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Sample records for acute lead toxicity

  1. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    PubMed

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-06-30

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  3. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  4. Assessment of toxic metal exposure following the Camelford water pollution incident: evidence of acute mobilization of lead into drinking water.

    PubMed

    Powell, J J; Greenfield, S M; Thompson, R P; Cargnello, J A; Kendall, M D; Landsberg, J P; Watt, F; Delves, H T; House, I

    1995-03-01

    Following the incident of acidic pollution of water by aluminium sulfate centred around Camelford in July 1988, we have carried out a retrospective analysis of the mobilization of toxic metals to residents of the area. An advanced nuclear technique was used to measure trace levels of elements within hair, thus, avoiding surface contamination. In contrast to controls, lead, but no other toxic metals, was consistently found within sections of hair that dated to mid-1988 from four residents; they must, therefore, have consumed this metal around the time of the incident. The source of this lead was probably local water pipe residue, and this was found on analysis to have a matrix specific to such soft-water areas that, prior to the incident, had slowly accumulated certain toxic metals such as cadmium and uranium and particularly lead. Lead is mobilized from such residues by acidic water and could, therefore, have heavily contaminated mains water after the incident. However, analyses of residents' plasma and whole blood, and of urine following a lead-chelation test, showed no evidence of either long-term increased body burdens of toxic metals or depletion of essential elements. In addition, we found no evidence of continued poor water quality in the area. In conclusion, during a short period following the pollution, some residents who consumed mains water would have been acutely exposed to lead and other toxic metals. Prediction of the scale of metal exposure to individuals was not possible owing to heterogeneity of the water distribution network, but long-term effects to residents from lead are not anticipated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323 µg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704 µg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  7. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  8. Lead toxicity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ab Latif; Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates.

  9. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  10. Acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Satyavathi; Khan, Ritindra N; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao

    2002-02-01

    The estuaries and backwaters that are the potential breeding grounds of penaeid shrimps are subject to heavy metal pollution through industrial effluents and domestic sewage. In the present investigation, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae. Static bioassay tests were employed to determine tolerance limits. Oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation were determined in postlarvae by exposing them to different concentrations of lead for a period of 48 h. Oxygen consumption measurements were made by using a respiratory chamber equipped with an oxygen electrode and ammonia-N was determined with trione (dichloro-S-triamine 2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione)). Accumulation of metal was estimated by wet-ash method. The LC50 value for 96 h was 7.223 ppm and the regression equation Y=4.1638+0.9738X with correlation coefficient of 0.9613 was obtained by probit method. A decrease in oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion was observed in postlarvae with increasing concentration of lead. A concentration-dependent accumulation of metal was noticed in these postlarvae. Modifications in O:N ratios of postlarvae suggest that lead accumulation might have altered utilization patterns.

  11. Acute toxicity of arsenobetaine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaise, T.; Watanabe, S.; Itoh, K.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicity of arsenobetaine was studied in male mice. No deaths were observed with oral administration of 10 g/kg of arsenobetaine. Therefore the LD/sub 50/ value was higher than 10 g/kg. This compound was found in urine in the non-metabolized form. No particular toxic symptoms were observed following administration. These suggest that arsenobetaine has low toxicity and is not metabolized in mice.

  12. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  13. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  14. Multi-linear regression models predict the effects of water chemistry on acute lead toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Esbaugh, A J; Brix, K V; Mager, E M; Grosell, M

