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Sample records for acute lc50 values

  1. Using Microtox to predict LC50`s

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, C.M.; Evans, K.A.; Lyons, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The ability of Microtox to predict Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout LC50`s has been evaluated with a variety of industrial process chemicals biocides, polymers, amines, dispersants, corrosion and scale inhibitors. The LC50`s of these materials range from less than 1.0 mg/L to greater than 5,000 mg/L. A correlation between Microtox EC50`s and acute LC50`s indicate that Microtox can be used as an effective tool for estimating LC50 values. However, correlations are limited for certain kinds of chemical formulations, such as oil-based materials, surfactant-based materials and some amines.

  2. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  3. Mortality and LC50 values for several stages of the marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Müller) exposed to the metals arsenic and cadmium and the pesticides atrazine, carbofuran, dichlorvos, and malathion.

    PubMed

    Forget, J; Pavillon, J F; Menasria, M R; Bocquené, G

    1998-07-01

    The toxicity of three insecticides (carbofuran, dichlorvos, malathion), an herbicide (atrazine), and two metals (arsenic and cadmium) to ovigerous females, copepodids, and nauplii of Tigriopus brevicornis was determined by 96-h semistatic (or static-renewal) bioassays. Freshly prepared aqueous stock solutions of these pesticides and metals were diluted to appropriate concentrations. Mortalities were recorded and test solutions were changed completely each day up to 96 h. The rate of mortality was analyzed for linear regressions, and LC50 values were determined by probit analysis. LC50 values for ovigerous T. brevicornis females were 153.2 micrograms liter-1 for atrazine, 59.9 micrograms liter-1 for carbofuran, 47.9 micrograms liter-1 for cadmium, 27.5 micrograms liter-1 for arsenic, 24.3 micrograms liter-1 for malathion, and 4.6 micrograms liter-1 for dichlorvos. Comparison of the overall toxicities of these pesticides and metals indicated that dichlorvos was the most toxic substance to T. brevicornis, followed by malathion, arsenic, cadmium, carbofuran, and atrazine. Available LC50 data indicate that marine copepods are more sensitive to pollutants than Daphnia magna, Acartia tonsa, and Tisbe battagliai, or as sensitive as the mysid Mysidopsis bahia.

  4. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, J L

    1990-01-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms. PMID:2269228

  5. The relationship of total copper 48-h LC50s to Daphnia magna dry weight

    SciTech Connect

    Lazorchak, J.M. ); Waller, W.T. )

    1993-05-01

    A study was conducted with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of neonate weight loss or lack of weight gain on experimentally derived copper 48-h LC50s. Standard unfed tests as well as algal-fed (Selenastrum capricornutum) tests were used to look at weight loss and gain. No significant relationship was found between amount of weight loss and copper LC50s. However, dry weight of unfed and algal-fed control organisms could be used to predict total copper LC50s.

  6. Correlation between heavy metal acute toxicity values in Daphnia magna and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species have been of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian tests system. The cladoceran Daphnia magna bioassays have several practical advantages. D. magna has been used as a useful test species and its sensitivity to environmental pollutants have been recognized as a general representative of other freshwater zooplankton species. The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of various heavy metals to Daphnia magna for 48 h of exposure and to compare these values with the existing LC50 values for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); which is commonly used as a test animal in aquatic bioassay studies.

  7. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days.

  8. Interclonal variation in the acute and delayed toxicity of cadmium to the European prosobranch gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray).

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Forbes, V E

    2001-02-01

    The lethal responses of three European clones--A, B, and C-of the prosobranch snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to acute cadmium exposure were examined by the use of a conventional LC50 test and a delayed toxicity test. The questions addressed were: (1) Are there differences in susceptibility (LC50 values and uniformity of response) among the three European clones of P. antipodarum? (2) Are the patterns of differences in susceptibility among clones observed in the LC50 test also observed for the delayed toxicity test? (3) Is there concordance in the ranking of susceptibility among clones under acute cadmium exposure and under chronic cadmium exposure? The results showed that the widths of the tolerance distribution differed among clones. Clones A and B had a steeper slope than clone C (for clone A the difference was marginally significant), which indicates that individuals from clones A and B showed a more uniform response to acute lethal cadmium stress than individuals from clone C. On the basis of the measured differences in LC50 values, clone A individuals showed the highest tolerance to acute cadmium (LC50 value: 1.92 mg Cd L(-1)) followed by clone B (LC50 value: 1.29 mg Cd L(-1)) and clone C (LC50 value: 0.56 mg Cd L(-1)). Clone C was significantly less tolerant than clones A and B. The delayed toxicity test showed a similar pattern to the LC50 test with regard to tolerance differences among clones; however, mortality continued following transfer to clean water, indicating that cadmium was lethal at much lower concentrations than indicated by the conventional LC50 test. Results of the LC50 test and the delayed toxicity test in the present study were in general agreement with results from chronic cadmium exposure experiments (Jensen et al. [2000] Ecol Appl [submitted]), i.e., the least susceptible clone A in the acute cadmium exposure test was also the least susceptible clone in the chronic cadmium exposure test. Based on the dramatic differences between the LC50

  9. A review of available LC/50/ data. [on toxic gases encountered in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several gaseous products of pyrolysis and combustion have been evaluated for LC/50/, defined as the concentration of toxic gas in the atmosphere being inhaled by test animals that will produce death in 50% of the animals within a given time period. The products tested included CO, HCl, HF, HCN, NO2, and SO2. It was found that HCN and NO2 were consistently the most toxic of the gases reviewed, and that mice were more susceptible than rats to HCl and HF, although less susceptible than rats to NO2. Extrapolation of LC/50/ data to humans indicates that metabolic rate may be a valid basis for extrapolation when the toxicity mechanism is interference with oxygen transport and utilization, or pulmonary edema, but not when it is irritation and damage to the upper respiratory tract.

  10. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  11. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  12. Acute toxicity of heavy metals for benthic epiphytic foraminifera Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) and influence of seaweed-derived DOC

    SciTech Connect

    Bresler, V.; Yanko, V.

    1995-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury to the benthic epiphytic foraminiferan Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) was investigated using seven different vital cytophysiological and cytochemical methods. The ability to enzymatically hydrolyze the fluorogenic substrates fluorescein diacetate or fluorescein dibutyrate was the most sensitive method of LC50 value determination. The LC50 (24-h) values for cadmium, copper, and mercury determined by this assay with fluorescein diacetate was 0.56, 1.4, and 0.07 {micro}M, respectively. The content of seaweed-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC), measured by absorbance at 436 nm, produced a dramatic increase of LC50 values for the heavy metals in a dose-dependent manner. ``Intact`` epiphytic foraminifera attached to seaweeds are less sensitive to acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury than are ``detached`` foraminifera.

  13. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    PubMed

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level.

  14. A mechanistic explanation for the In(LC50) vs In(hardness) adjustment equation for metals

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.

    1999-03-15

    The author demonstrates that a combination of (a) competitive binding of transition-metal cations, hardness cations, and protons to transition-metal-binding sites on fish gills and (b) aqueous complexation of transition-metal cations by HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} explains why the regression slopes of In(LC50) vs In(hardness) for five divalent transition metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are {approximately}1, where LC50 is the median lethal concentration. For these calculations, the author assumed the amount of the transition metal bound to the fish gill at 50% mortality is constant (i.e., independent of water quality). Although the slopes theoretically should vary between 0 and 2, a slope of {approximately}1 is expected at midrange hardness if alkalinity covaries with hardness--a common condition in most laboratory toxicity tests. But if alkalinity is held constant while hardness is varied, a slope of {approximately}0.5 is expected at midrange hardness. Although predictions of LC50s using regressions of In(LC50) vs In(hardness) might be acceptable for regulating discharges of transition metals to waters in the midrange of hardness, extrapolations beyond this range might drastically overpredict metal toxicity.

  15. Incorporating variability in point estimates in risk assessment: bridging the gap between LC50 and population endpoints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the use of point estimates such as the LC50 has been instrumental in assessing the risk associated with toxicants to rare or economically important species. In recent years, growing awareness of the shortcomings of this approach has led to an increased focus on analyses using populatio...

  16. Per- and polyfluoro toxicity (LC(50) inhalation) study in rat and mouse using QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-03-15

    Fully or partially fluorinated compounds, known as per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are widely distributed in the environment and released because of their use in different household and industrial products. Few of these long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are classified as emerging pollutants, and their environmental and toxicological effects are unveiled in the literature. This has diverted the production of long chain compounds, considered as more toxic, to short chains, but concerns regarding the toxicity of both types of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are alarming. There are few experimental data available on the environmental behavior and toxicity of these compounds, and moreover, toxicity profiles are found to be different for the types of animals and species used. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is applied to a combination of short and long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals, for the first time, to model and predict the toxicity on two species of rodents, rat (Rattus) and mouse (Mus), by modeling inhalation (LC(50)) data. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models using the ordinary-least-squares (OLS) method, based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA), were used for QSAR studies. Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori, and these sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the model was verified on a larger set of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals retrieved from different databases and journals. The descriptors involved, the similarities, and the differences observed between models pertaining to the toxicity related to the two species are discussed. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were used to select most toxic compounds from those within the AD of both models, which will be subjected to experimental tests

  17. The effects of salinity on acute and chronic nickel toxicity and bioaccumulation in two euryhaline crustaceans: Litopenaeus vannamei and Excirolana armata.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Erin M; Barcarolli, Indianara; Silva, Kassio R; Wasielesky, Wilson; Wood, Chris M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the influence of salinity (5 ppt versus 25 ppt) on acute (96-h LC(50)) and chronic toxicity (15-30 day LC(50)) of Ni in two euryhaline crustaceans, the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and the isopod (Excirolana armata). 96-h LC50 values were 41 μmolL(-1) and 362 μmolL(-1) for L. vannamei and 278 μmolL(-1) and >1000 μmolL(-1) for E. armata at 5 ppt and 25 ppt, respectively. Speciation analysis demonstrated that complexation with anions such as SO(4)(2-), HCO(3)(-) and Cl(-) at 25 ppt had a negligible effect on reducing the free Ni(2+) ion component in comparison to 5 ppt. The salinity-dependent differences in acute Ni toxicity could not be explained by differences in Ni bioaccumulation. Therefore, differences in physiology of the organisms at the two salinities may be the most likely factor contributing to differences in acute Ni toxicity. Chronic LC(50) values (2.7-23.2 μmolL(-1)) were similar in the two species, but salinity had no significant effect, indicating that water chemistry and osmoregulatory strategy do not influence chronic toxicity. However chronic (15-day) mortality in both species could be predicted by acute (96-h) Ni bioaccumulation patterns.

  18. Subacute toxicity testing with young birds: Response in relation to age and intertest variability of LC50 estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The variability in toxic response of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to a standardized 5-day subacute feeding trial was studied while age was increased at weekly intervals from 1 to 21 days and at different times with 14-day-old birds. The objectives were to identify the strengths and limitations of this subacute toxicity protocol and to provide possible explanations for differences in response among the various classes of pesticides. The variables included the median lethal concentration (LC50), the dose-response slope, food consumption, mortality patterns, and procedures of preparing toxic diets. Carbamate, organophosphate, chlorinated hydrocarbon, and organic mercury compounds were represented. A total of 60 subacute tests were involved in this evaluation. The general conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The basic protocol yields good within-laboratory reproducibility of results. (2) The LC50s increase as birds grow older, and the change was reasonably predictable between 7 and 21 days of age. (3) Monitoring of time-related response patterns, such as food consumption, onset and remission of overt toxicity, and mortality, is critical to the evaluation of potential hazard. (4) Different orders of toxicity may occur at different ages for an array of compounds, but differences do not appear to be large enough to seriously alter the interpretation. (5) For optimal comparisons, all testing should be conducted on birds of a single age.

  19. [Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids on the acute toxicity and weight of earthworm].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruo-Nan; Fan, Jun-Jie; Tu, Hong-Zhi; Tang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Dong-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Standard contact filter paper test of OECD and artificial soil test were used to study the acute lethal effect of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids, 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), 1-hexyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim] Cl), and 1-octyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim] Cl) on earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and the weight of the earthworms was measured after subtle exposure. The 24 h-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl using the contact filter paper method were 109.60, 50.38 and 7.94 microg x cm(-2), respectively. The 48 h-LC50 values were 98.52, 39.14 and 3.61 microg x cm(-2), respectively. Using the artificial soil method, the 7 d-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl were 447.78, 245.56 and 180.51 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the 14 d-LC50 values were 288.42, 179.75, 150.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There were differences in poisoning symptoms of the three ionic liquids on earthworms. The growth of Eisenia fetida was inhibited and declined with increasing ionic liquid concentration. The toxicity of ionic liquids on Eisenia fetida increased with the length of carbon chain.

  20. Younger rats are more susceptible to the lethal effects of sarin than adult rats: 24 h LC50 for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lumley, Lucille A; Lee, Robyn B; Taylor, James T; Miller, Dennis B; Muse, William T; Emm, Edward J; Whalley, Christopher E

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are among the most lethal chemicals known to man. Children are predicted to be vulnerable to CWNA exposure because of their smaller body masses, higher ventilation rates and immature central nervous systems. While a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in younger animals have been published, exposure routes relevant to battlefield or terrorist situations (i.e. inhalation for sarin) were not used. Thus, we estimated the 24 h LC50 for whole-body (10 and 60 min) exposure to sarin using a stagewise, adaptive dose design. Specifically, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a range of sarin concentrations (6.2-44.0 or 1.6-12.5 mg/m³) for either 10 or 60 min, respectively, at six different times during their development (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 70). For male and female rats, the lowest LC50 values were observed for PND 14 and the highest LC50 values for PND 28. Sex differences were observed only for PND 42 for the 10 min exposures and PND 21 and 70 for the 60 min exposures. Thus, younger rats (PND 14) were more susceptible than older rats (PND 70) to the lethal effects of whole-body exposure to sarin, while adolescent (PND 28) rats were the least susceptible and sex differences were minimal. These results underscore the importance of controlling for the age of the animal in research on the toxic effects associated with CWNA exposure.

  1. Influence of light in acute toxicity bioassays of imidacloprid and zinc pyrithione to zooplankton crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Kouichi

    2006-06-30

    The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no significant influence on the outcome of toxicity bioassays, although in the case of imidacloprid both EC(50) and LC(50) calculated values were twice as high under the light as in the dark. No influence of UV light was observed on bioassays conducted with Zpt, in spite of the fast aqueous photolysis exhibited by this compound. Imidacloprid 48-h LC(50) for cladocerans (65-133mg/L) were two orders of magnitude higher than for ostracods (301-715microg/L); values of EC(50) for cladocerans and ostracods were 2-6mg/L and 3-16microg/L, respectively. Toxicity of Zpt to both ostracod and cladoceran species appears to be similar, with 48-h LC(50) in the range 137-524 and 75-197microg/L for ostracods and cladocerans, respectively, and similar values for EC(50)s. The mortality endpoint (LC(50)), however, is not a reliable predictor of the effects of imidacloprid under field situations (e.g. rice paddies), because the paralysis effect induced by this insecticide takes place at much lower concentrations than those required to cause the death of the animals: regardless of the taxa, differences as large as 100- or 600-fold were observed between the EC(50) and LC(50) for the same exposures. As a consequence, immobilization tests and EC(50) values are recommended for this class of compounds, while caution should be exercised in environmental risk assessments of this and possibly other related neonicotinoid insecticides with similar activity.

  2. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  3. Whole-body accumulation of copper predicts acute toxicity to an aquatic oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) as pH and calcium are varied.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Boese, Connie J; Collyard, Scott A

    2002-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-body accumulation of Cu at 50% mortality (i.e. the median lethal accumulation, LA50 value) in a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) is constant across a wide range of water quality, whereas the LC50 values of Cu(total) and the cupric ion (Cu(2+)) in solution are not. We exposed the worms in intermittent-flow, water-only chambers to a series of Cu concentrations at a variety of combinations of pH and water hardness (pH 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 crossed with hardnesses of 0.5, 2, 4, 6 and 15 mEql(-1)) at 17-20 degrees C. In addition to monitoring mortality at 48 h, we determined whole-body Cu uptake in half of the replicate chambers at 6 h. LC50 values of Cu(total) and Cu(2+) increased as water hardness increased, as expected from traditional LC50 vs. hardness regressions. Moreover, LC50 values of Cu(total) remained approximately constant and LC50 values of Cu(2+) decreased considerably as pH increased, as expected from principles of cation competition and binding by inorganic ligands. However, LA50 values of Cu(body) remained approximately constant (0.17-0.34 micromol Cug(-1) dry wt.) in all pH x hardness combinations. Thus, consistent with the biotic-ligand model, Cu accumulation might be a constant predictor of acute mortality to L. variegatus whereas aqueous Cu concentrations are not.

  4. Predictive value of stool examination in acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D; Cohen, P T; Neighbor, M; Larkin, H; Newman, M; Yajko, D; Hadley, K

    1987-08-01

    We prospectively evaluate the value of fecal blood and fecal leukocytes in predicting whether acute diarrhea in adults is associated with a stool culture positive for a bacterial pathogen. One hundred thirteen patients, aged 19 to 50 years, seen in a two-year period in an urban adult outpatient setting underwent stool culture for the presenting symptom of diarrhea. Heterosexual men represented 48% of the cohort, women represented 17%, and homosexual men represented 35%. Overall, 53 (47%) of the patients had positive stool cultures for enteric pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni was the most common organism in the entire cohort, but Shigella species were most common in homosexual men. The best predictive variables for a stool culture positive for a bacterial pathogen were the presence of both fecal leukocytes and fecal blood in the stool, compared with only one or neither. When both were present, the sensitivity was 81%, the specificity 74%, and the predictive values of a positive and negative test were 81% and 83%, respectively; the likelihood ratio was 4.87. When homosexual men and the rest of the cohort were analyzed separately, the combination of fecal leukocytes and fecal blood remained the best method of predicting a positive stool culture in both. Examination of stool for fecal leukocytes and fecal blood is a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive way to differentiate between bacterial and other causes of acute diarrhea in the adult acute care setting.

  5. Demographic diversity, value congruence, and workplace outcomes in acute care.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michael G; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes.

  6. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Denny R; Mayer, Foster L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-11-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  7. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  8. The utility of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites: A retrospective validation approach.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Maynard, Samuel K; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    The European Plant Protection Products Regulation 1107/2009 requires that registrants establish whether pesticide metabolites pose a risk to the environment. Fish acute toxicity assessments may be carried out to this end. Considering the total number of pesticide (re-) registrations, the number of metabolites can be considerable, and therefore this testing could use many vertebrates. EFSA's recent "Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters" outlines opportunities to apply non-testing methods, such as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. However, a scientific evidence base is necessary to support the use of QSARs in predicting acute fish toxicity of pesticide metabolites. Widespread application and subsequent regulatory acceptance of such an approach would reduce the numbers of animals used. The work presented here intends to provide this evidence base, by means of retrospective data analysis. Experimental fish LC50 values for 150 metabolites were extracted from the Pesticide Properties Database (http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/ppdb/en/atoz.htm). QSAR calculations were performed to predict fish acute toxicity values for these metabolites using the US EPA's ECOSAR software. The most conservative predicted LC50 values generated by ECOSAR were compared with experimental LC50 values. There was a significant correlation between predicted and experimental fish LC50 values (Spearman rs = 0.6304, p < 0.0001). For 62% of metabolites assessed, the QSAR predicted values are equal to or lower than their respective experimental values. Refined analysis, taking into account data quality and experimental variation considerations increases the proportion of sufficiently predictive estimates to 91%. For eight of the nine outliers, there are plausible explanation(s) for the disparity between measured and predicted LC50 values. Following detailed consideration of the robustness of

  9. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments.

  10. Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata.

    PubMed

    Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Saha, Sampa; van den Brink, Paul J; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Bosma, Roel H; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-02-01

    This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 100 µg L(-1)) of chlorpyrifos in plastic bowls. Log-logistic regression was used to calculate LC10 and LC50 values. Results showed that embryo mortality significantly increased with increasing chlorpyrifos concentrations. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for embryos were 0.89 (0.50-1.58) and 11.8 (9.12-15.4) µg L(-1), respectively. Hatching success decreased and mortality of larvae significantly increased with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for larvae were 0.53 (0.27-1.06) and 21.7 (15.9-29.4) µg L(-1), respectively; the 48-h LC10 and LC50 for larvae were 0.04 (0.02-0.09) and 5.47 (3.77-7.94) µg L(-1), respectively. The results of this study suggest that 1 µg L(-1) of chlorpyrifos in the aquatic environment may adversely affect the development and the reproduction of banded gourami. Our study also suggests that banded gourami fish can serve as an ideal model species for evaluating developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants.

  11. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  12. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-01-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L−1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37–0.44 μg L−1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L−1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials. PMID:25858866

  13. Exposure Medium: Key in Identifying Free Ag+ as the Exclusive Species of Silver Nanoparticles with Acute Toxicity to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Ya; Chao, Jing-Bo; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It is still not very clear what roles the various Ag species play in the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this study, we found that traditional exposure media result in uncontrollable but consistent physicochemical transformation of AgNPs, causing artifacts in determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) and hindering the identification of Ag species responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to Daphnia magna. This obstacle was overcome by using 8 h exposure in 0.1 mmol L-1 NaNO3 medium, in which we measured the 8-h LC50 of seven AgNPs with different sizes and coatings, and determined the concentrations of various Ag species. The LC50 as free Ag+ of the seven AgNPs (0.37-0.44 μg L-1) agreed very well with that of AgNO3 (0.40 μg L-1), and showed the lowest value compared to that as total Ag, total Ag+, and dissolved Ag, demonstrating free Ag+ is exclusively responsible for the acute toxicity of AgNPs to D. magna, while other Ag species in AgNPs have no contribution to the acute toxicity. Our results demonstrated the great importance of developing appropriate exposure media for evaluating risk of nanomaterials.

  14. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC50=25.6μL·L(-1)), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC50=49.8μL·L(-1)) and A. citriodora (LC50=65.6μL·L(-1)), while the other essential oils showed LC50 values higher than 90μL·L(-1). The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC50=18.3μL·L(-1)). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC50 (72.5μL·L(-1)) higher than the LC50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito larvicides.

  15. Comparative acute freshwater hazard assessment and preliminary PNEC development for eight fluorinated acids.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Robert A; Bouchelle, Laurie D; Ferrell, Barbra D; Buck, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    Short-term 48, 72 and 96-h aquatic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of eight fluorinated acids to the cladoceran, Daphnia magna, the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. The eight fluorinated acids studied were tridecafluorohexyl ethanoic acid (6:2 FTCA), heptadecafluorooctyl ethanoic acid (8:2 FTCA), 2H-dodecafluoro-2-octenoic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 2H-hexadecafluoro-2-decenoic acid (8:2 FTUCA), 2H,2H,3H,3H-undecafluoro octanoic acid (5:3 acid), 2H,2H,3H,3H-pentadecafluoro decanoic acid (7:3 acid), n-perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) and n-perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The results of the acute toxicity tests conducted during this study suggest that the polyfluorinated acids, 8:2 FTCA, 8:2 FTUCA, 6:2 FTCA, 6:2 FTUCA, 7:3 acid and 5:3 acid, and the perfluorinated acids PFPeA and PFDA, are generally of low to medium concern based on evaluation of their acute freshwater toxicity (EC/LC50s typically between 1 and >100 mg L(-1)) using the USEPA TSCA aquatic toxicity evaluation paradigm. For the polyfluorinated acids, aquatic toxicity generally decreased as the number of fluorinated carbons decreased and as the overall carbon chain length decreased from 12 to 8. Acute aquatic toxicity of the 5 and 10 carbon perfluorocarboxylic acids (EC/LC50s between 10.6 and >100 mg L(-1)) was greater or similar to that of the 6-9 carbon perfluorocarboxylic acids (EC/LC50s>96.5 mg L(-1)). This study also provides the first report of the acute aquatic toxicity of the 5:3 acid (EC/LC50s of 22.5 to >103 mg L(-1)) which demonstrated less aquatic toxicity than the 7:3 acid (EC/LC50s of 0.4-32 mg L(-1)). The cladoceran, D. magna and the green alga, P. subcapitata had generally similar EC50 values for a given substance while fish were typically equally or less sensitive with the exception that PFPeA was most toxic to fish. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were

  16. Prognostic value of computed tomography in acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Plasencia-Martínez, J M; Carmona-Bayonas, A; Calvo-Temprano, D; Jiménez-Fonseca, P

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being the standard reference for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries can also provide valuable information about the patient's prognosis. Although which imaging findings are useful for prognosis remains controversial, signs of right ventricular dysfunction on CT are now included in clinical algorithms for the management of pulmonary thromboembolism. However, the optimal method for obtaining these measurements while maintaining a balance between the ease of use necessary to include their evaluation in our daily activity and the loss of precision in its predictive capacity remains to be determined. Moreover, other variables associated with pulmonary thromboembolism that often go unobserved can complement the prognostic information we can offer to clinicians. This review aims to clarify some of the more controversial aspects related to the prognostic value of CT in patients with pulmonary embolisms according to the available evidence. Knowing which variables are becoming more important in the prognosis, how to detect them, and why it is important to include them in our reports will help improve the management of patients with pulmonary embolism.

  17. Acute toxicity and accumulation of the piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity and initial accumulation of the piscicide TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) in the freshwater unionacean mussels, Obliquaria reflexa and Fusconaia flava. Acute 48 h toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LC50 values for each species. The initial uptake clearances of TFM were measured by exposing the mussels to [14C]-TFM and counting the radioactivity in four organ tissues (foot, gill, mantle and viscera) over 48 h. TFM was about 2-fold more toxic to O. reflexa (LC50 1.80 mg I-1) than to F. flava (LC50 3.81 mg L-1) and the difference was not explained by accumulation patterns. The initial uptake clearance rates (0-6 h) for the whole body were similar between the species (11.2 ml g-1 h-2 in O. reflexa and 9.5 ml g-1 h-1 in F. flava). The accumulation of TFM residues among the organ tissues was also similar between species. The uptake clearance rates (ml g-1 h-1) of TFM equivalents were generally highest in the gill, but not significantly different than other organ tissues. The normalized concentration of TFM residues (??g per g whole body) was highest in the viscera. The toxicity data suggest that the mortality of both species would be minimal from sea lamprey control treatments with TFM. However, the behavioural effects and accumulation rates also indicate that mussels do not effectively avoid TFM exposure by valve closure.

  18. Acute toxicity and accumulation of the piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Diane L.; Rach, Jeffrey J.; Luoma, James A.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity and initial accumulation of the piscicide TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) in the freshwater unionacean mussels, Obliquaria reflexa and Fusconaia flava. Acute 48 h toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LC50 values for each species. The initial uptake clearances of TFM were measured by exposing the mussels to [14C]-TFM and counting the radioactivity in four organ tissues (foot, gill, mantle and viscera) over 48 h. TFM was about 2-fold more toxic to O. reflexa (LC50 1.80 mg l-1) than to F. flava (LC50 3.81 mg L-1) and the difference was not explained by accumulation patterns. The initial uptake clearance rates (0–6 h) for the whole body were similar between the species (11.2 ml g-1 h-2 in O. reflexa and 9.5 ml g-1 h-1 in F. flava). The accumulation of TFM residues among the organ tissues was also similar between species. The uptake clearance rates (ml g-1 h-1) of TFM equivalents were generally highest in the gill, but not significantly different than other organ tissues. The normalized concentration of TFM residues (μg per g whole body) was highest in the viscera. The toxicity data suggest that the mortality of both species would be minimal from sea lamprey control treatments with TFM. However, the behavioural effects and accumulation rates also indicate that mussels do not effectively avoid TFM exposure by valve closure.

  19. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-02

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  20. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  1. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Zakaria, Zuraini; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots) methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control) had LC50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (%) and absolute (g) organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05). Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions: E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice. PMID:22923956

  2. [Diagnostic and prognostic values of troponins in acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Smiri, Zahreddine; Haggui, Abdeddayem; Barakett, Nadia; M'Henni, Hedi; Haouala, Habib

    2004-05-01

    Coronary disease is a frequent clinical entity which, in some cases, makes a difficult diagnostic problem. However, the very big revolution realised these last decades in both diagnostics and therapeutics, improved management of these patients. Troponins which are specific and sensitive biomarkers of myocardial damage were evaluated in several domains, especially in acute coronary diseases. We purpose to clarify diagnostic and prognostic place of these markers in acute coronary disease in order to optimize their clinical use.

  3. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Albu, E; Miller, B M; Choi, Y; Lakhanpal, S; Murthy, R N; Gerst, P H

    1994-01-01

    Serum C-reactive protein was measured in 56 patients hospitalized with a suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Based on these determinations, four groups of patients were defined: Group A = 26 patients with acute appendicitis who had a C-reactive protein level higher than 2.5 mg/dl. Group B = 4 patients with a C-reactive protein level lower than 2.5 mg/dl who, after surgery based on a presumed diagnosis of acute appendicitis, were found to have a normal appendix. Group C = 22 patients with nonspecific abdominal pain, 18 (72 percent) of whom had an elevated C-reactive protein level, although in only 4 (7.1 percent) were these levels higher than 2.5 percent mg/dl. Group D = 4 patients who had diseases other than acute appendicitis. It is concluded that an increase in C-reactive protein levels to more than 2.5 mg/dl is not a definite indicator of acute appendicitis. However, if the C-reactive protein level in blood drawn 12 hours after the onset of symptoms is less than 2.5 mg/dl, acute appendicitis can be excluded.

  4. Implementing Lecane quadridentata acute toxicity tests to assess the toxic effects of selected metals (Al, Fe and Zn).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Félix Torres; González, Francisco Javier Avelar; Martínez, Roberto Rico

    2010-03-01

    An environmental study revealed that three metals (Al, Fe and Zn) are common in the San Pedro River (SPR) (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Regrettably, in many samples the concentrations of these metals exceeded the maximum allowed toxicant concentrations levels as defined in by Mexican legislation. The highest concentrations of the three metals were found during the 2005 dry season, with elevated Al concentrations present along the entire river. Not surprisingly, the highest concentrations for all three metals came from locations adjacent to industrial areas. Estimates of the contribution of these metals to total toxicity revealed that these three metals are important contaminants of the river and responsible for most of the lethal toxicity found in environmental samples. To assess the importance of these reports, we conducted acute toxicity tests to determine LC50 for Al, Fe and Zn on the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata. This permitted us to estimate the contribution of these metals to total toxicity during 2005-2006. Based on LC50 values, all three metals should be considered very toxic, with the zinc LC50 value (0.12 mg L(-1)) making it the most toxic metal for L. quadridentata. This approach can be applied to other sites with similar concentrations of these metals.

  5. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  6. Alternative acute oral toxicity assessment under REACH based on sub-acute toxicity values.

    PubMed

    Gissi, Andrea; Louekari, Kimmo; Hoffstadt, Laurence; Bornatowicz, Norbert; Aparicio, Alberto Martin

    2016-11-08

    The REACH Regulation requires information on acute oral toxicity for substances produced or imported in quantities greater than one tonne per year. When registering, animal testing should be used as last resort. The standard acute oral toxicity test requires use of animals. Therefore, the European Chemicals Agency examined whether alternative ways exist to generate information on acute oral toxicity. The starting hypothesis was that low acute oral toxicity can be predicted from the results of low toxicity in oral sub-acute toxicity studies. Proving this hypothesis would allow avoiding acute toxicity oral testing whenever a sub-acute oral toxicity study is required or available and indicates low toxicity. ECHA conducted an analysis of the REACH database and found suitable studies on both acute oral and sub-acute oral toxicities for 1,256 substances. 415 of these substances had low toxicity in the sub-acute toxicity study (i.e. NO(A)EL at or above the classification threshold of 1,000 mg/kg). For 98% of these substances, low acute oral toxicity was also reported (i.e. LD₅₀ above the classification threshold of 2,000 mg/kg). On the other hand, no correlation was found between lower NO(A)ELs and LD₅₀. According to the REACH regulation, this approach for predicting acute oral toxicity needs to be considered as part of a weight of evidence analysis. Therefore, additional sources of information to support this approach are presented. Ahead of the last REACH registration deadline in 2018, ECHA estimates that registrants of about 550 substances can omit the in vivo acute oral study by using this adaptation.

  7. Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Shilpi; Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Satish K; Verma, M S

    2005-05-01

    Acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted in flow-through systems to determine the lethal toxicity of a heavy metal compound, mercuric chloride, and an organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, to air-breathing teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) and to study their behavior. The 96-h LC50 values were determined, as well as safe levels. The results indicate that mercuric chloride is more toxic than malathion to the fish species under study. Dose- and dose-time-dependent increases in mortality rate were also observed in response to both test chemicals.

  8. Acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the non target organism Hyalella curvispina.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Paracampo, Ariel; Marrochi, Natalia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the amphipod Hyalella curvispina was evaluated by means of a toxicity test under laboratory conditions. Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used insecticides in Argentina. H. curvispina is a widely distributed and commonly abundant component of the invertebrate assemblages in shallow waters of southern South America. The experiments were repeated three times. The mean 48-h LC(50) value for H. curvispina was estimated at 0.066μg/l. H. curvispina represents a good model for exotoxicological risk assessment.

  9. Acute toxicity to freshwater organisms of antiparasitic drugs for veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Haruo; Endoh, Yuuko S

    2005-02-01

    The acute toxicity of five antiparasitic drugs used in the veterinary field-amprolium hydrochloride (APH), bithionol (BT), levamisole hydrochloride (LVH), pyrimethamine (PYM) and trichlorfon (TRC)-to the aquatic organisms Oryzias latipes, Daphnia magna, and Brachionus calyciflorus was examined. The toxicity test with O. latipes was conducted in accordance with the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals (1993) to determine the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC(50) values. In addition, 24- and 48-h EC(50) values for D. magna and a 24-h EC(50) for B. calyciflorus were determined with the DAPHTOXKIT F(trade mark) magna (Creasel, Belgium) and the ROTOXKIT F(trade mark) (Creasel, Belgium), respectively. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that APH, LVH, and PYM were stable in water, but BT was unstable, decreasing by 84% on average at 24 h. TRC rapidly decomposed, with only 0.7% of the initial concentration remaining after 96 h, forming dichlorvos. The toxicity of TRC to O. latipes was determined in two ways: exposure to the same medicated water for 96 h (static test) and exposure to medicated water replaced every 24 h (semistatic test). AMP, LVM, and PYM were tested in the static condition, and BT was tested in the semistatic condition. BT was most toxic to O. latipes, with a 96-h LC(50) of 0.24 mg L(-1), followed by PYM, with a 96-h LC(50) of 5.6 mg L(-1). The 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC(50) values of TRC in the static test were 92.0, 45.2, 29.5, and 17.6 mg L(-1), respectively, which tended to be lower than those in the semistatic test, especially late in the observation period. D. magna was the most susceptible to TRC, with a 48-h EC(50) as low as 0.00026 mg L(-1). The 48-h EC(50) values of BT, PYM, and LVH for D. magna were 0.3, 5.2, and 64.0 mg L(-1), respectively. B. calyciflorus was the most susceptible to BT, with an EC(50) of 0.063 mg L(-1), followed by PYM, with an EC(50) of 15.0 mg L(-1). Among the test compounds, APH was the least toxic

  10. Acute toxicity, critical body residues, Michaelis-Menten analysis of bioaccumulation, and ionoregulatory disturbance in response to waterborne nickel in four invertebrates: Chironomus riparius, Lymnaea stagnalis, Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Erin M; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the bioaccumulation and acute toxicity (48 h or 96 h) of Ni in four freshwater invertebrate species in two waters with hardness of 40 (soft water) and 140 mg L(-1) as CaCO(3) (hard water). Sensitivity order (most to least) was Lymnaea stagnalis > Daphnia pulex > Lumbriculus variegatus > Chironomus riparius. In all cases water hardness was protective against acute Ni toxicity with LC(50) values 3-3.5× higher in the hard water vs. soft water. In addition, higher water hardness significantly reduced Ni bioaccumulation in these organisms suggesting that competition by Ca and Mg for uptake at the biotic ligand may contribute to higher metal resistance. CBR50 values (Critical Body Residues) were less dependent on water chemistry (i.e. more consistent) than LC(50) values within and across species by ~2 fold. These data support one of the main advantages of the Tissue Residue Approach (TRA) where tissue concentrations are generally less variable than exposure concentrations with respect to toxicity. Whole body Ni bioaccumulation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in all organisms, with greater hardness tending to decrease B(max) with no consistent effect on K(d). Across species, acute Ni LC(50) values tended to increase with both K(d) and B(max) values - i.e. more sensitive species exhibited higher binding affinity and lower binding capacity for Ni, but there was no correlation with body size. With respect to biotic ligand modeling, log K(NiBL) values derived from Ni bioaccumulation correlated well with log K(NiBL) values derived from toxicity testing. Both whole body Na and Mg levels were disturbed, suggesting that disruption of ionoregulatory homeostasis is a mechanism of acute Ni toxicity. In L. stagnalis, Na depletion was a more sensitive endpoint than mortality, however, the opposite was true for the other organisms. This is the first study to show the relationship between Na and Ni.

  11. Sublethal and Reproductive Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Flowback and Produced Water from Hydraulic Fracturing on the Water Flea Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Delompré, Perrine L M; He, Yuhe; Folkerts, Erik J; Flynn, Shannon L; Alessi, Daniel S; Goss, Greg G

    2017-03-07

    Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process allowing for the extraction of gas or oil. To fracture the rocks, a proprietary mix of chemicals is injected under high pressure, which later returns to the surface as flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW is a complex chemical mixture consisting of trace metals, organic compounds, and often, high levels of salts. FPW toxicity to the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna was characterized utilizing acute (48 h median lethal concentrations; LC50) and chronic (21 day) exposures. A decrease in reproduction was observed, with a mean value of 18.5 neonates produced per replicate over a 21 day chronic exposure to 0.04% FPW, which was a significant decrease from the average of 64 neonates produced in the controls. The time to first brood was delayed in the highest FPW (0.04%) treatment. Neonates exhibited an LC50 of 0.19% of full-strength FPW, making them more sensitive than adults, which displayed an LC50 value of 0.75%. Quantitative PCR highlighted significant changes in expression of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolism (cyp4) and moulting (cut). This study is the first to characterize chronic FPW toxicity and will help with the development of environmental monitoring and risk assessment of FPW spills.

  12. Predictive value of homocysteine for depression after acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Ju; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung Yeol; Kim, Sung Wan; Shin, Il Seon; Kang, Hyuno; Moon, Won Jin; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin Sang; Kim, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated roles of plasma homocysteine and MTHFR gene in relation to risks and treatment responses of depression in ACS. A sample of 969 patients with recent ACS were recruited and 711 followed 1 year later. In addition, of 378 baseline participants with depressive disorder, 255 were randomized to a 24-week double blind trial of escitalopram (N = 127) or placebo (N = 128). A higher homocysteine concentration was independently associated with prevalent depressive disorder at baseline irrespective of MTHFR genotype; and with both incident and persistent depressive disorder at follow-up only in the presence of TT genotype. MTHFR genotype was not itself associated with depressive disorder after ACS. No associations were found with 24-week antidepressant treatment responses. Plasma homocysteine could be a biomarker for depressive disorder particularly in the acute phase of ACS. Focused interventions for those with higher homocysteine level and MTHFR TT genotype might reduce the risk of later depressive disorder. PMID:27626182

  13. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency.

  14. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  15. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Sappington, L C; Buckler, D R; Bridges, C M; Greer, I E; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Kunz, J L; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Mount, D R; Hattala, K; Neuderfer, G N

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  16. Histopathological changes in gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Crustacea-Decapoda) following acute exposure to ammonia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Rebelo, M; Rodriguez, E M; Santos, E A; Ansaldo, M

    2000-02-01

    Histopathological effects of ammonia on the gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Dana, 1851) were evaluated after acute exposure to ammonia concentrations around LC(50) value (17.85 Mm). Disruption of pilaster cells and a subsequent collapse of gill lamellae were the main effects observed. Epithelial necrosis and hyperplasia were also detected. Significant (P<0.05) increases in pCO(2) and lactate, and significant decreases of pO(2) were detected in the haemolymph of ammonia-exposed crabs. These changes suggest that the observed histopathological damage affected gas exchange, possibly leading to death.

  17. Acute toxicity of current and alternative oil spill chemical dispersants to early life stage blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Pie, Hannah V; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of five oil spill chemical dispersants on the ecologically and economically important coastal and estuarine species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Static, non-renewal 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed on stage-II blue crab zoea. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated for each dispersant at 24 h and 48 h using nominal concentrations for each dispersant tested. The 48 h LC50 values from the most to the least toxic ranged from 10.1 mg L(-1) for Dispersit SPC 1000 to 76.5 mg L(-1) for Orca. For all dispersants, the swimming activity and mobility of larvae decreased with increasing dispersant concentration within 24h of exposure and reached relative immobility at concentrations below LC50 values. These results show that the dispersants examined in this study are only slightly toxic after 48 h exposure to the earliest life stage of blue crabs that might likely be exposed to dispersants in the environment, with the exception of Dispersit SPC 1000 that bordered between slightly and moderately toxic. Although the dispersants themselves appear to not cause substantial acute toxicity, sublethal and potentially delayed impacts, such as, reduced mobility or food source availability could indirectly remove larvae from the population and need to be further examined, as do larval responses in standard chronic toxicity tests. Furthermore, dispersants are not released into the environment in isolation and so the impact of dispersed-oil using these dispersant formulations also needs to be investigated to translate into real-world situations.

  18. Acute and chronic effects of four commercial herbicide formulations on Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ort, M. P.; Fairchild, J.F.; Finger, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine acute (48 h) and chronic (7-day survival and reproduction) effects of four commonly used herbicide formulations. The 48-h LC50s in decreasing order of toxicity were 14.36 mg/L (Micro-Tech®), 15.93 mg/L (Bicep®), 32.99 mg/L (Extrazine®), and 35.36 mg/L (Lexone®). Reduced reproduction was detected at concentrations below 48-h LC50s for three of the formulations. The 7-day chronic values (ChV) based on reproduction were 17.68 mg/L (Micro-Tech®), 8.84 mg/L (Bicep®), 17.68 mg/L (Extrazine®), and 8.84 mg/L (Lexone®). The acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for Micro-Tech® (0.81), Bicep® (1.80), Extrazine® (1.86), and Lexone® (4.00) indicate a relatively narrow range between acute and chronic sensitivity in daphnids. A comparison of these response data to environmental concentrations suggests these herbicides are not likely to directly impact invertebrates. Potential impacts on plants and human health should be of primary ecological and regulatory concern.

