalities in rats (n = 10) exposed for 4 h to 10,000 ppm PFBI, but all rats (n = 10) died within 2 h when exposed to 20,000 ppm PFBI. The 4-h LC50 (95% confidence limits) was 14,000 ppm (13,000 ppm to 16,000 ppm). Signs (nasal discharge and labored breathing) observed in the rats exposed to 10,000 ppm returned to normal within 48 h. PFBI has the potential to cause cardiac sensitization in epinephrine-challenged dogs at 6200 ppm. A concentration of 3900 ppm was a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the cardiac sensitization study. In the 4-week inhalation study (5 rats/sex/group), respiratory mucosal hypertrophy/hyperplasia was observed in rats of the 10,000-ppm group. A NOAEL of 1000 ppm was selected for the 4-week study on the basis that the mild increase in T4 observed at 1000 ppm was considered adaptive, not adverse, because of the absence of frank effects in the thyroid. In the in vitro studies, PFBI showed no evidence of either mutagenic or clastogenic activity. The toxicity profile of PFBI was compared to trifluoroiodomethane. In conclusion, the results of these studies indicate a low order of general toxicity and an absence of genotoxicity

  18. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  19. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  20. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  1. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  2. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  3. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  4. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  5. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  6. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  7. Teflubenzuron as a tool for control of trichodinids in freshwater fish: Acute toxicity and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ikefuti, Cynthia Venâncio; Carraschi, Silvia Patrícia; Barbuio, Roberto; da Cruz, Claudinei; de Pádua, Santiago Benites; Onaka, Eduardo Makoto; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares

    2015-07-01

    In this study we describe the anti-Trichodina effects of teflubenzuron (TFB) for Oreochromis niloticus and for Piaractus mesopotamicus. We also evaluated the acute toxicity, for both species, by using TFB in the concentrations of 700.0, 800.0, 900.0 and 1000.0 mg L(-1) and a control, without the drug. To assess the efficacy of TFB against Trichodina spp., we used the concentrations of 30.0 or 50.0 mg L(-1) for one hour exposure in tilapia, and the concentration of 30.0, 50.0 and 80.0 mg L(-1) for one hour and 50 mg L(-1) for two hours exposures in pacu. Teflubenzuron did not present significant toxicity in either species, with LC50;48h > 1000.0 mg L(-1). The drug effectiveness was observed against four identified Trichodina species: T. magna, T. heterodentata, T. compacta and T. centrostrigeata, with 87.9% parasite reduction with one hour exposure to 50.0 mg L(-1) TFB on O. niloticus and 96.1% with two hours exposure to 50.0 mg L(-1) TFB on P. mesopotamicus. Teflubenzuron is a drug with potential to be used in Brazilian aquaculture; it attends to important requirements, such as low toxicity and high efficacy in controlling Trichodina spp. infection in O. niloticus and P. mesopotamicus.

  8. Teflubenzuron as a tool for control of trichodinids in freshwater fish: Acute toxicity and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ikefuti, Cynthia Venâncio; Carraschi, Silvia Patrícia; Barbuio, Roberto; da Cruz, Claudinei; de Pádua, Santiago Benites; Onaka, Eduardo Makoto; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José Tavares

    2015-07-01

    In this study we describe the anti-Trichodina effects of teflubenzuron (TFB) for Oreochromis niloticus and for Piaractus mesopotamicus. We also evaluated the acute toxicity, for both species, by using TFB in the concentrations of 700.0, 800.0, 900.0 and 1000.0 mg L(-1) and a control, without the drug. To assess the efficacy of TFB against Trichodina spp., we used the concentrations of 30.0 or 50.0 mg L(-1) for one hour exposure in tilapia, and the concentration of 30.0, 50.0 and 80.0 mg L(-1) for one hour and 50 mg L(-1) for two hours exposures in pacu. Teflubenzuron did not present significant toxicity in either species, with LC50;48h > 1000.0 mg L(-1). The drug effectiveness was observed against four identified Trichodina species: T. magna, T. heterodentata, T. compacta and T. centrostrigeata, with 87.9% parasite reduction with one hour exposure to 50.0 mg L(-1) TFB on O. niloticus and 96.1% with two hours exposure to 50.0 mg L(-1) TFB on P. mesopotamicus. Teflubenzuron is a drug with potential to be used in Brazilian aquaculture; it attends to important requirements, such as low toxicity and high efficacy in controlling Trichodina spp. infection in O. niloticus and P. mesopotamicus. PMID:25913667

  9. Using silicone passive samplers to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wildfires in streams and potential acute effects for invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ralf Bernhard; Hearn, Laurence; Kefford, Ben J; Mueller, Jochen F; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2010-08-01

    Silicone rubber passive samplers spiked with 4 deuterated performance reference compounds were deployed for 29-33 days to estimate the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 streams in Victoria, Australia, following a wildfire. Silicone rubber strips of 2 thicknesses were used to obtain information on the status of uptake of the chemicals of interest at retrieval. In addition, we monitored the stream macroinvertebrate community for potential effects of PAHs or other fire organics. All selected PAHs were detected in the passive samplers and the sampling rates ranged from 0.5 to 50 L/day significantly varying between sites but not compounds, presumably due to differences in current velocity. The estimated water concentrations were 0.1-10 ng/L for total PAHs with phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene accounting for 91% of the total concentration. All PAHs were a factor of 1000 or more below the reported 48-h median lethal concentrations (48-h LC50) for Daphnia magna. Two sites located closest to the fires exhibited elevated concentrations compared to the other sites and the passive samplers in these sites remained in the integrative uptake regime for all compounds, suggesting precipitation-associated PAH input. No acute toxic effects of PAHs or other fire organics on the invertebrate community were detected using a biotic index for organic toxicants (SPEAR), whereas a non-specific biotic index (SIGNAL) decreased in two sites indicating impacts from changes in other environmental parameters. We conclude (1) that silicone-based passive samplers with two different area-to-volume ratios represent a promising tool for determining organic toxicants and (2) that PAHs from wildfires are unlikely to be a common main cause for fire-related ecological effects in streams adjacent to burnt regions.