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined the acute toxicity of lead (Pb) to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas in a variety of natural waters. The natural waters were selected to range in pertinent water chemistry parameters such as calcium, pH, total CO(2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Acute toxicity was determined for C. dubia and P. promelas using standard 48h and 96h protocols, respectively. For both organisms acute toxicity varied markedly according to water chemistry, with C. dubia LC50s ranging from 29 to 180μg/L and P. promelas LC50s ranging from 41 to 3598μg/L. Additionally, no Pb toxicity was observed for P. promelas in three alkaline natural waters. With respect to water chemistry parameters, DOC had the strongest protective impact for both organisms. A multi-linear regression (MLR) approach combining previous lab data and the current data was used to identify the relative importance of individual water chemistry components in predicting acute Pb toxicity for both species. As anticipated, the P. promelas best-fit MLR model combined DOC, calcium and pH. Unexpectedly, in the C. dubiaMLR model the importance of pH, TCO(2) and calcium was minimal while DOC and ionic strength were the controlling water quality variables. Adjusted R(2) values of 0.82 and 0.64 for the P. promelas and C. dubia models, respectively, are comparable to previously developed biotic ligand models for other metals.

  15. Prevention of Childhood Lead Toxicity.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Blood lead concentrations have decreased dramatically in US children over the past 4 decades, but too many children still live in housing with deteriorated lead-based paint and are at risk for lead exposure with resulting lead-associated cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. Evidence continues to accrue that commonly encountered blood lead concentrations, even those below 5 µg/dL (50 ppb), impair cognition; there is no identified threshold or safe level of lead in blood. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 2.6% of preschool children in the United States had a blood lead concentration ≥5 µg/dL (≥50 ppb), which represents about 535 000 US children 1 to 5 years of age. Evidence-based guidance is available for managing increased lead exposure in children, and reducing sources of lead in the environment, including lead in housing, soil, water, and consumer products, has been shown to be cost-beneficial. Primary prevention should be the focus of policy on childhood lead toxicity.

  16. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve.

  17. Toxicity study of lead naphthenate

    PubMed Central

    Peteghem, Th. Van; Devos, H.

    1974-01-01

    van Peteghem, Th., and de Vos, H. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 233-238. Toxicity study of lead naphthenate. Lead naphthenate is added to oils and greases in order to increase their resistance to high pressures. Experiments on animals and humans showed the possibility of a small amount of percutaneous absorption. An investigation was performed on technicians regularly dealing with these lubricants in order to explore to what extent they had absorbed the lead naphthenate. The degree of absorption was evaluated by measuring the lead content of the blood and the δ-aminolevulinic acid concentration in the urine. Individual results did not permit clearcut conclusions whether an increase in lead absorption had occured or not. Therefore the group of technicians was compared with a group without any occupational contact with lead-containing lubricants but otherwise comparable in occupational and general exposure to lead. To test the significance of the difference between the means of the samples a one-sided t test not assuming equal standard deviations for both populations was used. For any of two compared populations the t test was repeated after rejection of the larger values which were 2·5 standard deviations from the mean value in the exposed population. It appeared that the lead concentration in the blood and the δ-aminolevulinic acid concentration in the urine of people exposed to lead naphthenate-containing lubricants were significantly higher than those concentrations observed in non-exposed persons. PMID:4416678

  18. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  19. Lead shot toxicity to passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of a single size 7.5 lead shot to passerines. No mortalities or signs of plumbism were observed in dosed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) fed a commercial diet, but when given a more natural diet, three of 10 dosed birds died within 1 day. For all survivors from which shot were recovered, all but one excreted the shot within 24 h of dosing, whereas, the dead birds retained their shot. Shot erosion was significantly greater (P < 0.05) when weathered shot were ingested compared to new shot, and the greatest erosion was observed in those birds that died (2.2-9.7%). Blood lead concentrations of birds dosed with new shot were not significantly different (P=0.14) from those of birds exposed to weathered shot. Liver lead concentrations of birds that died ranged from 71 to 137 ppm, dry weight. Despite the short amount of time the shot was retained, songbirds may absorb sufficient lead to compromise their survival.