  19. IgD values in children suffering from acute, recurrent and chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kikindjanin, V

    1981-01-01

    In 191 children suffered from acute, recurrent and chronic respiratory diseases the IgD values were studied. The method of single radial immunodiffusion was used. The values obtained were expressed in I.U./ml. In children suffered from acute bronchitis, bronchopneumonia and recurrent obstructive bronchitis the IgD values were not increased in relation to group. In children suffered from diseases of tuberculous aetiology the IgD values were significantly increased, p less than 0.05. In children suffered from bronchial asthma and bronchiectasis the IgD values were highly significant increased, p less than 0.001. In discussion th author points at factors which influence the IgD synthesis and cause the increase of its values.

  20. Acute toxicity of methanol to mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Helmstetter, A.; Gamerdinger, A.P.; Pruell, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Methanol is being promoted as an alternative fuel because of the clean air benefits of reduced carbon monoxide and other by-product emissions. In the event of an accidental spill or leakage from a storage tank, there is limited data available on the impact of alternative fuels on marine ecosystems. Before considering the impact of methanol on ecosystem processes, it is necessary to establish the acute toxicity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was selected for study because of its use as an indicator species of marine ecosystem health (Widdows and Donkin 1992). Our primary objective was to determine the LC-50 value of methanol to adult Mytilus edulis. We also not sublethal effects that were observed during the course of the 96-hr exposure. 16 refs., 1 fig. 3 tabs.

  1. Health advisory values for drinking water contaminants and the methodology for determining acute exposure values.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Joyce Morrissey; Lipscomb, John C

    2002-04-08

    The Health Advisory (HA) Program of the Office of Water provides informal technical guidance to Federal, State and local officials responsible for protecting health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. Under this program, first initiated in 1985, HA values are developed for 1-day, 10-day, longer-term (approx. 7 years) and lifetime exposures based on data describing non- cancer endpoints of toxicity. For substances that are known or probable human carcinogens, lifetime HAs are not recommended. In these situations, the HA document provides an estimate of the drinking water concentration that is equivalent to a l0(-4) 10(-6) cancer risk. US EPA has HA documents for over 175 chemicals dating from 1987 to 1998. A tabular summary of HA values can be accessed through the EPA Office of Science and Technology (OST) web page. The HA support documents provide a concise technical summary of and references for information on chemical, physical and toxicological properties, analytical methods, and treatment technologies. Some of the lifetime HA and cancer values in the HA documents may no longer agree with the most recent Agency assessment for Reference Dose (RfD) and cancer effects. However, the lifetime HA and cancer values presented in the HA tables have been updated to correspond with agency consensus values as presented in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  2. Sensitivity of Danio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during two stages of development based on acute toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Freiry, R; Stelzer, J A A; Maltchik, L; Arenzon, A

    2014-10-01

    The sensitivity of Danio rerio to three chemicals was compared at two growth stages [larval (10 ± 2 after hatching) and post-larval (60 ± 4 days after hatching)] based on acute toxicity tests. Thirty-nine 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed with the substances CuSO4, NaCl and KCl. The 48 h LC50 values at the two growth stages were compared by independent samples t-tests. The results showed a clear decrease in sensitivity when post-larval organisms were used. Since acute toxicity test methods for D. rerio that recommend using post-larval stage fish do not represent the most sensitive stage of the test organism, our study suggests a revision of the methods to use larval fish.

  3. Prognostic value of quantitative analysis of WT1 gene transcripts in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chiusa, Luigi; Francia di Celle, Paola; Campisi, Paola; Ceretto, Cristina; Marmont, Filippo; Pich, Achille

    2006-02-01

    We quantified Wilm's tumor gene (WT1) using a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 20 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at presentation. A WT1 level greater than 906 (median value for the whole series) was a significant predictor of a poor disease-free and overall survival in uni- and multivariate analyses.

  4. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  5. Anatomical features of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction: Additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Derkx, Salomé; Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Verdonk, Constance; Lepage, Laurent; Raffoul, Richard; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair is correlated with unfavourable left ventricular remodelling and poor outcome. This pictorial review describes the echocardiographic features of three types of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction, and the additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

  6. Acute Lung Injury Following Smoke Inhalation: Predictive Value of Sputum Biomarkers and Time Course of Lung Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). Laboratory assays on the bronchial lavage samples...at high risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). Given the delay of 12 or more hours from exposure to development of ARDS , a...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0673 TITLE : Acute Lung Injury Following Smoke Inhalation: Predictive Value of Sputum Biomarkers and Time Course of

  7. The acute toxic effects of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl-chain lengths and anions on zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Tongtong; Xu, Yaqi; Cheng, Chao

    2017-06-01

    With the increasing applications of ionic liquids (ILs), the toxicity of ILs has drawn increasing attention in recent years, especially the influences of different anions and alkyl-chain lengths on the acute toxicity to aquatic organisms. We performed a study on the acute toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Cnmim]NO3 (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs ([C6mim]R (R=Cl(-), Br(-), BF4(-), PF6(-))) to zebrafish (Danio rerio). We also evaluated the sensibility of the investigated animals and the stability of ILs in water via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, Agilent 1260, Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) to prove the reliability of the present study. The results illustrated that the test zebrafish (Danio rerio) were sensitive to the reference toxicant and that the investigated ILs in water were stable. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was used to represent the acute toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio). The present study showed that the highest toxic IL is [C12mim]NO3 and the lowest toxic IL is [C2mim]NO3 on Danio rerio. The LC50s for ILs with different anions had similar values. Accordingly, we believe that ILs with different alkyl-chain lengths cause greater effects than other anions on acute toxicity to aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the present study can also provide scientific methods for future studies to select and assess ILs.

  8. Multi-linear regression models predict the effects of water chemistry on acute lead toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; Grosell, M

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined the acute toxicity of lead (Pb) to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas in a variety of natural waters. The natural waters were selected to range in pertinent water chemistry parameters such as calcium, pH, total CO(2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Acute toxicity was determined for C. dubia and P. promelas using standard 48h and 96h protocols, respectively. For both organisms acute toxicity varied markedly according to water chemistry, with C. dubia LC50s ranging from 29 to 180μg/L and P. promelas LC50s ranging from 41 to 3598μg/L. Additionally, no Pb toxicity was observed for P. promelas in three alkaline natural waters. With respect to water chemistry parameters, DOC had the strongest protective impact for both organisms. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach combining previous lab data and the current data was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting acute Pb toxicity for both species. As anticipated, the P. promelas best-fit MLR model combined DOC, calcium and pH. Unexpectedly, in the C. dubiaMLR model the importance of pH, TCO(2) and calcium was minimal while DOC and ionic strength were the controlling water quality variables. Adjusted R(2) values of 0.82 and 0.64 for the P. promelas and C. dubia models, respectively, are comparable to previously developed biotic ligand models for other metals.

  9. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  10. A Prospective Bicenter Study Investigating the Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Sand, M.; Trullen, X.V.; Bechara, F.G.; Pala, X.F.; Sand, D.; Landgrafe, G.; Mann, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established laboratory marker for disease severity in patients with infection and sepsis. In addition, PCT has been shown to be an effective marker for a limited number of localized infections. However, whether or not PCT has any diagnostic value for acute appendicitis, still remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective bicenter study was, therefore, to determine whether or not the PCT levels in the serum of patients with acute appendicitis have any diagnostic value. Methods This prospective study included 103 patients who received an appendectomy, based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in a surgical department of an academic teaching hospital in Germany or in a county hospital in Spain. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) values were determined preoperatively. All appendectomy specimens were sent for routine histopathological evaluation. Based on this information, the patients were assigned to 1 of 5 groups that reflected the severity of the appendicitis. Results Of the 103 patients who were included in the study, 98 had appendicitis. Fourteen (14.3%) showed an increase in PCT values. Of those 14, 4 had a serum PCT >0.5 ng/ml, 9 had a PCT value >2–10 ng/ml and 1 had a PCT value >10 ng/ml. The sensitivity of PCT was calculated to be 0.14. The mean WBC value was 13.0/nl (± 5.2, 3.4–31), and for CRP it was 8.8 mg/dl (± 13, 0–60.2). The values of CRP, WBC and PCT increased with the severity of the appendicitis. Conclusions PCT is potentially increased in rare cases of severe inflammation and, in particular, after appendiceal perforation or gangrenous appendicitis. However, its remarkably low sensitivity prohibits its routine use for the diagnosis of appendicitis. PMID:19672084

  11. The effects of acute and chronic ammonia exposure during early life stages of the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta.

    PubMed

    Barimo, John F; Walsh, Patrick J

    2005-11-10

    The gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) is unusual among teleosts in that it is facultatively ureotelic and adults and juveniles have a particularly high tolerance to environmental ammonia. Male toadfish brood their offspring in confined nests. It has been hypothesized that the potential accumulation of ammonia in nests from the male and the offspring, coupled with suspected low ammonia tolerance in offspring would provide the selective pressure necessary for excretion of the less toxic urea by adult toadfish. This study examines this so-called 'nest-fouling' hypothesis through acute and chronic ammonia toxicity testing on early life stages of O. beta. In addition, nitrogen elimination was examined among embryos, yolk-sac larvae and juveniles where we found an ontogenic shift from ammonotely to ureotely with advancing life history stages. The acute ammonia 96 h LC50 values for embryos and larvae were 63.6 and 5.45 mmol-Nl(-1) total ammonia (TAmm), respectively. Thus, these early life stages are more tolerant to ammonia than either juveniles or adults and LC50 values are at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than concentrations naturally occurring at nest sites. Furthermore, 40 days exposures at mean and maximum NH3 concentrations normally found within nests revealed no observable detrimental effects. In fact, growth in terms of wet or dry weight was greatest at the maximum NH3 concentration. We therefore conclude that the nest-fouling hypothesis is not a viable explanation for ureotely in the gulf toadfish.

  12. Comparison of the acute toxicities of novel algicides, thiazolidinedione derivatives TD49 and TD53, to various marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong J; Yim, Eun C; Park, In T; Kim, Si W; Cho, Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Acute toxicity assessments of new algicides, thiazolidinedione derivatives TD49 and TD53, to the marine ecological system were conducted. The toxicity assessments were performed using two of the new International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods employing Ulva pertusa Kjellman and three species representative of the marine ecological system, with the results compared by calculating the 50% effective concentration (EC50), 50% lethal concentration (LC50), no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC), and predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC). In the acute toxicity assessment using the Kjellman, the EC50, NOEC, and PNEC of TD53 were 1.65 µM, 0.08 µM, and 1.65 nM, and those of TD49 were 0.18 µM, 0.63 µM, and 0.18 nM. In the assessments using Skeletonema costatum, Daphnia magna, and Paralichthys olivaceus fry, the EC50 or LC50 of TD53 were 1.53, 0.61, and 2.14 µM, respectively, indicating that D. magna was the most sensitive. The calculated NOEC and PNEC to D. magna were 0.25 µM and 6.10 nM, respectively. The LC50s (or EC50) of TD49 for the three species were 0.34, 0.68, and 0.58 µM. The NOEC and PNEC to S. costatum, the most sensitive species, were 0.2 µM and 3.4 nM, respectively. The slight difference in the chemical structures of the algicides caused significantly different sensitivities and specificities in the toxicities to the employed species. The results of the toxicity assessments showed that application concentrations for algiciding of red tide blooms were higher than the corresponding PNEC values. Therefore, we suggest that a formulization study of the algicides with high specificity should be conducted to reduce the surrounding ecological toxicity.

  13. Acute toxicity of low pH to the brown darter Etheostoma edwini under flow-through conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kase, J.; Burnett, M.; Shortelle, A.B.; Beach, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Okaloosa darter, Etheostoma okaloosae, is found exclusively in the Rocky and Boggy Bayou stream systems entering Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. Due to its limited range and habitat degradation, E. okaloosae was added to the List of Endangered Species in 1973. The Air Force controls several active test areas situated near streams known to contain Okaloosa darters. The possible release and deposition of strong acids such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid to stream surface water during some testing activities has raised concerns that the Okaloosa darter population may be adversely affected by episodic pH depression as a result of testing activities. To evaluate the sensitivity of the Okaloosa darter to pH depression, acute toxicity tests using a closely related species, E. edwini, were conducted. Ninety-six hour and 200 min acute pH depression flow-through toxicity tests were performed with surface water collected from the Rocky Bayou stream system. The 96 h test was conducted using six concentrations held at constant pH throughout the duration of the exposure. The 200 min test used an episodic exposure; pH in the exposure chambers were initially dropped and allowed to return to normal. Mortality data obtained during the studies were used to determine the pH depression necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC50) in each scenario. The 96 h and 200 min LC50 values are, respectively, 3.79 and 2.99 s.u. The 200 min LC50 calculations are based on the lowest achieved pH in each exposure during the test. The results of these tests are part of an effort by the Air Force to make risk-based management decision regarding testing activities.

  14. Diagnostic value of unenhanced computerized tomography urography in the evaluation of acute renal colic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Hwia; Lin, Wen-Chiung; Wei, Chao-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2003-10-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of unenhanced computerized tomography (CT) urography in patients with acute renal colic. Fifty-nine patients with clinical manifestations of acute renal colic underwent unenhanced helical CT to evaluate urinary tract abnormalities. Reformatted three-dimensional CT urography was performed in all patients. The findings were correlated with ureteroscopy, surgical findings, histopathologic findings, and clinical course. CT urography detected urinary abnormalities in 57 of 59 patients with the clinical manifestation of acute renal colic, including 45 cases of urolithiasis, three urinary malignancies, one congenital abnormality, and eight ureteral strictures (due to chronic inflammation or fibrosis). CT urography showed negative findings in the urinary system in two patients, and after clinical follow-up, urinary abnormality was excluded in these patients. Incidental findings of extrarenal disease were noted in six patients (pulmonary abnormalities, n = 2; gallstones, n = 4). Only one patient with urolithiasis was misdiagnosed as having a renal tumor by CT urography. The sensitivity and specificity of CT urography in diagnosing urolithiasis was 97.8% (44/45) and 100% (14/14), respectively. Three-dimensional CT urography is a newly developed modality to evaluate anomalies of the urinary tract. The highly accurate diagnostic value of CT urography makes it a suitable alternative or substitutive modality in patients with acute flank pain.

  15. Acute effects of chlorinated resin acid exposure on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.J.; Sweeting, R.M.; Farrell, A.P.; McKeown, B.A.; Johansen, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of an acute exposure to either 14-monochlorodehydroabietic acid (MCDHAA) or 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (DCDHAA) were examined in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The experimentally determined 96-h LC50 values (and their 95% confidence limits) were 1.03 (0.72, 1.48) and 0.91 (0.70, 1.21) mg/L, for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively. To measure effects on several biochemical parameters, swimming performance, and disease resistance, juvenile trout were exposed for 24 h to sublethal concentrations of one or the other resin acid in an intermittent-flow respirometer. Hematocrit, plasma lactate, and liver protein were significantly affected by exposure to the highest dose (80% of the 96-h LC50 value) of either of the resin acids. Plasma cortisol levels were 14- and 3-fold higher than were controls. Resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida was significantly reduced; the cumulative percent mortalities due to furunculosis in fish exposed to MCDHAA or DCDHAA reached 20 and 26%, respectively. Swimming performance, measured as critical swimming speed (mean values 6.32 {+-} 0.20 and 5.93 {+-} 0.15 body lengths per second for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively), was not significantly affected by resin acid exposure.

  16. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  17. Value of adipokines in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis: Comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Karpavicius, Andrius; Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Sileikis, Audrius; Vitkus, Dalius; Strupas, Kestutis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prognostic value of adipokines in predicting the course, complications and fatal outcome of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: We performed the search of PubMed database and the systemic analysis of the literature for both experimental and human studies on prognostic value of adipokines in AP for period 2002-2012. Only the papers that described the use of adipokines for prediction of severity and/or complications of AP were selected for further analysis. Each article had to contain information about the levels of measured adipokines, diagnosis and verification of AP, to specify presence of pancreatic necrosis, organ dysfunction and/or mortality rates. From the very beginning, study was carried out adhering to the PRISMA checklist and flowchart for systemic reviews. To assess quality of all included human studies, the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool was used. Because of the high heterogeneity between the studies, it was decided to refrain from the statistical processing or meta-analysis of the available data. RESULTS: Nine human and three experimental studies were included into review. In experimental studies significant differences between leptin concentrations at 24 and 48 h in control, acute edematous and acute necrotizing pancreatitis groups were found (P = 0.027 and P < 0.001). In human studies significant differences between leptin and resitin concentrations in control and acute pancreatitis groups were found. 1-3 d serum adiponectin threshold of 4.5 μg/mL correctly classified the severity of 81% of patients with AP. This threshold yielded a sensitivity of 70%, specificity 85%, positive predictive value 64%, negative predictive value88% (area under curve 0.75). Resistin and visfatin concentrations differ significantly between mild and severe acute pancreatitis groups, they correlate with severity of disease, need for interventions and outcome. Both adipokines are good markers for parapancreatic necrosis and the cut

  18. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  19. Acute toxicity bioassay of dimethoate on freshwater airbreathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rakesh K; Singh, Ram N; Singh, Sarika; Singh, Narendra N; Das, Vijai K

    2009-05-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used for pest control in the agricultural fields. They finally reach the surrounding water bodies through surface runoff affecting the aquatic fauna. Dimethoate is frequently used organophosphate pesticide due to its high effectiveness and rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products. A 96 hr static acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 value of dimethoate, on the freshwater airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). The fish were exposed to 7 different concentrations of dimethoate (2.50, 2.75, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, 3.75 and 4.00 mg l(-1)) for toxicity bioassay. Control (0.00 mg l(-1)) was also carried out. The data were subjected to Finney's Probit analysis and processed with Trimmed Spearman-Karber statistical software. The LC50 values for dimethoate for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 3.38, 3.23, 3.08 and 2.98 mg l(-1), respectively. At higher concentration of dimethoate (3.25 mg l(-1) and above) the fish showed uncoordinated behaviour such as erratic and jerky swimming, attempt to jump out of water, frequent surfacing and gulping of air, decrease in opercular movement and copious secretion of mucus all over the body.

  20. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to early life stages of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratorys studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F), and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex) to early life stages of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in hard and soft water. Regardless of water type, swim-up fry and juveniles (60 and 90 d posthatch) exhibited similar sensitivities to each chemical and these life stages were more sensitive than eyed eggs. Foam suppressants were more toxic to each life stage than the fire retardants in both water types. The descending rank order of toxicity for these chemicals tested with swim-up fry and juveniles (range of 96-h median lethal concentrations [LC50s]) was Phos-Chek WD-881 (7–13 mg/L) > Ansul Silv-Ex (11–22 mg/L) > Phos-Chek D75-F (218–305 mg/L) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (218–412 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (685–1,195 mg/L). Water type had a minor effect on the toxicity of these chemicals. Comparison of acute toxicity values with recommended application concentrations indicates that accidental inputs of these chemicals into stream environments would require substantial dilution (237- to 1,429-fold) to reach concentrations equivalent to their 96-h LC50s.

  1. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  3. Value of the CT "capsular sign" as a potential indicator of acute adrenal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Pignatelli, Armando; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Acute adrenal ischemia represents a rare cause of adrenal insufficiency which should be promptly diagnosed in order to preserve adrenal vitality and function. Our study aims to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the CT capsular sign as an indicator of adrenal ischemia and its association with vascular involvement. Between January 2013 and January 2014, 69 consecutive patients (47 men, 22 women; mean age 46; range 22-67) with suspected adrenal insufficiency based on clinical and biochemical data underwent 320-row CT examination in our Emergency Department. Written informed consent was obtained for the CT examinations, and the institutional review board approval was obtained for our retrospective study. CT multi-planar images were retrospectively and independently analyzed by two radiologists searching for the patency of adrenal vessels, enlarged adrenals, the presence of the "capsular sign" represented by a peripheral subtle hyperdense line around a hypodense enlarged adrenal, and the presence of any periadrenal inflammatory changes. All CT findings were then compared with the surgical findings (n = 5), follow-up examinations (n = 20), or autopsy (n = 4). Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the "capsular sign" and were further evaluated by ROC analysis. Acute adrenal ischemia occurred in 29/69 patients (42 %), unilateral in 20, and bilateral in 9. Forty of sixty-nine patients (58 %) had no evidence of adrenal disease on CT. Thrombosis of the main adrenal vein was found in 20/29 (69 %) and non-venous ischemia in 9/29 (31 %). The capsular sign was found in 24/29 patients (83 %). Sensitivity, specificity, DA, PPV, and NPV values of 83, 100, 93, 100, and 89 %, respectively, were obtained. The capsular sign represents a CT indicator of acute adrenal ischemia, with a specificity of 100 % and leading to a prompt diagnosis in the early

  4. Diagnostic value of blood inflammatory markers for detection of acute appendicitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Ulrich; Biereder, Birgit; Elouahidi, Tino; Bauer, Katrin; Keller, Thomas; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo

    2006-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical problem that is associated with an acute-phase reaction. Previous studies have shown that cytokines and acute-phase proteins are activated and may serve as indicators for the severity of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic value of different serum inflammatory markers in detection of phlegmonous or perforated appendicitis in children. Methods Data were collected prospectively on 211 consecutive children. Laparotomy was performed for suspected AA for 189 patients. Patients were subdivided into groups: nonsurgical abdominal pain, early appendicitis, phlegmonous or gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis. White blood cell count (WBC), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), acid α1-glycoprotein (α1GP), endotoxin, and erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ESR) were estimated ad the time of admission. The diagnostic performance was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results WBC count, CRP and IL-6 correlated significantly with the severity of appendiceal inflammation. Identification of children with severe appendicitis was supported by IL-6 or CRP but not WBC. Between IL-6 and CRP, there were no significant differences in diagnostic use. Conclusion Laboratory results should be considered to be integrated within the clinical assessment. If used critically, CRP and IL-6 equally provide surgeons with complementary information in discerning the necessity for urgent operation. PMID:17132173

  5. Prognostic value of intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute myocardial ischemic event

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.

    1989-07-15

    Seventy-seven patients recovering from an acute coronary event were studied by intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy to evaluate the prognostic value and safety of the test in this patient subset. Forty-four patients (58%) had unstable angina and 33 (42%) had an acute myocardial infarction. One death occurred within 24 hours of testing. Sixty-eight patients were followed for an average of 12 months; 25, 31 and 23% had a fixed, reversible or combined thallium defect on their predischarge thallium scan. During follow-up, 10 patients died or had a nonfatal myocardial infarction; in each case, a reversible or combined myocardial thallium defect was present. Univariate analysis of 17 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables showed that a reversible thallium defect and the angiographically determined extent of coronary artery disease were predictors of future cardiac events. The extent of coronary disease and global left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of subsequent reinfarction or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that a reversible thallium defect (p less than 0.001) and the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.009) were the only significant predictors of a cardiac event. When death or reinfarction were the outcome variables, the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.06) were the only variables selected. Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute coronary ischemic syndrome is a useful and relatively safe noninvasive test to predict subsequent cardiac events.

  6. Prognostic Value of the Interaction between Galectin-3 and Antigen Carbohydrate 125 in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Julio; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Sandino, Justo; Mainar, Luis; Palau, Patricia; Santas, Enrique; Villanueva, Maria Pilar; Núñez, Eduardo; Bodí, Vicent; Chorro, Francisco J.; Miñana, Gema; Sanchis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aims Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) have emerged as robust prognostic biomarkers in heart failure. Experimental data have also suggested a potential molecular interaction between CA125 and Gal-3; however, the biological and clinical relevance of this interaction is still uncertain. We sought to evaluate, in patients admitted for acute heart failure, the association between plasma Gal-3 with all-cause mortality and the risk for rehospitalizations among high and low levels of CA125. Methods and Results We included 264 consecutive patients admitted for acute heart failure to the Cardiology Department in a third-level center. Both biomarkers were measured on admission. Negative binomial and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect of the interaction between Gal-3 and CA125 (dichotomized by its median) with hospital readmission and all-cause mortality, respectively. During a median follow-up of 2 years (IQR = 1-2.8), 108 (40.9%) patients deaths and 365 rehospitalizations in 171 (69.5%) patients were registered. In a multivariable setting, the effect of Gal-3 on mortality and rehospitalization was differentially mediated by CA125 (p = 0.007 and p<0.001, respectively). Indeed, in patients with CA125 above median (>67 U/ml), values across the continuum of Gal-3 showed a positive and almost linear relationship with either the risk of death or rehospitalization. Conversely, when CA125 was below median (≤67 U/ml), Gal-3 lacked any prognostic effect on both endpoints. Conclusion In patients with acute heart failure, Gal-3 was strongly associated with higher risk of long-term mortality and repeated rehospitalizations, but only in those patients exhibiting higher values of CA125 (above 67 U/ml). PMID:25875367

  7. Baseline values of candidate urine acute kidney injury biomarkers vary by gestational age in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Askenazi, David J; Koralkar, Rajesh; Levitan, Emily B; Goldstein, Stuart L; Devarajan, Prasad; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Mehta, Ravindra L; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2011-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in premature infants and is associated with poor outcomes. Novel biomarkers can detect AKI promptly. Because premature infants are born with underdeveloped kidneys, baseline biomarker values may differ. We describe baseline values of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), osteopontin (OPN), beta-2 microglobulin (B2mG), and Cystatin-C (Cys-C). Next, we test the hypothesis that these biomarkers are inversely related to GA. Candidate markers were compared according to GA categories in 123 infants. Mixed linear regression models were performed to determine the independent association between demographics/interventions and baseline biomarker values. We found that urine NGAL, KIM-1, Cys-C, and B2mG decreased with increasing GA. With correction for urine creatinine (cr), these markers and OPN/cr decreased with increasing GA. IL-18 (with or without correction for urine creatinine) did not differ across GA categories. Controlling for other potential clinical and demographic confounders with regression analysis shows that NGAL/cr, OPN/cr, and B2mG/cr are independently associated with GA. We conclude that urine values of candidate AKI biomarkers are higher in the most premature infants. These findings should be considered when designing and analyzing biomarker studies in newborn with AKI.

  8. Predictive value of inflammatory markers for irrigation and debridement of acute TKA infection.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Louis S; Abdel, Matthew P; Hanssen, Arlen D

    2013-06-01

    The roles of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are well established in the diagnosis of total joint infection. However, it is not entirely clear what value preoperative CRP and ESR have in predicting outcomes following irrigation and debridement with insert exchange for acute hematogenous total knee arthroplasty infection. The total joint registry at the authors' institution was reviewed to identify all patients who underwent irrigation and debridement with insert exchange for a diagnosis of acute hematogenous infection of a primary total knee arthroplasty. Patient medical records were then reviewed for preoperative white blood cell count and CRP and ESR levels; interval from symptom onset to surgery; infecting organism; and any additional surgery for infection. Average patient age was 72 years (range, 51-91 years). Forty-four patients were men and 26 were women. Mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 12-176 months). Seventy-two procedures (69 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 (28%) additional procedures for infection were performed and were classified as treatment failures. Average CRP was 173.7 mg/L in the successful group and 159.0 mg/L in the failed group (P=.31). Mean ESR at the time of irrigation and debridement with insert exchange was 61.3 mm/hr in both groups (P=.49). Although CRP and ESR are well established in the diagnosis of infection, no role currently exists for them in predicting the outcomes of irrigation and debridement with insert exchange for the treatment of acute hematogenous total knee arthroplasty infection.

  9. Incidence, Mortality and Positive Predictive Value of Type 1 Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pimienta González, Raquel; Couto Comba, Patricia; Rodríguez Esteban, Marcos; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Hernández Afonso, Julio; Rodríguez Pérez, María del Cristo; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Elosua, Roberto; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with cardiorenal syndrome subtype 1 (CRS1) in patients who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was greater than the expected risk based on the sum of its components, to estimate the predictive value of CRS1, and to determine whether the severity of CRS1 worsens the prognosis. Methods Follow-up study of 1912 incident cases of ACS for 1 year after discharge. Cox regression models were estimated with time to event (in-hospital death, and readmission or death during the first year after discharge) as the dependent variable. Results The incidence of CRS1 was 9.2/1000 person-days of hospitalization (95% CI = 8.1–10.5), but these patients accounted for 56.6% (95% CI = 47.4–65.) of all mortality. The positive predictive value of CRS1 was 29.6% (95% CI = 23.9–36.0) for in-hospital death, and 51.4% (95% CI = 44.8–58.0) for readmission or death after discharge. The risk of in-hospital death from CRS1 (RR = 18.3; 95% CI = 6.3–53.2) was greater than the sum of risks associated with either acute heart failure (RR = 7.6; 95% CI = 1.8–31.8) or acute kidney injury (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 0.9–8.8). The risk of events associated with CRS1 also increased with syndrome severity, reaching a RR of 10.6 (95% CI = 6.2–18.1) for in-hospital death at the highest severity level. Conclusions The effect of CRS1 on in-hospital mortality is greater than the sum of the effects associated with each of its components, and it increases with the severity of the syndrome. CRS1 accounted for more than half of all mortality, and its positive predictive value approached 30% in-hospital and 50% after discharge. PMID:27907067

  10. In vitro sensitivity of granulo-monocytic progenitors as a new toxicological cell system and endpoint in the ACuteTox Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrato, Laura; Valeri, Antonio; Bueren, Juan A.; Albella, Beatriz

    2009-07-15

    The ACuteTox Project (part of the EU 6th Framework Programme) was started up in January 2005. The aim of this project is to develop a simple and robust in vitro strategy for prediction of human acute systemic toxicity, which could replace animal tests used for regulatory purposes. Our group is responsible for the characterization of the effect of the reference chemicals on the hematopoietic tissue. CFU-GM assay based on the culture of human mononuclear cord blood cells has been used to characterize the effects of the selected compounds on the myeloid progenitors. Previous results have shown the relevance of the CFU-GM assay for the prediction of human acute neutropenia after treatment of antitumoral compounds, and this assay has been recently approved by the ECVAM's Scientific Advisory Committee. Among the compounds included in the study there were pharmaceuticals, environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Eleven out of 55 chemicals did not show any cytotoxic effect at the maximum concentration tested. The correlation coefficients of CFU-GM IC50, IC70 and IC90 values with human LC50 values (50% lethal concentration calculated from time-related sublethal and lethal human blood concentrations) were 0.4965, 0.5106 and 0.5142 respectively. Although this correlation is not improve respect to classical in vitro basal cytotoxicity tests such as 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake, chemicals which deviate substantially in the correlation with these assays (colchicine, digoxin, 5-Fluorouracil and thallium sulfate) fitted very well in the linear regression analysis of the CFU-GM progenitors. The results shown in the present study indicate that the sensitivity of CFU-GM progenitors correlates better than the sensitivity of HL-60 cells with human LC50 values and could help to refine the predictability for human acute systemic toxicity when a given chemical may affect to the hematopoietic myeloid system.

  11. Acute and reproductive effects of Align, an insecticide containing azadirachtin, on the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Irigaray, F Javier Sáenz-De-Cabezón; Moreno-Grijalba, Fernando; Marco, Vicente; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Azadirachtin, derived from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Sapindales: Meliaceae), seems promising for use in integrated pest management programs to control a variety of pest species. A commercial formulation of azadirachtin, Align, has been evaluated against different developmental stages of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). When administered orally, Align reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5, and 10 mg litre(-1). At the highest doses, fecundity and fertility were zero, but longevity was not affected. An LC(50) of 231.5 mg litre(-1) was obtained when Align was sprayed on eggs less than 1 day old. Hatching of all egg classes was significantly reduced, and this reduction was more pronounced for eggs less than 24 h old. LC(50) values of 2.1 mg litre(-1) for first instars and 18.7 mg litre(-1) for third instars were obtained when Align was present in the diet. Larvae reared on a diet containing different concentrations of Align did not molt into adults at the highest concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 1.2), and 50% molted at the lowest concentration (0.15). Phenotypic effects included inability to molt properly and deformities. The combination of acute toxicity and low, effective concentrations of Align observed in this study could lead to the inclusion of insecticides containing azadirachtin in integrated management programs against this pest.

  12. Acute and Reproductive Effects of Align®, an Insecticide Containing Azadirachtin, on the Grape Berry Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Irigaray, F. Javier Sáenz-De-Cabezón; Moreno-Grijalba, Fernando; Marco, Vicente; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Azadirachtin, derived from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Sapindales: Meliaceae), seems promising for use in integrated pest management programs to control a variety of pest species. A commercial formulation of azadirachtin, Align®, has been evaluated against different developmental stages of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). When administered orally, Align reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5, and 10 mg litre-1. At the highest doses, fecundity and fertility were zero, but longevity was not affected. An LC50 of 231.5 mg litre-1 was obtained when Align was sprayed on eggs less than 1 day old. Hatching of all egg classes was significantly reduced, and this reduction was more pronounced for eggs less than 24 h old. LC50 values of 2.1 mg litre-1 for first instars and 18.7 mg litre-1 for third instars were obtained when Align was present in the diet. Larvae reared on a diet containing different concentrations of Align did not molt into adults at the highest concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 1.2), and 50% molted at the lowest concentration (0.15). Phenotypic effects included inability to molt properly and deformities. The combination of acute toxicity and low, effective concentrations of Align observed in this study could lead to the inclusion of insecticides containing azadirachtin in integrated management programs against this pest. PMID:20578954

  13. Acute toxicity of crude oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: the relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibing; Huang, Yijun; Chen, Quanzhen; Zeng, Jiangning; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2012-10-01

    Recent oil spillage accidents around the world greatly increase harmful risks to marine ecology. This study evaluated the influences of petroleum water accommodated fraction (WAF) on 15 typical species of marine copepods collected from a subtropical bay in East China Sea at different seasons. Copepods showed impaired swimming ability, restlessness, loss of balance, anoxic coma, and even death when they were acutely exposed to the crude oil WAF under laboratory conditions. The LC(50) values (expressed in total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration) indicated that the tolerances of copepods to WAF decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased exposure duration and natural water temperatures (acclimatization temperature). The sensitivity of the copepods was species-specific (P < 0.01), and there was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the 48-h LC(50) and body size. Therefore, the small copepod species confront more survival challenges under oil contamination stress, especially in the warm months or regions.

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  15. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value.

  16. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  17. Perspectives on the Value of Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care and Implications for Strategic Management

    PubMed Central

    Kossaify, Antoine; Garcia, Annie; Succar, Sami; Ibrahim, Antoine; Moussallem, Nicolas; Kossaify, Mikhael; Grollier, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers in acute cardiac care are gaining increasing interest given their clinical benefits. This study is a review of the major conditions in acute cardiac care, with a focus on biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessment. Through a PubMed search, 110 relevant articles were selected. The most commonly used cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin, natriuretic peptides, and C-reactive protein) are presented first, followed by a description of variable acute cardiac conditions with their relevant biomarkers. In addition to the conventional use of natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponin, and C-reactive protein, other biomarkers are outlined in variable critical conditions that may be related to acute cardiac illness. These include ST2 and chromogranin A in acute dyspnea and acute heart failure, matrix metalloproteinase in acute chest pain, heart-type fatty acid binding protein in acute coronary syndrome, CD40 ligand and interleukin-6 in acute myocardial infarction, blood ammonia and lactate in cardiac arrest, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha in atrial fibrillation. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the physiopathology of most cardiac diseases, whether acute or chronic. In summary, natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponin, C-reactive protein are currently the most relevant biomarkers in acute cardiac care. Point-of-care testing and multi-markers use are essential for prompt diagnostic approach and tailored strategic management. PMID:24046510

  18. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval and juvenile colombian frogs 2. Field and laboratory microcosm acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M H; Solomon, K R; Carrasquilla, G

    2009-01-01

    The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate (coca mixture, a combination of formulated glyphosate, Glyphos, and an adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux) in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. Although acute LC50 for 8 species of Colombian frogs ranged from 1.2 to 2.78 mg acid equivalents (a.e.)/L, these exposures were conducted in the laboratory in the absence of sediments and organic matter such as would occur under realistic field conditions. In order to assess the effects of overspray of frog habitat under field conditions, Gosner stage 25 tadpoles of Rhinella granulosa, R. marina, Hypsiboas crepitans, and Scinax ruber were placed in outdoor microcosms made from polyethylene plastic fish ponds (2.07 m in diameter, 37 cm high) in an experimental area in Tolima, Colombia. The bottoms of the microcosms were covered with a 3-cm layer of local soil and they were filled to a depth of 15 cm (above the sediment) with local spring water. After up to 100 tadpoles of each frog species were placed in the microcosms, they were sprayed with the coca mixture at concentrations greater and less than the normal application rate (3.69 kg glyphosate a.e./ha). Mortality at 96 h in the control microcosms was between 0 and 16% and LC50 values were between 8.9 and 10.9 kg glyphosate a.e./ha (equivalent to initial concentrations of 5963 to 7303 microg glyphosate a.e./L). Mortality >LC50 was only observed in the tested species when the application rate was >2-fold the normal application rate. In other experiments, juvenile and adult terrestrial stages of frogs were exposed by direct spraying to a range of concentrations of coca mixture. Juveniles and adults were exposed in plastic food containers (19 x 19 cm). The bottom of the container was filled with moistened soil and leaf litter to a depth of 1 cm and 0.5 cm, respectively. Mortality in the controls was low, from 0 to 10%, and from 0 to 35% at the normal application rate. LC50 values ranged between 4.5 kg

  19. Developmental and acute toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos.

  20. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  1. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN.

  2. Predictive value of serum uric acid in hospitalized adolescents and adults with acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Abdulnaby, Nasser Keshar; Sayed, Ashraf Othman; Shalaby, Nehad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background High serum uric acid (sUA) is an indicator of oxidative stress and is linked to tissue hypoxia in asthma. The objective of this case series was to investigate the prognostic role of sUA in patients with acute asthma exacerbations and the link between sUA and spirometric lung tests. Patients and methods This cross-sectional observational study included 120 patients with acute asthma exacerbations and 120 controls, categorized according to peak expiratory flow rate into moderate, and severe and life-threatening asthma. On admission, a detailed history was obtained and investigations were carried out regarding oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial blood gas, spirometry, sUA, number of asthma exacerbations, smoking status, history of previous hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation. Results The current study revealed higher sUA in asthmatic patients compared with healthy subjects and in severe asthma patients compared with moderate asthma patients (P<0.001). A positive correlation of sUA with asthma severity, number of asthma exacerbations and smoking index (r=0.6, 0.42 and 0.29, respectively, P<0.001) and a negative correlation of sUA with SaO2, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), percent predicted forced vital capacity, percent predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV%) and peak expiratory flow rate percent of predicted (PEFR%; r=−0.48, −0.29, −0.44, −0.44 and −0.66, respectively, P<0.001) were observed. Degree of asthma severity, number of asthma exacerbations, and smoking index were significant predictors of high sUA (R2=0.43, P<0.001) in multiple linear regression model 1. SaO2 and PEFR% were significant predictors of high uric acid (R2=0.50, P<0.001) in model 2. The sensitivity and specificity of sUA in predicting severity of asthma at the cutoff point of 6.3 mg/dL were 80% and 90%, respectively. The odds ratios of sUA, number of asthma exacerbations, and asthma duration were 5.4, 1.95 and 1

  3. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  4. Comparative study on acute effects of water accommodated fractions of an artificially weathered crude oil on Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Rørvik, Siv F; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Olsen, Anders J; Nordtug, Trond

    2011-01-15

    Extrapolation of ecotoxicological data from temperate species for use in risk assessment in the polar environments may be difficult since polar organisms as a rule differ from temperate species in terms of life span length, developmental time, surface-to-volume ratios, metabolic rates, total energy usage and lipid content for energy storage. In the current work we performed a comparative study where two closely related and morphologically similar copepod species, Calanus finmarchicus (temperate-boreal) and Calanus glacialis (arctic), were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) of oil in a series of parallel experiments. The two species, adapted to 10°C and 2°C, respectively, were compared on the basis of acute ecotoxicity (LC(50)) and the WAF-mediated induction of the gene encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST). In addition, an experiment was conducted in order to reveal relationships between lipid content and acute toxicity. LC(50) values differed between the two species, and the Arctic copepod appeared less sensitive than the temperate-boreal species. The lipid contents of the two species, measured biometrically, were comparable, and the relationships between lipid content and response (reduced survival) to acute WAF exposure followed the same trend: Lipid-rich copepods survived longer than lipid-poor copepods at the same exposure concentration. In terms of GST expression, both species showed concentration-dependent and exposure time-dependent trends. However, as for the acute toxicity data, the Arctic copepod appeared to respond slower and with a lower intensity. From the study it can be concluded that temperature and lipid content are important factors for assessing differences between temperate and Arctic species, and that a delayed response in organisms adapted to low temperatures needs to be corrected for when extrapolating toxicity data from species with other temperature optimums for use in Arctic environments.

  5. Perceived value of stroke outcome measures across the post-acute care continuum: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Megan M; Hunter, Elizabeth G

    2013-04-01

    Connecting the continuum of post-acute care stroke services may be important for easing patients' transition between settings and facilitating recovery and community reintegration. The use of outcome measures is suggested as one means of connecting the continuum. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to describe administrators' and physiotherapists' perceived value of an outcomes program across the post-acute care stroke continuum at a rehabilitation hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups with 18 participants. Three themes emerged on the value of the outcomes program: 1) enhanced communication; 2) supports clinical decision-making; and 3) value of objective data. These findings lend support for the use of standardized outcome measures by physiotherapists in stroke rehabilitation. Findings from this study may be useful for organizations and physiotherapists who wish to integrate outcome measures into practice.

  6. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical.