  10. Different acute toxicity of fipronil baits on invasive Linepithema humile supercolonies and some non-target ground arthropods.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kuwayama, Naoki; Takeo, Azuma; Ishida, Takanobu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Maki N; Nagai, Takashi; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi; Sawahata, Takuo

    2015-08-01

    Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P < 0.008), with the 'Japanese main supercolony' (271 μg L(-1)) being five to ten times more sensitive to fipronil than other colonies (1183-2782 μg L(-1)). Toxicities to non-target species (330-2327 μg L(-1)) were in the same range as that of L. humile, and SSDs between the two species groups were not significantly different (t = -1.389, P = 0.180), suggesting that fipronil's insecticidal activity is practically the same for L. humile as for non-target arthropods. Therefore, if the invasive ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species.

  11. LETHAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE NAUPLII FAIRY SHRIMP, BRANCHINELLA THAILANDENSIS.

    PubMed

    Thaimuangphol, W; Kasamesiri, P

    2015-01-01

    During agricultural activities, large amounts of insecticides and herbicides are used for controlling pests. The overspraying of pesticides may contaminate freshwater bodies, as well as having a significant effect on aquatic animals. To determine the potential risk of pesticides, the acute toxicity of insecticides and herbicides on the nauplii fairy shrimp, Branchinella thailandensis were evaluated. The organisms were exposed to different concentrations of insecticides (chlorpyrifos and carbaryl), and herbicides (paraquat and 2,4-D) for 24 h, after which the LC50 values were compared. The acute toxicity tests determined that the LC50 values of chlorpyrifos and carbaryl after 24 h were 0.00186 mg/L and 0.21 mg/L, respectively. For herbicides, paraquat and 2,4-D, the LC50 values were 0.11 mg/L and 27.91 mg/L. Therefore, chlorpyrifos insecticides were found to be more toxic than herbicides (2,4-D and paraquat) with regard to the nauplii fairy shrimp. The high toxicity of pesticides has a long-term, and potentially damaging effect on aquatic organisms in the application areas.

  12. Comparison of the susceptibility of amphibian (Bufo arenarum embryos) and fish (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) to aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although crustaceans, fish and algae are receiving increasing attention as test organisms in short-term tests, it is important to note that other species could be more than order of magnitude more susceptible la xenobiotics and therefore, profitable for toxicity screening for a proper protection of the diversity and complexity of the ecosystems. In this report the sensitivity of Bufo arenarum (embryos) and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to aluminum (AIC1 3) is evaluated in a renewal toxicity test system at 20 C and informed as LC100, LC50 and NOEC for 24 and up till 96 hours of exposure (acute Toxicity Profile -- TPa -- for aluminum). The tests with fish were conducted maintaining 10 individuals in 1 liter of EPA water (by quadruplicate) in six concentration of Al(3+). The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100, LC50 and NOEC for fishes expressed in Al(3+) mg/L were: 7.5 (the pH of this solutions was 4.3), 7 and 6 at 24 as well as for 48, 72 and 96 hours of exposure, while for Bufo arenarum embryos the LC100, LC50 and NOEC were 0.9 (pH 6.2), 0.6 and 0.1 for 24 hours and up till 96 hours of exposure. Therefore, Bufo arenarum (embryos) seems to be about one order of magnitude more sensitive than the solution is adjusted from 4.3 to 6.2, no lethal effect on fish was registered. The TPa shows that the most toxic period is within the first 24 hours of exposure while on the other hand in fishes as well as in amphibian embryos the LC50 is closer to the LC100 value that to NOEC and therefore, exposure around LC50 concentrations, in the case of aluminum, represents a risk for the whole population.

  13. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541

  14. Sensitivity and response time of three common Antarctic marine copepods to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lara Marcus; King, Catherine K; Payne, Sarah J; Virtue, Patti

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of Antarctic marine organisms to metals is essential in order to manage environmental contamination risks. To date toxicity studies conducted on Antarctic marine species are limited. This study is the first to examine the acute effects of copper and cadmium on three common coastal Antarctic copepods: the calanoids Paralabidocera antarctica and Stephos longipes, and the cyclopoid Oncaea curvata. These copepods responded slowly to metal exposure (4-7d) emphasising that the exposure period of 48-96 h commonly used in toxicity tests with temperate and tropical species is not appropriate for polar organisms. We found that a longer 7 d exposure period was the minimum duration appropriate for Antarctic copepods. Although sensitivity to metal exposure varied between species, copper was more toxic than cadmium in all three species. P.antarctica was the most sensitive with 7d LC50 values for copper and cadmium of 20 μg L(-1) and 237 μg L(-1) respectively. Sensitivities to copper were similar for both O. curvata (LC50=64 μg L(-1)) and S. longipes (LC50=56 μg L(-1)), while O. curvata was more sensitive to cadmium (LC50=901 μg L(-1)) than S. longipes (LC50=1250 μg L(-1)). In comparison to copepods from lower latitudes, Antarctic copepods were more sensitive to copper and of similar sensitivity or less sensitive to cadmium. This study highlights the need for longer exposure periods in toxicity tests with slow responding Antarctic biota in order to generate relevant sensitivity data for inclusion in site-specific environmental quality guidelines for Antarctica.

  15. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  16. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  17. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  18. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  19. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523