  20. Lead and lead toxicity in domestic and free living birds.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, N; Ruiz Troya, J D; Agüera, E I

    2003-02-01

    degradation and/or elimination is very difficult. There is, therefore, no doubt that millions of birds die annually worldwide from lead poisoning (in the U.S.A., around 3,000,000), this problem being most acute in marshland. The solutions could include the introduction of legislation regulating or banning shooting, in the use of non-toxic ammunition in marshes and protected areas, the substitution of lead pellets for other non-toxic ones, such as steel, bismuth, tungsten or other suitable metals, and to go on studying other possible alternatives to end such a dramatic situation for birds all over the world.

  1. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  2. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  3. Lead toxicity in battery workers.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Saeeda Fouzia; Baloch, Malka

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Routes of exposure include contaminated air, water, soil, food and consumer products. Occupational exposure is the main cause of lead poisoning in the adults. Two cases of occupational lead poisoning in adult battery workers are hereby presented. Both male patients had initial non-specific symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain, fatigue and headache for 6 - 8 years. Later on, they developed psychosis, slurred speech, tremors of hands and initially underwent treatment for Parkinsonism and Wilson's disease because of clinical misdiagnosis. They were diagnosed with lead poisoning later and were treated successfully with lead chelator (CaNa2 EDTA).

  4. Neural stem cells in lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-W; Zhang, X; Huang, W-J

    2016-12-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in the early stages of neurodevelopment results in long-lasting alterations that ultimately cognitive function and behaviour. The prime targets of lead toxicity are the multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). The present review will discuss the basic molecular physiology involved in the toxicity mechanisms induced by lead and its resultant counter effects on nervous system and physiology. The article shall help researchers working in the area to design new drugs and therapeutics for the efficient management of neuro-toxic states especially upon prenatal exposure to lead.

  5. Environmental lead toxicity and nutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Mohd Kaleem Javed

    2007-08-01

    Environmental lead toxicity is an old but persistent public health problem throughout the world and children are more susceptible to lead than adults because of their hand to mouth activity, increased respiratory rates and higher gastrointestinal absorption per unit body weight. In the last decade children's blood lead levels have fallen significantly in a number of countries. Despite this reduction, childhood lead toxicity continues to be a major public health problem for certain at-risk groups of children, and concern remains over the effects of lead on intellectual development. The currently approved clinical intervention method is to give chelating agents, which bind and removed lead from lead burdened tissues. Studies indicate, however, that there is a lack of safety and efficacy when conventional chelating agents are used. Several studies are underway to determine the beneficial effect of nutrients supplementation following exposure to lead. Data suggest that nutrients may play an important role in abating some toxic effects of lead. To explain the importance of using exogenous nutrients in treating environmental lead toxicity the following topics are addressed: (i) different sources of lead exposure/current blood lead levels and (ii) protective effects of nutrients supplementation (some essential elements and vitamins) in lead toxicity.

  6. Recent developments. [Lead toxicity research

    SciTech Connect

    Needleman, H.L.; Bellinger, D.

    1988-08-01

    This commentary was made to further interpret the authors' studies of lead and child development and to place these studies in the proper biological and epidemiological context. Their studies demonstrate that the use of more sensitive measures of outcome and better epidemiological designs leads to identification of effects at doses previously held to be harmless.

  7. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  8. Lead toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van der Heggen, Maarten; Martins, Sara; Flores, Gisela; Soares, Eduardo V

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Pb on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell structure and function was examined. Membrane integrity was assessed by the release of UV-absorbing compounds and by the intracellular K(+) efflux. No leakage of UV(260)-absorbing compounds or loss of K(+) were observed in Pb (until 1,000 μmol/l) treated cells up to 30 min; these results suggest that plasma membrane seems not to be the immediate and primary target of Pb toxicity. The effect of Pb on yeast metabolism was examined using the fluorescent probe FUN-1 and compared with the ability to reproduce, evaluated by colony-forming units counting. The exposition of yeast cells, during 60 min to 1,000 μmol/l Pb, induces a decrease in the ability to process FUN-1 although the cells retain its proliferation capacity. A more prolonged contact time (120 min) of yeast cells with Pb induces a marked (> 50%) loss of yeast cells metabolic activity and replication competence through a mechanism which most likely requires protein synthesis.