  7. Acute toxicity by water containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium in native Brazilian fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: anatomopathological alterations and mortality.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcello Pardi; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; da Cruz, Claudinei; Belo, Marco Antonio de Andrade; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of hexavalent and trivalent compounds of chromium to the pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in acute exposures of 96 h through mortality and histopathological responses. Hexavalent potassium dichromate was more toxic than trivalent compounds of chromium chloride, chromium oxide and chromium carbochelate. Sufficient mortalities occurred only with potassium dichromate to yield an LC50 value at 124.2 mg L(-1). Hexavalent chromium caused reversible and irreversible lesions, which may affect organ functionality. Histopathological evaluation showed that trivalent chromium caused lesions of lower severity. Pacu subjected to different concentrations of chromium carbochelate showed no histopathological changes in the kidneys, liver, skin and gills, being similar to those of the control fish. Among the three sources of Cr(3+), only chromium chloride at 200 mg L(-1) resulted in mortality, which reached 100 % within the first 18 h. These findings confirm that trivalent chromium, when administered within recommended levels, may be used safely in aquaculture.

  8. Acute toxicities of six manufactured nanomaterial suspensions to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng; Tian, Shengyan

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of nanotechnology is stimulating research on the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). This paper summarizes a comprehensive study on the 48-h acute toxicity of water suspensions of six MNMs (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3, C60, SWCNTs, and MWCNTs) to Daphnia magna, using immobilization and mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results show that the acute toxicities of all MNMs tested are dose dependent. The EC50 values for immobilization ranged from 0.622 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 114.357 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs), while the LC50 values for mortality ranged from 1.511 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 162.392 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs). In these tests, TiO2, Al2O3, and carbon-based nanomaterials were more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, D. magna were found to ingest nanomaterials from the test solutions through feeding behaviors, which indicates that the potential ecotoxicities and environmental health effects of these MNMs cannot be neglected.

  9. Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

  10. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Snellings, William M.; Nachreiner, Donald J.; Pottenger, Lynn H.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits), were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061) ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698) ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831) ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262) ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884) ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459) ppm for the combined sexes. PMID:21785591

  11. Prognostic and diagnostic value of plasma soluble ST2 concentrations in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Volk, Jessica A.; Christiani, David C.; Harris, R. Scott; Matthay, Michael A.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Januzzi, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Soluble ST2 (sST2) is a biomarker of myocardial strain and inflammation. The characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. We sought to determine whether plasma sST2 concentration is associated with outcome and response to conservative fluid management, and whether sST2 concentration discriminates ARDS from decompensated heart failure (HF). Design, Setting, and Patients We assayed plasma sST2 concentrations in 826 patients in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT), a multi-center randomized controlled trial of conservative fluid management in ARDS, as well as a cohort of patients with decompensated HF. We tested whether sST2 was associated with outcome, response to therapy, and diagnostic utility for ARDS vs. HF. Measurements and Main Results Non-survivors had higher day 0 (P<.0001) and day 3 (P<.0001) sST2 concentrations. After adjustment for severity of illness, higher sST2 concentration was associated with mortality, with odds ratio (ORadj) 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 – 2.20, P=.06) at day 0, 2.94 (95% CI 2.00 – 4.33, P<.0001) at day 3, and 3.63 (95% CI 2.38 – 5.53, P<.0001) if sST2 increased between days. Cumulative fluid balance was more positive among patients with higher day 0 (median 5212 mL, interquartile range [IQR] 200 – 12284 vs. 2020 mL, −2034 – 7091; P<0.0001), and day 3 sST2 (median 7678 mL, IQR 2217 – 14278 vs. 1492 mL, −2384 – 6239; P<0.0001). sST2 showed excellent discriminative ability between the FACTT and HF populations (Area under ROC curve=0.98, P<0.0001). Conclusions Higher sST2 concentrations are associated with worse outcome in ARDS and may have value for discriminating ARDS from heart failure. PMID:23939353

  12. Evaluation of a proper cutoff value on quantitative dual-energy perfusion CT for the assessment of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kunihiro, Yoshie; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2017-01-01

    Background The cutoff value for assessing the severity of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) using relative volumetric evaluations of dual-energy perfusion computed tomography (DEpCT) is unclear. Purpose To determine the proper cutoff value for determining the severity of PTE using DEpCT volumetry. Material and Methods A total of 185 patients with venous thromboembolism were included in this study, of whom 61 were diagnosed with acute PTE. DEpCT images were three-dimensionally reconstructed at the following attenuation ranges: 1-2 HU (V2), 1-10 HU (V10), and 1-120 HU (V120). The ratios of low perfusion areas associated with each threshold range per V120 were also calculated, and the relative ratios were expressed as %V2 to %V10. These values were compared with factors indicating the severity of PTE, including the pulmonary arterial pressure, heart rate, CT angiographic obstruction index (CTOI), and right/left ventricular diameter ratio (RV/LV). Results The area under the curve (AUC) of %V2 was highest (0.783) among these values (95% confidence interval, 0.710-0.856) based on the presence of IPCs. The %V2 showed moderate correlations with CTOI (r = 0.36, P = 0.005) and RV/LV (r = 0.36, P = 0.004) in the patients with acute PTE. Conclusion Volumetric evaluations of DEpCT images using the lowest attenuation threshold range (1-2 HU) exhibit the best correlation with factors suggesting the severity of acute PTE.

  13. PREDICTION OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMALAS) USING A GROUP CONTRIBUTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group contribution method has been developed to correlate the acute toxicity (96 h LC50) to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 379 organic chemicals. Multilinear regression and computational neural networks (CNNs) were used for model building. The multilinear linear m...

  14. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to ecological risk assessment because data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ge...

  15. Acute toxicity of a commercial glyphosate formulation on European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aromatases (cyp19a and cyp19b).

    PubMed

    Prevot-D'Alvise, N; Richard, S; Coupé, S; Bunet, R; Grillasca, J P

    2013-12-31

    Acute toxicity of Roundup, a commercial glyphosate--based herbicide, was evaluated in a teleost marine fish, the European sea bass, after 96 h of exposure. The LC50 96-h value of Roundup was 529 mg/L. Juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were exposed to a sublethal concentration (35% of the LC50, i.e. 193 mg/L) of Roundup for 96-h. The study of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) gene expression was performed in four tissues (liver, gills, brain and gonads) and highlighted the disruption of antioxidant defence system. Results showed that ho-1 mRNA levels in liver and gills significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) in fish exposed to 193 mg/L of Roundup, whereas in brain and gonads, ho-1 mRNA level was not altered. The analysis of acetylcholinesterase expression was used to evaluate the overall neurotoxicity of the herbicide and aromatase genes to assess the alteration of the endocrine system. Results showed that AChE and cyp19b gene transcriptions significantly increased (p<0.01) in brain of sea bass, whereas aromatase gene expression (cyp19a) in gonads was not significantly altered. Our results showed complex tissue-specific transcriptional responses after 96 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration. All these disruptions confirmed the deleterious effects of this glyphosate-based herbicide in a marine species.

  16. Development of miniaturized acute toxicity tests for Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.; McKee, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard EPA methods for conducting static, 48-hour, acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) can be miniaturized to successfully yield accurate LC50/EC50 values. The screening procedure involves exposing the test organisms to 1 mL of test solution, in test chambers which consist of the wells on 48-well microliter plates. Toxicity of the microliter plates and solvent, DO concentration, organism biomass to test solution ratio, partitioning of the chemicals and dilution of the test solution during transfer of the test organisms were examined. Survival and exposure were not significantly altered using non-standard test chambers. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), kepone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was determined using D. magna and fathead minnows. Serial dilutions were made and 1 mL aliquots pipetted into the wells. Daphnia magna, < 24 hours old, and newly hatched fathead minnows, were transferred into the wells, twenty individuals per concentration, one per well. Dose-response curves were established for all test compounds. LC50/EC50`s values obtained using miniaturized methods strongly correlated with those obtained using standard EPA procedures. The tests were repeated a number of times with coefficient of variances for D. magna ranging from 10% with kepone to 64% with SLS. For fathead minnows CVs ranged from 0% with PCP to 23% with kepone. It was concluded that current methods can be miniaturized, yet still provide accurate information regarding toxicity for compounds in limited supply. This method may also be amenable to effluent testing i.e. TIE fractions. Other benefits include reducing the amount of equipment and space needed to conduct a test and the time involved.

  17. The Prognostic Values of Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng-I.; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Yuen, Chun-Man; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. It has been reported that leukocyte ROCK activity is elevated in patients after ischemic stroke, but it is unclear whether leukocyte ROCK activity is associated with clinical outcomes following acute stroke events. The objective of this study is to investigate if leukocyte ROCK activity can predict the outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 110 patients of acute ischemic stroke and measured the leukocyte ROCK activity and plasma level of inflammatory cytokines to correlate the clinical outcomes of these patients. Results. The leukocyte ROCK activity at 48 hours after admission in acute ischemic stroke patients was higher as compared to a risk-matched population. The leukocyte ROCK activity significantly correlated with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) difference between admission and 90 days after stroke event. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed lower stroke-free survival during follow-up period in patients with high leukocyte ROCK activity or plasma hsCRP level. Leukocyte ROCK activity independently predicted the recurrent stroke in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. Conclusions. This study shows elevated leukocyte ROCK activity in patients with ischemic stroke as compared to risk-matched subjects and is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. PMID:24716192

  18. Evaluation of the effect of reactive sulfide on the acute toxicity of silver (I) to Daphnia magna. Part 2: toxicity results.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Bowles, Karl C; Brauner, Colin J; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M

    2002-06-01

    The protective effect of reactive sulfide against AgNO3 toxicity to Daphnia magna neonates was studied. Acute (48-h) toxicity tests were performed in the absence (<5 nM) and presence of low (approximately 25 nM) and high (approximately 250 nM) concentrations of zinc sulfide clusters under oxic conditions. In both the presence and the absence of sulfide, lower mean lethal concentration (LC50) values were observed when measured as opposed to nominal silver concentrations were used in calculations. This reflected the fact that measured total silver concentrations were lower than nominal concentrations due to losses of silver from solution observed during the experiment. High concentration (approximately 250 nM) of sulfide completely protected against toxicity up to the highest silver concentration tested (2 microg/L [19 nM]) with measured silver data. In the presence of environmentally realistic levels of sulfide (approximately 25 nM) in receiving waters, acute silver toxicity was reduced by about 5.5-fold. However, when filtered (0.45 microm) silver concentrations alone were considered, toxicity (48-h LC50) was similar in the absence (0.22 microg/L) and presence (0.28 microg/L) of sulfide. The difference between measured total and filtered silver was attributed to chemisorption of the metal sulfide onto the membrane filter and provides evidence that the toxic fraction of silver is that which is unbound to sulfide. Accumulation of silver was greater in daphnids exposed to silver in the presence of sulfide than in its absence, even though a toxic effect was not observed under these conditions. In this case, silver appears to be incorporated by daphnids rather than merely adsorbed on the surface. Our results point out the need to incorporate sulfide into the acute biotic ligand model and to assess its potentially large role in preventing chronic toxicity.

  19. Prognostic value of single-photon emission tomography in acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Weir, C J; Bolster, A A; Tytler, S; Murray, G D; Corrigall, R S; Adams, F G; Lees, K R

    1997-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) is widely used in the investigation of acute stroke. We investigated the relationship between SPET data and functional outcome in a large group of acute stroke patients. One hundred and eight patients underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET after acute ischaemic stroke. We categorised the clinical presentation according to the Oxford classification of acute stroke. Outcome was measured 1 year after stroke using mortality and the Barthel Index for survivors. SPET scans were interpreted without reference to the clinical data using a semi-automatic technique. Three experienced observers determined the presence of luxury perfusion using suitably scaled SPET images in conjunction with the CT scan. Both SPET volume and severity of deficit were significantly negatively correlated with Barthel Index at 1 year (rs=-0.310, P<0.0001, and rs=-0.316, P<0.0001 respectively). In patients scanned with SPET within 16 h of stroke onset, the correlations were more strongly negative (rs=-0.606, P<0. 001, and rs=-0.492, P<0.005 respectively). Luxury perfusion was not associated (chi2=0.073, df=1, P=0.79) with good functional outcome (Barthel score >/=60). Stepwise logistic regression identified Oxford classification, total deficit volume and patient's age as significant predictors of functional outcome. Overall predictive accuracy was 72%. Predictive accuracy was better in patients who received SPET within 16 h of stroke onset. SPET provides useful information about the functional outcome of acute stroke at 1 year. However, the accuracy of prediction decreases the longer SPET is delayed. Prognostication using SPET in combination with clinical assessment and other investigations may also be considered.

  20. The value of admission glycosylated hemoglobin level in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Mahmut; Cakmak, Nazmiye; Cetemen, Sebnem; Tanriverdi, Halil; Enc, Yavuz; Teskin, Onder; Kilic, I Dogu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on admission is a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with and without diabetes after myocardial infarction. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between admission HbA1c level and myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction who were treated with thrombolytic therapy were included in the present prospective study. Blood glucose and HbA1c levels of all patients were measured within 3 h of admission. Patients were divided into three groups according to HbA1c level: 4.5% to 6.4% (n=25), 6.5% to 8.5% (n=28) and higher than 8.5% (n=47). All patients then underwent exercise thallium-201 imaging and coronary angiography to determine ischemic scores and the number of diseased coronary arteries four weeks after admission. RESULTS: Seven patients died within the four-week follow-up period. There was a significant relationship between admission HbA1c level and mortality (P=0.009). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between HbA1c level and total ischemic scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction (r=0.482; P=0.001). Ischemic scores increased as HbA1c levels increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that admission plasma glucose and HbA1c levels are prognostic factors associated with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:18464942

  1. Effect of hardness on acute toxicity of metal mixtures using Daphnia magna: prediction of acid mine drainage toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jin Hee; Kim, Kyoung W; Kim, Sang D

    2006-11-02

    In this study, the effect of hardness on the combined outcome of metal mixtures was investigated using Daphnia magna. The toxic unit (TU) was calculated using modified LC(50) values based on the hardness (i.e., LC(50-soft) and LC(50-hard)). From a bioassay test, the degree of sensitivity to hardness on the toxicity changes was in the order: CdLC(50) values, respectively, when the hard test solution was replaced with a soft test solution. In mixture toxicity tests, the difference in the test solution hardness was found to clearly cause different toxicities, as determined by the TU calculated by the LC(50-hard), using the toxicity of a standard culture medium as the reference. That is, approximately four to five times higher toxicity was observed in soft (i.e., 44+/-4 mg/L as CaCO(3)) rather than hard water (i.e., 150+/-10mg/L as CaCO(3)) test solutions. In the tests where the modified reference toxicity values (i.e., LC(50-soft) and LC(50-hard) for soft and hard test solution, respectively) obtained from the individual metal toxicity tests with different hardness were used to calculate the TU, the results showed very similar D. magna toxicities to those of the TU from the mixture of soft and hard test solutions, regardless of the hardness. According to the toxicity results of the mixture, the aquatic toxic effects of the acid mine drainage (AMD) collected from mine areas that contained metal mixtures were investigated using Daphnia magna and the modified LC(50) value of the TU hardness function calculated for varying solution hardness. The results of the biological WET test closely matched our overall prediction, with significant correlation, having a p-value of 0.513 in one way ANOVA test (n=19). Therefore, this study revealed that the predicted toxicity of the metal mixture agreed well with the biological toxicity test when the modified LC(50) value was employed as the basis of hardness in the TU calculation.

  2. Precision and prognostic value of clone-specific minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Pierre; Tang, Ruoping; Abermil, Nassera; Flandrin, Pascale; Moatti, Hannah; Favale, Fabrizia; Suner, Ludovic; Lorre, Florence; Marzac, Christophe; Fava, Fanny; Mamez, Anne-Claire; Lapusan, Simona; Isnard, Françoise; Mohty, Mohamad; Legrand, Ollivier; Douay, Luc; Bilhou-Nabera, Chrystele; Delhommeau, François

    2017-03-16

    The genetic landscape of adult acute myeloid leukemias has been recently unraveled. However, due to their genetic heterogeneity, only a handful of markers are currently used for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Recent studies using multi-target strategies indicate that detection of residual mutations in less than 5% of cells in complete remission is associated with a better survival. Here, in a series of 69 acute myeloid leukemias with known clonal architecture, we design a clone-specific strategy based on fluorescent in situ hybridization and high-sensitivity next generation sequencing to detect chromosomal aberrations and mutations, respectively, in follow-up samples. The combination of these techniques allows tracking chromosomal and genomic lesions down to 0.5-0.4% of the cell population in remission samples. By testing all lesions in follow-up samples from 65/69 evaluable patients, we find that initiating events often persist, and appear to be, alone, inappropriate markers to predict short term relapse. In contrast, the persistence of two or more lesions in more than 0.4% of the cells from remission samples is strongly associated with lower leukemia-free and overall survivals in univariate and multivariate analyses. Although larger prospective studies are needed to extend these results, our data show that a personalized, clone-specific, minimal residual disease follow-up strategy is feasible in the vast majority of acute myeloid leukemia cases.

  3. Predictive value of D-dimer test for recurrent venous thromboembolism at hospital discharge in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Luo, Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Qing

    2011-11-01

    D-dimer can be used to exclude acute pulmonary embolism (PE) for its high negative predictive value (NPV). Also, it is a predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) after anticoagulation withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of D-dimer for recurrent VTE when tested at hospital discharge. Plasma D-dimer levels were repeatedly measured at hospital discharge in 204 consecutive patients with the first episode of acute pulmonary embolism. Patients were categorized to two groups by D-dimer levels at hospital discharge and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. The primary end point was symptomatic, recurrent fatal or nonfatal VTE. D-dimer levels were persistently abnormal in 66 patients (32%). After 31±19 months follow-up, patients with persistently abnormal D-dimer level levels showed a higher rate of of recurrent VTE (14 patients, 21%) compared to those with D-dimer regression (8 patients, 6%) (P = 0.001). At the multivariate analysis, after adjustment for other relevant factors, persistently abnormal D-dimer level levels were an independent predictor of recurrent VTE in all subjects investigated, (hazard ratio, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.61-10.39; P = 0.003), especially in those with unprovoked PE (hazard ratio, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.85-11.49; P = 0.001). The negative predictive value of D-dimer was 94.2 and 92.9% in all subjects or those with unprovoked PE, respectively. Persistently abnormal D-dimer level levels at hospital discharge have a high negative predictive value for recurrence in patients with acute pulmonary embolism, especially in subjects with an unprovoked previous event.

  4. Predicting value of cerebrospinal fluid proinflammatory factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Beridze, M; Shakarishvili, R

    2006-03-01

    Study purposed to establish the correlation between proinflammatory cytokines' initial CSF levels and neurological outcome on 7th day of acute ischemic stroke. 58 patients with acute ischemic stroke have been investigated. Neurological impairment assessed in 48 hours and on 7th day of stroke applying the international scales NIHSS and GCS. Patients divided into two groups: with severe stroke (GCS>9, NIHSS>15) and stroke with moderate severity (GCS=14,15; NIHSS=10-15). On 7th day increase of NIHSS score and decrease of GCS score at least 1 point was considered as deterioration and decrease of NIHSS score and increase of GCS score at least 1 point was considered as amelioration. CSF levels of proinflamatory cytokines determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control consisted with 15 patients, which were taken CSF in relation with vertebral discopathies. Means calculated by t-paired test. Pearson correlation and multivariate logistic regression were used. In 48 hours of stroke onset the CSF levels of interleukine-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were elevated compared to control. Statistical differences were not found between groups regarding the initial CSF levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p<0,5), while the significant statistical differences were found in regard with IL-6 CSF levels (p<0,05) between groups and against control. Significant positive correlation was found between initial CSF IL-6 levels and ischemic lesion size and neurological outcome at 1 week as well (r=+0,48 p<0,05 and r=+0,54 p<0,01 respectively). Thus, the IL-6 CSF levels in acute stage of ischemic stroke might be considered as the relatively stable prognostic indicator of clinical course of the disease.

  5. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  6. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  7. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS.

  8. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2–421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26–49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  9. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN AND ELECTROPHORESIS PROTEIN FRACTION VALUES FOR CAPTIVE AMERICAN FLAMINGOS (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Kass, Philip H; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Protein electrophoresis has recognized applications in determining the health status of various species. While reference intervals for electrophoresis have been determined for psittacine and raptor species, there are none reported for Phoenicopteriformes species. Reference intervals for haptoglobin and protein fractions obtained by electrophoresis were determined for the American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on plasma samples from 39 captive birds. The reference intervals were as follows: haptoglobin, 0.17-0.8 mg/ml; total protein, 3.65-6.38 g/dl; prealbumin, 0.26-1.9 g/dl; albumin, 1.51-3.12 g/dl; α-1 globulin, 0.06-0.38 g/dl; α-2 globulin, 0.17-0.67 g/dl; β globulin, 0.38-1.33 g/dl; γ globulin, 0.26-0.68 g/dl; albumin : globulin ratio, 0.93-2.17. As captive flamingos often suffer from pododermatitis, feet of all flamingos were scored to determine if pododermatitis would be reflected in the acute phase proteins. Spearman rank correlation was performed on each of the protein fractions and pododermatitis scores, and only albumin had a significant correlation. This indicates that albumin, as a negative acute phase protein, may be a marker for this disease process.

  10. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  11. Value of serological tests in the diagnosis of viral acute respiratory infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Căruntu, F; Dogaru, D; Stefan, D; Căruntu, V; Angelescu, C; Streinu-Cercel, A; Colţan, G; Petrescu, A L; Tarţă, D; Bârnaure, F

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of the antibody response to influenza viruses A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B, to parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, to adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus was studied in paired serum samples collected from 110 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and in 40 patients suffering from other diseases. Rises in serum antibody titers to 1--5 of the above mentioned antigens were detected in many of the patients of both groups. The fact is most likely due to the presence of some epidemiologically and clinically uncharacteristic viral ARI (influenza included); simultaneous or successive infections with influenza virus and different other viruses were very frequent. A greater efficiency of the etiological diagnosis of viral ARI can be achieved only by the association of epidemiological and clinical criteria with serological data, the visualization of viral antigens and virus isolation.

  12. The prognostic value of high sensitivity troponin T 7 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Michelle P C; Dow, Ellie; Lang, Chim; Struthers, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) in the convalescence phase after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. The authors aim to assess the prognostic utility of a single hs-TnT level at 7-week post-ACS. Second, the authors evaluated whether any serial changes in hs-TnT between the index admission and 7 weeks post-ACS had any link with the prognosis. Third, the authors assessed whether the prognostic utility of hs-TnT is independent of various echocardiographic abnormalities. Methods The authors measured hs-TnT levels in 326 consecutive patients at 7 weeks after an ACS event. The composite end point of death from any cause or acute myocardial infarction was evaluated over a median duration of 30 months. Results A high 7-week hs-TnT (>14 ng/l) predicted adverse clinical outcomes independent of conventional risk factors, left ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography (adjusted RR: 2.69 (95% CI 1.45 to 5.00)). Patients with persistent hs-TnT elevation at 7 weeks were also at an increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with an initial high hs-TnT which then normalised (unadjusted RR 3.39 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.68)). Conclusion The authors have demonstrated the prognostic utility of a single 7-week hs-TnT measurement in routine ACS patients and that it could be used to assist medium term risk stratification in this patient cohort. In addition, the authors also showed that hs-TnT predicted long-term adverse prognosis independent of various echo parameters. Future studies should evaluate whether tailoring specific treatment interventions to higher risk individuals as identified by an elevated hs-TnT during the convalescence phase of ACS would improve clinical outcomes. PMID:22689713

  13. Prognostic value of ejection fraction in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perelshtein Brezinov, Olga; Klempfner, Robert; Zekry, Sagit Ben; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kuperstein, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There are limited data regarding factors affecting outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients presenting with varying degrees of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality according to LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 1st admission in ACS patients. A total of 8983 ACS patients prospectively enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (2000–2010) were categorized according to their LVEF at admission: severe LV dysfunction (LVEF < 30% [n = 845]), mild-moderate LV dysfunction (LVEF 30%–49% [n = 4470]); preserved LV function (LVEF ≥ 50% [n = 3659]). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the risk factors for 1-year mortality according to LVEF on admission. Over the past decade there was a gradual decline in the proportion of patients admitted with low LVEF. Mortality rates were highest among patients with severe LV dysfunction (36%), intermediate among those with mild-moderate LV dysfunction (10%), and lowest among those with preserved LV function (4%, P < 0.001). We recognized different risk factors for mortality according to LVEF at admission. Admission clinical features (syncope, anterior myocardial infarction, and ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) predicted mortality risk in patients with severe LV dysfunction (all P < 0.05), whereas the presence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease) predicted mortality risk in patients with more preserved LV function. Age and admission Killip class ≥II were consistent predictors in all LVEF subsets. LVEF at admission is a strong predictor of mortality in ACS, and prognostic factors differ according to LVEF during admission. In patients with severe LV dysfunction signs of clinical instability are related to 1-year mortality; in patients with a more preserved LV function the prognosis is related to the

  14. Prognostic value of ejection fraction in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome: A real world study.

    PubMed

    Perelshtein Brezinov, Olga; Klempfner, Robert; Zekry, Sagit Ben; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kuperstein, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    There are limited data regarding factors affecting outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients presenting with varying degrees of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality according to LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 1st admission in ACS patients.A total of 8983 ACS patients prospectively enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (2000-2010) were categorized according to their LVEF at admission: severe LV dysfunction (LVEF < 30% [n = 845]), mild-moderate LV dysfunction (LVEF 30%-49% [n = 4470]); preserved LV function (LVEF ≥ 50% [n = 3659]). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the risk factors for 1-year mortality according to LVEF on admission.Over the past decade there was a gradual decline in the proportion of patients admitted with low LVEF. Mortality rates were highest among patients with severe LV dysfunction (36%), intermediate among those with mild-moderate LV dysfunction (10%), and lowest among those with preserved LV function (4%, P < 0.001). We recognized different risk factors for mortality according to LVEF at admission. Admission clinical features (syncope, anterior myocardial infarction, and ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) predicted mortality risk in patients with severe LV dysfunction (all P < 0.05), whereas the presence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease) predicted mortality risk in patients with more preserved LV function. Age and admission Killip class ≥II were consistent predictors in all LVEF subsets.LVEF at admission is a strong predictor of mortality in ACS, and prognostic factors differ according to LVEF during admission. In patients with severe LV dysfunction signs of clinical instability are related to 1-year mortality; in patients with a more preserved LV function the prognosis is related to the presence of co-morbidities.

  15. The diagnostic value of white cell count, C-reactive protein and bilirubin in acute appendicitis and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, D; Lin, R; Antonowicz, S; Wells, AD; Bajwa, FM; Krijgsman, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory markers such as white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and, more recently, bilirubin have been used as adjuncts in the diagnosis of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the above markers in acute and perforated appendicitis as well as their value in excluding the condition. Methods A retrospective analysis of 1,169 appendicectomies was performed. Patients were grouped according to histological examination of appendicectomy specimens (normal appendix = NA, acute appendicitis = AA, perforated appendicitis = PA) and preoperative laboratory test results were correlated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area analysis (area under the curve [AUC]) was performed to examine diagnostic accuracy. Results ROC analysis of all laboratory variables showed that no independent variable was diagnostic for AA. Good diagnostic accuracy was seen for AA when all variables were combined (WCC/CRP/bilirubin combined AUC: 0.8173). In PA, the median CRP level was significantly higher than that of AA (158mg/l vs 30mg, p<0.0001). CRP also showed the highest sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%) for PA. CRP had the highest diagnostic accuracy in PA (AUC: 0.9322) and this was increased when it was combined with WCC (AUC: 0.9388). Bilirubin added no diagnostic value in PA. Normal levels of WCC, CRP and bilirubin could not rule out appendicitis. Conclusions CRP provides the highest diagnostic accuracy for PA. Bilirubin did not provide any discriminatory value for AA and its complications. Normal inflammatory markers cannot exclude appendicitis, which remains a clinical diagnosis. PMID:23827295

  16. Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: Implications for daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milam, C.D.; Farris, J.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC 50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. Acute Lung Injury Following Smoke Inhalation: Predictive Value of Sputum Biomarkers and Time Course of Lung Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). Criteria for diagnosing ALI and predicting...Rationale: Smoke inhalation victims are at high risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). Given the delay of 12 or more hours...Background: Although smoke inhalation injury victims frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), no early prognostic

  18. Acute Lung Injury Following Smoke Inhalation: Predictive Value of Sputum Biomarkers and Time Course of Lung Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). Given the delay of 12 or...Keywords: Inhalation Burns, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Interleukin-8, Interleukin- 1 beta. 4/14/2006 Markers of Smoke Inhalation Injury 2...Zimmerman 2005; Park et al., 2001), all hallmarks of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). The general

  19. Value of plasmatic membrane attack complex as a marker of severity in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Eva; Riera, Marta; Barrios, Clara; Pascual, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if complement pathway is activated in AKI; for this purpose, we measured, through ELISA sandwich, the terminal lytic fraction of the complement system, called membrane attack complex (C5b-C9), in AKI patients compared with patients with similar clinical conditions but normal renal function. Our data showed that complement system is activated in AKI. Plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in AKI patients than in those with normal renal function; this difference is maintained independently of the AKI etiology and is proportional to the severity of AKI, measured by ADQI classification. In addition, we found that plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in patients who did not recover renal function at time of hospitalization discharge, in patients who died during the acute process, and in patients who need renal replacement therapy during hospitalization, but in this last group, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, plasmatic MAC concentration seems valuable as a marker of AKI severity.

  20. Value of MRI and DTI as Biomarkers for Classifying Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    medication . If the added value of MRI and DTI improves the pre-selection process of patients for a new medication , this could also provide a secondary...the anatomic and physiologic information provided through MRI and DTI to better predict which patients might realize the most benefit from a new

  1. Value of MRI and DTI as Biomarkers for Classifying Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    anatomic and physiologic information provided through MRI and DTI to better predict which patients might realize the most benefit from a new medication . If...the added value of MRI and DTI improves the pre-selection process of patients for a new medication , this could also provide a secondary benefit in

  2. Value of MRI and DTI as Biomarkers for Classifying Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    predict which patients might realize the most benefit from a new medication . If the added value of MRI and DTI improves the pre-selection process of...patients for a new medication , this could also provide a secondary benefit in helping to expedite the drug approval process by decreasing the number

  3. The predictive value of echocardiography for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after acute pulmonary embolism in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Sup; Ahn, Jinhee; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Lee, Han Cheol; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening complication after acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea and to determine echocardiographic predictors of CTEPH. Methods Among 381 patients with APE confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT) between January 2007 and July 2013, 246 consecutive patients with available echocardiographic data were enrolled in this study. CTEPH was defined as a persistent right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) greater than 35 mmHg on echocardiography during follow-up and persistent pulmonary embolism on the follow-up CT. Results Fifteen patients (6.1%) had CTEPH. The rate of right ventricular (RV) dilatation (66.7% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.002) and the RVSP (75.5 mmHg vs. 39.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the CTEPH group. D-dimers, RV dilatation, RV hypertrophy, RVSP, and intermediate-risk APE were associated with the risk of CTEPH after APE (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 5.11, 7.82, 1.06, and 4.86, respectively) on univariate analysis. RVSP remained as a significant predictor of CTEPH on multivariate analysis (OR, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.006 to 1.109; p = 0.029). Conclusions This study showed that the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea was 6.1% and that initial RVSP by echocardiography was a strong prognostic factor for CTEPH. PMID:27044855

  4. The prognostic value of glucocorticoid receptors for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    EL-Maghraby, Shereen M.; Kandil, Noha S.; El-Bendary, Waleed R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic protocols used in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are widely variable, and glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential components in ALL treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the distribution of prominent glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphic variants among adult ALL patients. We also investigated the association between GR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) isoform expressions and the response to chemotherapy. Methods Fifty-two newly diagnosed Philadelphia-negative adult ALL patients and 30 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was carried out using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. GR mRNA isoform expressions were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results ALL patients in this study had a median age of 34 years (range, 18-75). GRα expression was associated with complete remission (P=0.03), while GRγ mRNA expression was significantly higher in GC resistant patients (P=0.032) and in non-responders (P=0.019). However, there were no significant associations with GC resistance. The BclI polymorphic variant of the GR gene was the most frequent in adult ALL patients and was not associated with the GC response. Both higher GRα expression and lower GRγ expression were associated with achievement of complete remission, while higher GRγ expression was associated with GC-resistance. Conclusion Our data suggest that the level of GR isoform expression may be useful in predicting GC response, achievement of complete remission, and better event-free survival in ALL patients. However, further evaluation with a larger cohort of patients is warranted. PMID:26770951

  5. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  6. Diagnosis of acute bacterial pneumonia in Nigerian children. Value of needle aspiration of lung of countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, M; Stratton, D; Diallo, A; Egler, L J

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-eight Nigerian children with untreated, severe, acute pneumonia were investigated by standard bacteriological techniques (blood culture and culture of pharyngeal secretions) and by needle aspiration of the consolidated lung. Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) against grouped pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b antisera was carried out on serum samples from 45 patients. The aetiology of pneumonia was shown by examination of the needle aspirate in 70/88 patients (79%), by CIE in 9/45 patients (20%), and by blood culture in 4/36 patients (11%). Overall, a bacterial cause for pneumonia was shown in 73/88 patients (83%). The results of pharyngeal culture were misleading when compared with cultures of needle aspirates. The prediction of aetiology from the radiological appearance was alos inaccurate, even for labor pneumonia. Needle aspiration of the lung, with a low (5%) and minor complication rate, merits wider application in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary infections in children. Tradiational bacteriological techniques (blood culture and pharyngeal culture) are of very limited value. The place of CIE in the investigation of childhood pneumonia still needs thorough evaluation. PMID:343723

  7. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (<7 days post hatching (dph)), juvenile (>7 dph and <20 dph) and adult (>40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  8. The effects of water quality and age on the acute toxicity of copper to the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa.

    PubMed

    Rogevich, E C; Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2008-05-01

    Copper (Cu)-containing compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides, herbicides, and soil amendments, resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa), a key species in south Florida, may be adversely affected by Cu. Water-quality parameters, such as hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and alkalinity, affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms; however, it is uncertain to what extent these factors affect Cu toxicity in the Florida apple snail. The research presented here characterized the acute (96-hour) toxicity of Cu in water to the Florida apple snail at various life stages and under different water-quality parameters. Cu was more toxic to juvenile than adult apple snails. There was no difference between the 96-hour LC(50) at pH 5.5 and 6.5; however, the 96-hour LC(50 )values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were greater than at lower pHs. The decrease in Cu(2+) above pH 7, as predicted by the MINTEQ model, accounted for the pH effect. Cu toxicity decreased as DOC increased from 0.2 to 30 mg/L. Unlike other aquatic organisms, hardness had no effect on Cu toxicity to the Florida apple snail, suggesting another mechanism of toxicity. Whole-body tissue analysis indicated that the lethal body burden of 120-day-old snails exposed to Cu for 4 days was 30 mg/kg Cu dry weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that Cu toxicity was a function of organism age, DOC, and pH.

  9. Characterization and Predictive Value of Near Infrared 2-Deoxyglucose Optical Imaging in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane; Patel, Krutika; Mishra, Vivek; Trivedi, Ram N.; Noel, Pawan; Singh, Abhilasha; Yaron, Jordan R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studying the uptake of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) analogs such as 2-Deoxy-2-[18F] fluoroglucose (FDG) is a common approach to identify and monitor malignancies and more recently chronic inflammation. While pancreatitis is a common cause for false positive results in human studies on pancreatic cancer using FDG, the relevance of these findings to acute pancreatitis (AP) is unknown. FDG has a short half-life. Thus, with an aim to accurately characterize the metabolic demand of the pancreas during AP in real-time, we studied the uptake of the non-radioactive, near infrared fluorescence labelled 2-deoxyglucose analog, IRDye® 800CW 2-DG probe (NIR 2-DG; Li-Cor) during mild and severe biliary AP. Methods Wistar rats (300 g; 8–12/group) were administered NIR 2-DG (10 nM; I.V.). Mild and severe biliary AP were respectively induced by biliopancreatic duct ligation (DL) alone or along with infusing glyceryl trilinoleate (GTL; 50 μL/100 g) within 10 minutes of giving NIR 2-DG. Controls (CON) only received NIR 2-DG. Imaging was done every 5–10 minutes over 3 hrs. Average Radiant Efficiency [p/s/cm²/sr]/[μW/cm²] was measured over the pancreas using the IVIS 200 in-vivo imaging system (PerkinElmer) using the Living Image® software and verified in ex vivo pancreata. Blood amylase, lipase and pancreatic edema, necrosis were measured over the course of AP. Results NIR 2-DG uptake over the first hour was not influenced by AP induction. However, while the signal declined in controls and rats with mild AP, there was significantly higher retention of NIR 2-DG in the pancreas after 1 hour in those with GTL pancreatitis. The increase was > 3 fold over controls in the GTL group and was verified to be in the pancreas ex vivo. In vitro, pancreatic acini exposed to GTL had a similar increase in NIR 2-DG uptake which was followed by progressively worse acinar necrosis. Greater retention of NIR 2-DG in vivo was associated with worse pancreatic necrosis, reduced ATP

  10. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  11. Predictive value of the fragmented QRS complex in 6-month mortality and morbidity following acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Fariborz; Pourafkari, Leili; Ghaffari, Samad; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragmented QRS encompasses different RSR’ patterns showing various morphologies of the QRS complexes with or without the Q wave on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. It has been shown possibly to cause adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with some heart diseases, including coronary artery disease. In view of the need for risk stratification of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome in the most efficacious and cost-effective way, we conducted this study to clarify the value of developing fragmented QRS in a cohort of patients presenting with their first acute coronary syndrome in predicting 6-month mortality and morbidity. Methods One hundred consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit at Shahid Madani Heart Center in Tabriz from December 2008 to March 2009 with their first acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographic and electrocardiographic data on admission, inhospital mortality, and need for revascularization were recorded. Electrocardiography performed 2 months after the index event was examined for development of fragmented QRS. Mortality and morbidity was evaluated at 6-month follow-up in all patients. Results The patients were of mean age 57.7 ± 12.8 years, and 84% were men. The primary diagnosis was unstable angina in 17 (17%) patients, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) in 11 (11%), anterior or inferior ST elevation MI in 66 (66%), and postero-inferior MI in six (6%). Fragmented QRS was present in 30 (30%) patients during the first admission, which increased to 44% at the 2-month follow-up and to 53% at the 6-month follow-up. The presence of various coronary risk factors and drug therapy given, including fibrinolytic agents, had no effect on development of fragmented QRS. Mortality was significantly higher (P = 0.032) and left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (P = 0.001) in the fragmented QRS group at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusion This study strongly

  12. Predictive and Prognostic Value of High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young Male Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Huang, Ji; Li, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an important risk indicator and used in risk factor counting and quantitative risk assessment; however, the effect of HDL-C in young male patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HDL-C in young male patients. Methods: We recruited 267 consecutive young male patients (≤44 years) diagnosed with AMI. Other 247 participants free from coronary heart disease were enrolled as controls. HDL-C levels of AMI patients and controls were evaluated to analyze the predictive value on AMI. According to the cutoff point of 1.04 mmol/L HDL-C, patients of AMI were divided into two subgroups (normal HDL-C group and low HDL-C group) and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical end points included all major adverse coronary events (MACEs): the main cause of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, readmissions for acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, or revascularization. The prognostic value of HDL-C was evaluated using Cox regression according to MACE. Results: Patients of AMI had decreased proportion in normal HDL-C group compared to controls (47.2% vs. 57.9%; P = 0.017). Logistic regression analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between HDL-C and AMI in young males. In the low HDL-C subgroup of AMI patients (n = 141), 34 (24.1%) patients experienced a MACE during the 2-year follow-up, compared with 15 (11.9%) patients in normal HDL-C subgroup (n = 126). The Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C was an independent predictor of a MACE during the follow-up period (hazard ratio = 0.354, P = 0.006). Conclusion: HDL-C was an important parameter for predicting the risk and the clinical outcomes of AMI in young male patients. PMID:28051027

  13. Comparison of LBOD, DE-1006A, & Conventional Propylene Glycol-Based Aircraft Deicing Fluids in Terms of Potential Environmental Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    results in mortality to fifty percent of the test organisms (LC50) was reported for invertebrate (water flea, Daphnia magna ) and vertebrate (fathead...and Octaflo EF. Organism LBOD LC50 (mg/L) D3 1006A LC50 (mg/L) Octaflo EF LC50 (mg/L) D. magna (48 hr.) 4,275 15,500 14,000 P promelas (96...hr) 9,725 16,150 10,800 D3 1006A has the highest reported LC50 values, and therefore the lowest acute toxicity, to both D. magna and P. promelas

  14. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P < 0.05) except in the group treated with 1.00 mg L−1 Zn (P < 0.05), where the increase of OCR was observed. The OCRs in groups chronically exposed to metals were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The activity of both pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) in sea cucumbers followed: respiratory tree > muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained. PMID:27382568

  15. Establishing a Point of Departure for Risk Assessment Using Acute Inhalation Toxicology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bast, Cheryl B; Rusch, George M.; Cavender, Finis

    2009-01-01

    A simple method is presented for estimating a non-lethal level for inhalation toxicity studies. By reviewing 209 LC50 studies representing 96 chemicals that also reported a non-lethal level, it has been shown that taking 1/3 of the LC50 is a conservative estimate for a non-lethal exposure level. This approach was also compared to studies with LC01 and BMCL05 calculations. In the 38 studies that reported either of these values, again taking 1/3 of the LC50 provided a more conservation estimate for the non-lethal threshold. The studies included time intervals from 5 minutes out to 8 hours and utilized multiple species such as the rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig and dog. In all but 13 cases, taking 1/3 of the LC50 provided a more conservative estimate for a non-lethal exposure level compared to the experimentally observed value. In all but one of the 13 cases, the higher values were consequences of the selection of the exposure levels.

  16. Baseline values of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters predict response to acute hypoxia in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, V N; Krivoschekov, S G; Divert, V E; Komlyagina, T G; Consedine, N S

    2017-02-28

    The majority of the available works have studied distinct hypoxic responses of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This study examines how these systems interact while responding to hypoxia and whether baseline metrics moderate reactions to a hypoxic challenge. Central hemodynamic, aortic wave reflection, and gas exchange parameters were measured in 27 trained young men before and after 10-min normobaric isocapnic hypoxia (10 % O2). Associations were assessed by correlation and multiple regression analyses. Hypoxic changes in the parameters of pulse wave analysis such as augmentation index (-114 %, p=0.007), pulse pressure amplification (+6 %, p=0.020), time to aortic reflection wave (+21 %, p<0.001) report on the increase in arterial distensibility. Specifically, initially compliant arteries blunt the positive cardiac chronotropic response to hypoxia and facilitate the myocardial workload. The degree of blood oxygen desaturation is directly correlated with both baseline values and hypoxic responses of aortic and peripheral blood pressures. The hypoxia-induced gain in ventilation (VE), while controlling for basal VE and heart rate (HR), is inversely associated with deltaHR and deltasystolic blood pressure. The study suggests that cardiovascular and respiratory systems mutually supplement each other when responding to hypoxic challenge.

  17. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  18. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  19. Focal bowel wall changes detected with colour Doppler ultrasound: diagnostic value in acute non-diverticular diseases of the colon.

    PubMed

    Danse, E M; Jamart, J; Hoang, P; Laterre, P F; Kartheuser, A; Van Beers, B E

    2004-11-01

    We performed a study to determine if colour Doppler findings may help to identify the cause of wall thickening in acute non-diverticular diseases of the colon. The study group included 66 patients admitted to the emergency department with a final diagnosis of infectious colitis (n=23), inflammatory colitis (n=10), ischaemic colitis (n=23) and malignant tumours (n=10). The following ultrasound features were assessed: maximal wall thickness, wall stratification, arterial flow in the colonic wall and arteriolar resistive index. Higher values of wall thickness were observed in malignant tumour (18.2+/-6.2 mm, p<0.001). Moderately thickened wall (6.6+/-1.3 mm, p< or =0.06), preserved stratification (90% versus 46% in the remainder of the study population) and lower resistive index (0.51+/-0.10, p< or =0.05) were significantly related to inflammatory colitis. Absence of arterial flow was more frequently observed in ischaemia (43% versus 12% in the remainder of the study population). In conclusion, despite some overlap, both ultrasound and colour Doppler features are helpful in the differential diagnosis of colonic thickening related to non-diverticular colonic lesions.

  20. The predictive value of selected serum microRNAs for acute GVHD by TaqMan MicroRNA arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyan; Bai, Nan; Huang, Wenrong; Zhang, Pengjun; Luo, Yuan; Men, Shasha; Wen, Ting; Tong, Hongli; Wang, Shuhong; Tian, Ya-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is mainly based on clinical symptoms and biopsy results. This study was designed to further explore new no noninvasive biomarkers for aGVHD prediction/diagnosis. We profiled miRNAs in serum pools from patients with aGVHD (grades II-IV) (n = 9) and non-aGVHD controls (n = 9) by real-time qPCR-based TaqMan MicroRNA arrays. Then, predictive models were established using related miRNAs (n = 38) and verified by a double-blind trial (n = 54). We found that miR-411 was significantly down regulated when aGVHD developed and recovered when aGVHD was controlled, which demonstrated that miR-411 has potential as an indicator for aGVHD monitoring. We developed and validated a predictive model and a diagnostic model for aGVHD. The predictive model included two miRNAs (miR-26b and miR-374a), which could predict an increased risk for aGVHD 1 or 2 weeks in advance, with an AUC, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 0.722, 76.19 %, and 69.70 %, respectively. The diagnostic model included three miRNAs (miR-28-5p, miR-489, and miR-671-3p) with an AUC, PPV, and NPV of 0.841, 85.71 % and 83.33 %, respectively. Our results show that circulating miRNAs (miR-26b and miR-374a, miR-28-5p, miR-489 and miR-671-3p) may serve as biomarkers for the prediction and diagnosis of grades II-IV aGVHD.

  1. Acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva): mortality and effects on four biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Li, Huixian; Jiang, Hui; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Xiaojun; Qu, Weigang; Lin, Ronghua; Chen, Jiao

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of the pesticide methomyl on the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) was evaluated using mortality and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) as endpoints. LC50 values were 1.228, 0.782, 0.538, and 0.425 mg/l at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Methomyl caused a sharp decrease in specific activity of brain AChE around 48% at concentrations between 0.043 and 0.213 mg/l. A reduction higher than 40% in liver GST activity at concentrations between 0.085 and 0.213 mg/l was found, whereas no significant effects were observed in intestinal GST. A significant concentration-dependent decrease of GOT activity was found after 24 h of exposure to the pesticide but not after 96 h. No significant effects on GPT activity were observed. These results indicate that at the concentrations tested, methomyl is acutely toxic to the species P. parva, causing mortality, neurotoxic effects, and changes in some hepatic enzymes.

  2. Comparison of the prognostic values of inflammation markers in patients with acute pancreatitis: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Limin; Guo, Renyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation-based prognostic markers (neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), red cell distribution width (RDW) and lymphocyte–monocyte ratio (LMR)) are associated with overall survival in some diseases. This study assessed their prognostic value in mortality and severity in acute pancreatitis (AP). Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Patients with AP were recruited from the emergency department at our hospital. Participants A total of 359 patients with AP (31 non-survivors) were enrolled. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mortality and severity of AP were the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology results of the first test after admission were collected. Independent relationships between severe AP (SAP) and markers were assessed using multivariate logistic regression models. Mortality prediction ability was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Overall survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences compared using the log-rank test. Independent relationships between mortality and each predictor were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard models. Results Compared with survivors of AP, non-survivors had higher RDW (p<0.001), higher NLR (p<0.001), lower LMR (p<0.001) and lower PNI (p<0.001) at baseline. C reactive protein (CRP; OR=8.251, p<0.001), RDW (OR=2.533, p=0.003) and PNI (OR=7.753, p<0.001) were independently associated with the occurrence of SAP. For predicting mortality, NLR had the largest area under the ROC curve (0.804, p<0.001), with a 16.64 cut-off value, 82.4% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. RDW was a reliable marker for excluding death owing to its lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.11). NLR (HR=4.726, p=0.004), CRP (HR=3.503, p=0.003), RDW (HR=3.139, p=0.013) and PNI (HR=2.641, p=0.011) were independently associated with mortality of AP. Conclusions NLR was the most powerful marker of

  3. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Helena; Runesson, Johan; Lundqvist, Jessica; Lindegren, Helene; Axelsson, Viktoria; Forsby, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  4. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  5. The value of selected in vitro and in silico methods to predict acute oral toxicity in a regulatory context: results from the European Project ACuteTox.

    PubMed

    Prieto, P; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, A; Stanzel, S; Albella, B; Artursson, P; Campillo, N; Cecchelli, R; Cerrato, L; Díaz, L; Di Consiglio, E; Guerra, A; Gombau, L; Herrera, G; Honegger, P; Landry, C; O'Connor, J E; Páez, J A; Quintas, G; Svensson, R; Turco, L; Zurich, M G; Zurbano, M J; Kopp-Schneider, A

    2013-06-01

    ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification of the most promising ones. Thirty-two chemicals were tested blind in the battery of in vitro and in silico methods selected during the first phase of the project. This paper describes the classification approaches studied: single step procedures and two step tiered testing strategies. In summary, four in vitro testing strategies were proposed as best performing in terms of predictive capacity with respect to the European acute oral toxicity classification. In addition, a heuristic testing strategy is suggested that combines the prediction results gained from the neutral red uptake assay performed in 3T3 cells, with information on neurotoxicity alerts identified by the primary rat brain aggregates test method. Octanol-water partition coefficients and in silico prediction of intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier passage are also considered. This approach allows to reduce the number of chemicals wrongly predicted as not classified (LD50>2000 mg/kg b.w.).

  6. Negative prognostic value of CD34 antigen also if expressed on a small population of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Raponi, Sara; Molica, Matteo; Colafigli, Gioia; Minotti, Clara; Latagliata, Roberto; Diverio, Daniela; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-11-01

    Potential clinical significance of CD34 expression in acute promyelocitic leukemia (APL) has not been deeply investigated. We hereby analyzed the clinico-biological features and treatment outcome of APL patients in relation to CD34 expression, even when expressed in a small subpopulation: 114 APL patients homogeneously treated with the AIDA schedule were included in the study and prognostic correlation with respect to CD34 expression, both when expressed in association with CD2 and as isolated expression (cutoff ≥2 to <10 % or ≥10 %), were investigated. CD34 was associated to CD2 in 30 patients and was isolated in 19 patients. When compared to the CD34-negative population, CD34/CD2 expression identified a subgroup with characteristic features: M3 variant subtype (26 vs 7 % in the negative group, p = 0.02), bcr3 transcript subtype (73 vs 32 %, p = 0.001), high risk according to the risk of relapse (66 vs 17 %, p = 0.002), high incidence of differentiation syndrome (26 vs 12 %, p = 0.01), lower overall survival (88 vs 95 %), and a significantly higher rate of relapse (22 vs 13.8 %, p = 0.05). We then evaluated the prognostic value of isolated CD34 expression: it was detected in nine patients with a cutoff of expression ≥10 % and in 10 patients with a cutoff ≥2 but <10 %. Isolated CD34 positivity identified a subgroup with a classic morphology (79 %), bcr1 prevalence (53 %), higher rate of relapse (37 vs 13.8 % in the negative group, p = 0.002), higher incidence of differentiation syndrome (55 vs 12 %, p = 0.03), and lower overall survival (60 vs 95 %, p = 0.001). The results of our study confirm that CD34/CD2 expression characterizes a subset of APL with a high WBC count and a variant morphological subtype, associated with an unfavorable clinical course. We also show that the isolated expression of CD34, even at a low cutoff, identifies a group of classic APL with a negative prognosis. Further studies aimed at identifying other

  7. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels.

  8. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  9. The potential of clofarabine in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Stumpel, Dominique J P M; Schneider, Pauline; Pieters, Rob; Stam, Ronald W

    2015-09-01

    MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in infants is the most difficult-to-treat type of childhood ALL, displaying a chemotherapy-resistant phenotype, and unique histone modifications, gene expression signatures and DNA methylation patterns. MLL-rearranged infant ALL responds remarkably well to nucleoside analogue drugs in vitro, such as cytarabine and cladribine, and to the demethylating agents decitabine and zebularine as measured by cytotoxicity assays. These observations led to the inclusion of cytarabine into the treatment regimens currently used for infants with ALL. However, survival chances for infants with MLL-rearranged ALL do still not exceed 30-40%. Here we explored the in vitro potential of the novel nucleoside analogue clofarabine for MLL-rearranged infant ALL. Therefore we used both cell line models as well as primary patient cells. Compared with other nucleoside analogues, clofarabine effectively targeted primary MLL-rearranged infant ALL cells at the lowest concentrations, with median LC50 values of ∼25 nM. Interestingly, clofarabine displayed synergistic cytotoxic effects in combination with cytarabine. Furthermore, at concentrations of 5-10nM clofarabine induced demethylation of the promoter region of the tumour suppressor gene FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad), a gene typically hypermethylated in MLL-rearranged ALL. Demethylation of the FHIT promoter region was accompanied by subtle re-expression of this gene both at the mRNA and protein level. We conclude that clofarabine is an interesting candidate for further studies in MLL-rearranged ALL in infants.

  10. Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

    2007-03-21

    The present work was undertaken to determine safety parameters of selected Mexican medicinal plants chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance. The medicinal herbs included Amphipteryngium adstringens, Hintonia standleyana, Hintonia latiflora, Piper sanctum, Haemathoxylon brasiletto, Iostephane heterophylla, Valeriana procera, Arracacia tolucensis, Brickellia veronicaefolia, Scaphyglottis livida, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri, Poliomintha longiflora and Gnaphalium sp. In the acute toxicity studies in mice performed according to the Lorke procedure, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri and Poliomintha longiflora were the most toxic with LD(50) values between 1085 and 2mg/kg. The Ames test revealed that Gnaphalium sp. and Valeriana procera extracts induced mutations of S. typhimurium TA98 with or without the S9 microsomal fraction, and TA100 in the presence of the enzymatic fraction, respectively. The tincture of Valeriana procera, however, was non-mutagenic. Finally, in the Artemia salina lethality test Brickellia veronicaefolia, Arracacia tolucensis, Poliomintha longiflora and Piper sanctum caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC(50) in the range of 37-227 microg/mL.

  11. An evaluation of the influence of substrate on the response of juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) in acute water exposures to ammonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.

    2010-01-01

    Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity to three-month-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was evaluated in four treatments (water-only, water-only with feeding, water and soil, and water and sand) using an exposure unit designed to maintain consistent pH and ammonia concentrations in overlying water and in pore water surrounding the substrates. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for total ammonia nitrogen in the four treatments ranged from 5.6 to 7.7mg/L and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 7.0 to 11mg/L at a mean pH of 8.4. Similar EC50s or LC50s with overlapping 95% confidence intervals among treatments indicated no influence of substrate on the response of mussels in acute exposures to ammonia. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  12. Effect of Increased Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Decreased Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) Values on Inflammation in Acute Mania

    PubMed Central

    MAYDA, Hasan; AHSEN, Ahmet; BAĞCIOĞLU, Erman; ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; BAHÇECİ, Bülent; SOYUÇOK, Etem; BAŞPINAR, Erol; ULU, Memnune Sena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are simple, low-cost, and useful inflammatory markers detected in routine complete blood count (CBC), and their use has recently become widespread. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of an inflammatory state in manic patients on the basis of NLR and MPV values. Methods This retrospective study was performed on 76 patients with acute mania who were admitted to the Inpatients Psychiatry Clinic of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital in Turkey. Diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental disorder (DSM-IV). The control group consisted of 74 healthy individuals recruited from the community. They were age- and sex-matched with the study group. Results NLR values of the manic patient group were 2.2±1.4 and those of the control group were 1.6±0.5. NLR values were significantly higher (p=0.004) and MPV values were significantly lower in the manic patient group than in the control group (10.0±1.2 vs. 10.9±2.3, p=0.027). Conclusion Increased NLR and decreased MPV levels may reflect inflammation in manic patients, and inflammation may play a role in the complex pathophysiology of acute mania. PMID:28360805

  13. An observational study on electrolyte disorders in the acute phase of ischemic stroke and their prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Fofi, Luisa; Dall'armi, Valentina; Durastanti, Laura; Valenza, Alessandro; Lorenzano, Svetlana; Prencipe, Massimiliano; Toni, Danilo

    2012-04-01

    Data on electrolyte disorders in neurological conditions and in acute stroke are somewhat scanty and not easily compared. In our Stroke Unit we studied patients hospitalized within six hours of the onset of an acute ischemic stroke and recorded their demographic and clinical data. Blood test results were recorded before any pharmacological therapy. A total of 475 individuals (256 M, 219 F; range: 14-96 years) treated over a period of 18 consecutive months, were selected. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (odds ratio [OR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.44) and natremia alterations (OR=6.89; 95% CI=1.94-24.40) were associated with higher odds of death. Based on the ordinal logistic regression analysis, the baseline NIHSS score (OR=1.07; 95% CI=1.03-1.10) and baseline hypernatremia (OR=9.69; 95% CI=1.55-60.69) were related to early neurological worsening. Our work suggests an association between serum sodium alterations and mortality, and between high sodium levels and neurological clinical impairment, in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke.

  14. Prognostic value of trans-thoracic echocardiography in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation: findings from the RAF study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Lees, Kennedy R

    2016-02-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is recommended for the secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). T he identification of patients at high risk for early recurrence, which are potential candidates to prompt anticoagulation, is crucial to justify the risk of bleeding associated with early anticoagulant treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF the association between findings at trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 90 days recurrence. In consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF, TTE was performed within 7 days from hospital admission. Study outcomes were recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular events (stroke or TIA) and systemic embolism. 854 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 9.5 years) underwent a TTE evaluation; 63 patients (7.4%) had at least a study outcome event. Left atrial thrombosis was present in 11 patients (1.3%) among whom 1 had recurrent ischemic event. Left atrial enlargement was present in 548 patients (64.2%) among whom 51 (9.3%) had recurrent ischemic events. The recurrence rate in the 197 patients with severe left atrial enlargement was 11.7%. On multivariate analysis, the presence of atrial enlargement (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.06-4.29, p = 0.033) and CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04-1.45, p = 0.018, for each point increase) were correlated with ischemic recurrences. In patients with AF-associated acute stroke, left atrial enlargement is an independent marker of recurrent stroke and systemic embolism. The risk of recurrence is accounted for by severe atrial enlargement. TTE-detected left atrial thrombosis is relatively uncommon.

  15. The Value of BISAP Score for Predicting Mortality and Severity in Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng-En

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score has been developed to identify patients at high risk for mortality or severe disease early during the course of acute pancreatitis. We aimed to undertake a meta-analysis to quantify the accuracy of BISAP score for predicting mortality and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Materials and Methods We searched the databases of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies using the BISAP score to predict mortality or SAP. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated from each study and were compared with the traditional scoring systems. Results Twelve cohorts from 10 studies were included. The overall sensitivity of a BISAP score of ≥3 for mortality was 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%), with a specificity of 91% (95% CI, 90%-91%). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.65 (95% CI, 4.23-7.55) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.41-0.56), respectively. Regarding the outcome of SAP, the pooled sensitivity was 51% (43%-60%), and the specificity was 91% (89%-92%). The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.23 (4.21-12.42) and 0.56 (0.44-0.71), respectively. Compared with BISAP score, the Ranson criteria and APACHEⅡscore showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity for both outcomes. Conclusions The BISAP score was a reliable tool to identify AP patients at high risk for unfavorable outcomes. Compared with the Ranson criteria and APACHEⅡscore, BISAP score outperformed in specificity, but having a suboptimal sensitivity for mortality as well as SAP. PMID:26091293

  16. Prognostic value of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barragán, Eva; Montesinos, Pau; Camos, Mireia; González, Marcos; Calasanz, Maria J.; Román-Gómez, José; Gómez-Casares, Maria T.; Ayala, Rosa; López, Javier; Fuster, Óscar; Colomer, Dolors; Chillón, Carmen; Larrayoz, María J.; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; González-Campos, José; Manso, Félix; Amador, Maria L.; Vellenga, Edo; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene mutations are frequent in acute promyelocytic leukemia but their prognostic value is not well established. Design and Methods We evaluated FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutations in patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy enrolled in two subsequent trials of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatías Malignas (PETHEMA) and Hemato-Oncologie voor Volwassenen Nederland (HOVON) groups between 1996 and 2005. Results FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutation status was available for 306 (41%) and 213 (29%) patients, respectively. Sixty-eight (22%) and 20 (9%) patients had internal tandem duplication and D835 mutations, respectively. Internal tandem duplication was correlated with higher white blood cell and blast counts, lactate dehydrogenase, relapse-risk score, fever, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, BCR3 isoform, M3 variant subtype, and expression of CD2, CD34, human leukocyte antigen-DR, and CD11b surface antigens. The FLT3-D835 mutation was not significantly associated with any clinical or biological characteristic. Univariate analysis showed higher relapse and lower survival rates in patients with a FLT3-internal tandem duplication, while no impact was observed in relation to FLT3-D835. The prognostic value of the FLT3-internal tandem duplication was not retained in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations are associated with several hematologic features in acute promyelocytic leukemia, in particular with high white blood cell counts, but we were unable to demonstrate an independent prognostic value in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. PMID:21685470

  17. Detection and diagnostic value of urine leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) in children with suspected acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kentsis, Alex; Ahmed, Saima; Kurek, Kyle; Brennan, Eileen; Bradwin, Gary; Steen, Hanno; Bachur, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previously, we used a proteomics approach for the discovery of new diagnostic markers of acute appendicitis (AA) and identified LRG that was elevated in the urine of children with AA and enriched in diseased appendices. Here, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic utility of enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) of urine LRG in a blinded, prospective, cohort study of children being evaluated for acute abdominal pain. Methods Urine LRG concentration was measured using a commercially available LRG ELISA, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry (MS). Urine LRG test performance was evaluated blindly against the pathologic diagnosis and histologic grade of appendicitis. Results Urine LRG was measured in 49 patients. Mean urine LRG concentration measured using commercial LRG ELISA was significantly elevated in patients with AA, but exhibited an interference effect. Direct measurements using SIM MS demonstrated that LRG was elevated more than 100-fold in patients with AA as compared to those without, with the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96-1.0). Among patients with AA, elevations of urine LRG measured using ELISA and SIM MS correlated with the histologic severity of appendicitis. Conclusion Urine LRG ELISA allows for discrimination between patients with and without AA, but exhibits limited accuracy due to immunoassay interference. Direct measurements of urine LRG using SIM MS demonstrate superior diagnostic performance. Development of a clinical-grade urine LRG assay is needed to advance the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluations of appendicitis. PMID:22305331

  18. Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress with respect to brood value, reproductive success and survival in the Eurasian hoopoe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Baptiste; Tam-Dafond, Laura; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schaub, Michael; Jenni, Lukas

    2013-09-01

    Reproducing parents face the difficult challenge of trading-off investment in current reproduction against presumed future survival and reproduction. Glucocorticoids are supposed to mediate this trade-off because the adrenocortical response to stress disrupts normal reproductive behaviour in favour of self-maintenance and own survival. According to the brood-value hypothesis, individuals with a low survival probability until the next reproductive season have to invest in current reproduction, a process driven by a down-regulation of their adrenocortical response. If the adrenocortical response to stress effectively mediates the trade-off between current reproduction versus future survival and reproduction, we expect a negative relationship with reproductive success and a positive correlation of the adrenocortical stress response with survival. We studied the relationship between corticosterone secretion in parents and their current brood value, reproductive success and survival in a short-lived multi-brooded bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops. The adrenocortical response to acute handling stress was correlated with the brood value within the individual (first and second broods of the year) and between individuals. Birds breeding late in the season mounted a lower total corticosterone response to acute stress than birds breeding earlier, while females showed lower levels than males. We observed a negative relationship between the adrenocortical stress response and rearing success or fledging success in females, as predicted by the brood-value hypothesis. However, we could not evidence a clear link between the adrenocortical stress response and survival. Future research testing the brood-value hypothesis and trade-offs between current reproduction and future survival should also measure free corticosterone and carefully differentiate between cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) and individual-based experimental studies.

  19. Values of using QTc and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide as markers for early detection of acute antipsychotic drugs-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mohamed A M; Abdelrahman, Tarek M; Abbas, Mohamed F

    2011-03-01

    We aimed at studying the acute cardiotoxicity of the most commonly used antipsychotics in Egypt using QTc interval and NT-proBNP as markers for the early detection of such cases. Eighty-two admitted patients, at El-Minia PCC (period from 1-7-2005 to 30-6-2010), were classified into 3 groups: I: acute thioridazine overdose (n = 28), II: acute pimozide overdose (n = 23), and III: acute clozapine overdose (n = 31). Patients were investigated for NT-proBNP level and QTc on admission (day 0) and after 24 h (day 1). All the studied drugs had the ability to induce cardiotoxicity in the form of hypotension and dysrhythmias. Thioridazine and pimozide had potentially serious cardiotoxic effects than clozapine. NT-proBNP levels were elevated significantly in all groups on days 0 and 1 when compared with the reference value and a significant decrease in the same parameter on day 1 when compared with that of day 0 within the same group. QTc showed a significant prolongation in all studied groups on days 0 and 1, and there was a significant shortening of QTc on day 1 when compared with that of day 0 within the same group. A significant positive correlation of NT-proBNP level elevation with QTc prolongation was reported in all groups on days 0 and 1. Serious dysrhythmias were associated with QTc prolongation greater than 500 ms. And it was concluded that NT-proBNP, in adjunction with QTc measurement, may be a valuable and sensitive laboratory biomarker to predict cardiotoxicity of antipsychotic overdose. Larger multicenter studies are still needed to verify this possible relationship.

  20. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Santhanamari; Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Naveenkumar; Raghunath, Azhwar; Vijayakumar, Savitha; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2016-04-01

    Nano-copper oxides are a versatile inorganic material. As a result of their versatility, the immense applications and usage end up in the environment causing a concern for the lifespan of various beings. The ambiguities surround globally on the toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Hence, the present study endeavored to study the sub-lethal acute exposure effects on the developing zebrafish embryos. The 48 hpf LC50 value was about 64 ppm. Therefore, we have chosen the sub-lethal dose of 40 and 60 ppm for the study. Accumulation of CuO-NPs was evidenced from the SEM-EDS and AAS analyzes. The alterations in the AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities disrupted the development process. An increment in the levels of oxidants with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggered apoptosis in the exposed embryos. Developmental anomalies were observed with CuO-NPs exposure in addition to oxidative stress in the developing embryos. Decreased heart rate and hatching delay hindered the normal developmental processes. Our work has offered valuable data on the connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity leading to lethality caused by CuO-NPs. A further molecular mechanism unraveling the uncharted connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity will aid in the safe use of CuO-NPs.

  1. Acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Satyavathi; Khan, Ritindra N; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao

    2002-02-01

    The estuaries and backwaters that are the potential breeding grounds of penaeid shrimps are subject to heavy metal pollution through industrial effluents and domestic sewage. In the present investigation, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae. Static bioassay tests were employed to determine tolerance limits. Oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation were determined in postlarvae by exposing them to different concentrations of lead for a period of 48 h. Oxygen consumption measurements were made by using a respiratory chamber equipped with an oxygen electrode and ammonia-N was determined with trione (dichloro-S-triamine 2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione)). Accumulation of metal was estimated by wet-ash method. The LC50 value for 96 h was 7.223 ppm and the regression equation Y=4.1638+0.9738X with correlation coefficient of 0.9613 was obtained by probit method. A decrease in oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion was observed in postlarvae with increasing concentration of lead. A concentration-dependent accumulation of metal was noticed in these postlarvae. Modifications in O:N ratios of postlarvae suggest that lead accumulation might have altered utilization patterns.

  2. The prognostic value of cN-II and cN-III enzymes in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Galmarini, Carlos María; Cros, Emeline; Thomas, Xavier; Jordheim, Lars; Dumontet, Charles

    2005-12-01

    We analyzed the expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), UMP/CMP-kinase (UMP/CMP-K), nucleotide diphosphokinase (NDPK-B) and 5'-nucleotidases cN-II, cN-III, cdN and mdN by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at diagnosis in leukemic blasts from 96 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with ara-C. Our results show that high mRNA levels of cN-II and low mRNA levels of cN-III are correlated with a worse clinical outcome and suggest that these enzymes may have a role in sensitivity to ara-C in AML patients.

  3. Physiology is pivotal for interactions between salinity and acute copper toxicity to fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Grosell, M; Blanchard, J; Brix, K V; Gerdes, R

    2007-08-30

    The present paper presents original data and a review of the copper (Cu) toxicity literature for estuarine and marine environments. For the first time, acute Cu toxicity across the full salinity range was determined. Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, eggs were hatched in freshwater (FW), 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22 and 35 ppt (seawater, SW) and juveniles were allowed to acclimate for 7 days prior to acute toxicity testing. Sensitivity was highest in FW (96 h LC50: 18 microg/l), followed by SW (96 h LC50: 294 microg/l) with fish at intermediate salinities being the most tolerant (96 h LC50 > 963 microg/l at 10 ppt). This approximately 50-fold, non-linear variation in sensitivity could not be accounted for by Cu speciation or competition among cations but can be explained by physiology. The relative Na(+) gradient from the blood plasma to the water is greatest in FW followed by SW and is smallest at 10 ppt. Regression of Cu toxicity versus the equilibrium potential for Na(+), which reflects the relative Na(+) gradient, revealed that 93% of the variation can be attributed to Na(+) gradients and thus osmoregulatory physiology. Examination of the existing literature on acute Cu toxicity in SW (defined as >25 ppt) confirmed that early life stages generally are most sensitive but this pattern may be attributable to size rather than developmental stage. Regardless of developmental stage and phylogeny, size clearly matters for Cu sensitivity. The existing literature on the influence of salinity on acute Cu toxicity as well as studies of mechanisms of Cu toxicity in fish and invertebrates are reviewed.

  4. Survival time analysis of least killifish (Heterandria formosa) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in acute exposures to endosulfan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2010-05-01

    Single-species flow-through toxicity tests were conducted to determine the times-to-death of two indigenous fish to South Florida--least killifish (Heterandria formosa) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)--from acute exposure to endosulfan sulfate. Mortalities were recorded within 8-h periods from test initiation to termination at 96 h. The 96-h LC(50)s for least killifish and mosquitofish estimated using the trimmed-Spearman-Karber method were 2.0 and 2.3 microg/l, respectively. An accelerated failure time model was used to estimate times to death at selected concentrations. Data were fit to log-normal, log-logistic, and Weibull distributions. Acute toxicity data fit to the Weibull distribution produced a better relative fit than log-normal or log-logistic distributions for both toxicity tests. The survival-time profiles and associated statistics illustrate the benefit of considering exposure duration as well as concentration when predicting acute risk to species' populations. Both toxicity tests had similar outcomes from exposure to endosulfan sulfate, with least killifish being slightly more likely to die at lower concentrations and shorter time periods than mosquitofish. From the models generated by the toxicity tests, times-to-death for least killifish and mosquitofish were estimated for environmentally relevant concentrations of total endosulfan at a site of concern in South Florida. When the results from the current toxicity tests were compared to environmental concentrations from previous screening-level ecological risk assessments, the durations necessary to potentially kill 10% or more of the populations of the two native south Florida fish species were estimated to be 77 and 96 h for least killifish and mosquitofish, respectively. However, the exposure values included the alpha and beta isomers as well as endosulfan sulfate; therefore, an understanding of their toxicity might be important in understanding the survival dynamics of fish species in

  5. A Comparison of Prognostic Value of the Levels of ProBNP and Troponin T in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Dapcevic, Irena; Datsios, Antonis; Koutsambasopoulos, Kostas; Gontopoulos, Argirios; Grigoriadis, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The propeptide of brain natriuretic peptide (ProBNP) is used for the diagnosis of left ventricle dysfunction and heart failure. In patients with an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) it can contribute to both short and long term prognosis of cardiovascular events that could be very important for management and therapy of these patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ProBNP for the clinical course after an acute coronary syndrome, compared with that of cardiac troponine T (cTnT) and the risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndrome, both during hospitalization and six months later. Methods: We studied 390 patients (256 men, 134 women, mean age 66.04+12.38) with an acute coronary syndrome who were hospitalized in the Coronary Unit of our cardiology clinic. We studied epidemiological and clinical data and biochemical markers were examined as prognostic factors for clinical course intrahospital and during six months follow-up. Results: In the majority of patients, a myocardial infarction without ST elevation was diagnosed (NSTEMI) (193 patients 49.49%) while 167 patients (42.82%) had a myocardial infarction with ST elevation (STEMI) and the remaining 30 patients (7.69%) had unstable angina. Patients had multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease. The levels of ProBNP were significantly elevated in patients with STEMI (p=0.003) and NSTEMI (p=0.002) who died or experienced an adverse event (angina, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias) during hospitalization. After six months of follow-up, patients who had an adverse event had higher levels of ProBNP. There was no difference in troponine T levels in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI who had adverse events compared with the others, either during hospitalization or after six months. Conclusion: The level of ProBNP is an important predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to the aquatic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca under constant- and pulse-exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Stoughton, Sarah J; Liber, Karsten; Culp, Joseph; Cessna, Allan

    2008-05-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid, a nicotinic mimic insecticide, to the aquatic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca, was first evaluated in static 96-hour tests using both technical material (99.2% pure) and Admire, a commercially available formulated product (240 g a.i. L(-1)). The 96-h lethal concentration (LC)50 values for technical imidacloprid and Admire were 65.43 and 17.44 microg/L, respectively, for H. azteca, and 5.75 and 5.40 microg/L, respectively, for C. tentans. Admire was subsequently used in 28-day chronic tests with both species. Exposure scenarios consisted of a constant- and a pulse-exposure regime. The pulse exposure lasted for four days, after which time the animals were transferred to clean water for the remaining 24 days of the study. Assessments were made on both day 10 and day 28. In the C. tentans under constant exposure, larval growth on day 10 was significantly reduced at 3.57 microg/L imidacloprid, the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC). The no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and LOEC for the 28-day exposure duration (adult survival and emergence) were 1.14 and greater than 1.14 mug/L, respectively; the associated LC50 and LC25 were 0.91 and 0.59 microg/L, respectively. The LOEC for the pulse treatment was greater than 3.47 microg/L, but the day 10 LC25 was 3.03 microg/L. In the H. azteca tests, the day 10 and 28 constant exposure, as well as the day 28 pulse exposure, LOEC (survival) values were similar at 11.95, 11.46, and 11.93 microg/L, respectively. The day 10 and 28 constant exposure effective concentration (EC)25s (dry weight) were also similar, at 6.22 and 8.72 microg/L, respectively, but were higher than the pulse-exposure day 10 LOEC and EC25 (dry weight) values of 3.53 and 2.22 microg/L, respectively. Overall, C. tentans was more sensitive to acute and chronic imidacloprid exposure, but less sensitive to a single pulse, than H. azteca. Chronic, low-level exposure to imidacloprid may therefore reduce

  7. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  8. Prognostic value of MRD-dynamics in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the MB-2002/2008 protocols.

    PubMed

    Meleshko, Alexander N; Savva, Natalia N; Fedasenka, Uladzimir U; Romancova, Alexandra S; Krasko, Olga V; Eckert, Cornelia; von Stackelberg, Arend; Aleinikova, Olga V

    2011-10-01

    Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) during the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by RQ-PCR analysis of clonal Ig/TCR rearrangements is used for risk group stratification in European treatment protocols. In Belarus patients with childhood ALL are treated according to ALL-MB protocols, which do not use MRD-based risk stratification. To evaluate the prognostic significance of MRD for ALL-MB-2002/2008 protocols, MRD was quantified by RQ-PCR in 68 ALL patients at four time points: on day 15, on day 36, before and after maintenance therapy (MT). MRD positivity, as well as quantitative level of MRD were analyzed and compared between patients who stayed in remission and relapsed. Relapse-free survival revealed to be significantly associated with MRD levels at different time points. Unfavorable prognosis was shown for MRD≥10(-3) on day 36 (p<0.001), and any positive MRD before (p<0.001) and after (p=0.001) MT. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved MRD as independent significant prognosis factor at day 36 (p=0.005) and before MT (p=0.001). We conclude, that MRD quantified by RQ-PCR in children with ALL treated with ALL-MB protocols is feasible and independently associated with outcome. MRD may be a suitable parameter for treatment stratification in MB protocols in future.

  9. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Jan-Peter; Manka, Paul; Katsounas, Antonios; Syn, Wing-Kin; Führer, Dagmar; Gieseler, Robert K.; Bechmann, Lars P.; Gerken, Guido; Moeller, Lars C.; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF) and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF. Methods 84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR). TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), T4, and T3 were determined. Results More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression. Conclusions In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity. PMID:26147961

  10. Predictive value of serum cystatin C for acute kidney injury in adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort trials

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhenzhu; Pei, Xiaohua; Zhu, Bei; Yuan, Haichuan; Zhao, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    The role of serum cystatin C (Scys) for the detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been fully discussed. This meta-analysis was aimed to investigate the overall diagnostic accuracy of Scys for AKI in adults, and further identify factors affecting its performance. Studies before Sept. 2016 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. A total of 30 prospective cohort studies (involving 4247 adults from 15 countries, 982 patients occurring AKI) were included. The revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) tools demonstrated no significant bias had influenced the methodological quality of the included studies. Scys showed a high predictive power for all-cause AKI, that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.89. The detailed assessment parameters, such as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio for Scys were 0.82, 0.82, 4.6, 0.22 and 21, respectively. Although Scys could be slightly influenced by the following factors: settings, AKI diagnostic criteria, ethnicity, determination method, age and gender, these factors above did not reach statistically significance. In conclusion, Scys could be a vital promising marker to screen out AKI. PMID:28112204

  11. Predictive value of indium-111 antimyosin uptake for improvement of left ventricular wall motion after thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; Baas, J.; Visser, C.A.; van Royen, E.; Delemarre, B.J.; Bot, H.; Dunning, A.J.

    1989-07-15

    In 21 patients treated with thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the degree of myocardial uptake of indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibodies injected within 24 hours after onset of AMI was compared with the degree and extent of regional asynergy on admission and discharge, as assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. On the first day of AMI, 80 MBq of indium-111 antimyosin was injected and planar images were made 24 hours later. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was evaluated for count density index (count density of infarct zone/left lung count density) in the left anterior oblique projection, in which the infarction zone was well displayed in all patients. Using 2-dimensional echocardiography, the left ventricle was divided into 13 segments and evaluated for regional asynergy, which was considered severe (akinesia or dyskinesia) or mild (hypokinesia). The extent of regional asynergy was measured by the number of asynergic segments. All 21 patients had severe regional asynergy on admission. Nine of 21 showed only mild regional asynergy on discharge and 12 of 21 had persistent severe regional asynergy in at least 1 segment. The count density index was significantly lower in patients with mild regional asynergy on discharge compared with patients with severe regional asynergy (1.63 +/- 0.27 vs 2.50 +/- 0.42, p less than 0.01).

  12. Acute toxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida of 18 common pharmaceuticals in artificial soil.

    PubMed

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Val, Jonatan; Mainar, Ana Ma; Zuriaga, Estefanía; Español, Cecilia; Langa, Elisa

    2015-06-15

    Following soil applications of recycled water and biosolids, pharmaceutical residues can eventually enter the terrestrial environment. In vitro and in vivo assays have largely focused on the acute ecotoxicity of these compounds in aquatic systems. However, studies on the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals in soil biota are especially scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of 18 pharmaceuticals (4 NSAIDs, 5 blood lipid-lowering agents, 6 β-blockers and 3 antibiotics) that are usually found in the environment by using an Eisenia fetida bioassay. In addition, the presence of these pharmaceuticals in artificial soil was verified at the end of the test. Our results indicate that seven of the studied drugs cause acute adverse effects in E. fetida, in particular, the NSAIDs and the blood lipid-lowering agents. Ibuprofen (LC50=64.80 mg/kg) caused the highest acute toxicity for all tested compounds, followed by diclofenac (LC50=90.49 mg/kg) and simvastatin (LC50=92.70 mg/kg). Other tested pharmaceuticals from NSAIDs and blood lipid-lowering families have toxicity effects, from a LC50=140.87 mg/kg for gemfibrozil to 795.07 mg/kg for lovastatin. Atorvastatin, bezafibrate, β-blockers and antibiotics showed no detectable lethality in E. fetida. The four NSAIDs showed evidence of modification of their original chemical structure after 14 days so the detected toxicity may be due to the original product as well as their degradation products. The three blood lipid-lowering agents seem to be more stable in soil. From an environmental perspective, the lethal concentrations of the tested drugs are much greater than those reported in wastewater and biosolids, therefore acute toxic effects may be improbable. However, little is known about the accumulation of these substances in soils after regular applications, so accumulative and chronic effects cannot be excluded. Moreover, more studies are needed to determine the role of the degradation

  13. The evaluation of sequential platelet counts has prognostic value for acute kidney injury patients requiring dialysis in the intensive care setting

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Carla; Soares, Márcio; Rocha, Eduardo; Cardoso, Lucio; Maccariello, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of platelet counts in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed in three tertiary-care hospitals. Platelet counts were obtained upon admission to the intensive care unit and during the first week of renal replacement therapy on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. The outcome of interest was the hospital mortality rate. With the aim of minimizing individual variation, we analyzed the relative platelet counts on days 3, 5, 7 and at the point of the largest variation during the first week of renal replacement therapy. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the prognostic value of the platelet counts. RESULTS: The study included 274 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 62%. The survivors had significantly higher platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit compared to the non-survivors [175.5×103/mm3 (108.5–259×103/mm3) vs. 148×103/mm3 (80−141×103/mm3)] and during the first week of renal replacement therapy. The relative platelet count reductions were significantly associated with a higher hospital mortality rate compared with the platelet count increases (70% vs. 44% at the nadir, respectively). A relative platelet count reduction >60% was significantly associated with a worse outcome (mortality rate = 82.6%). Relative platelet count variations and the percentage of reduction were independent risk factors of hospital mortality during the first week of renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: Platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit and at the beginning of renal replacement therapy as well as sequential platelet count evaluation have prognostic value in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. PMID:23778497

  14. In vivo-in vitro comparison of acute respiratory tract toxicity using human 3D airway epithelial models and human A549 and murine 3T3 monolayer cell systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Vogel, Sandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N; Ma-Hock, Lan; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The usefulness of in vitro systems to predict acute inhalation toxicity was investigated. Nineteen substances were tested in three-dimensional human airway epithelial models, EpiAirway™ and MucilAir™, and in A549 and 3T3 monolayer cell cultures. IC(50) values were compared to rat four-hour LC(50) values classified according to EPA and GHS hazard categories. Best results were achieved with a prediction model distinguishing toxic from non-toxic substances, with satisfactory specificities and sensitivities. Using a self-made four-level prediction model to classify substances into four in vitro hazard categories, in vivo-in vitro concordance was mediocre, but could be improved by excluding substances causing pulmonary edema and emphysema in vivo. None of the test systems was outstanding, and there was no evidence that tissue or monolayer systems using respiratory tract cells provide an added value. However, the test systems only reflected bronchiole epithelia and alveolar cells and investigated cytotoxicity. Effects occurring in other cells by other mechanisms could not be recognised. Further work should optimise test protocols and expand the set of substances tested to define applicability domains. In vivo respiratory toxicity data for in vitro comparisons should distinguish different modes of action, and their relevance for human health effects should be ensured.