  9. Alternative acute oral toxicity assessment under REACH based on sub-acute toxicity values.

    PubMed

    Gissi, Andrea; Louekari, Kimmo; Hoffstadt, Laurence; Bornatowicz, Norbert; Aparicio, Alberto Martin

    2016-11-08

    The REACH Regulation requires information on acute oral toxicity for substances produced or imported in quantities greater than one tonne per year. When registering, animal testing should be used as last resort. The standard acute oral toxicity test requires use of animals. Therefore, the European Chemicals Agency examined whether alternative ways exist to generate information on acute oral toxicity. The starting hypothesis was that low acute oral toxicity can be predicted from the results of low toxicity in oral sub-acute toxicity studies. Proving this hypothesis would allow avoiding acute toxicity oral testing whenever a sub-acute oral toxicity study is required or available and indicates low toxicity. ECHA conducted an analysis of the REACH database and found suitable studies on both acute oral and sub-acute oral toxicities for 1,256 substances. 415 of these substances had low toxicity in the sub-acute toxicity study (i.e. NO(A)EL at or above the classification threshold of 1,000 mg/kg). For 98% of these substances, low acute oral toxicity was also reported (i.e. LD₅₀ above the classification threshold of 2,000 mg/kg). On the other hand, no correlation was found between lower NO(A)ELs and LD₅₀. According to the REACH regulation, this approach for predicting acute oral toxicity needs to be considered as part of a weight of evidence analysis. Therefore, additional sources of information to support this approach are presented. Ahead of the last REACH registration deadline in 2018, ECHA estimates that registrants of about 550 substances can omit the in vivo acute oral study by using this adaptation.

  10. Toxicity of Lead and Proposed Substitute Shot to Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Andrews, R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Young, L.T.

    1974-01-01

    Poisoning of North American waterfowl resulting from the ingestion of lead shot by ducks, geese, and swans causes an estimated annual mortality of 2 to 3% of the population (Bellrose 1959). To alleviate this problem the search for a suitable substitute for lead has been underway since the early 1950's. Proposed substitutes for lead shot were evaluated in a series of acute toxicity tests with pen-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Most candidate materials were as toxic to ducks as commercial lead shot. Coating or alloying lead with other metals only delayed mortality among dosed ducks. The reputedly 'disintegrable' lead shot with the water-soluble binder and the lead containing biochemical additives were also as toxic to mallards as the commercial lead shot. Mortality was not significantly different among lead-dosed adult or first-year hen and drake pen-reared mallards; lead-dosed adult, wild mallards of both sexes; and lead-dosed adult, male black ducks (Anas rubripes). The ingestion of one lead shot, size 4, by each of 80 pen-reared mallards caused an average 19% mortality. The presence and type of grit in the gizzard had a measurable effect on erosion of ingested shot and on shot retention among dosed mallards. Significantly fewer lead-dosed ducks died when fed crushed oystershell grit than when fed either quartz grit or no grit.

  11. Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lisa H; Harp, Jordan P; Han, Dong Y

    2014-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  13. Lead Toxicity, Antioxidant Defense and Environment.

    PubMed

    Carocci, Alessia; Catalano, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Genchi, Giuseppe

    Environmental and occupational exposure to a large number of chemicals occurs at various stages throughout human life. Many of these are devoid of toxicity, but some could pose a significant health risk, i.e. the exposure to environmental xenobiotic metals as lead, mercury (Sinicropi et al. 2010a; Carocci et al. 2014), cadmium, etc. In particular, lead has long been a widespread public concern (Basha and Reddy 2010). Lead is one of the earliest heavy metals discovered by men. Due to its unique properties, as low melting point, softness, malleability, ductility, and resistance to corrosion, men have used lead for the last 5000 years in a wide range of applications.