  15. The prognostic value of N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I.; Ho, Chung-Han; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Wei-Lun; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts the prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Between December 1, 2012, and May 31, 2015, this observational study recruited patients admitted to our tertiary medical center who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS and who had their NT-proBNP measured. The main outcome was 28-day mortality. We enrolled 61 patients who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS: 7 were classified as mild, 29 as moderate, and 25 as severe. The median APACHE II scores were 23 (interquartile range [IQR], 18–28), and SOFA scores were 11 (IQR, 8–13). The median lung injury score was 3.0 (IQR, 2.50–3.25), and the median level of NT-proBNP was 2011 pg/ml (IQR, 579–7216). Thirty-four patients died during this study, and the 28-day mortality rate was 55.7%. Patients who die were older and had significantly (all p < 0.05) higher APACHE II scores and NT-proBNP levels than did patients who survived. Multivariate analysis identified age (HR: 1.546, 95% CI: 1.174–2.035, p = 0.0019) and NT-proBNP (HR: 1.009, 95% CI: 1.004–1.013, p = 0.0001) as significant risk factors of death. NT-proBNP was associated with poor outcomes for patients with ARDS, and its level predicted mortality. PMID:28322314

  16. Value of Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Temporal Lobe Epilepsy on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tingting; Kong, Qingxia; Sheng, Huaqiang; Gao, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Although active targeting of drugs using a magnetic-targeted drug delivery system (MTDS) with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is a very effective treatment approach for tumors and other illnesses, successful results of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are unprecedented. A hallmark in the neuropathology of TLE is brain inflammation, in particular the activation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by activated glial cells, which has been considered a new mechanistic target for treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the functionalized SPIONs with anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody (mAb) attached to render MRI diagnoses and simultaneously provide targeted therapy with the neutralization of IL-1β overexpressed in epileptogenic zone of an acute rat model of TLE. Experimental Design. The anti-IL-1β mAb-SPIONs were studied in vivo versus plain SPIONs and saline. Lithium-chloride pilocarpine-induced TLE models (n = 60) were followed by Western blot, Perl's iron staining, Nissl staining, and immunofluorescent double-label staining after MRI examination. Results. The magnetic anti-IL-1β mAb-SPION administered intravenously, which crossed the BBB and was concentrated in the astrocytes and neurons in epileptogenic tissues, rendered these tissues visible on MRI and simultaneously delivered anti-IL-1β mAb to the epileptogenic focus. Conclusions. Our study provides the first evidence that the novel approach enhanced accumulation and the therapeutic effect of anti-IL-1β mAb by MTDS using SPIONs. PMID:26925269

  17. The prognostic value of N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I; Ho, Chung-Han; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Chao, Chien-Ming; Liu, Wei-Lun; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2017-03-21

    We investigated whether N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts the prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Between December 1, 2012, and May 31, 2015, this observational study recruited patients admitted to our tertiary medical center who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS and who had their NT-proBNP measured. The main outcome was 28-day mortality. We enrolled 61 patients who met the Berlin criteria for ARDS: 7 were classified as mild, 29 as moderate, and 25 as severe. The median APACHE II scores were 23 (interquartile range [IQR], 18-28), and SOFA scores were 11 (IQR, 8-13). The median lung injury score was 3.0 (IQR, 2.50-3.25), and the median level of NT-proBNP was 2011 pg/ml (IQR, 579-7216). Thirty-four patients died during this study, and the 28-day mortality rate was 55.7%. Patients who die were older and had significantly (all p < 0.05) higher APACHE II scores and NT-proBNP levels than did patients who survived. Multivariate analysis identified age (HR: 1.546, 95% CI: 1.174-2.035, p = 0.0019) and NT-proBNP (HR: 1.009, 95% CI: 1.004-1.013, p = 0.0001) as significant risk factors of death. NT-proBNP was associated with poor outcomes for patients with ARDS, and its level predicted mortality.

  18. Predictive value of daily living score in acute respiratory failure of COPD patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) is imperative in many forms of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in COPD patients. Previous studies have shown the difficulty to identify parameters predicting the outcome of COPD patients treated by invasive MV. Our hypothesis was that a non specialized score as the activities daily living (ADL) score may help to predict the outcome of these patients. Methods We studied the outcome of 25 COPD patients admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF requiring invasive MV. The patients were divided into those weaning success (group A n = 17, 68%) or failure (group B n = 8, 32%). We investigated the correlation between the ADL score and the outcome and mortality. Results The ADL score was higher in group A (5.1 ±1.1 vs 3.7 ± 0.7 in group B, p < 0.01). Weaning was achieved in 76.5% of the cases with an ADL score ≥ 4 and in 23.5% of the cases with an ADL score < 4 (p < 0.05). Pulmonary function test, arterial blood gases collected during period of clinical stability and at admission and nutritional status were similar in both groups. The mortality, at six months, was 36%. The ADL score was a significant predictor of 6-month mortality (80 with an ADL score <4, 20 with an ADL score ≥4, p < 0.01). Conclusion Our pilot study demonstrates that the ADL score is predictive of weaning success and mortality at 6 months, suggesting that the assessment of daily activities should be an important component of ARF management in COPD patients. PMID:23078114

  19. Estrogenicity and acute toxicity of selected anilines using a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Hamblen, Elizabeth L; Cronin, Mark T D; Schultz, T Wayne

    2003-08-01

    Suspected estrogen modulators include industrial organic chemicals (i.e., xenoestrogens), and have been shown to consist of alkylphenols, bisphenols, biphenylols, and some hydroxy-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The most prominent structural feature identified to be important for estrogenic activity is a polar group capable of donating hydrogen bonds (i.e., hydroxyl) on an aromatic system. The present study was undertaken to explore the estrogenic activity and acute toxicity of chemicals containing a weaker hydrogen bond donor group on aromatic systems, i.e., the amino substituent. There is a great deal of chemical similarity between aromatic amines (anilines) and aromatic alcohols (phenols). The chemicals chosen for the current study contained an amino-substituted benzene ring with hydrophobic constituents varying in size and shape. Thus, 37 substituted aromatic amines were assayed for estrogenic activity EC50 and acute toxicity LC50 using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant yeast assay. While the EC50 of 17-beta-estradiol occurs at the 10(-10) range, the aniline with the greatest activity had an EC50 of 10(-6) M. Thus, anilines, in general, are capable only of very weak estrogenic activity in this assay. A comparison of estrogenic potency between the present group of anilines and a set of previously tested analogous phenols indicated that anilines are consistently less estrogenic than phenols. A comparison of hazard indices (EC50/LC50) of these chemicals revealed that, for the vast majority of anilines, the EC50 and LC50 were in the same order of magnitude. More specifically, estrogenic activity of para-substituted alkylanilines increases with alkyl group size up to 5 carbons in length, after which the acute toxicity of the larger alkyl-substituents precluded the ability of the compound to induce the estrogenic response.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Acute Toxicity of Desensitized Primer Compounds and Primer Waste Effluents to Representative Aquatic Organisims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    daphnids, with 48-hour LC50 values for these two materials being several orders of magnitude lower than those observed for lead styphnate , PETN and... styphnate (PoTNR), tetracene (= tetrazene), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), .and FA 956 priming mixture. The FA 956 mixture is composed of: 37...PbTNR, 4% tetracene, 5% PETN, 32% barium nitrate, 15% antimony sulfide and 7% aluminum (Small and Rosenblatt, 1974). Each of these primer components was

  1. Preengraftment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) value may predict acute graft-versus-host disease and nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kim, Sung-Won; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mori, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Morita-Hoshi, Yuriko; Ohara-Waki, Fusako; Heike, Yuji; Tobinai, Kensei; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Takaue, Yoichi

    2008-05-01

    In a mouse model, inflammatory cytokines play a primary role in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Here, we retrospectively evaluated whether the preengraftment C-reactive protein (CRP) value, which is used as a surrogate marker of inflammation, could predict posttransplant complications including GVHD. Two hundred twenty-four adult patients (median age, 47 years; range: 18-68 years) underwent conventional stem cell transplantation (CST, n = 105) or reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST, n = 119). Patients were categorized according to the maximum CRP value during neutropenia: the "low-CRP" group (CRP < 15 mg/dL, n = 157) and the "high-CRP" group (CRP >or= 15 mg/dL, n = 67). The incidence of documented infections during neutropenia was higher in the high-CRP group (34% versus 17%, P = .004). When patients with proven infections were excluded, the CRP value was significantly lower after RIST than after CST (P = .017) or after related than after unrelated transplantation (P < .001). A multivariate analysis showed that male sex, unrelated donor, and HLA-mismatched donor were associated with high CRP values. The high-CRP group developed significantly more grade II-IV aGVHD (P = .01) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P < .001), but less relapse (P = .02). The present findings suggest that the CRP value may reflect the net degree of tissue damage because of the conditioning regimen, infection, and allogeneic immune reactions, all of which lead to subsequent aGVHD and NRM.

  2. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  3. Acute toxicity, biochemical toxicity and genotoxicity caused by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Yuting; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Guo, Yingying

    2017-02-21

    The present study examined the potential toxicity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) and 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF4) in the liver cells of zebrafish (Danio rerio) with different doses (20-160mg/L) on 7 and 14days. The effects of [Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]BF4 on acute toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage degree in livers of zebrafish were determined. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values after a 96-h exposure to [Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]BF4 were 632.8±67.4 and 604.6±56.2mg/L, respectively, which indicated that the substances were practically harmless. The minor discrepancy may be caused by the different anions. The ROS levels were dose-dependent, which may cause the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and the stimulation of detoxifying enzyme activity. The present study can also provide scientific support for the future selection and evaluation of ionic liquids (ILs).

  4. The influence of etofenprox on narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823): Acute toxicity and sublethal effects on histology, hemolymph parameters, and total hemocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Benli, Aysel Caglan Karasu

    2015-07-08

    The acute and sublethal effects of etofenprox, a nonester pyrethroid, was determined in narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823). Semistatic bioassay procedures were followed in both experiments, and the 24, 48, 72, and 96 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of technical etofenprox for crayfish were calculated as 0.68, 0.61, 0.45, and 0.41 µg/L, respectively based on Finney's probit analysis. Two concentrations of etofenprox (0.04 and 0.1 µg/L) were tested to determine sublethal effects due to 96 hours exposure. After exposure to sublethal etofenprox, hemolymph glucose, and lactate levels increased while total hemocyte counts and sodium levels decreased (p < 0.05). Hemolymph calcium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride concentrations did not change significantly. Histological alterations were evident in the gills and hepatopancreas after exposure to sublethal etofenprox concentrations. Lamellar hyperplasia and lining in the afferent and efferent branchial vessels were recorded in gills; whilst tubule necrosis was obvious in hepatopancreas. Etofenprox was found to be very highly toxic to crayfish, a nontarget organism. Exposure to sublethal concentrations for 96 h affected circulating hemocytes and hemolymph stress parameters via histological response, to compansate for the adverse effects of etofenprox. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 887-894, 2015.

  5. Prediction of acute toxicity of emerging contaminants on the water flea Daphnia magna by Ant Colony Optimization-Support Vector Machine QSTR models.

    PubMed

    Aalizadeh, Reza; von der Ohe, Peter C; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2017-03-22

    According to the European REACH Directive, the acute toxicity towards Daphnia magna should be assessed for any industrial chemical with a market volume of more than 1 t/a. Therefore, it is highly recommended to determine the toxicity at a certain confidence level, either experimentally or by applying reliable prediction models. To this end, a large dataset was compiled, with the experimental acute toxicity values (pLC50) of 1353 compounds in Daphnia magna after 48 h of exposure. A novel quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) model was developed, using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) to select the most relevant set of molecular descriptors, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to correlate the selected descriptors with the toxicity data. The proposed model showed high performance (QLOO(2) = 0.695, Rfitting(2) = 0.920 and Rtest(2) = 0.831) with low root mean square errors of 0.498 and 0.707 for the training and test set, respectively. It was found that, in addition to hydrophobicity, polarizability and summation of solute-hydrogen bond basicity affected toxicity positively, while minimum atom-type E-state of -OH influenced toxicity values in Daphnia magna inversely. The applicability domain of the proposed model was carefully studied, considering the effect of chemical structure and prediction error in terms of leverage values and standardized residuals. In addition, a new method was proposed to define the chemical space failure for a compound with unknown toxicity to avoid using these prediction results. The resulting ACO-SVM model was successfully applied on an additional evaluation set and the prediction results were found to be very accurate for those compounds that fall inside the defined applicability domain. In fact, compounds commonly found to be difficult to predict, such as quaternary ammonium compounds or organotin compounds were outside the applicability domain, while five representative homologues of LAS (non-ionic surfactants) were, on average

  6. Prognostic Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Non-Cardiovascular Critically or Acutely Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rubin; Hu, Jian; Jiang, Libing; Zhang, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Background RDW (red cell distribution width) has been reported to been associated with the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, RDW is often overlooked by clinicians in treating patients with non-cardiovascular diseases, especially in an emergency. The objective of this systematic review is to explore the prognostic value of RDW in non-cardiovascular emergencies. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched from their inception to December 31, 2015. We included studies examining the relationship between RDW and mortality rate by adjusting important covariables in non-cardiovascular emergencies. All included studies were divided into three groups. Group A: general critically ill patients; Group B: patients with infectious disease; Group C: other conditions. We extracted each study’ characteristics, outcomes, covariables, and other items independently. Results A total of 32 studies were eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Six studies belonged to Group A, 9 studies belonged to Group B and 17 studies belonged to Group C. Among these included studies, RDW was assessed as a continuous variable (per 1% increase) in 16 studies, as a binary variable in 8 studies, and as a categorical variable in 8 studies. In addition, AUCs (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of RDW for predicting mortality were reported in 25 studies. All studies were published between 2011–2015. The qualities of included 32 studies were moderate or high. Conclusion The present systematic review indicates that the increased RDW is significantly associated with a higher mortality rate in an non-cardiovascular emergency. The low cost and readily accessible of this laboratory variable may strengthen its usefulness in daily practice in the future. PMID:27936006

  7. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  9. The value of an acute octreotide suppression test in predicting short-term efficacy of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Shen, Ming; He, Wenqiang; Yang, Yeping; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yun; Ma, Zengyi; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lu, Bin; Hu, Ji; Huang, Yun; Shou, Xuefei; Wang, Yongfei; Ye, Hongying; Li, Yiming; Li, Shiqi; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Zhaoyun

    2016-09-30

    Predicting the efficacy of long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSA) remains a challenge. We aim to quantitatively evaluate the predictive value of the octreotide suppression test (OST) in short-term efficacy of SSA in active acromegaly. Sixty-seven newly diagnosed acromegaly patients were assessed with OST. Subsequently, all patients were treated with long-acting SSA for 3 months, followed by reassessment. Nine parameters were tested, including GHn (the nadir GH during OST), ΔGH1 (= [GH0h-GHn]/GH0h, GH0h was the baseline GH during OST), ΔGH2 (= [GHm-GHn]/GHm, GHm was the mean GH on day curve), AUC(0-6h) (the GH area under the curve during OST) , ΔAUC1 (= [GH0h-AUC(0-6h)]/GH0h), ΔAUC2 (=[GHm-AUC(0-6h)]/GHm), AUC(m-6h) (the GH AUC during OST where GHm was used instead of GH0h), ΔAUC1' (=[GH0h-AUC(m-6h)]/GH0h) and ΔAUC2' (=[GHm-AUC(m-6h)]/GHm). The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoffs to predict the short-term efficacy of SSA. ΔGH2 more than 86.83%, ΔAUC2 more than -57.48% and ΔAUC2' more than -57.98% provided the best predictors of a good GH response (sensitivity 93.8%, specificity 85.7%). ΔGH2 more than 90.51% provided the best predictor of a good tumor size response (sensitivity 84.8%, specificity 87.5%). The percentage fall of GHn (ΔGH) was a better predictive parameter than GHn. OST showed higher efficiency in predicting the efficacy of octreotide LAR than lanreotide SR. In conclusion, OST is a valid tool to predict both GH and tumor size response to short-term efficacy of SSA in acromegaly, especially for octreotide LAR. GHm is better to be used as basal GH than GH0 during OST.

  10. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR. PMID:26130953

  11. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-07-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR.

  12. Cortisol response to acute stress in jundiá Rhamdia quelen acutely exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals.

    PubMed

    Cericato, Leonardo; Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves Machado; Fagundes, Michele; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Quevedo, Rosmari Mezzalira; Finco, Jovani; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Centenaro, Lucas; Pottker, Emanuele; Anziliero, Deniz; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to agrichemicals can have deleterious effects on fish, such as disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-inter-renal axis (HPI) that could impair the ability of fish to respond to stressors. In this study, fingerlings of the teleost jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) were used to investigate the effects of the commonly used agrichemicals on the fish response to stress. Five common agrichemicals were tested: the fungicide - tebuconazole, the insecticide - methyl-parathion, and the herbicides - atrazine, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate. Control fishes were not exposed to agrichemicals and standard stressors. In treatments 2-4, the fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)) of each agrichemical for 96 h, and at the end of this period, were subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus by chasing them with a pen net. In treatments 5-7 (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)), the fishes were exposed to the same concentrations of the agrichemicals without stress stimulus. Treatment 8 consisted of jundiás not exposed to agrichemicals, but was subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus. Jundiás exposed to methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate presented a decreased capacity in exhibiting an adequate response to cope with stress and in maintaining the homeostasis, with cortisol level lower than that in the control fish (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that the acute exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate exert a deleterious effect on the cortisol response to an additional acute stressor in the jundiá fingerlings.

  13. Effects of water hardness and temperature on the acute toxicity of mercuric chloride on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ertugrul; Verep, Bulent

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the toxicity of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)), an important pollutant threatening water resources for many years, and the effects of water temperature and hardness on the toxicity in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (4.79 ± 0.16 g; 7.38 ± 0.24 cm; mean ± SD) were investigated at different temperatures (12 and 17°C) and hardness concentrations (35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) as calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)). For this purpose, the acute toxicity tests were performed by 96-h static tests in different water temperatures and water hardness concentrations. For acute toxicity tests, solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg l(-1) were used at 12°C and solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 mg l(-1) at 17°C. The LC(50) values of HgCl(2) that killed 50% of rainbow trout within 96 h in the hardness concentrations of 35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) CaCO(3) were calculated using probit analysis, and were found to be 0.725, 0.788, 0.855 mg l(-1) at 12°C and 0.670, 0.741, 0.787 mg l(-1) at 17°C, respectively. Consequently, the toxicity of HgCl(2) on rainbow trout decreased when the temperature decreased from 17 to 12°C. Toxicity increased when the hardness decreased from 120 to 35 mg l(-1) CaCO(3). In contrast to temperature, water hardness presents a negative effect on the toxicity of HgCl(2).

  14. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposures of cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Welsh, Paul G; Lipton, Josh; Cacela, Dave; Dailey, Anne D

    2002-01-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Present and historical habitat of this species includes waterways that have been impacted by metals released from mining and mineral processing activities. We conducted paired bioassays with bull trout and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to examine the relative sensitivity of each species to Cd and Zn independently and as a mixture. A total of 15 pairs of acute toxicity bioassays were completed to evaluate the effects of different water hardness (30 or 90 mg/L as CaCO3), pH (6.5 or 7.5), and temperature (8 or 12 degrees C) on Cd and Zn toxicity. For both species, the acute toxicity of both Cd and Zn was greater than previously observed in laboratory studies. Bull trout were about twice as tolerant of Cd and about 50% more tolerant of Zn than were rainbow trout. Higher hardness and lower pH water produced lower toxicity and slower rates of toxicity in both species. Elevated temperature significantly increased the sensitivity of bull trout to Zn but decreased the sensitivity (not significantly) of rainbow trout to Zn. At a hardness of 30 mg/L, the toxicity values (i.e., median lethal concentration; 120-h LC50) for both species were lower than the current U.S. national water quality criteria for protection of aquatic life, indicating that current national criteria may not be protective of sensitive salmonids--including the threatened bull trout--in low calcium waters.

  15. Association of Lower Fractional Flow Reserve Values With Higher Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events for Lesions Deferred Revascularization Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masrani Mehta, Shriti; Depta, Jeremiah P; Novak, Eric; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Patel, Yogesh; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety of deferring revascularization based on fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We evaluated the association of FFR and adverse cardiac events among patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR in the setting of ACS versus non-ACS. Methods and Results The study population (674 patients; 816 lesions) was divided into ACS (n=334) and non-ACS (n=340) groups based on the diagnosis when revascularization was deferred based on FFR values >0.80 between October 2002 and July 2010. The association and interaction between FFR and clinical outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models within each group (mean follow-up of 4.5±2.1 years). Subsequent revascularization of a deferred lesion was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI), whereas the composite of DLI or myocardial infarction (MI) attributed to a deferred lesion was designated as deferred lesion failure (DLF). In the non-ACS group, lower FFR values were not associated with any increase in adverse cardiac events. In the ACS group, every 0.01 decrease in FFR was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or DLI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.12), MI or DLI (HR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14), DLF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18), MI (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14), and DLI (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18). Conclusion Lower FFR values among ACS patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR are associated with a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiac events. This association was not observed in non-ACS patients. PMID:26289346

  16. S(p)O(2) values in acute medical admissions breathing air--implications for the British Thoracic Society guideline for emergency oxygen use in adult patients?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary B; Prytherch, David R; Watson, Duncan; Forde, Val; Windsor, Alastair; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Higgins, Bernie; Meredith, Paul

    2012-10-01

    S(p)O(2) is routinely used to assess the well-being of patients, but it is difficult to find an evidence-based description of its normal range. The British Thoracic Society (BTS) has published guidance for oxygen administration and recommends a target S(p)O(2) of 94-98% for most adult patients. These recommendations rely on consensus opinion and small studies using arterial blood gas measurements of saturation (S(a)O(2)). Using large datasets of routinely collected vital signs from four hospitals, we analysed the S(p)O(2) range of 37,593 acute general medical inpatients (males: 47%) observed to be breathing room air. Age at admission ranged from 16 to 105 years with a mean (SD) of 64 (21) years. 19,642 admissions (52%) were aged <70 years. S(p)O(2) ranged from 70% to 100% with a median (IQR) of 97% (95-98%). S(p)O(2) values for males and females were similar. In-hospital mortality for the study patients was 5.27% (range 4.80-6.27%). Mortality (95% CI) for patients with initial S(p)O(2) values of 97%, 96% and 95% was 3.65% (3.22-4.13); 4.47% (3.99-5.00); and 5.67% (5.03-6.38), respectively. Additional analyses of S(p)O(2) values for 37,299 medical admissions aged ≥18 years provided results that were distinctly different to those upon which the current BTS guidelines based their definition of normality. Our findings suggest that the BTS should consider changing its target saturation for actively treated patients not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure to 96-98%.

  17. The value of 3-dimensional longitudinal strain in the evaluation of complex coronary lesions in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zekun; Dai, Jianwei; Wu, Dan; Qiu, Jian; Ma, Jun; Li, Guoying; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Hongqiang; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the value of 3-dimensional global peak longitudinal strain (GPLS) derived from the 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the diagnosis of the complex non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) by comparing GPLS to the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score. A total of 59 inpatients with NSTE-ACS in our hospital between October 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled into our study. All these subjects underwent the coronary angiography (CAG) and 3D-STE examination. The results of CAG were used to calculate the SYNTAX scores in each subject. The GPLS was assessed with speckle-tracking analysis using the dedicated software developed by GE Healthcare (Horten, Norway). We grouped all subjects according to the SYNTAX scores. A total of 23 patients (39%) were grouped as complex NSTE-ACS in our experiment. In our analysis, the values of GPLS significantly decreased from low SYNTAX scores to intermediate or high SYNTAX scores (−14.0 ± 2.7% and −9.5 ± 2.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that GPLS and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for complex NSTE-ACS. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for GPLS to evaluate patients with complex NSTE-ACS was 0.882 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.797–0.967, P < 0.001) with an optimal cutoff value of −11.76% (sensitivity 82.6% and specificity 83.3%). The evaluative value of the adjusted AUC for evaluating patients with complex NSTE-ACS improved after inclusion of GPLS (C statistics, 0.827–0.948, P < 0.001). The value of GPLS is significantly associated with the complexity of coronary artery lesions, according to SYNTAX score. Therefore, our study indicates that GPLS could be reproducible and efficient to evaluate the complex coronary artery disease in NSTE-ACS patients. PMID:27684797

  18. Diagnostic Value of Urine Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 7 for Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yuanyuan; Gong, Zhiyan; Wu, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Liao, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Background Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) are both involved in renal tubular epithelial cell cycle arrest in acute kidney injury (AKI). Several recent studies showed that urine TIMP-2 times IGFBP7 ([TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7]) is a promising biomarker to predict AKI. Methods The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the diagnostic value of urine [TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] for early diagnosis of AKI. Relevant studies were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. The sensitivity and specificity were determined, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were constructed. Results Ten full-text prospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. The estimated sensitivity of urine [TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] for the early diagnosis of AKI was 0.84 (95% CI = 0.80–0.88) and the specificity was 0.57 (95%CI = 0.55–0.60). The SROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.8813. Limitation The limited number of included studies, small sample size, unpublished negative results and language limitation might have affected the evaluation. Conclusion Urine [TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] is a promising candidate for early detection of AKI, especially in ruling-out AKI. However, the potential of this biomarker should be validated in larger studies with a broader spectrum of clinical settings. PMID:28107490

  19. Screening for latent acute intermittent porphyria: the value of measuring both leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-1-synthase activities.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; Moore, M R; Thompson, G G; Goldberg, A

    1982-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of haem biosynthesis characterised by reduced activity of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-1-(URO) synthase and compensatory increased activity of the rate controlling enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) synthase. Subjects with the disorder should be identified as they are at risk of developing severe porphyric attacks if exposed to a variety of drugs or chemicals. We have assessed the value of measuring the activities of ALA synthase and URO synthase in peripheral blood cells as a means of identifying latent cases in affected families. In AIP subjects, ALA synthase activity was increased and URO synthase decreased compared to controls, through there was considerable overlap between the two groups when either enzyme was examined alone. When both enzymes were examined together, all but one of the 19 AIP patients had both increased ALA synthase activity (greater than 250 nmol ALA/g protein/h) and reduced URO synthase activity (less than 25.1 nmol URO/l RBC/h), whereas none of the 62 controls showed this enzyme pattern. Examination of 35 asymptomatic first degree blood relatives of AIP patients showed that 17 (49%) had the porphyric enzyme pattern with no sex bias. The combined study of these two enzymes permits accurate detection of latent cases of AIP and confirms its autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:7120315

  20. Value of comprehensive renal ultrasound in children with acute urinary tract infection for assessment of renal involvement: comparison with DMSA scintigraphy and final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Brader, Peter; Riccabona, Michael; Schwarz, Thomas; Seebacher, Ursula; Ring, Ekkehard

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of comprehensive renal ultrasound (US), i.e., combining greyscale US and amplitude-coded color Doppler sonography (aCDS), for assessment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants and children, compared to (1) (99m)Tc DMSA scintigraphy and (2) final diagnosis. Two hundred eighty-seven children with UTI underwent renal comprehensive US and DMSA scintigraphy. The results were compared with regard to their reliability to diagnose renal involvement, using (1) DMSA scintigraphy and (2) final diagnosis as the gold standard. Sixty-seven children clinically had renal involvement. Sensitivity increased from 84.1% using only aCDS to 92.1% for the combined US approach, using DMSA scintigraphy as the reference standard. When correlated with the final diagnosis, sensitivity for DMSA scintigraphy was 92.5%; sensitivity for comprehensive US was 94.0%. Our data demonstrate an increasing sensitivity using the combination of renal greyscale US supplemented by aCDS for differentiation of upper from lower UTI. Sensitivity for DMSA and comprehensive US was similar for both methods compared to the final diagnosis. Comprehensive US should gain a more important role in the imaging algorithm of children with acute UTI, thereby reducing the radiation burden.

  1. Diagnostic values of chest pain history, ECG, troponin and clinical gestalt in patients with chest pain and potential acute coronary syndrome assessed in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Arash; Dryver, Eric; Söderholm, Martin; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In the assessment of chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED), physicians rely on global diagnostic impressions ('gestalt'). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the ED physician's overall assessment of ACS likelihood, and the values of the main diagnostic modalities underlying this assessment, namely the chest pain history, the ECG and the initial troponin result. 1,151 consecutive ED chest pain patients were prospectively included. The ED physician's interpretation of the chest pain history, the ECG, and the global likelihood of ACS were recorded on special forms. The discharge diagnoses were retrieved from the medical records. A chart review was carried out to determine whether patients with a non-ACS diagnosis at the index visit had ACS or suffered cardiac death within 30 days. The gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in ("Obvious ACS", LR 29) and at ruling out ("No Suspicion of ACS", LR 0.01) ACS. In the "Strong suspicion of ACS" group, 60% of the patients did not have ACS. A positive TnT (LR 24.9) and an ischemic ECG (LR 8.3) were strong predictors of ACS and seemed superior to pain history for ruling in ACS. In patients with a normal TnT and non-ischemic ECG, chest pain history typical of AMI was not a significant predictor of AMI (LR 1.9) while pain history typical of unstable angina (UA) was a moderate predictor of UA (LR 4.7). Clinical gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in and at ruling out ACS, but overestimated the likelihood of ACS when cases were assessed as strong suspicion of ACS. Among the components of the gestalt, TnT and ECG were superior to the chest pain history for ruling in ACS, while pain history was superior for ruling out ACS.

  2. Prognostic Value of the Clinical SYNTAX Score on 2-Year Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Song, Ying; Wang, Chuang-Shi; Yao, Yi; Tang, Xiao-Fang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Gao, Run-Lin; Yang, Yue-Jin; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Jin-Qing

    2017-03-01

    This prospective, single-center, observational study evaluated prognostic value of clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) on 2-year outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The SYNTAX score (SS) is a scoring system based on the complexity and severity of coronary lesions and is thought to be a prognostic tool to predict long-term outcomes. However, SS was a sole angiographic grading tool only with no consideration for clinical factors. There are few studies investigating the prognostic value of CSS in patients with ACS who underwent PCI. From January 2013 to December 2013, 6,099 consecutive patients with ACS admitted to FuWai hospital and underwent PCI were enrolled in this study. Based on CSS, patients were divided into low CSS group (CSS ≤ 6.5; 2,012 patients), mid-CSS group (6.5 < CSS < 13.8; 2,056 patients), and high CSS group (CSS ≥ 13.8; 2,031 patients). At 2-year follow-up, rates of cardiac death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly higher in the high CSS group. Compared with baseline SS, CSS demonstrated significantly improved performance for 2-year cardiac death (receiver-operating characteristic curve C-statistic: 0.74 vs 0.62, p <0.001) but not for MACE (receiver-operating characteristic curve C-statistic: 0.60 vs 0.59, p = 0.29). By multivariable analysis, the CSS combined with PCI history and hypertension were strong predictors for cardiac death and CSS, intra-aortic balloon pump support, diabetes, and successful PCI were independent predictors for MACE. In conclusion, compared with the anatomic SS, CSS was suitable in risk stratifying and predicting 2-year clinical outcome among ACS population.

  3. Comparative value of maximal treadmill testing, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for distinguishing high- and low-risk patients soon after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Goris, M.L.; Nash, E.; Kraemer, H.C.; DeBusk, R.F.; Berger, W.E.; Lew, H.

    1984-05-01

    The prognostic value of symptom-limited treadmill exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography was compared in 117 men, aged 54 +/- 9 years, tested 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 months, 8 men experienced ''hard'' medical events (cardiac death, nonfatal ventricular fibrillation or recurrent MI) and 14 were hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or coronary bypass surgery (total of 22 combined events). By multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), peak treadmill work load and the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise were significant (p less than 0.01) predictors of hard medical events; these 2 risk factors and recurrent ischemic chest pain in the coronary care unit were also significantly predictive (p less than 0.001) for combined events. A peak treadmill work load of 4 METs or less or a decrease in EF of 5% or more below the value at rest during submaximal effort distinguished 22 high-risk patients (20% of the study population) from 89 low-risk patients. The rate of hard medical events within 12 months was 23% (5 of 22 patients), vs 2% (2 of 89 patients) in the high- and low-risk patient subsets, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, in patients who underwent evaluation 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise radionuclide ventriculography contributed independent prognostic information to that provided by symptom-limited treadmill testing and was superior to exercise thallium scintigraphy for this purpose.

  4. Prognostic value of admission blood glucose concentration and diabetes diagnosis on survival after acute myocardial infarction: results from 4702 index cases in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Squire, Ian B; Nelson, Christopher P; Ng, Leong L; Jones, David R; Woods, Kent L; Lambert, Paul C

    2010-04-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes and admission blood glucose concentration are associated with adverse outcome after acute coronary syndromes. We compared the relative association with survival after ST elevation AMI (acute myocardial infarction) of admission blood glucose concentration and of diabetes diagnosis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study in 4702 consecutive patients with STEMI (ST elevation AMI) occurring from 1 April 1993 to 31 December 2005, assessed for mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Patients were classified according to antecedent diabetes and by blood glucose concentration at admission (quartile 1, <7 mmol/l; quartile 2, 7–8.2 mmol/l;quartile 3, 8.3–10.9 mmol/l; quartile 4, 11 mmol/l). Multivariable models were constructed for determinants of mortality, including year of STEMI and demographic variables, entering blood glucose concentration and antecedent diabetes individually and together. All-cause 30-day and 1-year mortality were 22.8% and 31.3% for patients with antecedent diabetes, compared with 16.3% and 23.0% respectively for those without. For glucose quartiles 1, 2, 3 and 4, crude 30-day mortality was 9.0%, 10.6%, 17.9% and 31.0%. Adjusted 30-day mortality risk was similar in quartile 2, higher by >80% in quartile 3 and by >150% in quartile 4, compared with glucose quartile 1. Antecedent diabetes was associated with an increase in mortality [unadjusted odds ratio (OR)1.52 (95% CI 1.24, 1.86)]. On multivariable analysis (excluding glucose quartile), this reduced to 1.24 (0.98, 1.58) and changed to a small, statistically non-significant reduction in risk when glucose quartile was added to the analysis [adjusted OR 0.87 (0.67, 1.13)]. Inclusion of antecedent diabetes in multivariable models did not add to the predictive value for mortality of glucose quartile(P=0.368). Similar relationships were observed for 1 year mortality. In patients with STEMI, blood glucose concentration shows graded association with risk of 30-day and 1-year

  5. Acute toxicity of high concentrations of carbon dioxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Muijser, H; van Triel, J J; Duistermaat, E; Bos, P M J

    2014-07-01

    Subterranean storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been proposed to diminish atmospheric increases of this greenhouse gas. To contribute to risk assessment of accidental release associated with handling, transport and storage, rats were exposed to high concentrations (targets 40, 43 and 50 volume %) of CO2. The oxygen concentrations dropped as a result, but were not supplemented. For each concentration, pairs of animals were exposed for different exposure durations to derive an exposure concentration-duration relation in which mortality is described as a function of C(n)×t (probit relation). A very high "n" value for the probit function could be derived from the data obtained at 40% and 43% CO2, which indicates that for exposure durations longer than 30 min the LC50 decreases hardly with increasing exposure duration. Below 30 min the LC50 seemed to increase with decreasing exposure durations. The variability in the data of 43% and 50% CO2, however, did not allow to derive a meaningful value of "n".

  6. The relative importance of water hardness and chloride levels in modifying the acute toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Galvez, F.; Wood, C.M.

    1997-11-01

    Static-renewal 7-d toxicity tests for silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) were performed with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). The relative influences of calcium and chloride concentrations on median lethal time (LT50) were assessed. For both calcium salts, a 100-fold elevation in concentration increased the LT50 approximately 10-fold. However, a 100-fold elevation in KCl ameliorated silver (Ag) toxicity at least 100-fold, while NaCl protected against Ag toxicity even more substantially, demonstrating the much greater protective effect of chloride relative to calcium. In a separate series of bioassays, fish were exposed to 0.92 {micro}M Ag with varying amounts of NaCl titrated into each tank to alter the free [Ag{sup +}]. The 7-d LC50 occurred at a [NaCl] of 2,500 {micro}M. Using MINEQL{sup +}, the predicted free [Ag{sup +}] at this LC50 value is 0.0285 {micro}M. Further bioassays were performed in which [chloride] was maintained at either 50 or 225 {micro}M, while total [Ag] was independently varied from 0.0092 to 0.0694 {micro}M (1.0--7.5 {micro}g/L). The 7-d LC50 value was calculated at 0.0294 {micro}M Ag (3.18 {micro}g/L) at a chloride concentration of 50 {micro}M, very similar to the free [Ag{sup +}] value of 0.031 {micro}M calculated from an earlier LC50 test at a fixed [chloride] of 730 {micro}M. Elevating chloride concentrations from 50 to 225 {micro}M did not alter the accumulation of Ag in the liver. In addition, there were no significant differences in hepatic Ag accumulation between any of the Ag-exposed fish, irrespective of the total Ag concentration used during the exposure.

  7. Diagnostic value of CT compared to ultrasound in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in children younger than 10 years old.

    PubMed

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Dola, Tamar; Hiller, Nurith

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound compared to CT in evaluating acute abdominal pain of different causes in children 10 years of age and under, hospital records and imaging files of 4052 patients under age of 10 who had imaging for abdominal pain were reviewed. One-hundred-thirty-two patients (3 %), (74 males/58 females) who underwent ultrasound and CT within 24 h were divided by age: group I, ages 0-48 months (25 patients); group II, 49-84 months (53 patients); and group III, 85-120 months (54 patients). Diagnoses at ultrasound, CT, and discharge were compared. Cases of a change in diagnosis following CT and impact of the changed diagnosis on patient management were assessed. Non-diagnostic ultrasound or a diagnostic conundrum was present in a small percentage (3 %) of our patients. In the group of patients imaged with two modalities, CT changed the diagnosis in 73/132 patients (55.3 %). Patient management changed in 63/132 patients (47.7 %). CT changed the diagnosis in 46/64 patients with surgical conditions (71.8 %, p < 0.001). Among patients with surgical conditions, the difference between ultrasonography (US) and CT diagnoses was significant in groups 2 (p = 0.046) and 3 (p =  .001). The impact of the change in diagnosis in surgical patients imaged with two modalities was significant in the group as a whole and in each age group separately. Non-diagnostic or equivocal US in a small percentage of patients is probably sufficient to justify the additional radiation burden.

  8. Renal Dysfunction Is an Independent Risk Factor for Poor Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: A New Cutoff Value

    PubMed Central

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Savadi Oskouei, Daryoush; Yazdchi, Mohammad; Özdemir, Atilla Özcan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study was set to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on outcome of stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Methods. This multicenter research involved 403 patients from January 2009 to March 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) control group with GFR ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and (2) low GFR group with GFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Outcome measurements were poor outcome (mRS 3–6) and mortality at 3 months and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) within the first 24–36 hours. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed, and odds ratios (ORs) were determined at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. Univariate analyses determined that every decrease of GFR by 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 significantly increased the risk of poor outcome (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09–1.30, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06–1.32, p = 0.002). In multivariate regression, adjusted for all variables with p value < 0.1, low GFR (GFR < 45 versus GFR equal to or more than 45) was associated with poor outcome (OR adjusted 2.15, 95% CI 1.01–4.56, p = 0.045). Conclusion. In IVT for acute stroke, renal dysfunction with GFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 before treatment determined increased odds for poor outcome compared to GFR of more than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:28127492

  9. Renal Dysfunction Is an Independent Risk Factor for Poor Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: A New Cutoff Value.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Baş, Demet Funda; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Savadi Oskouei, Daryoush; Yazdchi, Mohammad; Hashemilar, Maziyar; Uzuner, Nevzat; Mirnour, Reshad; Colak, Ertugrul; Özdemir, Atilla Özcan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study was set to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on outcome of stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Methods. This multicenter research involved 403 patients from January 2009 to March 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) control group with GFR ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and (2) low GFR group with GFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Outcome measurements were poor outcome (mRS 3-6) and mortality at 3 months and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) within the first 24-36 hours. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed, and odds ratios (ORs) were determined at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. Univariate analyses determined that every decrease of GFR by 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) significantly increased the risk of poor outcome (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.30, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32, p = 0.002). In multivariate regression, adjusted for all variables with p value < 0.1, low GFR (GFR < 45 versus GFR equal to or more than 45) was associated with poor outcome (OR adjusted 2.15, 95% CI 1.01-4.56, p = 0.045). Conclusion. In IVT for acute stroke, renal dysfunction with GFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) before treatment determined increased odds for poor outcome compared to GFR of more than 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

  10. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine correlates with epigenetic regulatory mutations, but may not have prognostic value in predicting survival in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Seung-Shin; Ahn, Seo-Yeon; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Park, Hee Jeong; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Chul Won; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hee Je; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Won, Jong-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Michael, Szardenings; Minden, Mark D; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan

    2017-01-31

    Stem cells display remarkably high levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Both TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations can impair the production of 5hmC, thus decreasing 5hmC levels. TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations are commonly observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the implications of 5hmC on survival in normal karyotype AML patients have not been fully evaluated. The 5hmC levels were analyzed in 375 patients using ELISA. The levels of 5hmC in DNA samples were converted to a log scale for the analysis and correlations with TET2 and/or IDH1/2 mutations were evaluated. The median 5hmC level was 0.065% (range 0.001-0.999). Mutation rates were 13.1% for TET2mut, 6.7% for IDH1mut, and 13.9% for IDH2mut. The prevalence of TET2 and/or IDH1/2 was 33.1% (124/375). TET2 and IDH1/2 mutated patients had significantly lower levels of log(5hmC) compared with patients without TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations (p<0.001). With a median follow-up of 55.5 months (range, 0.7-179.8), there was no significant difference in overall survival, event-free survival, and relapse risk according to TET2mut or IDH1/2mut (all, p>0.05). To identify its prognostic value, we sub-classified the levels of 5hmC into tertiles for 5hmC values. However, there was no significant association between the categories of 5hmC levels and survival or relapse risk (all p>0.05). Patients with TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations had lower levels of 5hmC. The 5hmC levels may not be predictive of survival in patients with normal karyotype AML.

  11. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  12. Additive value of blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin to clinical judgement in acute kidney injury diagnosis and mortality prediction in patients hospitalized from the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication among hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) assessment as an aid in the early risk evaluation for AKI development in admitted patients. Methods This is a multicenter Italian prospective emergency department (ED) cohort study in which we enrolled 665 patients admitted to hospital from the ED. Results Blood NGAL and serum creatinine (sCr) were determined at ED presentation (T0), and at: 6 (T6), 12 (T12), 24 (T24) and 72 (T72) hours after hospitalization. A preliminary assessment of AKI by the treating ED physician occurred in 218 out of 665 patients (33%), while RIFLE AKI by expert nephrologists was confirmed in 49 out of 665 patients (7%). The ED physician's initial judgement lacked sensitivity and specificity, overpredicting the diagnosis of AKI in 27% of the cohort, while missing 20% of those with AKI as a final diagnosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), obtained at T0, for blood NGAL alone in the AKI group was 0.80. When NGAL at T0 was added to the ED physician's initial clinical judgment the AUC was increased to 0.90, significantly greater when compared to the AUC of the T0 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) obtained either by modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation (0.78) or Cockroft-Gault formula (0.78) (P = 0.022 and P = 0.020 respectively). The model obtained by combining NGAL with the ED physician's initial clinical judgement compared to the model combining sCr with the ED physician's initial clinical judgement, resulted in a net reclassification index of 32.4 percentage points. Serial assessment of T0 and T6 hours NGAL provided a high negative predictive value (NPV) (98%) in ruling out the diagnosis of AKI within 6 hours of patients' ED arrival. NGAL (T0) showed the strongest predictive value for in-hospital patient's mortality at a cutoff of

  13. Acute toxicity of pyrithione antifouling biocides and joint toxicity with copper to red sea bream (Pagrus major) and toy shrimp (Heptacarpus futilirostris).