  14. The future challenge of lead toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Needleman, H.L. )

    1990-11-01

    Five decades ago, lead toxicity in childhood was thought in nonlethal cases to be without residual effect. This misconception was corrected in 1943 by Randolph Byers, who began the modern era of lead neurotoxicology by asserting that lead not only killed cells, but interfered with the normal development of central nervous system neurons. The human data from Byers forward is reviewed, with particular attention on methodological issues that have emerged. The papers on human neurotoxicology presented at the NIEHS lead conference held in Research Triangle Park, NC, in 1974 are examined to demonstrate the progress made over the last 15 years. Seven methodological solecisms have clouded judgment over the question of lead toxicity at low dose: worship of the sacrament of p = 0.05; inaccurate causal modeling;drawing conclusions from studies with inadequate power; positing phantom covariates; underestimating the importance of small effects; demanding proof of causality; and evaluating studies in isolation. The principles behind these errors are discussed. Lead exposure is associated with hyperactivity, and hyperactivity is a risk factor for antisocial behavior. The relationship between lead exposure and antisocial behavior is estimated. A plan for the effective removal of one major lead source, housing stock, is presented.

  15. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  16. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Occupational lead toxicity in battery workers

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Shahla; Karim, Nasim; Munshi, Alia Bano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate blood lead level (BLL) and to assess the features of lead toxicity among lead acid battery (LAB) industrial workers. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the medical centre of PCSIR Laboratories, Karachi from March 2012 – March 2013. Fifty LAB industry workers, males and females between 17-65 years were included in the study. They were divided into group 1 with 40 workers- directly related and group 2 with 10 workers –indirectly related, (administration staff members) to LAB manufacture. Detailed history, complete physical examination and BLL estimation by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer was done. Results: Total 34 patients in group 1 and 3 patients in group 2 had elevated BLL. Comparison of group 1 and 2 revealed anemia (40v/s4), bone pain (38v/s7), abdominal pain (38 v/s 2), nausea (32v/s6), head ache & irritability (24v/s6), weakness & lethargy (21v/s6), tremors (13v/s0) insomnia (5v/s4), lead line (4v/s 0) and blood pressure above 140/90 mm of Hg (12v/s0) respectively. Conclusion: High blood lead level and features attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent among LAB industry workers of Karachi. PMID:26430401

  18. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  19. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  20. [An acute toxicity study of bromantane].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Verovskiĭ, V E; Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of bromantan was evaluated by conventional acute tests (according to Belen'kiĭ) and by the behavioral activity data (according to Irvin). A method of integral graphical representation of the behavioral activity data is suggested, according to which the results are plotted as a "dose trajectory." Using the dose trajectory constructed for bromantan, the levels of therapeutic, toxic, and lethal doses were calculated. It was established that catecholaminergic effects account for the mechanism of therapeutic action of bromantan, while cholinergic effects determine the drug action in toxic doses.

  1. Olanzapine overdose presenting with acute muscle toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Keyal, Niraj; Shrestha, Gentle Sunder; Pradhan, Saurabh; Maharjan, Ramesh; Acharya, Subhash Prasad; Marhatta, Moda Nath

    2017-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is being increasingly used as an intentional overdose. It usually presents with reduced and fluctuating level of consciousness and coma. It may rarely present with muscle toxicity by binding to HT2A receptor in skeletal muscle and increasing its permeability. We report a case of such poisoning which had no obvious symptoms but was brought to emergency due to overdose and was found to have acute muscle toxicity as evidenced by raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. From this, we also want to emphasize that CPK levels should be checked in all the patient's prescribed olanzapine to look for muscle toxicity.

  2. CDP-choline: acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Grau, T; Romero, A; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

    1983-01-01

    The acute toxicity of a single dose of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) by different administration routes in mice and rats has been studied. LD50 values were determined according to the cumulative method by Reed-Muench for mortality rate, and Pizzi's method for calculation of standard error.