    PubMed

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ito, Katsutoshi; Harino, Hiroya; Kakuno, Akira; Fujii, Kazunori

    2006-11-01

    We evaluated the median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of the pyrithione (PT) antifoulants copper pyrithione (CuPT) and zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) to a teleost, red sea bream (Pagrus major), and a crustacean, toy shrimp (Heptacarpusfutilirostris). The 96-h LC50 values of CuPT and ZnPT, on the basis of actual concentrations, were 9.3 and 98.2 R.g/L, respectively, for red sea bream and 2.5 and 120 microg/L, respectively, for toy shrimp. Histological observations revealed that the secondary lamellae of the gill filaments of the experimental fish were heavily damaged after exposure to the PTs, suggesting that fatal hypoxemia was one cause of death. Because CuPT and ZnPT are usually used in combination with Cu, we also estimated the joint toxicities of the PTs with Cu using the LC50 values of the PTs and those of Cu (84.4 and 113 microg/L for red sea bream and toy shrimp, respectively). The results suggested that the joint toxicity of the ZnPT and Cu mixture is more than the additive toxicities of CuPT and Cu, especially in toy shrimp. The enhancement of toxicity in the mixture was inferred to be caused by conversion of ZnPT to the more toxic CuPT in the presence of Cu.

  14. Acute and chronic effects of sodium tungstate on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Clements, Leslie N; Lemus, Ranulfo; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Kate; Rebstock, Matthew R; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Although aquatic toxicity data exists for tungstate substances, insufficient data of high quality and relevancy are available for conducting an adequate risk assessment. Therefore, a series of acute and chronic toxicity tests with sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)) were conducted on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Collectively, the data from these studies suggest that sodium tungstate exhibits a relatively low toxicity to these taxa under these test conditions. All studies were conducted in the same laboratory under good laboratory practice standards using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines with the same stock of test material and the same analytical methods. All results are reported as mg W/L. The following toxicity values were based on mean measured concentrations. For D. magna, the 21 day test no-observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 25.9 mg W/L, and the 48-h median effective concentration (EC(50)) from the acute test was >95.5 mg W/L (the highest concentration tested). The P. subcapitata test yielded an ErC(50) of 31 mg W/L. A 38-day test with zebrafish resulted in an NOEC ≥5.74 mg W/L with no effects at any concentration. The 96-h LC(50) from the acute test with zebrafish was >106 mg W/L. The results of the current acute study for daphnids and fish are consistent with published literature, whereas the algae results are different from previously reported values. Transformation/dissolution (T/D) studies, which were conducted according to United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals protocol, confirmed that the WO (4) (-2) anion accounted for most of the tungsten in solution. For classification purposes, the algae ecotoxity reference value was then compared with T/D data and would not classify Na(2)WO(4) as an aquatic toxicant under the European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging scheme.

  15. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  16. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  17. Acute and population level toxicity of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on an important egg parasitoid, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Saber, Moosa

    2011-08-01

    One focus of integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of biological and chemical control in an optimal way. The availability of selective pesticides is important as is information about both lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on biocontrol agents. Acute and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate exposure were studied on adult stage of egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal and the emergence rate and life table parameters were determined. The adult wasps were exposed to field recommended concentration (FRC) of the pesticides on glass plates. Field rates of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate caused 100 and 32% adult mortality, respectively. Based on concentration-response experiments, the LC(50) values of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate were 6.25 and 1,949 ppm, respectively. The effect of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on larvae, prepupae and pupae of the parasitoid was tested by exposing parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier or Cydia pomonella L. to the FRC. Imidacloprid and fenpyroximate reduced adult emergence by 10.7 and 29%, respectively, when S. cerealella eggs were used as the host and 10.9 and 24.9%, respectively, when C. pomonella eggs were used as the host. Population parameters of emerged adults from treated pre-imaginal stages by FRC of the pesticides were also studied. The parameters were longevity and progeny production of emergent adults and also intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )), generation time (T) and doubling time (DT). Longevity and progeny production of the emergent adults was not affected by pesticide exposure in comparison to the control. In addition, none of population parameters such as r ( m ), T and DT were affected by pesticide exposure. The intrinsic rate of increase for the control, fenpyroximate and imidacloprid exposed populations were 0.388, 0.374, and 0.372 female offspring per female per day, respectively. Overall, results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between fenpyroximate

  18. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  19. Estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing with the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock, 1952.

    PubMed

    Ré, Ana; Freitas, Rosa; Sampaio, Leandro; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the use of the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock [Stock, J.H., 1952. Some notes on the taxonomy, the distribution and the ecology of four species of the genus Corophium (Crustacea, Malacostraca). Beaufortia 21, 1-10] in estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing. The sensitivity of adults to the reference toxicant CdCl(2) was determined in water-only 96 h exposures in salinity 2. LC(50) values ranged from 0.33mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 22 degrees C to 0.57mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 15 degrees C. Adult survival was studied in control sediment with water salinity from 0 to 36 and with fine particles content (<63 microm) from 2% to 97% of total sediment, dry weight. Experiments were conducted at 15, 18 and 22 degrees C and the results indicate that the species can be used under the full salinity range although higher mortality was observed at the lower salinity in the higher water temperature, and at the higher salinity in the lower water temperature. The species also tolerated the studied range of sediment fines content and showed the highest sensitivity at intermediate values of fines, especially at the higher temperature, thus advising that tests which have to accommodate sediments with a wide range in fines content should preferably be conducted at 15 degrees C rather than at 22 degrees C. The response in natural sediments was studied in samples collected yearly from 1997 to 2006, at a site located off the Tagus Estuary, western Portugal. A major flood event in winter 2000-2001 induced detectable alterations in sediment baseline descriptors (grain-size, redox potential and total volatile solids), organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, DDT metabolites and gamma-HCH) and the macrofauna benthic community. Mortality of the amphipod diminished significantly from the before to the after flood period, in close agreement with diminishing sediment contamination and increasing benthic fauna diversity, in the same time period. C. multisetosum is suitable to conduct

  20. Effects of Acute Exposure to Sublethal Waterborne Cadmium on Energy Homeostasis in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Pi, Jie; Li, Xuelin; Zhang, Ting; Li, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    Effects of acute exposure to sublethal waterborne cadmium (Cd) on energy homeostasis in filter-feeding fishes have rarely been studied. The response patterns of energy substances were investigated in juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd for 96 h. The results showed the 96hLC50 of Cd on juvenile silver carp was 1.723 mg/L. Sublethal acute exposure of Cd significantly affected the energy homeostasis of juvenile silver carp, including increase in plasma glucose and lactate, and decrease in plasma triglyceride, muscle glycogen and triglyceride and liver glycogen. The results indicated that glycogen and triglyceride prior to protein were mobilized to meet the increased demands for detoxication and repair mechanism to sublethal waterborne Cd exposure, and glycogen level depleted faster and restored slower in the liver than in the white muscle in juvenile silver carp.

  1. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  2. Acute lethal and teratogenic effects of tributyltin chloride and copper chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Adema-Hannes, Rachel; Shenker, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were used to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride on mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos, a pelagic life stage often found in the surface microlayer where anthropogenic contaminants can accumulate. Acute bioassay testing determined the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test organism after 48 h of exposure. Chronic toxicity tests were used to determine the measurement of sublethal parameters, such as developmental abnormalities after 72-h exposures to the toxicants. Embryos were collected 4 h postfertilization and subsequently exposed to 1, 5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/L of copper chloride and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 50 microg/L of tributyltin chloride. Analysis of hatch rate percentage determined that the mean 48-h LC50 of copper chloride and tributyltin chloride was 32.8 and 16.7 microg/L, respectively, based on the pooled data of four experiments with four replicates for each metal. Consistent abnormalities, such as yolk sac swelling, spinal deformities, and decreased hatch rates, were observed for each metal. Teratogenic responses to copper chloride and tributyltin chloride demonstrate the need to investigate further the impacts of pollution in the open oceans to a species indigenous to, and commercially important to, the Florida (USA) coasts. This information could then lead to the future development of a surface microlayer bioassay using mahi mahi embryos.

  3. Acute toxicity of arsenic under different temperatures and salinity conditions on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Valentino-Álvarez, Jesús Alberto; Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acute toxicity in the post larvae of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 96 h of exposure to dissolved arsenic under three different temperatures and salinity conditions. Recent reports have shown an increase in the presence of this metalloid in coastal waters, estuaries, and lagoons along the Mexican coast. The white shrimp stands out for its adaptability to temperature and salinity changes and for being the main product for many commercial fisheries; it has the highest volume of oceanic capture and production in Mexican shrimp farms. Lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) were obtained at nine different combinations (3 × 3 combinations in total) of temperature (20, 25, and 30 °C) and salinity (17, 25, and 33) showing mean LC50-96 h values (±standard error) of 9.13 ± 0.76, 9.17 ± 0.56, and 6.23 ± 0.57 mgAs L(-1)(at 20 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); 12.29 ± 2.09, 8.70 ± 0.82, and 8.03 ± 0.59 mgAs L(-1) (at 25 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); and 7.84 ± 1.30, 8.49 ± 1.40, and 7.54 ± 0.51 mgAs L(-1) (at 30 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity), respectively. No significant differences were observed for the optimal temperature and isosmotic point of maintenance (25 °C-S 25) for the species, with respect to the other experimental conditions tested, except for at 20 °C-S 33, which was the most toxic. Toxicity under 20 °C-S 33 conditions was also higher than 25 °C-S 17 and 20 °C (S 17 or 25). The least toxic condition was 25 °C-S 17. All this suggests that the toxic effect of arsenic is not affected by temperature changes; it depends on the osmoregulatory pattern developed by the shrimp, either hyperosmotic at low salinity or hiposmotic at high salinity, as observed at least on the extreme salinity conditions here tested (17 and 33). However, further studies testing salinities near the isosmotic point (between 20 and 30 salinities) are needed to

  4. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Gaikowski, M P; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; McDonald, S F; Summers, C H

    1996-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13-32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19-32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135-787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168-2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519-6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50 for each formulation).

  5. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  6. Acute Toxicity of Endosulfan to the Non-target Organisms Hyalella curvispina and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Paracampo, Ariel; Demetrio, Pablo; Scalise, Ana; Solís, Marina; Fanelli, Silvia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Pesticide consumption in Argentina has steadily increased over the last two decades, while one of these compounds, namely endosulfan, is commonly found in environmental samples. Also the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and the amphipod Hyalella curvispina are widely distributed in agricultural areas of southern South America. The aim of the present contribution was therefore to determine the acute toxicity of endosulfan to both organisms, and compare it with species sensitivity distributions (SSD) and measured field concentrations. The 48 h-LC50 (with 95 % confidence limits) were 1.8 (1.6-2.1) µg/L for C. decemmaculatus and 16.4 (15.1-17.7) µg/L for H. curvispina. C. decemmaculatus was more sensitive than 74 % of fish based on the SSD. Endosulfan concentrations in stream water reported in the literature were often higher than the C. decemmaculatus LC50. It may hence be concluded that C. decemmaculatus is a suitable sentinel organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment in South America.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  8. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Wolf, R.E.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (???140 mg/L as CaCO 3) and soft water (???30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1,000 ??g/L) and soft water (0-250 ??g/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 ??g/L) and soft water (110 ??g/L). Following short-term (???3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 ??g/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LC50s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 ??g/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (<1 h) experimental gill Zn accumulation and predicted observed differences in accumulation between hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s). ?? 2009 SETAC.

  9. Preliminary ecological risk assessment of butylparaben and benzylparaben -1. Removal efficiency in wastewater treatment, acute/chronic toxicity for aquatic organisms, and effects on medaka gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikako; Hirata, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yudai; Kitani, Chise; Sekizawa, Jun; Uchida, Masaya; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Koshio, Masaaki; Hirai, Narisato; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2007-01-01

    Butylparaben and benzylparaben, used as preservatives mainly in cosmetic products, have recently been found to be weakly estrogenic. Batch activated-sludge treatment and batch chlorination were carried out to roughly determine the removal efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant. Combining the removal efficiency with the estimated annual consumption and the unaltered excretion ratio, the maximum predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), daphnia (Daphnia magna), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) for n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Medaka vitellogenin assays were also conducted for the three compounds and DNA microarray analysis was carried out to examine the effects of benzylparaben on gene expression. The plasma vitellogenin concentration of male medaka increased for concentrations of 200, 100, and 100 microg L(-1) n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben for 14 days, respectively, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as p53, cytochrome P450 3A40, and choriogenin-L increased for concentrations higher than 4 microg L(-1) of benzylparaben. Furthermore, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated using the lethal or effect concentration 50 (LC50 or EC50) values and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) obtained in the toxicity tests for these compounds. The maximum concentrations found in the aquatic environment or sewage effluent (MEC eff) were used to carry out preliminary environmental risk assessment. The calculated MEC/PNEC ratio suggests the necessity of further study such as a more detailed large-scale monitoring and chronic toxicity tests including reproduction inhibition and endocrine disruption.

  10. Valuing the Economic Costs of Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Bronchitis, and Asthma from Exposure to Indoor Dampness and Mold in the US.

    PubMed

    Mudarri, David H

    2016-01-01

    Two foundational methods for estimating the total economic burden of disease are cost of illness (COI) and willingness to pay (WTP). WTP measures the full cost to society, but WTP estimates are difficult to compute and rarely available. COI methods are more often used but less likely to reflect full costs. This paper attempts to estimate the full economic cost (2014$) of illnesses resulting from exposure to dampness and mold using COI methods and WTP where the data is available. A limited sensitivity analysis of alternative methods and assumptions demonstrates a wide potential range of estimates. In the final estimates, the total annual cost to society attributable to dampness and mold is estimated to be $3.7 (2.3-4.7) billion for allergic rhinitis, $1.9 (1.1-2.3) billion for acute bronchitis, $15.1 (9.4-20.6) billion for asthma morbidity, and $1.7 (0.4-4.5) billion for asthma mortality. The corresponding costs from all causes, not limited to dampness and mold, using the same approach would be $24.8 billion for allergic rhinitis, $13.5 billion for acute bronchitis, $94.5 billion for asthma morbidity, and $10.8 billion for asthma mortality.

  11. Valuing the Economic Costs of Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Bronchitis, and Asthma from Exposure to Indoor Dampness and Mold in the US

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two foundational methods for estimating the total economic burden of disease are cost of illness (COI) and willingness to pay (WTP). WTP measures the full cost to society, but WTP estimates are difficult to compute and rarely available. COI methods are more often used but less likely to reflect full costs. This paper attempts to estimate the full economic cost (2014$) of illnesses resulting from exposure to dampness and mold using COI methods and WTP where the data is available. A limited sensitivity analysis of alternative methods and assumptions demonstrates a wide potential range of estimates. In the final estimates, the total annual cost to society attributable to dampness and mold is estimated to be $3.7 (2.3–4.7) billion for allergic rhinitis, $1.9 (1.1–2.3) billion for acute bronchitis, $15.1 (9.4–20.6) billion for asthma morbidity, and $1.7 (0.4–4.5) billion for asthma mortality. The corresponding costs from all causes, not limited to dampness and mold, using the same approach would be $24.8 billion for allergic rhinitis, $13.5 billion for acute bronchitis, $94.5 billion for asthma morbidity, and $10.8 billion for asthma mortality. PMID:27313630

  12. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Martins, Camila De Martinez Gaspar; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; de Menezes, Eliana Jaime; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Wood, Chris M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2011-01-17

    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC(50) and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) μM Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) μM Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC(50) values were expressed as the free Cu(2+) ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) μM free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) μM free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu(2+) activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) μM Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) μM Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this "steady-state" period. This finding was corroborated by a significant

  14. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  15. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Qin; Du, Yang; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Jiang, Wen-Jing; Guo, Yan-Min; Lu, Xi-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Min; Sun, Li-Wei

    2016-09-19

    Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

  16. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong-Qin; Du, Yang; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Jiang, Wen-Jing; Guo, Yan-Min; Lu, Xi-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Min; Sun, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment. PMID:27657095

  17. Comparison of on-site and laboratory toxicity tests: derivation of site-specific criteria for un-ionized ammonia in a Colorado transitional stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, Del Wayne R.; Link, Denise; Parrish, Loys P.; Rodriguez, Glenn J.; Wuerthele, William; Davies, Patrick H.

    1989-01-01

    Acute tests with fathead minnows (Pimephales prornelas Rafinesque), johnny darters (Etheostoma nigrum Rafinesque), white suckers (Catostomus commersoni Lacépède) and acute and chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to evaluate whether characteristics of the St. Vrain River in Colorado would ameliorate or enhance toxicity of un-ionized ammonia compared to laboratory (well) water and LC50 values found in the literature. Concurrently, tests were conducted on dilutions of Longmont, Colorado, wastewater to evaluate its toxicity in differing ammonia concentrations. Tests were conducted at two temperatures (approximately 6 and 20°C) to simulate seasonal differences. LC50s for fishes in the St. Vrain River water were similar to LC50s in laboratory water, indicating there was no site water effect. LC50s derived for fishes tested in warm conditions were within a factor of about two or three of literature values. However, the constituents in or characteristics of the wastewater appeared to enhance ammonia toxicity. Literature values (LC50s) for resident aquatic organisms and the new LC50 value for johnny darters tested on-site were used to derive site-specific criteria for un-ionized ammonia. Greater sensitivities of species to ammonia at cold versus warm temperatures suggests that colder, low-flow conditions may be a critical period for warm-water aquatic communities with regard to ammonia toxicity.

  18. [Value of intestinal decontamination by traditional Chinese medicine-X in the prevention of bacterial translocation complicated by severe acute pancreatitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Qiao, A; Zhang, Z; Liu, X; Jiang, J

    2000-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese Medicine-X in preventing the necrotic infection of the pancreas in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty rats were randomly divided into five groups with 12 rats in each one: (1) normal control, (2) SAP + 0.9% normal saline (1 ml x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1), (3) SAP + gentamycin (2000 u x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1), (4) SAP + TCM-X (1.0 g x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1), and (5) SAP + gentamycin (2000 u x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1) + TCM-X (1.0 g x 100 g-1 x 24 h-1). The medicines were given by way of gastrotube, once every 24 hours, twice in all. Pancreatitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 500 mg.100 g-1 of L-arginine. Serum endotoxin were observed and the clone forming units from mesenteric lymphnode and pancreas were obtained after 48 hours treatment. 96 hours after the experiment, the bacteria found in the mesenteric lymphnodes and pancreas in groups three, four and five were reduced as compared to that in group two; the levels of serum endotoxin were reduced, too. These data indicate that TCM-X and gentamycin in decontamination by way of gastrotube are effective in preventing bacterial translocation complicated by SAP, and the effect of TCM-X is stronger than that of gentamycin.

  19. The value of molecular stratification for CEBPA(DM) and NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) genotypes in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Glenda J; Bustraan, Sophia; Hills, Robert K; Ali, Akbar; Goldstone, Anthony H; Burnett, Alan K; Linch, David C; Gale, Rosemary E

    2016-02-01

    Older adult patients (≥60 years) with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are generally considered to be poor-risk and there is limited information available regarding risk stratification based on molecular characterization in this age group, particularly for the double-mutant CEBPA (CEBPA(DM) ) genotype. To investigate whether a molecular favourable-risk genotype can be identified, we investigated CEBPA, NPM1 and FLT3 status and prognostic impact in a cohort of 301 patients aged 60 years or more with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, all treated intensively. Overall survival (OS) at 1 year was highest in the 12 patients (4%) that were CEBPA(DM) compared to the 76 (28%) with a mutant NPM1 and wild-type FLT3 (NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) ) genotype or all other patients (75%, 54%, 33% respectively), with median survival 15·2, 13·6 and 6·6 months, although the benefit was short-term (OS at 3 years 17%, 29%, 12% respectively). Combination of the CEBPA(DM) and NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) genotype patients defined a molecular group with favourable prognosis (P < 0·0001 in multivariate analysis), with 57% of patients alive at 1 year compared to 33% for all other patients. Knowledge of genotype in older cytogenetically intermediate-risk patients might influence therapy decisions.

  20. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use.

  1. PREDICTION OF POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSE FROM MYSID TOXICITY TEST DATA USING POPULATION MODEL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic bioassay statistics are used to evaluate the toxicity and the risks of chemical stressors to mysid shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). These include LC50 values from acute tests, chronic values (the geometric mean of the no-obsderved-effect co...

  2. Predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a comparison with the GRACE and TIMI risk scores

    PubMed Central

    Schellings, Dirk AAM; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, AT Marcel; Kedhi, Elvin; Roolvink, Vincent; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; van’t Hof, Arnoud WJ

    2016-01-01

    Background The biomarker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Whether NT-proBNP has incremental prognostic value beyond established risk strategies is still questionable. Purpose To evaluate the predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality over and beyond the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores in patients with NSTE-ACS. Methods Patients included in our ACS registry were candidates. NT-proBNP levels on admission were measured and the GRACE and TIMI risk scores were assessed. We compared the predictive value of NT-proBNP to both risk scores and evaluated whether NT-proBNP improves prognostication by using receiver operator curves and measures of discrimination improvement. Results A total of 1324 patients were included and 50 patients died during follow-up. On logistic regression analysis NT-proBNP and the GRACE risk score (but not the TIMI risk score) both independently predicted mortality at 30 days. The predictive value of NT-proBNP did not differ significantly compared to the GRACE risk score (area under the curve [AUC]) 0.85 vs 0.87 p=0.67) but was considerably higher in comparison to the TIMI risk score (AUC 0.60 p<0.001). Adjustment of the GRACE risk score by adding NT-proBNP did not improve prognostication: AUC 0.86 (p=0.57), integrated discrimination improvement 0.04 (p=0.003), net reclassification improvement 0.12 (p=0.21). Conclusion In patients with NSTE-ACS, NT-proBNP and the GRACE risk score (but not the TIMI risk score) both have good and comparable predictive value for 30-day mortality. However, incremental prognostic value of NT-proBNP beyond the GRACE risk score could not be demonstrated. PMID:27920547

  3. Adult Acute Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K.; Wells, D. G.; Clink, H. McD.; Kay, H. E. M.; Powles, R.; McElwain, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Seventy-eight adult patients with acute leukaemia were classified cytologically into 3 categories: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) or acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL). The periodic acid-Schiff stain was of little value in differentiating the 3 groups. The treatment response in each group was different: 94% of patients with ALL (16/17) achieved complete remission with prednisone, vincristine and other drugs in standard use in childhood ALL; 59% of patients with AML (27/46) achieved complete remission with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin (22 patients), or 6-thioguanine and cyclophosphamide (2 patients), 6-thioguanine, cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin (1 patient), and cytosine and Adriamycin (1 patient); only 2 out of 14 patients (14%) with acute undifferentiated leukaemia achieved complete remission using cytosine and daunorubicin after an initial trial of prednisone and vincristine had failed. Prednisone and vincristine would seem to be of no value in acute undifferentiated leukaemia. It would seem also that no benefit is obtained by classifying all patients with acute leukaemia over 20 years of age as “adult acute leukaemia” and treating them with the same polypharmaceutical regimen. The problems posed by each disease are different and such a policy serves only to obscure them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4141625

  4. The Value of Botox-A in Acute Radiation Proctitis: Results From a Phase I/II Study Using a Three-Dimensional Scoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vuong, Te; Waschke, Kevin; Niazi, Tamim; Richard, Carole; Parent, Josee; Liberman, Sender; Mayrand, Serge; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis (ARP) is a common side effect of pelvic radiotherapy, and its management is challenging in daily practice. The present phase I/II study evaluates the safety and efficacy of the botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in ARP treatment for rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant high-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients, treated with neoadjuvant HDREBT, 26-Gy in 4 fractions, received the study treatment that consisted of a single injection of BTX-A into the rectal wall. The injection was performed post-HDREBT and prior to the development of ARP. The control group, 20 such patients, did not receive the BTX-A injection. Both groups had access to standard treatment with hydrocortisone rectal aerosol foam (Cortifoam) and anti-inflammatory and narcotic medication. The ARP was clinically evaluated by self-administered daily questionnaires using visual analog scores to document frequency and urgency of bowel movements, rectal burning/tenesmus, and pain symptoms before and after HDREBT. Results: At the time of this analysis, there was no observed systemic toxicity. Patient compliance with the self-administered questionnaire was 100% from week 1 to 4, 70% during week 5, and 40% during week 6. The maximum tolerated dose was established at the 100-U dose level, and noticeable mean differences were observed in bowel frequency (p = 0.016), urgency (p = 0.007), and pain (p = 0.078). Conclusions: This study confirms the feasibility and efficacy of BTX-A intervention at 100-U dose level for study patients compared to control patients. A phase III study with this dose level is planned to validate these results.

  5. mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2.

    PubMed

    Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Abedi, Marjan; Entezar-E-Ghaem, Mansureh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Montazeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy.

  6. mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2

    PubMed Central

    Rahgozar, Soheila; Moafi, Alireza; Abedi, Marjan; Entezar-e-ghaem, Mansureh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Montazeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy. PMID:24145140

  7. Prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with favorable cytogenetics [t(8;21) and inv(16)].

    PubMed

    Perea, G; Lasa, A; Aventín, A; Domingo, A; Villamor, N; Queipo de Llano, M Paz; Llorente, A; Juncà, J; Palacios, C; Fernández, C; Gallart, M; Font, L; Tormo, M; Florensa, L; Bargay, J; Martí, J M; Vivancos, P; Torres, P; Berlanga, J J; Badell, I; Brunet, S; Sierra, J; Nomdedéu, J F

    2006-01-01

    Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and t(8;21) or inv(16) have a good prognosis with current anthracycline- and cytarabine-based protocols. Tandem analysis with flow cytometry (FC) and real-time RT-PCR (RQ-PCR) was applied to 55 patients, 28 harboring a t(8;21) and 27 an inv(16), including one case with a novel CBFbeta/MYH11 transcript. A total of 31% (n=17) of CR patients relapsed: seven with t(8;21) and 10 with inv(16). The mean amount of minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by FC in relapsed and nonrelapsed patients was markedly different: 0.3 vs 0.08% (P=0.002) at the end of treatment. The mean number of fusion transcript copies/ ABL x 10(4) also differed between relapsed and non-relapsed patients: 2385 vs 122 (P=0.001) after induction, 56 vs 7.6 after intensification (P=0.0001) and 75 vs 3.3 (P=0.0001) at the end of chemotherapy. Relapses were more common in patients with FC MRD level >0.1% at the end of treatment than in patients with < or = 0.1%: cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 67 and 21% (P=0.03), respectively. Likewise, using RQ-PCR, a cutoff level of >10 copies at the end of treatment correlated with a high risk of relapse: CIR was 75% for patients with RQ-PCR >10 compared to 21% for patients with RQ-PCR levels < or = 10 (P=0.04). Combined use of FC and RQ-PCR may improve MRD detection, and provide useful clinical information on relapse kinetics in AML patients.

  8. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Theodore B; Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Armbrust, Kevin L; Black, Marsha C

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of surface waters by pharmaceutical chemicals has raised concern among environmental scientists because of the potential for negative effects on aquatic organisms. Of particular importance are pharmaceutical compounds that affect the nervous or endocrine systems because effects on aquatic organisms are possible at low environmental concentrations. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs used to treat clinical depression in humans, and have been detected in low concentrations in surface waters. In this investigation, the acute and chronic toxicity of five SSRIs (fluoxetine, Prozac; fluvoxamine, Luvox; paroxetine, Paxil; citalopram, Celexa; and sertraline, Zoloft) were evaluated in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. For each SSRI, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined in three static tests with neonate C. dubia, and chronic (8-d) tests were conducted to determine no-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentrations (LOEC) for reproduction endpoints. The 48-h LC50 for the SSRIs ranged from 0.12 to 3.90 mg/L and the order of toxicity of the compounds was (lowest to highest): Citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline. Mortality data for the 8-d chronic tests were similar to the 48-h acute data. The SSRIs negatively affected C. dubia reproduction by reducing the number of neonates per female, and for some SSRIs, by reducing the number of broods per female. For sertraline, the most toxic SSRI, the LOEC for the number of neonates per female was 0.045 mg/L and the NOEC was 0.009 mg/L. Results indicate that SSRIs can impact survival and reproduction of C. dubia; however, only at concentrations that are considerably higher than those expected in the environment.

  10. Acute toxicity, uptake and accumulation kinetics of nickel in an invasive copepod species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami

    2016-02-01

    Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel.

  11. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  12. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite on mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda, Ucididae).

    PubMed

    Pedale, Adriana B; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-12-01

    The sodium metabisulphite salt is usually used in shrimp culture to prevent black spot. Unfortunately the toxicological effect of this xenobiotic in decapod crabs is unknown. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the sodium metabisulphite LC(50) - 96 h in the mangrove species Ucides cordatus. Crabs were collected in the tidal creek margins in Bragança estuarine and were submitted to preliminary test (screening) and posterior definitive test. Crabs were exposed in five different concentrations and a control group in five replicates, two crabs per recipient (5 L) during 96 hours. A negative correlation was observed to sodium metabisulphite concentration in relation to dissolved oxygen and pH. At the end of the experiment were obtained the following mortality index in relation to sodium metabisulphite concentrations: 100% in 86.0 mg.L(-1), 74% in 62.0 mg.L(-1), 52% in 52.0 mg.L(-1), 44% in 38.0 mg.L(-1). The value of LC(50) - 96 h for U. cordatus was determinate at 42.58 mg.L(-1)/Na(2)S(2)O(5). The results strongly indicate that sodium metabisulphite is toxic for U. cordatus, and this crab could be used for biomonitoring the environmental impact.

  13. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    PubMed

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F

    1996-02-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  14. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  15. Value of Neutrophil Counts in Predicting Surgery-Related Acute Kidney Injury and the Interaction of These Counts With Diabetes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Xing; Liu, Xin-yao; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Ya-ping; Kuang, Ze-min; Cao, Dongsheng; Chen, Alex F.; Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a component of routine blood cell analyses, the quantity of neutrophils present is a proven predictor of morbidity and mortality in several clinical settings. However, whether episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with higher neutrophil counts in vulnerable groups, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between neutrophil counts and the incidence of surgery-related AKI in CKD patients with hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort study of the relationship between neutrophils and surgery-related AKI. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In total, 119 (11.9%) of 998 patients experienced surgery-related AKI during hospitalization from October 2008 to February 2013. We divided patients into 4 quartiles according to their neutrophil counts. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the patients in the 4th quartile of neutrophil counts had greater ORs for AKI compared to those in the 1st quartile. The incidence of AKI increased 1.59-fold for those patients with neutrophil counts ≥6.30 × 109/L. There was a positive linear association between the neutrophil count upon admission and the predicted probability of AKI. The cross-validation revealed a statistically significant predictive accuracy for AKI (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.67–0.69). The interaction analyses revealed that higher neutrophil counts are associated with a heightened risk of AKI in the presence of diabetes (OR = 3.38, 95% CI, 1.06–10.80). There were no interactions between neutrophil counts and age (P = 0.371), sex (P = 0.335), estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.487), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.950), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.977), the presence of chronic heart failure (P = 0.226), or sepsis (P = 0.796). The neutrophil count upon

  16. Human health screening level risk assessments of tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC): calculated acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) values based on toxicity and exposure scenario evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S; Banton, Marcy I; Faber, Willem D; Kirman, Christopher R; McGregor, Douglas B; Pourreau, Daniel B

    2015-02-01

    A screening level risk assessment has been performed for tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) examining its primary uses as a solvent in industrial and consumer products. Hazard quotients (HQ) were developed by merging TBAC animal toxicity and dose-response data with population-level, occupational and consumer exposure scenarios. TBAC has a low order of toxicity following subchronic inhalation exposure, and neurobehavioral changes (hyperactivity) in mice observed immediately after termination of exposure were used as conservative endpoints for derivation of acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) values. TBAC is not genotoxic but has not been tested for carcinogenicity. However, TBAC is unlikely to be a human carcinogen in that its non-genotoxic metabolic surrogates tertiary-butanol (TBA) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) produce only male rat α-2u-globulin-mediated kidney cancer and high-dose specific mouse thyroid tumors, both of which have little qualitative or quantitative relevance to humans. Benchmark dose (BMD)-modeling of the neurobehavioral responses yielded acute and chronic RfC values of 1.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. After conservative modeling of general population and near-source occupational and consumer product exposure scenarios, almost all HQs were substantially less than 1. HQs exceeding 1 were limited to consumer use of automotive products and paints in a poorly ventilated garage-sized room (HQ = 313) and occupational exposures in small and large brake shops using no personal protective equipment or ventilation controls (HQs = 3.4-126.6). The screening level risk assessments confirm low human health concerns with most uses of TBAC and indicate that further data-informed refinements can address problematic health/exposure scenarios. The assessments also illustrate how tier-based risk assessments using read-across toxicity information to metabolic surrogates reduce the need for comprehensive animal testing.

  17. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of copper in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri under different pH values: Impacts of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Yang, Shaogui; Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Jiaoqin; Wang, Zunyao; Sun, Cheng

    2016-03-15

    Aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (L. hoffmeisteri) has been commonly used as a lethal and/or sub-lethal toxicological model organism in ecological risk assessments in contaminated water environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the potential toxic effects of copper (Cu(II)) with or without perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) under different pH values (6.0, 7.0 and 8.0) on LC50, bioaccumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in L. hoffmeisteri after 3 and 7 days. The LC50 values of Cu(II) decreased with the increasing pH and the addition of PFOS. After each exposure, increasing bioaccumulation of Cu(II) in L. hoffmeisteri was observed in the combined exposure treatments, whereas the bioaccumulation of PFOS decreased. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase, the level of glutathione, and the content of malondialdehyde were significantly altered after these exposures, possibly indicating that the bioaccumulation of Cu(II) and PFOS caused adverse effects on antioxidant defenses of L. hoffmeisteri. The integrated biomarker response index, indicates that the combined effect was proposed as synergism, which is coincided with the results of toxic unit. Moreover, this work showed that aquatic environment may become more livable when water conditions changed from acidic to near-neutral or alkaline.

  18. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  19. Acute toxicity of ammonia (NH3-N) in sewage effluent to Chironomus riparius: II. Using a generalized linear model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monda, D.P.; Galat, D.L.; Finger, S.E.; Kaiser, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Toxicity of un-ionized ammonia (NH3-N) to the midge, Chironomus riparius was compared, using laboratory culture (well) water and sewage effluent (≈0.4 mg/L NH3-N) in two 96-h, static-renewal toxicity experiments. A generalized linear model was used for data analysis. For the first and second experiments, respectively, LC50 values were 9.4 mg/L (Test 1A) and 6.6 mg/L (Test 2A) for ammonia in well water, and 7.8 mg/L (Test 1B) and 4.1 mg/L (Test 2B) for ammonia in sewage effluent. Slopes of dose-response curves for Tests 1A and 2A were equal, but mortality occurred at lower NH3-N concentrations in Test 2A (unequal intercepts). Response ofC. riparius to NH3 in effluent was not consistent; dose-response curves for tests 1B and 2B differed in slope and intercept. Nevertheless, C. riparius was more sensitive to ammonia in effluent than in well water in both experiments, indicating a synergistic effect of ammonia in sewage effluent. These results demonstrate the advantages of analyzing the organisms entire range of response, as opposed to generating LC50 values, which represent only one point on the dose-response curve.

  20. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  1. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    PubMed

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as < 4 days, application of B[a]P induced decrease of zooplankton abundance. However, the recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary.

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  3. Effects of platinum (Pt4+) on Lumbriculus variegatus Müller (Annelida, Oligochaetae): acute toxicity and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Veltz, I; Arsac, F; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Habets, F; Lechenault, H; Vernet, G

    1996-07-01

    The acute toxicity and bioaccumulation (rates, kinetic) of tetravalent platinum in Lumbriculus variegatus under different physicochemical conditions (temperature and total water hardness) were investigated. Increased Pt4+ concentration (from 0.05 to 50 mg/L), exposure (up to 30 days), temperature (from 4 to 20 degrees C) and decreasing water hardness (from 300 to 0 mg/L CaCO3) increased Pt toxicity. The metal accumulated at a constant rate that was concentration, temperature and time dependent. The median lethal concentration (96h LC50) varied greatly from 0.397 mg/L in distilled water to 30 mg/L in the hard water from Champagne. Thus, L. var. can tolerate high levels of Pt. As a result, L. var. can be used in the laboratory to analyze mechanisms of adaptation to the induced stress and in the field as an indicator of Pt pollution.

  4. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  5. Pathology of acute inhalation exposure to 3-methylfuran in the rat and hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Haschek, W.M.; Morse, C.C.; Boyd, M.R.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Witschi, H.P.

    1983-12-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3MF) was investigated in SPF Fischer-derived and CD/CR rats, and golden Syrian hamsters by determination of the 2-week LC50, and by histologic examination of animals killed 1, 3, and 14 days following a 1-hr exposure to 148 and 322 mumole 3MF/liter for CD/CR rats and hamsters, respectively. The Fischer-derived rat was more sensitive to 3MF-induced lethality than the CD/CR rat with an LC50 in the male rat of 81 mumole/liter-1 hr as compared to 222 mumole/liter-1 hr. No sex difference was found. The hamster was relatively resistant with no lethality at 322 mumole 3MF/liter-2 hr. Pulmonary damage was present in both species. In the hamster, selective necrosis of nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells was seen at 1 day with virtually complete regeneration by 14 days whereas in the rat the bronchiolar epithelial damage was more extensive and was followed by scattered peribronchiolar fibrosis and epithelial mucous metaplasia suggestive of ''small airway disease'' of man. Relatively selective 3MF-induced necrosis of olfactory epithelium occurred in the nasal mucosa of both species. Resolution of this lesion was seen by 14 days in the hamster. In the rat, however, the necrosis was much more extensive and was followed by partially occlusive fibrosis of the nasal cavity as seen at 14 days. 3MF also induced centrilobular hepatic necrosis in both species. In the rat, lymphocyte necrosis in the thymus and spleen, and esophageal necrosis was also seen.

  6. Development of a general baseline toxicity QSAR model for the fish embryo acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Vogs, Carolina; Altenburger, Rolf; Escher, Beate I; Scholz, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Fish embryos have become a popular model in ecotoxicology and toxicology. The fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish embryo was recently adopted by the OECD as technical guideline TG 236 and a large database of concentrations causing 50% lethality (LC50) is available in the literature. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) of baseline toxicity (also called narcosis) are helpful to estimate the minimum toxicity of chemicals to be tested and to identify excess toxicity in existing data sets. Here, we analyzed an existing fish embryo toxicity database and established a QSAR for fish embryo LC50 using chemicals that were independently classified to act according to the non-specific mode of action of baseline toxicity. The octanol-water partition coefficient Kow is commonly applied to discriminate between non-polar and polar narcotics. Replacing the Kow by the liposome-water partition coefficient Klipw yielded a common QSAR for polar and non-polar baseline toxicants. This developed baseline toxicity QSAR was applied to compare the final mode of action (MOA) assignment of 132 chemicals. Further, we included the analysis of internal lethal concentration (ILC50) and chemical activity (La50) as complementary approaches to evaluate the robustness of the FET baseline toxicity. The analysis of the FET dataset revealed that specifically acting and reactive chemicals converged towards the baseline toxicity QSAR with increasing hydrophobicity. The developed FET baseline toxicity QSAR can be used to identify specifically acting or reactive compounds by determination of the toxic ratio and in combination with appropriate endpoints to infer the MOA for chemicals.

  7. [Establishment of a cut-off value for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction using a new CK-MB activity measurement reagent containing anti-MtCK antibody].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Mariko; Kodama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Risa; Asada, Takashi; Sano, Takahiro; Sano, Michitaka; Kamakura, Shiro; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    CK-MB is an important marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Since mitochondrial CK (MtCK) is universally present in the blood of healthy individuals, it is known to positively affect the measurement of CK-MB using the immunoinhibition method, causing false-positive results. We performed basic evaluation of ACCURAS AUTO CK-MB MtO, a new reagent containing anti-MtCK antibody that inhibits MtCK activity, and attempted to calculate a cut-off CK-MB level to diagnose AMI. The measurement was performed in samples submitted to the Clinical Laboratory of our center for the measurement of CK-MB. This method was confirmed to have satisfactory basic attributes concerning the reproducibility, linearity, lower detection limit, and effects of interfering substances. When 2886 samples were examined using this and conventional methods, the results of the two methods were correlated in some but not in others. In the samples that showed no correlation, MtCK was demonstrated by isozyme analysis using electrophoresis. The AUC calculated from the ROC curve in AMI patients was 0.912 with this method and 0.861 with the conventional method. The sensitivity and specificity of the new method were higher than those of the conventional method. The cut-off value determined by ROC analysis was 7.7 U/l using the new method and 13.6 U/l using the conventional method, causing an increase in false-positive results compared with the cut off value of 25 U/l widely used for the conventional method to date. However, the cut-off value for the new method that yielded a specificity comparable to 99.1%, which is the specificity of the conventional method using a cut-off value of 25 U/l, was 12 U/l. With a cut-off value of 12 U/l, the sensitivity was improved compared with that employing the conventional method, and both the sensitivity and specificity became comparable to those of the CK-MB mass method. This method is very useful for the accurate measurement of CK-MB activity.

  8. Acute Toxicity of Nitrite to Various Life Stages of the Amazon River Prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum, Heller, 1862.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Vaz Dos Santos, André Martins; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Brazão, Claudia Caramelo; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2016-11-01

    This study determined the effects of nitrite on different life stages of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Prawns of each life stage (postlarvae, juveniles and adults) were stocked in 24 experimental units (n = 10 prawns), under a complete randomized design. Individuals were exposed to nitrite (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg L(-1)). The median lethal concentration after 96 h (96 h LC50) was calculated through the Weibull I. The mortality results showed that M. amazonicum is slightly less tolerant to nitrite than other species of Macrobrachium. The 96 h LC50 for postlarvae, juveniles and adults of M. amazonicum were of 1.49, 2.36 and 2.34 mg nitrite/L, respectively. Nitrite intoxication risk quotient suggest moderated risk to low risk to the species. Usually in production systems nitrite values are lower than safe levels suggested in this study (0.1 mg L(-1) to postlarvae and 0.2 mg L(-1) nitrite to juvenile and adults), which makes our results appropriate for the production of this species.

  9. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  10. Fractionating nanosilver: importance for determining toxicity to aquatic test organisms.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Hull, Matthew S; Bednar, Anthony J; Goss, Jennifer D; Gunter, Jonas C; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Vikesland, Peter J; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-15

    This investigation applied novel techniques for characterizing and fractionating nanosilver particles and aggregates and relating these measurements to toxicological endpoints. The acute toxicity of eight nanosilver suspensions of varying primary particle sizes (10-80 nm) and coatings (citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, EDTA, proprietary) was assessed using three aquatic test organisms (Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). When 48-h lethal median concentrations (LC50) were expressed as total silver, both D. magna and P. promelas were significantly more sensitive to ionic silver (Ag(+)) as AgNO(3) (mean LC50 = 1.2 and 6.3 μg/L, respectively) relative to a wide range in LC50 values determined for the nanosilver suspensions (2 -126 μg/L). However, when LC50 values for nanosilver suspensions were expressed as fractionated nanosilver (Ag(+) and/or <4 nm particles), determined by ultracentrifugation of particles and confirmed field-flow-fractograms, the LC50 values (0.3-5.6 μg/L) were comparable to the values obtained for ionic Ag(+) as AgNO(3). These results suggest that dissolved Ag(+) plays a critical role in acute toxicity and underscores the importance of characterizing dissolved fractions in nanometal suspensions.

  11. Toxicity assessment and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae acutely exposed to bisphenol A, endosulfan, heptachlor, methoxychlor and tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wing Shan; Chan, Winson Ka-Lun; Chan, King Ming

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants, such as tetrabromobisphenol A and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pose an environmental hazard owing to their persistence, low solubility and estrogenic effects, and concerns have been raised regarding their effects on aquatic biota. In the present study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were used as a model to investigate the sublethal and lethal effects of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely methoxychlor, endosulfan and heptachlor, as well as the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A, and its precursor compound bisphenol A. Preliminary data for chemical exposure tests were obtained by determining the 96 h median effective concentration EC50 (hatching rate) and 96 h median lethal concentration LC50 . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the gene expression levels of the biomarker vitellogenin (vtg1) after 96 h exposures to 10, 25, 50 and 75% of the 96 h EC50 value for embryos and 96 h LC50 value for larvae. The use of vtg1 mRNA induction in zebrafish embryos and larvae was found to be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to these organic compounds, and was helpful in elucidating their adverse effects and setting water quality guidelines.

  12. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  13. Acute toxicity assessment of Polish (waste) water with a microplate-based Hydra attenuata assay: a comparison with the Microtox test.

    PubMed

    Pardos, M; Benninghoff, C; Guéguen, C; Thomas, R; Dobrowolski, J; Dominik, J

    1999-12-15

    The use of Hydra attenuata in acute toxicity assessment is a potentially useful tool in (waste) water biomonitoring. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of H. attenuata with the extensively used Microtox test on 14 (waste) water samples from the Kraków region (South Poland). To this end, specific morphological changes displayed by the freshwater cnidarian Hydra attenuata (lethal LC50s and sublethal EC50s effects) and bioluminescence of the marine bacteria Vibrio fisheri (Microtox) were compared. Clearly, the Hydra assay was the more sensitive indicator of toxicity. No relationship was found among Hydra toxicological responses and water levels of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn. However, it appeared that toxicity to Hydra might be due to ammonia levels. Additional studies to better circumscribe the tolerance of H. attenuata to 'natural' water characteristics are needed.

  14. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

    2013-07-01

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25 µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation.

  15. 40 CFR 158.630 - Terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LC50, two avian reproduction studies, two freshwater fish LC50, one freshwater invertebrate EC50, one honeybee acute contact LD50, one freshwater fish early-life stage, one freshwater invertebrate life cycle, and three estuarine acute LC50/EC50 studies -- fish, mollusk and invertebrate. All other...

  16. 40 CFR 158.630 - Terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LC50, two avian reproduction studies, two freshwater fish LC50, one freshwater invertebrate EC50, one honeybee acute contact LD50, one freshwater fish early-life stage, one freshwater invertebrate life cycle, and three estuarine acute LC50/EC50 studies -- fish, mollusk and invertebrate. All other...

  17. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  18. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  19. Oxidative DNA damage after acute exposure to arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid in biomethylation-deficient human cells.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Ruben; Kojima, Chikara; Tokar, Erik J; Person, Rachel J; Xu, Yuanyuan; Qu, Wei; Waalkes, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    The carcinogen inorganic arsenic (iAs) undergoes biomethylation (BMT) in some cells. The methylated metabolite, monomethylarsonous (MMA(3+)), may cause oxidative DNA damage (ODD). With chronic iAs exposure, BMT-competent cells show ODD while BMT-deficient do not. To further define these events, we studied ODD produced by acute iAs or MMA(3+) in the BMT-deficient human prostate cell line, RWPE-1. ODD, measured by the immuno-spin trapping method, was assessed after exposure to iAs or MMA(3+) alone, with the arsenic BMT inhibitor selenite or after glutathione (GSH) depletion. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (HO-1, SOD-1, SOD-2, Nrf2 and Keap-1) was also assessed. Exposure to iAs at 24 h (0-20 µM), stimulated ODD only at levels above the LC50 of a 48 h exposure (17 µM). If iAs induced ODD, it also activated oxidative stress-related genes. Selenium did not alter iAs-induced ODD. MMA(3+) at 24 h (0-0.5 µM) caused ODD at levels below the LC50 of a 48 h exposure (1.5 µM), which were greatly increased by GSH depletion but not selenite. MMA(3+) induced ODD at levels not activating oxidant stress response genes. Overall, iAs induced ODD in BMT-deficient cells only at toxic levels. MMA(3+) caused ODD at non-toxic levels, independently of cellular BMT capacity and in a fashion not requiring further BMT.

  20. [Acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Mayer, K; Askevold, I; Collet, P; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Padberg, W; Hecker, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with individually differing expression of systemic involvement. For this reason early diagnosis with subsequent risk stratification is essential in the clinical management of this frequent gastroenterological disorder. Severe forms of acute pancreatitis occur in approximately 20 % of cases often requiring intensive care monitoring and interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. In the acute phase adequate fluid replacement and sufficient analgesic therapy is of major therapeutic importance. Concerning the administration of antibiotics and the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis a change in paradigms could be observed in recent years. Furthermore, endoscopic, radiological or surgical interventions can be necessary depending on the severity of the disease and potential complications.

  1. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a cough and coughing up mucus. Acute means the symptoms ... diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus on most days for at least ...

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...

  3. Comparing median lethal concentration values using confidence interval overlap or ratio tests.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew W; Park, Robert M; Bailer, A John

    2006-05-01

    Experimenters in toxicology often compare the concentration-response relationship between two distinct populations using the median lethal concentration (LC50). This comparison is sometimes done by calculating the 95% confidence interval for the LC50 for each population, concluding that no significant difference exists if the two confidence intervals overlap. A more appropriate test compares the ratio of the LC50s to 1 or the log(LC50 ratio) to 0. In this ratio test, we conclude that no difference exists in LC50s if the confidence interval for the ratio of the LC50s contains 1 or the confidence interval for the log(LC50 ratio) contains 0. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the confidence interval overlap test to the ratio test. The confidence interval overlap test performs substantially below the nominal alpha = 0.05 level, closer to p = 0.005; therefore, it has considerably less power for detecting true differences compared to the ratio test. The ratio-based method exhibited better type I error rates and superior power properties in comparison to the confidence interval overlap test. Thus, a ratio-based statistical procedure is preferred to using simple overlap of two independently derived confidence intervals.

  4. Prognostic value of clinical variables at presentation in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: results of the Proyecto de Estudio del Pronóstico de la Angina (PEPA).

    PubMed

    López de Sá, Esteban; López-Sendón, José; Anguera, Ignasi; Bethencourt, Armando; Bosch, Xavier

    2002-11-01

    Patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) constitute a heterogeneous population with variable outcomes. Risk stratification in this population of patients is difficult due to the complexity in patient risk profile. We conducted this study to characterize the value of clinical and electrocardiographic variables for risk stratification in an unselected population of consecutive patients with NSTEACS on admission. Thirty-five clinical and electrocardiographic variables at presentation in the emergency room of 18 hospitals were prospectively analyzed in 4,115 patients with NSTEACS and related with the outcomes at 90 days. We also developed a risk score using the variables found to be independent predictors of ischemic events to facilitate risk stratification. Cardiovascular mortality was 4.3% and the rate for the outcome of either cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was 6.9%. The only independent predictors of mortality were age, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, postinfarction angina, Killip class > or = 2, ST-segment depression, and elevation of cardiac markers. A risk profile using the variables found to be independent predictors of events was calculated for cardiovascular mortality and for the combination of either death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Event rates increased significantly in all subgroups of patients based on the number of independent risk factors as the risk score increased. Using these factors, 90-day mortality ranged from as low as 0.4% in patients with no risk factors to 21.1% for those with more than 4 risk factors. In conclusion, simple clinical and electrocardiographic data obtained at hospital admission allow an accurate risk stratification of patients with NSTEACS. In the PEPA registry, simple variables easy to obtain at admission appear to be a valuable tool in discerning between patients at very low and very high risk according to the cluster of factors for each patient

  5. Interaction of exposure concentration and duration in determining acute toxic effects of sarin vapor in rats.

    PubMed

    Mioduszewski, R; Manthei, J; Way, R; Burnett, D; Gaviola, B; Muse, W; Thomson, S; Sommerville, D; Crosier, R

    2002-04-01

    Sarin (GB) vapor exposure is associated with both systemic and local toxic effects occurring primarily via the inhalation and ocular routes. The objective of these studies was to develop models for predicting dose-response effects of GB vapor concentrations as a function of exposure duration. Thus, the probability of GB vapor-induced lethality was estimated in rats exposed to various combinations of exposure concentration and duration. Groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of a series of GB vapor concentrations for a single duration (5-360 min) in a whole-body dynamic chamber. The onset of clinical signs and changes in blood cholinesterase activity were measured with each exposure. Separate effective concentrations for lethality in 50% of the exposed population (LC50) and corresponding dose-response slopes were determined for each exposure duration by the Bliss probit method. Contrary to that predicted by Haber's rule, the interaction of LC50 x time (LCT50) values increased with exposure duration (i.e., the CT for 50% lethality in the exposed population and corresponding dose-response slope was not constant over time). A plot of log (LCT50) versus log (exposure time) showed significant curvature. Predictive models derived from multifactor probit analysis of results describing the relationship between exposure conditions and probability of lethality in the rat are discussed. Overall, female rats were more sensitive to GB vapor toxicity than male rats over the range of exposure concentration and duration studied. Miosis was the initial clinical sign noted after the start of GB vapor exposure. Although blood cholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited by GB vapor exposure, poor correlation between cholinesterase inhibition and exposure conditions or cholinesterase inhibition and severity of clinical signs was noted.

  6. Acute toxicity of interstitial and particle-bound cadmium to a marine infaunal amphipod

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Swartz, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The relative acute toxicity of particle-bound and dissolved interstitial cadmium was investigated using a new bioassay procedure. Interstitial concentration of Cd was controlled by means of peristaltic pumps, allowing separate manipulation of interstitial and particle properties. Addition of small quantities of organic-rich fine particles to sandy sediment resulted in greatly differing particle-bound Cd concentrations in sediment with similar interstitial Cd concentrations. Analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in the survival or ability to rebury in sediment of the phoxocephalid amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard), when exposed to sediment with different total Cd concentrations but nearly equal interstitial Cd concentrations; in one case LC50 data indicated slightly increased mortality in sediment with higher total Cd concentration. At least 70.2-87.9% of mortality could be predicted from past data on mortality based on dissolved Cd concentrations. The acute toxicity of Cd to the infaunal amphipod appears to be due principally to Cd dissolved in interstitial water.

  7. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  8. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  9. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  10. Acute toxicity of arsenobetaine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaise, T.; Watanabe, S.; Itoh, K.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicity of arsenobetaine was studied in male mice. No deaths were observed with oral administration of 10 g/kg of arsenobetaine. Therefore the LD/sub 50/ value was higher than 10 g/kg. This compound was found in urine in the non-metabolized form. No particular toxic symptoms were observed following administration. These suggest that arsenobetaine has low toxicity and is not metabolized in mice.

  11. A Standard Reference Material for Calibration of the Cup Furnace Smoke Toxicity Method for Assessing the Acute Inhalation Toxicity of Combustion Products.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barbara C; Paabo, Maya; Schiller, Susannah B

    1991-01-01

    A standard reference material (SRM 1048) has been developed for use with the cup furnace smoke toxicity method. This SRM is to be used to calibrate the apparatus and to enable the user to have confidence that the method is being conducted in a correct manner and that the equipment is functioning properly. The toxicological results from this SRM should not be used to compare with those of other materials (i.e., to determine if the combustion products of a test material are more or less toxic than those from this SRM). SRM 1048 is an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and is the same as SRM 1007B which is used for calibrating the flaming mode of the Smoke Density Chamber test method (ASTM E-662 and NFPA 258). For the purposes of calibrating the cup furnace smoke toxicity method, LC50 and N-Gas values plus their respective 95% confidence limits have been determined and certified for two combustion modes (flaming and nonflaming) and two observation periods (for the 30 min exposure only and for the 30 min exposure plus a 14 d post-exposure period). The certified LC50 values plus 95% confidence intervals (in g/m(3)) are 27 ± 3 (30 min, flaming); 25 ± 3 (30 min+ 14 d, flaming); 58 ± 15 (30 min, nonflaming); and 53 + 12 (30 min+ 14 d, nonflaming). The certified N-Gas values plus 95% confidence intervals are 1.4 ± 0.2 (30 min, flaming); 1.5 ± 0.2 (30 min+ 14 d, flaming); 1.2 ± 0.2 (30 min, nonflaming); and 1.4 ± 0.2 (30 min+ 14 d, nonflaming). It is recommended that this SRM be used with the N-Gas approach to calibrate the cup furnace smoke toxicity method rather than to determine the complete LC50 values. The N-Gas approach has the advantage of providing information on the gases responsible for the lethalities as well as the toxic potency of the smoke. In addition, the N-Gas approach reduces the number of experimental animals, the time necessary to complete the calibration, and the expense.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  13. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: common mechanisms across multiple metals.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca(2+) uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca(2+) pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca(2+) levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca(2+) uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na(+), which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K(+) were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na(+) losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na(+) uptake in zebrafish (Na(+) uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na(+)).

  14. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  15. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  16. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  17. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  18. Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations <LC50 of glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences from the control group in total coelomocyte micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei frequencies of earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) μg cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm.

  19. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  20. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  1. Acute Blindness.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed.

  2. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  3. Toxicity of parathion on embryo and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata l.): effects on survival, cholinesterase, and carboxylesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) parathion on embryos and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and to investigate the effects of this compound on cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity of seabream larvae in the phase of endogenous feeding. The 72-h LC50 for yolk-sac larvae (0.523 mg L⁻¹) was about two-fold lower than the 48-h LC50 for embryos (1.005 mg L⁻¹). Parathion significantly inhibited the activity of ChE and CaE activity in yolk sac larvae but there were not significant differences in the sensitivity of both esterases to parathion as inferred by their 72-h IC50 values. Larvae exposed to parathion for 72 h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole body acetylcholinesterase at approximately the LC50.

  4. Gene transcription, metabolite and lipid profiling in eco-indicator daphnia magna indicate diverse mechanisms of toxicity by legacy and emerging flame-retardants.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Leona D; Loguinov, Alexandre V; Teng, Quincy; Antczak, Philipp; Dailey, Kathleen P; Nowinski, Daniel T; Kornbluh, Jonah; Lin, Xin Xin; Lachenauer, Erica; Arai, Audrey; Douglas, Nora K; Falciani, Francesco; Stapleton, Heather M; Vulpe, Chris D

    2015-06-16

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity of seven FR chemicals and formulations was assessed on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Acute 48-h nominal LC50 values for penta- and octabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE, octaBDE), Firemaster 550 (FM550), Firemaster BZ-54 (BZ54), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), and nonbrominated BEH-TEBP analog bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) ranged from 0.058 mg/L (pentaBDE) to 3.96 mg/L (octaBDE). mRNA expression, (1)H NMR-based metabolomic and lipidomic profiling at 1/10 LC50 revealed distinct patterns of molecular response for each exposure, suggesting pentaPBDE affects transcription and translation, octaBDE and BEH-TEBP affect glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and BZ54 affects Wnt and Hedgehog signal pathways as well as glycosaminoglycan degradation. Brominated components of FM550 (i.e., BZ54) were significantly higher in Daphnia after 48 h following 1/10 LC50 exposure. FM550 elicited significant mRNA changes at five concentrations across a range from 1/10(6) LC50 to 1/2 LC50. Analyses suggest FM550 impairs nutrient utilization or uptake in Daphnia.

  5. Acute toxicity and histopathology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tandjung, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fingerling brook trout were exposed to different concentrations of Al at pH 5.6. The Basic Static Acute Toxicity Test was used to determine the 96-hr LC50. The toxicity of Al varied inversely with water hardness. The 96-hr LC/sub 50/ at a hardness of 2, 18, and 40 mg/l (CaCO/sub 3/) was 0.37, 3.4, and 6.53 mg/l Al respectively. Darkening of skin color was possible due to an increase in Na ions in the water as a result of body ion loss, activating the hormone MSH which causes melanin granules to spread within the melanocytes. Histology of all tissues of surviving fish appeared normal 3 months after transfer to uncontaminated water. The lateral line canal was regenerated by the end of the second month of the recovery period. In conclusion, we found that histology was essential to the interpretation of the toxicological effects of Al. The mortality of brook trout was attributed to Al toxicity that increased cell membrane permeability and mucification. Increased permeability resulted in the loss of body salt and an influx of Al and H ions. Mucus on gill surfaces caused anoxia leading to cell degeneration. Death was due to disturbances in osmoregulation, breakdown in enzyme activity, and disruption of O/sub 2/ transport.

  6. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant.

  7. Sunlight-driven reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticle by organic matter mitigates the acute toxicity of silver to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoya; Shen, Mohai; Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingfu

    2015-09-01

    Due to the unique antibacterial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used in commercial products. Anthropogenic activities have released considerable AgNPs as well as highly toxic silver ion (Ag(+)) into the aquatic environment. Our recent study revealed that ubiquitous natural organic matter (NOM) could reduce Ag(+) to AgNP under natural sunlight. However, the toxic effect of this process is not well understood. In this work, we prepared mixture solution of Ag(+) and AgNPs with varied Ag(+)% through the sunlight-driven reduction of Ag(+) by NOM and investigated the acute toxicity of the solutions on Daphnia magna. Formation of AgNPs was demonstrated and characterized by comprehensive techniques and the fraction of unconverted Ag(+) was determined by ultrafiltration-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. The formation of AgNPs enhanced significantly with the increasing of solution pH and cumulative photosynthetically active radiation of sunlight. The toxicity of the resulting solution was further investigated by using freshwater crustacean D. magna as a model and an 8hr-median lethal concentration (LC50) demonstrated that the reduction of Ag(+) by NOM to AgNPs significantly mitigated the acute toxicity of silver. These results highlight the importance of sunlight and NOM in the fate, transformation and toxicity of Ag(+) and AgNPs, and further indicate that the acute toxicity of AgNPs should be mainly ascribed to the dissolved Ag(+) from AgNPs.

  8. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Grosell, Martin; Gregory, Sean M; Wood, Chris M

    2002-04-15

    On the basis of these facts about freshwater fish and invertebrates: (i) the Na+ turnover is a physiological process associated with the gill membranes; (ii) the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity consists of reduction in Na+ uptake by blockade of gill Na+,K+-ATPase; (iii) the mass-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarusdiogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together, these results clearly point out the possibility of incorporating the Na+ uptake rate into the current version of the Biotic Ligand Model to improve the predictive capacity of this model. In the absence of information on Na+ uptake rate, then body mass may serve as a surrogate.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.

  10. Acute, Sublethal, and Combination Effects of Azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. PMID:25373177

  11. Acute vertebral fracture after spinal fusion: a case report illustrating the added value of single-source dual-energy computed tomography to magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with spinal Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Putzier, M; Pumberger, M; Hermann, K G; Diekhoff, T

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is degraded by metal-implant-induced artifacts when used for the diagnostic assessment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with instrumented spinal fusion. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers a promising supplementary imaging tool in these patients. This case report describes an 85-year-old woman who presented with a suspected acute vertebral fracture after long posterior lumbar interbody fusion. This is the first report of a vertebral fracture that showed bone marrow edema on DECT; however, edema was missed by an MRI STIR sequence owing to metal artifacts. Bone marrow assessment using DECT is less susceptible to metal artifacts than MRI, resulting in improved visualization of vertebral edema in the vicinity of fused vertebral bodies.

  12. High added value of a population-based participatory surveillance system for community acute gastrointestinal, respiratory and influenza-like illnesses in Sweden, 2013-2014 using the web.

    PubMed

    Pini, A; Merk, H; Carnahan, A; Galanis, I; VAN Straten, E; Danis, K; Edelstein, M; Wallensten, A

    2017-04-01

    In 2013-2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden developed a web-based participatory surveillance system, Hӓlsorapport, based on a random sample of individuals reporting symptoms weekly online, to estimate the community incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal (AGI), acute respiratory (ARI) and influenza-like (ILI) illnesses and their severity. We evaluated Hӓlsorapport's acceptability, completeness, representativeness and its data correlation with other surveillance data. We calculated response proportions and Spearman correlation coefficients (r) between (i) incidence of illnesses in Hӓlsorapport and (ii) proportions of specific search terms to medical-advice website and reasons for calling a medical advice hotline. Of 34 748 invitees, 3245 (9·3%) joined the cohort. Participants answered 81% (139 013) of the weekly questionnaires and 90% (16 351) of follow-up questionnaires. AGI incidence correlated with searches on winter-vomiting disease [r = 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·69-0·89], and ARI incidence correlated with searches on cough (r = 0·77, 95% CI 0·62-0·86). ILI incidence correlated with the web query-based estimated incidence of ILI patients consulting physicians (r = 0·63, 95% CI 0·42-0·77). The high response to different questionnaires and the correlation with other syndromic surveillance systems suggest that Hӓlsorapport offers a reasonable representation of AGI, ARI and ILI patterns in the community and can complement traditional and syndromic surveillance systems to estimate their burden in the community.

  13. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Levels of Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and Their Value for Predicting Short-Term Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Antonia; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; Gomez, Cristina; de la Peña, Monica; Pierola, Javier; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Abad, Jorge; Mediano, Olga; Amilibia, Jose; Masdeu, Maria Jose; Teran, Joaquin; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercè; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PlGF) induces angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair, and plasma PlGF levels change markedly during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with AMI is a subject of debate. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between PlGF levels and both the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and short-term outcomes after ACS in patients with and without OSA. Methods A total of 538 consecutive patients (312 OSA patients and 226 controls) admitted for ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent polygraphy in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. The severity of disease and short-term prognoses were evaluated during the hospitalization period. Plasma PlGF levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results Patients with OSA were significantly older and more frequently hypertensive and had higher BMIs than those without OSA. After adjusting for age, smoking status, BMI and hypertension, PlGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with OSA compared with patients without OSA (19.9 pg/mL, interquartile range: 16.6–24.5 pg/mL; 18.5 pg/mL, interquartile range: 14.7–22.7 pg/mL; p<0.001), and a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was associated with higher PlGF concentrations (p<0.003). Patients with higher levels of PlGF had also an increased odds ratio for the presence of 3 or more diseased vessels and for a Killip score>1, even after adjustment. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with ACS, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of OSA and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335087 PMID:26930634

  14. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  15. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  16. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of…

  17. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  18. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp.

  19. Acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M

    1994-12-01

    Laminitis is an inflammation of the sensitive laminae along the dorsal aspect of the digit and is considered to be a secondary complication of several predisposing or primary factors. Affected horses are usually very lame, have increased digital pulses, are painful to hoof testers along the toe of the foot, and have evidence of downward rotation or distal displacement of the distal phalanx present on radiographs. Treatments for acute laminitis include anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-endotoxin therapy, vasodilators, antithrombotic therapy, corrective trimming and shoeing, and surgical procedures. Treatment regimens are very controversial and the true efficacy of these treatments is unknown. The quality of laminae damage that occurs with laminitis, however, probably has greater influence on the success of treatment and outcome of the horse than the treatment regimen itself.

  20. Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® to aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, C. J.; Higgins, K. F.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The herbicide Rodeo® provides waterfowl managers with an effective chemical tool for creating open water habitats in wetlands if its use does not adversely affect native invertebrate communities. The survival of caged Chironomus spp. (midge), Hyalella azteca (amphipod),Stagnicola elodes (pond snail), and Nephelopsis obscura (leech) was assessed in prairie pothole wetlands treated by air with a tank mixture of Rodeo®, the surfactant X-77 Spreader®, and the drift retardant Chem-Trol® at a rate recommended for controlling cattails. Laboratory studies were then conducted to determine the acute toxicities of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol®, individually and in simulated tank mixtures, to the same invertebrates and to Daphnia magna in reconstituted water representative of these wetlands. There was no difference in the survival of caged invertebrates between treated and reference wetlands after 21 days. Based on nominal concentrations of the formulations, X-77 Spreader® (LC50s=2.0–14.1 mg/L) was about 83–136 times more toxic than Rodeo® (LC50s=218–1216 mg/L) to aquatic invertebrates. Chem-Trol® killed ≤10% of the animals at 10,000 mg/L and ≤50% of the animals at 28,000 mg/L. Daphnia magna were more sensitive than the other species to X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and the simulated Rodeo® tank mixture (RTM). The joint toxic action of the RTM was additive for amphipods and midges, greater than additive for leeches, and was less than additive for daphnids. X-77 Spreader® was the major toxic component in the RTM. Binary mixtures of X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and Chem-Trol® at tank mixture and equitoxic ratios also showed additive toxicity to amphipods. The use of Rodeo® (applied as a tank mixture with X-77 Spreader® and Chem-Trol®) as a management tool in wetlands does not pose an acute hazard to native aquatic invertebrates because the concentrations of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® found to be acutely toxic to these invertebrates were

  1. New rotifer bioassays for aquatic toxicology. Final report, 16 November 1988-1 June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, T.W.

    1991-07-15

    A standard protocol was developed for assessing acute toxicity using the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. This protocol has several advantages over existing methods in that test animals are obtained by hatching dormant cysts, the test is highly reproducible, it has a low failure rate, and has good sensitivity to a variety of common pollutants. Cyst age up to 18 months had no effect on test animal response to toxicants. LC50s for copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were lower at 10 deg C and 30 deg C than at 20 deg C. B. calyciflorus LC50s were a good predictor of Daphnia magna and fathead minnow LC50s for eight common toxicants. A standard protocol using B. calyciflorus for estimating chronic toxicity of compounds in freshwater has been developed. The rotifer chronic test has several advantages over existing tests including: test animals are obtained from cysts, the test takes only 48 hours to complete, a simple algal food is sufficient for good rotifer reproduction and algae is obtained from a petri dish, the test has good sensitivity to a wide variety of common toxicants. Acute and chronic toxicity of trinitrotoluene has been characterized. The LC50 is 9.1 mg.L-1, the chronic value is 3.3 mg.L-1 and the acute/chronic ratio is 2.8, suggesting that TNT is only weakly chronically toxic. The effects of temperature on rotifer chronic toxicity over the 20 deg-30 deg C range were small.

  2. Ventricular premature beats on Holter monitoring in patients admitted with chest pain, in whom acute myocardial infarction is not confirmed. The prognostic value and relationship to scars or ischemia on thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, J.K.; Sorensen, J.N.; Kromann-Andersen, B.; Kjeldgaard, K.M.; Christoffersen, K.; van Duijvendijk, K.; Reiber, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Ambulatory 24-h Holter monitoring was carried out in 198 patients who had been admitted because of suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to chest pain, but in whom AMI was not confirmed. During a follow-up period of 12-24 months (median 14 months) 16 cardiac events (i.e., nonfatal AMI or cardiac death) occurred. Ventricular premature beats (VPBs) were found in 65.2% of the patients, complex VPBs in 28.8%. Pairs of VPBs which were seen in 10.0% of the patients were the only important type of VPBs significantly related to an impaired prognosis. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed in 144 of the patients. VPBs were significantly related to scar formation (i.e., to permanent defects, but not to ischemia, specifically, to transient defects). It is concluded that ventricular arrhythmias in this patient category indicate presence of chronic ischemic heart disease, and that pairs of VPBs seem to identify patients at risk for cardiac events.

  3. Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Adams, M.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Church, Stanley E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of metals influences their biological effects. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is a computational approach to predict chemical speciation and acute toxicological effects of metals on aquatic biota. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency incorporated the BLM into their regulatory water-quality criteria for copper. Results from three different laboratory copper toxicity tests were compared with BLM predictions for simulated test-waters. This was done to evaluate the ability of the BLM to accurately predict the effects of hardness and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron on aquatic toxicity. In addition, we evaluated whether the BLM and the three toxicity tests provide consistent results. Comparison of BLM predictions with two types of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests shows that there is fairly good agreement between predicted LC50 values computed by the BLM and LC50 values determined from the two toxicity tests. Specifically, the effect of increasing calcium concentration (and hardness) on copper toxicity appears to be minimal. Also, there is fairly good agreement between the BLM and the two toxicity tests for test solutions containing elevated DOC, for which the LC50 is 3-to-5 times greater (less toxic) than the LC50 for the lower-DOC test water. This illustrates the protective effects of DOC on copper toxicity and demonstrates the ability of the BLM to predict these protective effects. In contrast, for test solutions with added iron there is a decrease in LC50 values (increase in toxicity) in results from the two C. dubia toxicity tests, and the agreement between BLM LC50 predictions and results from these toxicity tests is poor. The inability of the BLM to account for competitive iron binding to DOC or DOC fractionation may be a significant shortcoming of the BLM for predicting site- specific water-quality criteria in streams affected by iron-rich acidic drainage in mined and mineralized areas.

  4. Mean platelet volume in acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Sert, Ahmet; Aypar, Ebru; Odabas, Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is still an endemic disease, especially among school-aged children in developing countries. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to investigate MPV in children with ARF. The study population consisted of 40 children with ARF (32 patients with carditis and 8 patients without carditis) and 40 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with ARF during the acute stage when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein values significantly decreased in patients with ARF after the treatment when compared to baseline, whereas MPV values increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC, and platelet counts. In conclusion, during the acute stage of ARF, MPV values were lower when compared to controls.

  5. Planning Value vs Earned Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    20 196 10 98 7 Postmortem 4 200 2 100 Les Dupaix - 17Earned Value Duration Charts Gantt (Bar) Chart Si lmp e Can show dependencies Tracking planned vs...7 7 4 2 Identify Requirements 78 86 39 43 4 6 96 103 43 3 Match Requirements 20 106 10 53 5 7 24 127 53 to Phases 4 Identify Risk Areas 20 126 10 63

  6. The predictive value of hierarchical cytogenetic classification in older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): analysis of 1065 patients entered into the United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML11 trial.

    PubMed

    Grimwade, D; Walker, H; Harrison, G; Oliver, F; Chatters, S; Harrison, C J; Wheatley, K; Burnett, A K; Goldstone, A H

    2001-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in older adults carries a poor prognosis, and the optimum treatment remains to be determined. In younger patients, treatment stratification is frequently based upon diagnostic karyotype, which was the most important prognostic factor in the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) AML10 trial. Considered here is whether karyotype is also predictive in older adults; this is done by studying 1065 cases from MRC AML11 (median age, 66 years). Three prognostic groups were distinguished on the basis of response to induction therapy and overall survival (OS). Those with t(15;17), t(8;21), or inv(16) composed the favorable risk group. Overall, these abnormalities predicted a superior complete remission (CR) rate (72%), reflecting relatively low levels of resistant disease (RD) (8%), and lower relapse risk (RR) (56%) associated with superior OS (34% at 5 years). Normal karyotype (CR, 63%; RD, 17%; RR, 78%; OS, 15%) and other noncomplex abnormalities (CR, 53%; RD, 32%; RR, 85%; OS, 10%) composed the intermediate group; while complex karyotype predicted an extremely poor prognosis (CR, 26%; RD, 56%; RR, 91%; OS, 2%). Combining MRC AML10 and AML11 (n = 2677) revealed that the most favorable changes were rarer in older patients (younger than 55 years, 24%; 55 years or older, 7%), while complex abnormalities were more common (6% vs 13%). This study suggests that hierarchical cytogenetic classification identifies biologically distinct subsets of AML that are represented in all age groups. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of karyotype as a critical independent determinant of outcome in older patients with AML, providing a potential framework for stratified treatment approaches.

  7. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  8. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... where in the respiratory tract such particles may be deposited. Concentration is expressed as weight of... of being inhaled and deposited anywhere within the respiratory tract . LC 50 (median lethal... to initiating the study, animals must be monitored for known viral and bacterial...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... where in the respiratory tract such particles may be deposited. Concentration is expressed as weight of... of being inhaled and deposited anywhere within the respiratory tract . LC 50 (median lethal... to initiating the study, animals must be monitored for known viral and bacterial...

  10. Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Perron, Monique M; Ho, Kay T; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2012-08-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment-dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water-only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96-h water-only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7-d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96-h LC50 water-only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28-d bioaccumulation study with a biota-sediment accumulation factor of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  11. Valuing hope.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  12. The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-/CO32- (referred to as “major ions”) are present in all fresh waters and are physiologically required by aquatic organisms, but can be increased to harmful levels by a variety of anthropogenic activities that speed geochemical weathering or otherwise introduce or concentrate ions. While toxicity of these ions to aquatic organisms has been previously shown, it is also known that their toxicity can vary depending on the concentrations of other co-occurring anions, and understanding these relationships is key to predicting toxicity and establishing appropriate environmental limits. In this paper we conduct a series of experiments with Ceriodaphnia dubia to evaluate the acute toxicity of all twelve major ionsalts (pairing one of the cations with one of the anions) and to determine how toxicity of these salts varies as a function of background water chemistry. All salts except CaSO4 and CaCO3 were acutely toxic to C. dubia below saturation, with the lowest LC50s found for K salts. Of the remaining salts, all but CaCl2 showed some degree of decreased toxicity as the ionic content of the background water increased. Experiments that independently varied Ca:Mg ratio, Na:K ratio, Cl:SO4 ratio, and alkalinity/pH were used to show that Ca concentration was the primary factor influencing the toxicities of Na and Mg salts. In contrast, the toxicities of K salts were primarily influenced by the concentration of Na. Th

  13. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  14. The sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is the likely molecular target for the acute toxicity of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

    PubMed

    Al-Mousa, Fawaz; Michelangeli, Francesco

    2014-01-25

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a widely utilised brominated flame retardant (BFR). It has been shown to bio-accumulate within organisms, including man, and possibly cause neurological disorders. The acute neurotoxicity of HBCD, and six other unrelated BFRs, were assessed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by 24h viability assays and HBCD proved to be the most lethal (LC50, 3μM). In addition, the effects of these BFRs were also assessed for their potency at inhibiting the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) derived from the SH-SY5Y cells and again HBCD was the most potent (IC50, 2.7μM). The data for the other BFRs tested showed a direct correlation (coefficient 0.94) between the potencies of inducing cell death and inhibiting the Ca(2+) ATPase, indicating that SERCA is likely to be the molecular target for acute toxicity. Mechanistic studies of HBCD on the Ca(2+) ATPase suggest that it affects ATP binding, phosphorylation as well as the E2 to E1 transition step.

  15. Effects of temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to Corophium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Scardicchio, Christian; Biandolino, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimise the methodology for the use of Corophium insidiosum in a bioassay. Taking into account that it would be suitable to execute the bioassay with organisms having a good sensitivity during the year and low mortality in control sediment, the influence of different temperatures (10-15-20 and 25 degrees C) has been examined. C. insidiosum was collected during August, November 2005 and January 2006, in Mar Piccolo basin (Ionian sea). The results obtained show that this species mortality in the negative control sediment, ranged from 2.6 +/- 0.6% at 10 degrees C in August to 17 +/- 2.2% at 20 degrees C in November, at different temperatures tested. At 20 degrees C there were significant differences in mortality among different months examined. Indeed no relationship among months was found at 15 degrees C. Significant differences between August and November at 25 degrees C, between November and January were not found at 10 degrees C. The 96-h LC50 values found for cadmium at all temperature experimental conditions ranged from 2.11 mg/l (1.57-2.82) to 0.70 mg/l (0.54-0.93). The highest values were found at 10 degrees C in November and January. The results showed that the optimal temperature for the bioassay seems to be between 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Even if, at 20 degrees C the mortality differs significantly among organisms sampled.

  16. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  17. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  18. Acute and chronic nitrite toxicity in juvenile pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and its compensation by chloride.

    PubMed

    Wuertz, S; Schulze, S G E; Eberhardt, U; Schulz, C; Schroeder, J P

    2013-05-01

    Pike-perch Sander lucioperca is currently considered as one of the most promising candidates for production in freshwater recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Here, due to the lack of studies on nitrite (NO(2)(-)) toxicity in pike-perch, a flow-through exposure at 0, 0.44, 0.88, 1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N was carried out to determine the acute and chronic toxicity over a period of 32 days. In juvenile pike-perch, 120 h LC(50) was 6.1mg/L NO(2)(-)-N and at ≥14 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N all fish had died within 24 h. Chronic exposure revealed a significant build up of NO(2)(-) in the plasma as well as in the muscles at ≥0.44 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N peaking in fish exposed to the highest concentration of 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N after 32 days. Still, due to high individual variation methemoglobin (MetHb) was only significantly increased (p<0.01) at 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N. No adverse effects on red blood cells (RBC) and hematocrit were observed in any of the treatments. In a second experiment, compensation of NO(2)(-) toxicity at increasing chloride concentrations (40 (freshwater), 65, 90, 140, 240, 440 mg/L Cl(-)) was observed at a constant exposure of 10 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N for 42 days. At ≥240 mg/L Cl(-), NO(2)(-) build-up in blood plasma and muscle was completely inhibited. At lower Cl(-) concentrations (≤140 mg/L), NO(2)(-) was significantly increased in plasma, but only insignificantly elevated in muscle due to high individual variation. MetHb was increased significantly difference only at 40 mg/L Cl(-) (freshwater control) compared to the control. Again, high individual variations were observed. As a conclusion, S. lucioperca is moderately sensitive towards NO(2)(-) and acceptable levels in RAS should hence not exceed 1.75 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N to avoid MetHb formation. However, based on the 120 h LC(50) and a factor of 0.01 according to Sprague (1971), a NO(2)(-) concentration of ≤0.061 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N is considered as "safe." Thereby, no NO(2)(-) should accumulate in

  19. Acute exposure of a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the gills and liver of the Neotropical fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    PubMed

    Shiogiri, Natália S; Paulino, Marcelo G; Carraschi, Silvia P; Baraldi, Flávia G; da Cruz, Claudinei; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of Roundup(®) Ready (RR) in Piaractus mesopotamicus, and evaluate the effects on the morphology of the gills and liver of exposed surviving fish. Fish were exposed to 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5mgL(-1) of glyphosate, and the LC(50);48h was estimated at 3.74±0.2mgL(-1). Gill histopathology was rare, and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme did not change, suggesting normal function. However, the damage to the liver was classified as moderate to severe. Cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid accumulation, nuclear and cellular membrane alterations and glycogen depletion were found in the liver, suggesting a reduction in the liver function. The glyphosate in the RR formulation was classified as moderately toxic for P. mesopotamicus, and the severe damage in the liver may affect the detoxification and/or tissue repair process and contribute to fish death.

  20. [Double post-acute myocardial infarction complication: rupture of the interventricular septum and acute mitral insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Curcio Ruigómez, A; Martín Jiménez, J; Wilhelmi Ayza, M; Soria Delgado, J L

    1997-02-01

    We present a case of double post acute myocardial infarction complication: ventricular septal defect and acute and severe mitral insufficiency. As a consequence of the delay in the diagnosis, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with values at the systemic level. The patient underwent surgery in order to close the ventricular septal defect and aneurysmectomy, resulting in posterior regression of mitral insufficiency and pulmonary circuit values became normal. The ethology, diagnosis, evolution and treatment of this exceptional association of acute post myocardial infarction complications are discussed.

  1. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cecilia C.L.; Adochio, Rebecca L.; Leitner, J. Wayne; Abeyta, Ian M.; Draznin, Boris; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective The cellular effects of restricting fat versus carbohydrate during a low-calorie diet are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine acute effects of energy and macronutrient restriction on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obesity. Materials/Methods Eighteen obese individuals without diabetes underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsy after: (a) 5 days of eucaloric diet (30% fat, 50% carbohydrate), and (b) 5 days of a 30% calorie-restricted diet, either low fat/high carbohydrate (LF/HC: 20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) or high-fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC: 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate). Results Weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were similar between groups after eucaloric diet. Weight loss was similar between groups after hypocaloric diet, 1.3 ± 1.3 kg (p<0.0001 compared with eucaloric). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was unchanged after calorie restriction and similar between groups. However, ex vivo skeletal muscle insulin signalling differed depending on macronutrient composition of calorie-restricted diet. Skeletal muscle of the LF/HC group had increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated Ser 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1, and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase activity. Conversely, insulin stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-1 was absent and serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased on HF/LC, with blunting of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity. Conclusion Acute caloric restriction with a LF/HC diet alters skeletal muscle insulin signalling in a way that improves insulin sensitivity, while acute caloric restriction with a HF/LC diet induces changes compatible with insulin resistance. In both cases, ex vivo changes in skeletal muscle insulin signalling appear prior to changes in whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:23174405

  2. Cholescintigraphy in acute and chronic cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Since the introduction of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled cholescintigraphic agents in the mid-1970s, there has been extensive investigation of their role in the evaluation of biliary tract disorders. These agents accurately assess the patency of the cystic and common bile ducts, and to date, their greatest impact has been on the diagnostic evaluation of suspected acute cholecystitis. This article reviews the use of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives in acute and chronic cholecystitis. Since acute cholecystitis is characterized by cystic duct obstruction, failure of the gallbladder to visualize following /sup 99m/Tc-IDA administration is indicative of cystic duct obstruction and acute cholecystitis. Using this approach, cholescintigraphy has been shown to be highly sensitive, specific, and efficacious in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Cholescintigraphy is now the procedure of choice for the detection of acute cholecystitis. Unlike its successful applications in acute cholecystitis, cholescintigraphy appears of limited value in chronic cholecystitis. Certain circumstances where cholescintigraphy is of value in chronic cholecystitis are discussed. Whether or not cholescintigraphy may play a greater role in the future in elucidating the pathogenesis of chronic cholecystitis by assessment of biliary kinetics remains unanswered.

  3. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Pogostemon cablin Leaves and Its Constituents Against Blattella germanica (Blattodae: Blattelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Chen, Han; Liu, Qi Zhi; Jiang, Shi Yao; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of P. cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), α-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male B. germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 μg per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 μg per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50 = 339.90 μg per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of P. cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents.

  4. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  5. Acute bacterial parotitis following acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, V K; Kimbrough, D J; Jarquin-Valdivia, A A

    2009-06-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) is a relatively uncommon condition that tends to occur in debilitated older patients. We report a case of an older woman that presented with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage who developed ABP. This morbidity led to endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy and gastrostomy, all of which were not initially needed. We discuss the proposed physiopathology and etiopathogenesis of ABP in adults.

  6. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  7. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  8. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  9. Acute phosphate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza

    2014-05-01

    We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate.

  10. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as the sudden inflammation ... the incidence of recurrent attacks minimized. Timothy Gardner, MD is Director of Pancreatic Disorders at Dartmouth-Hitchcock ...

  11. Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Up; Kim, Jin Kyeung; Won, Jong Ho; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Hee Sook; Park, Kyeung Kyu

    1993-01-01

    The decision to operate for abdominal pain in patients with leukopenia can be exceedingly difficult. Surgical exploration may be the only effective way to differentiate acute appendicitis from other causes, but it involves considerable risk of infectious complications due to immunesuppression. Leukemic patients, who presented significant RLQ pain, had been indicated for operation, despite having advanced disease or having had received chemotherapy or steroids. Four adult leukemia patients, complicated by acute appendictis, were reviewed. Two patients were in induction chemotherapy, one receiving salvage chemotheapy due to relapse and the other was in conservative treatment. Two patients were acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), one had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the other had aleukemic leukemia. All patients underwent appendectomy and recovered without complication. Our experience supports the theory that the surgical management of appendicitis in acute leukemia is the most effective way, in spite of leukopenia. PMID:8268146

  12. [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET Standard Uptake Value as a Metabolic Predictor of Bone Marrow Response to Radiation: Impact on Acute and Late Hematological Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Elicin, Olgun; Callaway, Sharon; Prior, John O.; Bourhis, Jean; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Herrera, Fernanda G.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relationship between bone marrow (BM) response to radiation and radiation dose by using {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET standard uptake values (SUV) and to correlate these findings with hematological toxicity (HT) in cervical cancer (CC) patients treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen women with a diagnosis of CC were treated with standard doses of CRT. All patients underwent pre- and post-therapy [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT). Hemograms were obtained before and during treatment and 3 months after treatment and at last follow-up. Pelvic bone was autosegmented as total bone marrow (BM{sub TOT}). Active bone marrow (BM{sub ACT}) was contoured based on SUV greater than the mean SUV of BM{sub TOT}. The volumes (V) of each region receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40}, respectively) were calculated. Metabolic volume histograms and voxel SUV map response graphs were created. Relative changes in SUV before and after therapy were calculated by separating SUV voxels into radiation therapy dose ranges of 5 Gy. The relationships among SUV decrease, radiation dose, and HT were investigated using multiple regression models. Results: Mean relative pre-post-therapy SUV reductions in BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} were 27% and 38%, respectively. BM{sub ACT} volume was significantly reduced after treatment (from 651.5 to 231.6 cm{sup 3}, respectively; P<.0001). BM{sub ACT} V{sub 30} was significantly correlated with a reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV (R{sup 2}, 0.14; P<.001). The reduction in BM{sub ACT} SUV significantly correlated with reduction in white blood cells (WBCs) at 3 months post-treatment (R{sup 2}, 0.27; P=.04) and at last follow-up (R{sup 2}, 0.25; P=.04). Different dosimetric parameters of BM{sub TOT} and BM{sub ACT} correlated with long-term hematological outcome. Conclusions: The volumes of BM

  13. Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species.

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used

  14. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.

  15. Determination and validation of an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Gante, Cristiano; Loureiro, João; Lopes, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of the present study was to determine and validate an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Assessment factors were applied to short-term toxicity data using the lowest EC50 and after the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) method. Both ways of EQS generation were applied to a freshwater toxicity dataset for AZX based on available data, and to marine toxicity datasets for AZX and Ortiva(®) (a commercial formulation of AZX) obtained by the present study. A high interspecific variability in AZX sensitivity was observed in all datasets, being the copepoda Eudiaptomus graciloides (LC50,48h = 38 μg L(-1)) and the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis (LC50,96h = 13 μg L(-1)) the most sensitive freshwater and marine species, respectively. MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 (≤0.38 μg L(-1)) were more protective than those derived using the SSD method (≤3.2 μg L(-1)). After comparing the MAC-EQS values estimated in the present study to the smallest AA-EQS available, which protect against the occurrence of prolonged exposure of AZX, the MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 were considered overprotective and a MAC-EQS of 1.8 μg L(-1) was validated and recommended for AZX for the water column. This value was derived from marine toxicity data, which highlights the importance of testing marine organisms. Moreover, Ortiva affects the most sensitive marine species to a greater extent than AZX, and marine species are more sensitive than freshwater species to AZX. A risk characterization ratio higher than one allowed to conclude that AZX might pose a high risk to the aquatic environment. Also, in a wider conclusion, before new pesticides are approved, we suggest to improve the Tier 1 prospective Ecological Risk Assessment by increasing the number of short-term data, and apply the SSD approach, in order to ensure the safety of

  16. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  17. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  19. Value of periangiography hydration.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, M D; Puyau, F A

    1984-11-01

    The value of contrast dye to the planning and evaluation of cardiovascular disease cannot be overestimated. However, adverse renal sequellae may cause the surgeon to hesitate in obtaining an arteriogram, especially in patients with compromised renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction in patients requiring angiography. Standard contrast angiography for cerebral or peripheral vascular disease was administered to 150 consecutive patients (89 men and 61 women), with an average age of 63.3 years (range 49 to 89 years). All patients received 100 to 150 ml of dye, with a concentration of approximately 50% iodine. Patients were hydrated with 0.5 N saline/5% dextrose, intravenously, for 8 hours before the procedure (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). In 31 patients (11 women and 20 men) the serum BUN and/or creatinine levels were elevated (mean BUN value of 48 +/- 9 mg/dl; mean creatinine level of 2.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dl). The patients with abnormal renal function received an additional 300 to 500 ml of intravenous fluid, plus 20 to 40 mg intravenous furosemide, 1 hour before roentgenography to establish a diuresis. All patients were hydrated for 6 hours after angiography with the same solution at the same rate (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). There were no episodes of compromised renal or cardiopulmonary dysfunction because of contrast angiography. In no patient did the BUN or creatinine level rise, nor was there evidence of acute tubular necrosis, as documented by oliguria and abnormal cells in the urine. Angiography is a safe procedure, even with patients who may have compromised renal function, if appropriate prehydration/posthydration and diuretic measures are undertaken.

  20. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  1. The acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew; Handy, Richard D; Shaw, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K.

  2. Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.O.J.

    1987-07-01

    Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

  3. Acute, chronic and biochemical effects of chlorothalonil on Agalychnis callidryas, Isthmohyla pseudopuma and Smilisca baudinii tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Michael; Obando, Priscilla; Pinnock-Branford, Margaret; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa E; Mena, Freylan; Alvarado, Gilbert

    2016-11-01

    Declines of amphibian populations have been a worldwide issue of concern for the scientific community during the last several decades. Efforts are being carried out to elucidate factors related to this phenomenon. Among these factors, pathogens, climate change, and environmental pollution have been suggested as possible causes. Regarding environmental pollutants, some pesticides are persistent in the environment and capable of being transported long distances from their release point. In Costa Rica, some pesticides have been detected in protected areas, at locations where amphibian populations have declined. Information about toxicity of pesticides used in Costa Rican agriculture to amphibians is still scarce, particularly for native species.Toxicity tests with chlorothalonil, a fungicide intensively used in Costa Rica, were carried out exposing tadpoles of three Costa Rican native species: Agalychnis callidryas, Isthmohyla pseudopuma, and Smilisca baudinii in order to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity as well as the biomarkers cholinesterase activity (ChE), glutathione-S transferase activity (GST), and lipid peroxidation (LPO).96-h LC50: 26.6 (18.9-35.8) μg/L to A. callidryas, 25.5 (21.3-29.7) μg/L to I pseudopuma and 32.3 (26.3-39.7) μg/L to S. baudinii were determined for chlorothalonil. These three species of anurans are among the most sensitive to chlorothalonil according to the literature. Besides, GST was induced in S. baudinii after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorothalonil while evisceration occurred in S. baudinii and A. callidryas tadpoles exposed to lethal concentrations of the fungicide. Chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations accelerated development in S. baudinii and caused lesions in tail of S. baudinii and I. pseudopuma tadpoles. Our results demonstrate that chlorothalonil is highly toxic to native amphibian species and that low concentrations can cause biochemical responses related to phase II of biotransformation and

  4. Values in Education and Education in Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, J. Mark, Ed.; Taylor, Monica J., Ed.

    The major purpose of this book is to set out some of the key issues and debates relating to the importance of values in education and of education in values. After an introductory chapter about the concept of values and values education, part 1 provides a variety of perspectives on the values that underpin contemporary education. The introduction…

  5. Acute Diarrheal Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, H.J.; Choi, S.; Cho, J.P.; Min, Y.G.; Park, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In an effort to identify and characterize the environmental factors that affect the number of patients with acute diarrheal (AD) syndrome, we developed and tested two regional surveillance models including holiday and weather information in addition to visitor records, at emergency medical facilities in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea. Methods With 1,328,686 emergency department visitor records from the National Emergency Department Information system (NEDIS) and the holiday and weather information, two seasonal ARIMA models were constructed: (1) The simple model (only with total patient number), (2) the environmental factor-added model. The stationary R-squared was utilized as an in-sample model goodness-of-fit statistic for the constructed models, and the cumulative mean of the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) was used to measure post-sample forecast accuracy over the next 1 month. Results The (1,0,1)(0,1,1)7 ARIMA model resulted in an adequate model fit for the daily number of AD patient visits over 12 months for both cases. Among various features, the total number of patient visits was selected as a commonly influential independent variable. Additionally, for the environmental factor-added model, holidays and daily precipitation were selected as features that statistically significantly affected model fitting. Stationary R-squared values were changed in a range of 0.651-0.828 (simple), and 0.805-0.844 (environmental factor-added) with p<0.05. In terms of prediction, the MAPE values changed within 0.090-0.120 and 0.089-0.114, respectively. Conclusion The environmental factor-added model yielded better MAPE values. Holiday and weather information appear to be crucial for the construction of an accurate syndromic surveillance model for AD, in addition to the visitor and assessment records. PMID:23616829

  6. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  7. In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of some benzimidazole derivatives against two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; de la Luz León-Ávila, Gloria; Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; Ambrosio, Javier R; Nieto-Meneses, Rocío; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Luis, Francisco

    2012-04-01

    The trypanocidal effect of five benzimidazole derivatives (1-5) was determined in vitro and in vivo assays against two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (NINOA and INC5). The in vitro trypanocidal activity was evaluated by measuring the percentage of lysis of bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. cruzi. Results point to 5-chloro-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol (1) as the best activity profile compound with a 50% lytic concentration (LC(50)) of 0.014 mM (NINOA strain) and 0.32 mM (INC5 strain). Reference drugs were nifurtimox (Nfx) and benznidazole (Bnz), which on NINOA strain displayed a LC(50)=0.60 mM and LC(50)=0.78 mM, respectively; while on INC5 strain they exhibited LC(50) values of 0.31 mM and 0.69 mM, respectively. The in vivo trypanocidal activity of 1-5 on parasitemia in a murine model acute Chagas' disease indicated that 1 and Nfx showed similar activity on INC5 strain, while 5-chloro-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol (2) and its regioisomer, 6-chloro-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol (3), displayed better activity than Nfx and Bnz on NINOA strain. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity against Vero cells, with selective index 38-3000 times higher to the parasite.

  8. [Acute rheumatic fever].

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexander; Kommer, Vera

    2016-03-01

    We report on a young women with acute rheumatic fever. Acute rheumatic fever has become a rare disease in Germany, especially in adults. This carries the risk that it can be missed in the differential diagnostic considerations of acute rheumatic disorders and febrile status. If rheumatic fever is not diagnosed and treated correctly, there is a considerable risk for rheumatic valvular heart disease. In this article diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic fever are discussed extensively.

  9. CDP-choline: acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Grau, T; Romero, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

    1983-01-01

    The acute toxicity of a single dose of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) by different administration routes in mice and rats has been studied. LD50 values were determined according to the cumulative method by Reed-Muench for mortality rate, and Pizzi's method for calculation of standard error.

  10. A rare entity in ED: Normal lipase level in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Limon, Onder; Sahin, Erkan; Kantar, Funda Ugur; Oray, Deniz; Ugurhan, Asli Aydinoglu

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis can have a variable presentation and diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, serum amylase and lipase levels and computed tomography. Negative predictive value of serum lipase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis is approximately to 100 percent and a normal blood lipase level in acute pancreatitis is an extremely rare condition. Here we reported two cases with normal serum amylase and lipase levels.

  11. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  12. Infant acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569

  13. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  14. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  15. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies.

  16. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  17. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  18. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Alper, Gulay

    2012-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, commonly preceded by an infection. It principally involves the white matter tracts of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mainly affects children. Clinically, patients present with multifocal neurologic abnormalities reflecting the widespread involvement in central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid may be normal or may show a mild pleocytosis with or without elevated protein levels. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis typically has a monophasic course with a favorable prognosis. Multiphasic forms have been reported, resulting in diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis. In addition, many inflammatory disorders may have a similar presentation with frequent occurrence of encephalopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  19. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  20. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  1. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  2. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Treating Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia In recent years, new drugs that target specific ... Typical Treatment of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  3. Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia Early diagnosis and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia ( ... Comes Back After Treatment? More In Acute Myeloid Leukemia About Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  4. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  5. Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Visetson, Suraphon; Milne, John; Milne, Manthana; Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Pronbanlualap, Somchai

    2007-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain. Topical spraying was applied to various stages of nymphal and adult BPH to determine toxicity. An ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp extract gave the best control of BPH, with LC50 of 4.5% w/v (r2 = 0.95) with 3rd instar BPH nymphs when compared with the other solvents, hexane, acetone and dichloromethane. The active compound, alpha-mangostin showed an LC50 of 5.44%w/v (r2 = 0.88). The toxicity of this extract was less than that of Imidacloprid which showed an LC50 of 0.0042% w/v (r2 = 0.99). The toxicity to non-target organisms was determined. This extract showed toxicity to guppies ((LC50 = 2.53 and 4.27 ppm for females and males, respectively; r2 = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), bees (LC50 = 4.38% w/v, r2 = 0.95) and mice (no oral acute toxicity and no dermal inflammation but showed eye irritation in 1 day which became normal within 3 days). In vitro detoxification enzyme activities of carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase from BPH after 24 hours exposure were also observed. Carboxylesterase showed stronger activity than other enzymes. Toxicity in terms of LC50 values of both the extract and imidacloprid treatments increased in each generation. The LC50 values for each generation were 4.22-6.67 after sequential spraying. After the ethanol extract was kept at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 55 degrees C for 3 months, the quantity of alpha-mangostin and the BPH control efficiency was lower at 55 degrees C than those for other temperatures. The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH

  6. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  7. Acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-10-01

    Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way

  8. Acute pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jessica; Graham, David; O'Reilly, Sarah; Punton, Gillian

    2016-02-03

    Acute pulmonary oedema is a distressing and life-threatening illness that is associated with a sudden onset of symptoms. For the best possible patient outcomes, it is essential that nurses in all clinical areas are equipped to accurately recognise, assess and manage patients with acute pulmonary oedema. This article outlines the pathophysiology of acute cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and suggests a systematic approach to the recognition and management of its most serious manifestations. Long-term care and symptom recognition are discussed and suggestions for ongoing patient self-management are provided.

  9. Acute porphyric disorders.

    PubMed

    Moore, A W; Coke, J M

    2000-09-01

    Acute porphyrias are classified into 3 distinct groups of rare genetic disorders of metabolic enzyme biosynthesis. Acute porphyrias can significantly impact multiple organ systems, which often provides a challenge to the dentist presented with such a patient. A case of hereditary coproporphyria is reported in a patient with many of the classical signs and symptoms. The patient also had complex dental needs that required special medical and pharmacotherapeutic modifications. The acute porphyrias are reviewed by the authors with presentation of this challenging case. Recommendations for other dental health care professionals encountering these patients are then presented.

  10. Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

    2009-07-01

    Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality.

  11. Ecotoxicology of metals related to freshwater benthos.

    PubMed

    Fargasová, A

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, As, Pb, Cr, Hg and Sn on the behaviour and survival of benthic worms Tubifex tubifex was studied. All tested metals were dissolved and determined in tap water under standardized conditions. The adverse effects of the metals were evaluated as acute toxicological effects upon exposure expressed as LC50 value with 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the LC50 values, the toxicity of the metals after an incubation for 96 h was ranked as follows: Cu(II)> Cu(I) > V > Hg > or = Mn > Ni > Cd > Cr > Mo > Pb > Sn(IV) = Sn(II) > As. From this sequence it is evident that copper was the most toxic metal ion. In addition, differences were found between Cu(II) and Cu(I) ions toxicity, the former being 2.5 times more toxic. In contrast, no differences could be confirmed between acute toxic effects of Sn(II) and Sn(IV). Arsenic showed the weakest toxicity of the tested metals. The LC50 value for As was 10,000 times higher than those for both copper ions.

  12. The value of brain scanning

    PubMed Central

    Riddoch, D.; Drolc, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 667 brain scans were performed, of which the results in 632 have been analysed. Positive scans were found in 68% of 204 cerebral tumours. There was a high rate of detection of meningiomas and malignant gliomas. Scanning was less helpful in visualizing slowly growing gliomas, and those tumours situated in the mid-line or posterior fossa. Metastases occupied an intermediate position. Positive scans occurred in a proportion of patients following acute cerebro-vascular accidents, and in a few other miscellaneous disorders. Virtually all patients with transient cerebral ischaemia, migraine, epilepsy and presenile dementia had normal brain scans. The value and limitations of this investigation have been discussed. PMID:5076491

  13. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

  14. Comparison of the susceptibility of amphibian (Bufo arenarum embryos) and fish (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) to aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although crustaceans, fish and algae are receiving increasing attention as test organisms in short-term tests, it is important to note that other species could be more than order of magnitude more susceptible la xenobiotics and therefore, profitable for toxicity screening for a proper protection of the diversity and complexity of the ecosystems. In this report the sensitivity of Bufo arenarum (embryos) and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to aluminum (AIC1 3) is evaluated in a renewal toxicity test system at 20 C and informed as LC100, LC50 and NOEC for 24 and up till 96 hours of exposure (acute Toxicity Profile -- TPa -- for aluminum). The tests with fish were conducted maintaining 10 individuals in 1 liter of EPA water (by quadruplicate) in six concentration of Al(3+). The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100, LC50 and NOEC for fishes expressed in Al(3+) mg/L were: 7.5 (the pH of this solutions was 4.3), 7 and 6 at 24 as well as for 48, 72 and 96 hours of exposure, while for Bufo arenarum embryos the LC100, LC50 and NOEC were 0.9 (pH 6.2), 0.6 and 0.1 for 24 hours and up till 96 hours of exposure. Therefore, Bufo arenarum (embryos) seems to be about one order of magnitude more sensitive than the solution is adjusted from 4.3 to 6.2, no lethal effect on fish was registered. The TPa shows that the most toxic period is within the first 24 hours of exposure while on the other hand in fishes as well as in amphibian embryos the LC50 is closer to the LC100 value that to NOEC and therefore, exposure around LC50 concentrations, in the case of aluminum, represents a risk for the whole population.

  15. Sensitivity and response time of three common Antarctic marine copepods to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lara Marcus; King, Catherine K; Payne, Sarah J; Virtue, Patti

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of Antarctic marine organisms to metals is essential in order to manage environmental contamination risks. To date toxicity studies conducted on Antarctic marine species are limited. This study is the first to examine the acute effects of copper and cadmium on three common coastal Antarctic copepods: the calanoids Paralabidocera antarctica and Stephos longipes, and the cyclopoid Oncaea curvata. These copepods responded slowly to metal exposure (4-7d) emphasising that the exposure period of 48-96 h commonly used in toxicity tests with temperate and tropical species is not appropriate for polar organisms. We found that a longer 7 d exposure period was the minimum duration appropriate for Antarctic copepods. Although sensitivity to metal exposure varied between species, copper was more toxic than cadmium in all three species. P.antarctica was the most sensitive with 7d LC50 values for copper and cadmium of 20 μg L(-1) and 237 μg L(-1) respectively. Sensitivities to copper were similar for both O. curvata (LC50=64 μg L(-1)) and S. longipes (LC50=56 μg L(-1)), while O. curvata was more sensitive to cadmium (LC50=901 μg L(-1)) than S. longipes (LC50=1250 μg L(-1)). In comparison to copepods from lower latitudes, Antarctic copepods were more sensitive to copper and of similar sensitivity or less sensitive to cadmium. This study highlights the need for longer exposure periods in toxicity tests with slow responding Antarctic biota in order to generate relevant sensitivity data for inclusion in site-specific environmental quality guidelines for Antarctica.

  16. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 Apr 05, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week! Mar 23, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week is ONE ... 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week (NPAW) 2017 date: Mar 1, 2017 FDA Meeting for Acute Porphyrias is ...

  17. [Acute radiation injury].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    Cell death due to DNA damage by ionizing radiation causes acute radiation injury of tissues and organs. Frequency and severity of the injuries increase according to dose increase, when the dose becomes more than threshold dose. The threshold dose of acute human radiation death is 1 Gy and LD50 of human is 4 Gy. Human dies due to the cerebrovascular syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome or the hematopoetic syndrome, when he received more than 20 Gy, 10-20 Gy or 3-8 Gy to his total body, respectively. Any tissue or organ, including embryo and fetus, does not show the acute injury, when it received less than 100 mSv. Acute injuries are usually reversible, and late injuries are sometimes irreversible.

  18. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... angina? This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ... Recovery FAQs • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support Network Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  19. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  20. Using silicone passive samplers to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wildfires in streams and potential acute effects for invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ralf Bernhard; Hearn, Laurence; Kefford, Ben J; Mueller, Jochen F; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2010-08-01

    Silicone rubber passive samplers spiked with 4 deuterated performance reference compounds were deployed for 29-33 days to estimate the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 streams in Victoria, Australia, following a wildfire. Silicone rubber strips of 2 thicknesses were used to obtain information on the status of uptake of the chemicals of interest at retrieval. In addition, we monitored the stream macroinvertebrate community for potential effects of PAHs or other fire organics. All selected PAHs were detected in the passive samplers and the sampling rates ranged from 0.5 to 50 L/day significantly varying between sites but not compounds, presumably due to differences in current velocity. The estimated water concentrations were 0.1-10 ng/L for total PAHs with phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene accounting for 91% of the total concentration. All PAHs were a factor of 1000 or more below the reported 48-h median lethal concentrations (48-h LC50) for Daphnia magna. Two sites located closest to the fires exhibited elevated concentrations compared to the other sites and the passive samplers in these sites remained in the integrative uptake regime for all compounds, suggesting precipitation-associated PAH input. No acute toxic effects of PAHs or other fire organics on the invertebrate community were detected using a biotic index for organic toxicants (SPEAR), whereas a non-specific biotic index (SIGNAL) decreased in two sites indicating impacts from changes in other environmental parameters. We conclude (1) that silicone-based passive samplers with two different area-to-volume ratios represent a promising tool for determining organic toxicants and (2) that PAHs from wildfires are unlikely to be a common main cause for fire-related ecological effects in streams adjacent to burnt regions.

  1. [Acute Kidney Injury].

    PubMed

    Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.

  2. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  3. Pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; Wong, Fei Ling; Cao, Yang; Lau, Hon Yen; Huang, Jiali; Puneet, Padmam; Chevali, Lakshmi

    2005-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical condition. It is a disease of variable severity in which some patients experience mild, self-limited attacks while others manifest a severe, highly morbid, and frequently lethal attack. The exact mechanisms by which diverse etiological factors induce an attack are still unclear. It is generally believed that the earliest events in acute pancreatitis occur within acinar cells. Acinar cell injury early in acute pancreatitis leads to a local inflammatory reaction. If this inflammatory reaction is marked, it leads to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). An excessive SIRS leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS associated with acute pancreatitis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Recent studies have established the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and the resultant MODS. At the same time, recent research has demonstrated the importance of acinar cell death in the form of apoptosis and necrosis as a determinant of pancreatitis severity. In this review, we will discuss about our current understanding of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We describe a pediatric patient who presented with acute pancreatitis that revealed acute HIV infection. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis as a primary manifestation of HIV infection is very rare. It may represent an uncommon aspect of primary HIV infection. We suggest that acute HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis at all ages. PMID:23569476

  5. Acute cerebellar ataxia, acute cerebellitis, and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jay; Mitchell, Wendy G

    2012-11-01

    Acute cerebellar ataxia and acute cerebellitis represent a process characterized by parainfectious, postinfectious, or postvaccination cerebellar inflammation. There is considerable overlap between these entities. The mildest cases of acute cerebellar ataxia represent a benign condition that is characterized by acute truncal and gait ataxia, variably with appendicular ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, and hypotonia. It occurs mostly in young children, presents abruptly, and recovers over weeks. Neuroimaging is normal. Severe cases of cerebellitis represent the other end of the spectrum, presenting with acute cerebellar signs often overshadowed by alteration of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, raised intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and even herniation. Neuroimaging is abnormal and the prognosis is less favorable than in acute cerebellar ataxia. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may be confused with acute cerebellitis when the clinical findings are predominantly cerebellar, but lesions on neuroimaging are usually widespread. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is often initially misdiagnosed as acute cerebellar ataxia, but has very specific features, course, and etiopathogensis.

  6. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  7. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  8. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Influence of flow-through and renewal exposures on the toxicity of copper to rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Mebane, C.A.; Marr, J.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined changes in water chemistry and copper (Cu) toxicity in three paired renewal and flow-through acute bioassays with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Test exposure methodology influenced both exposure water chemistry and measured Cu toxicity. Ammonia and organic carbon concentrations were higher and the fraction of dissolved Cu lower in renewal tests than in paired flow-through tests. Cu toxicity was also lower in renewal tests; 96 h dissolved Cu LC50 values were 7-60% higher than LC50s from matching flow-through tests. LC50 values in both types of tests were related to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in exposure tanks. Increases in organic carbon concentrations in renewal tests were associated with reduced Cu toxicity, likely as a result of the lower bioavailability of Cu-organic carbon complexes. The biotic ligand model of acute Cu toxicity tended to underpredict toxicity in the presence of DOC. Model fits between predicted and observed toxicity were improved by assuming that only 50% of the measured DOC was reactive, and that this reactive fraction was present as fulvic acid. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alvarado scoring in acute appendicitis-a clinicopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhajeet; Mohanta, Pradip K; Baruah, Anil K; Kharga, Bikram; Bhutia, Kincho L; Singh, Varun K

    2010-08-01

    Acute appendicitis is a clinical diagnosis, so it's impossible to have a definitive diagnosis by gold standard (histopathology) pre operatively. The treatment being surgical, negative appendicectomy rates are high. Present study was conducted to evaluate Alvarado scoring system for diagnosis of acute appendicitis and its co relation by histopathology. Retrospective study of consecutive patients admitted with suspected acute appendicitis during the period March 2005 to March 2007. The Alvarado scoring system was computed from admission notes and records and correlated with the histopathology reports. Out of 155 patients, 92 underwent appendicectomy with the intention to treat appendicitis and diagnosis was confirmed in 80 patients. Reliability of scoring system was assessed by calculating negative appendicectomy rate and positive predictive value. The normal appendicectomy frequency was 13% and positive predictive value was 86%. Alvarado scoring system is easy, simple, cheap, useful tool in pre operative diagnosis of acute appendicitis and can work effectively in routine practice.

  11. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  12. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  13. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  14. Values and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  15. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  16. Nutritional support in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grant, John P

    2011-08-01

    Nutritional support can have a significant beneficial impact on the course of moderate to severe acute pancreatitis. Enteral nutrition is preferred, with emphasis on establishment of jejunal access; however, parenteral nutrition can also be of value if intestinal failure is present. Early initiation of nutritional support is critical, with benefits decreasing rapidly if begun after 48 hours from admission. Severe malnutrition in chronic pancreatitis can be avoided or treated with dietary modifications or enteral nutrition.

  17. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  18. [Clinico-diagnostic evaluation of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Panteleeva, G P

    1989-01-01

    Psychopathologic and nosologic issues of acute paranoid and Kandinsky-Clerambault syndromes are discussed on the background of clinical studies of 225 schizophrenic patients with these syndromes being initial manifestations. The data on the syndromes typology, clinical value and prognosis of acute delirious disorders are presented. These are shown to be not confined to progredient schizophrenia, including its paranoid form. Rather, they can manifest a course of the disease unspecific for schizophrenia, the so-called schizophrenic reactions and phasic states thus reflecting the course of latent schizophrenia. A differentiated approach to clinical and psychopathological analysis of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia is essential for adequate choice of medicosocial measures and epidemiologic investigations.

  19. Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Michael J; Barron, Mace G; Greene, Richard M

    2011-10-01

    The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied during the DeepWater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Static acute toxicity tests were performed using two Gulf of Mexico estuarine test species, the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and the inland silversides (Menidia beryllina). Dispersant-only test solutions were prepared with high-energy mixing, whereas water-accommodated fractions of LSC and chemically dispersed LSC were prepared with moderate energy followed by settling and testing of the aqueous phase. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the dispersant-only tests were calculated using nominal concentrations, whereas tests conducted with LSC alone and dispersed LSC were based on measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. For all eight dispersants in both test species, the dispersants alone were less toxic (LC50s: 2.9 to >5,600 µl/L) than the dispersant-LSC mixtures (0.4-13 mg TPH/L). Louisiana sweet crude oil alone had generally similar toxicity to A. bahia (LC50: 2.7 mg TPH/L) and M. beryllina (LC50: 3.5 mg TPH/L) as the dispersant-LSC mixtures. The results of the present study indicate that Corexit 9500A had generally similar toxicity to other available dispersants when tested alone but was generally less toxic as a mixture with LSC.

  20. Acute viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Dennert, Robert; Crijns, Harry J.; Heymans, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    Acute myocarditis is one of the most challenging diagnosis in cardiology. At present, no diagnostic gold standard is generally accepted, due to the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic tests. This leads to the need for new diagnostic approaches, which resulted in the emergence of new molecular tests and a more detailed immunohistochemical analysis of endomyocardial biopsies. Recent findings using these new diagnostic tests resulted in increased interest in inflammatory cardiomyopathies and a better understanding of its pathophysiology, the recognition in overlap of virus-mediated damage, inflammation, and autoimmune dysregulation. Novel results also pointed towards a broader spectrum of viral genomes responsible for acute myocarditis, indicating a shift of enterovirus and adenovirus to parvovirus B19 and human herpes virus 6. The present review proposes a general diagnostic approach, focuses on the viral aetiology and associated autoimmune processes, and reviews treatment options for patients with acute viral myocarditis. PMID:18617482

  1. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  2. Acute Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, Vesile

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent disabling neurological conditions with a major impact on the patient’s quality of life. Migraine has been described as a chronic disorder that characterized with attacks. Attacks are characterized by moderate–severe, often unilateral, pulsating headache attacks, typically lasting 4 to 72 hours. Migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated despite advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. This article reviews management of migraine acute pharmacological treatment. Currently, for the acute treatment of migraine attacks, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and triptans (serotonin 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists) are recommended. Before intake of NSAID and triptans, metoclopramide or domperidone is useful. In very severe attacks, subcutaneous sumatriptan is first choice. The patient should be treated early in the attack, use an adequate dose and formulation of a medication. Ideally, acute therapy should be restricted to no more than 2 to 3 days per week to avoid medication overuse.

  3. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  4. Low back pain (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point in their lives. Acute low back pain can be self-limiting; however, 1 year after an initial episode, as many as 33% of people still have moderate-intensity pain and 15% have severe pain. Acute low back pain has a high recurrence rate; 75% of those with a first episode have a recurrence. Although acute episodes may resolve completely, they may increase in severity and duration over time. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments for acute low back pain? What are the effects of local injections for acute low back pain? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for acute low back pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics (paracetamol, opioids), back exercises, back schools, bed rest, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, epidural corticosteroid injections, lumbar supports, massage, multidisciplinary treatment programmes, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulation, temperature treatments (short-wave diathermy, ultrasound, ice, heat), traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  5. [Experimental models of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is a severe disease with high mortality. Clinical studies can bring some data about etiology, pathogenesis and the course of acute pancreatitis. However, studies concerning early events of this disease and the new concepts of treatment cannot be performed on humans, due to ethical reasons. Animal models of acute pancreatitis have been developed to solve this problem. This review presents currently used experimental models of acute pancreatitis, their properties and clinical relevance. Experimental models of acute pancreatitis can be divided into in vivo (non-invasive and invasive) and ex vivo models. The onset, development, severity and extent of acute pancreatitis, as well as the mortality, vary considerably between these different models. Animal models reproducibly produce mild, moderate or severe acute pancreatitis. One of the most commonly used models of acute pancreatitis is created by administration of supramaximal doses of cerulein, an analog of cholecystokinin. This model produces acute mild edematous pancreatitis in rats, whereas administration of cerulein in mice leads to the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis evoked by retrograde administration of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct is the most often used model of acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Ex vivo models allow to eliminate the influence of hormonal and nervous factors on the development of acute pancreatitis.

  6. Hypothyroid acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Birewar, Sonali; Oppenheimer, Mark; Zawada, Edward T

    2004-03-01

    Muscular disorders and even hypothyroid myopathy with elevated muscle enzymes are commonly seen in hypothyroidism. In this paper, we report a case of acute renal failure in a 35-year old male patient with myalgia. His serum creatinine reached a level of 2.4 mg/dl. Later, his myalgia was found to be due to hypothyroidism with TSH of over 500 uiv/ml. With thyroid replacement therapy, myalgia and his serum creatinine stabilized and subsequently improved. Hypothyroidism, although rare, has been reported as a definite and authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis. As a result, hypothyroidism must be considered in patients presenting with acute renal failure and elevated muscle enzymes.

  7. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  8. Recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Vishal; Ganguly, Ishita

    2014-09-28

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is commonly encountered, but less commonly understood clinical entity, especially idiopathic RAP, with propensity to lead to repeated attacks and may be chronic pancreatitis if attacks continue to recur. A great number of studies have been published on acute pancreatitis, but few have focused on RAP. Analysing the results of clinical studies focusing specifically on RAP is problematic in view due to lack of standard definitions, randomised clinical trials, standard evaluation protocol used and less post intervention follow-up duration. With the availability of newer investigation modalities less number of etiologies will remains undiagnosed. This review particularly is focused on the present knowledge in understanding of RAP.

  9. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nason, Katie S

    2015-08-01

    Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk, and immediate management options by the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical.

  10. [Acute pancreatitis due to lupus].

    PubMed

    Hani, Mohamed Aziz; Guesmi, Fethi; Ben Achour, Jamel; Zribi, Riadh; Bouasker, Ibtissem; Zoghlami, Ayoub; Najah, Nabil

    2004-02-01

    Among digestive clinical presentations of systemic lupus erythematosus, acute pancreatitis remains a serious affection with very poor prognosis. To date, pathogenesis is still unclear. We report two cases of fatal acute pancreatitis related to systemic lupus erythematosus.

  11. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  12. Value of plasmapheresis in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Riviello, J J; Halligan, G E; Dunn, S P; Widzer, S J; Foley, C M; Breningstall, G N; Grover, W D

    1990-01-01

    Plasmapheresis is used for treating the complications of liver failure. We performed plasmapheresis on 6 children with hepatic encephalopathy resulting from acute hepatic failure and prospectively assessed its effects on neurologic and electrophysiologic (electroencephalography and evoked potentials) function. Clinical improvement was observed in 3 of 6 patients; changes in the serum ammonia value or the results of initial electrophysiologic tests did not predict the patient response. Two patients underwent transplantation after neurologic improvement was produced by plasmapheresis; however, despite plasmapheresis, 4 patients progressed to brain death. Our data demonstrate that plasmapheresis may transiently improve the encephalopathy of acute hepatic failure but is not curative alone. Therefore, plasmapheresis may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of liver failure, potentially improving the pretransplantation status of the patient.

  13. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  14. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  15. Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12%), α-pinene (19.38%) and β-caryophyllene (18.42%). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 μg/ml and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 μg/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 μg/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

  16. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  17. Acute septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Mader, Jon T

    2002-10-01

    Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection.

  18. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  19. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  20. Acute stroke initiative involving an acute care team.

    PubMed

    Roth, Sean M; Keyser, Gabrielle; Winfield, Michelle; McNeil, Julie; Simko, Leslie; Price, Karen; Moffa, Donald; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Peacock, W Frank; Katzan, Irene L

    2012-06-01

    The Acute Care Team Educational Initiative (ACTEI) was developed as a quality improvement initiative for the recognition and initial management of time-sensitive medical conditions. For our first time-sensitive disease process, we focused on acute stroke [acute stroke initiative (ASI)]. As part of the larger ACTEI, the ASI included creating an ACT that responds to all suspected emergency department stroke patients. In this article, we describe the planning, process, and development of the ACTEI/ASI as well as how we created an acute response team for the diagnosis and management of suspected acute stroke.

  1. Values in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wees, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

  2. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  3. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  4. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  5. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  6. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  7. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval Colombian frogs 1. Laboratory acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M H; Solomon, K R; Carrasquilla, G

    2009-01-01

    The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. There are few toxicity data for species other than those from temperate regions, and these have not been generated with the combination of formulated glyphosate (Glyphos) and the adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux (coca mix) as used in coca control in Colombia. In order to characterize toxicity of the spray mixture to frogs from Colombia, Gosner stage-25 tadpoles of Scinax ruber, Dendropophus microcephalus, Hypsiboas crepitans, Rhinella granulosa, Rhinella marina, Rhinella typhonius, Centrolene prosoblepon, and Engystomops pustulosus were exposed to the coca mix at concentrations of glyphosate ranging from 1 to 4.2 mg a.e./L diluted in dechlorinated tap water in glass containers. Cosmo-Flux was added to Glyphos in the proportion of 2.3% v/v, as used in aerial application for coca control. Exposures were for 96 h at 23 +/- 1.5 degrees C with 12:12-h light/dark cycle. Test solutions were renewed every 24 h. Concentrations, measured within the first hour and at 24 and 96 h using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Abraxis, LLC), ranged from 70 to 130% of nominal values. LC50 values ranged from 1200 to 2780 microg glyphosate acid equivalents (a.e.)/L for the 8 species tested. Data suggest that sensitivity to Roundup-type formulations of glyphosate in these species is similar to that observed in other tropical and temperate species. In addition, sensitivity of larval amphibians to Roundup-type formulations spans a relatively narrow range. Finally, toxicity of the mixture as used to spray coca was likely driven by the surfactant in the glyphosate formulation, as the addition of Cosmo-Flux did not enhance toxicity above those reported for Vision = Roundup.

  8. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María-Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure period of 2 days; and mortality, weight loss, enzymatic activities (cholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) and histopathological effects after an exposure period of 14 days. Carbendazim was found to be highly toxic to E. fetida (LC50=2mg/kg d.w.), significantly reducing earthworm weight and showing an avoidance response at soil concentrations that are close to those predicted in rice-fields and in surrounding ecosystems. The insecticide dimethoate showed a moderate acute toxicity (LC50=28mg/kg d.w.), whereas the rest of tested pesticides showed low toxicity potential (LC50 values above 100mg/kg d.w.). For these pesticides, however, weight loss was identified as a sensitive endpoint, with NOEC values approximately 2 times or lower than the calculated LC10 values. The investigated effects on the enzymatic activities of E. fetida and the observed histopathological alterations (longitudinal and circular muscle lesions, edematous tissues, endothelial degeneration and necrosis) proved to be sensitive biomarkers to monitor pesticide contamination and are proposed as alternative measures to evaluate pesticide risks on agro-ecosystems.

  9. Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed. PMID:24049653

  10. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  11. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  12. The Value of the P Value.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research.

  13. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  14. Values Take Center Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of mind? Think about the many other circumstances where your mood, outlook, and effectiveness are influenced by values that may be unconscious and...a leader’s values. Aspiring leaders everywhere identify role models, including Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela , Mahatma Gandhi, George Washington...and others whose strongly held and effectively communicated values contrib- uted to their profound impact. While there are many differ- ent

  15. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  16. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  17. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Weigand, M A; Mayer, K

    2012-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of an acute lung injury caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has led to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. The development of innovative therapy options, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have the potential to further improve survival of this devastating disease.

  18. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appen