  3. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  4. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  5. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  6. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  7. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC50s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 microgPb g(-1)soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 microgPb g(-1)soil. The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 microg g(-1) soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)) than those in the 3000 microg g(-1) soil (2.21 microg Pb g(-1)tissue day(-1)). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 microgPb g(-1)soil. Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 degrees C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration time of artificially amended Pb-bearing soils increases the bioavailability of Pb decreases. Thus addition of

  8. Acute toxicity of gymnodimine to mice.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Towers, Neale R; Mackenzie, Lincoln; Beuzenberg, Veronica; Holland, Patrick T; Miles, Christopher O

    2004-08-01

    The acute toxicity of the phycotoxin gymnodimine to female Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection and by oral administration has been determined. Gymnodimine was highly toxic by injection, the LD50 being only 96 microg/kg. Animals either died within 10 min of injection or made a full recovery with no perceptible long-term effects. Gymnodimine was also toxic after oral administration by gavage (LD50 755 microg/kg), but was much less toxic when administered with food. No signs of toxicity were seen in mice voluntarily ingesting food containing gymnodimine at a level sufficient to give a dose of approximately 7500 microg/kg. Pre-treatment with physostigmine or neostigmine protected against injected gymnodimine, suggesting that the latter exerts its toxic effects via blockade of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction. The low toxicity of gymnodimine when ingested with food suggests that this compound is of low risk to humans, a conclusion that is consonant with anecdotal evidence for the absence of harmful effects in individuals consuming shellfish contaminated with gymnodimine.

  9. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  10. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  11. Lead Toxicity Risks in Gunshot Victims

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Mourão, Natália Teixeira; Pinheiro, Igor Natário; Xavier, Analúcia Rampazzo; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott

    2015-01-01

    Background Gunshot wounds require surgeons to decide whether to remove or leave bullet fragments in the body. Surgeons also decide how to follow up with patients who have lead fragments retained in their body. Current literature recommends to remove only intra-articular fragments without the need for a follow-up for patients with the metal retained. Therefore, this study investigates chronic lead toxicity for gunshot wounds. Methods The study was performed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, between 2013 and 2015. It was a case-control study that included 45 victims of gunshot lesions with metallic fragments retained for more than 6 months. The 45 controls were matched for gender, age, and race. We compared the lead blood levels and frequency of symptoms. Results The control group had average blood lead levels of 2.17 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 1.71–2.63) and median 2.1 μg/dL. The case group had average values of 9.01 μg/dL (CI; 6.07–11.96) and median values of 6.5 μg/dL with p-values < = 0.001. The case group reported the following more frequently: irritancy, bad mood, headache, memory losses, daylight drowsiness, myalgia, weakness, abdominal pain, joint pain, trembling, tingling limbs. There was statistical significance for the differences of symptoms frequencies and for odds ratio between groups. Conclusions Although the mean lead levels found were lower than the current laboratory references, low levels have been associated with both rising morbidity and mortality. The WHO stated: “There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe”. In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous. There are impacts in the blood lead levels and symptoms related to it, even with few fragments, extra-articular located or existing with low blood lead levels. PMID:26509498

  12. Poorly controlled hypertension in a painter with chronic lead toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H

    2001-01-01

    In 1984, a 56-year-old house painter developed intractable pain in his back and other joints. After several unrevealing medical work-ups, he was found to have a high blood lead level (122 microg/dL); he has a history of scraping and sanding lead paint without adequate protective measures. The patient was hospitalized and chelated with EDTA four times over the next 5 years; each time he felt better at the end of his treatment, but he returned to largely the same working conditions. He developed hypertension in April 1989, underwent a final chelation, and retired. He was subsequently followed on a regular basis with repeated measurement of lead levels in blood and bone (using a K-x-ray fluorescence instrument) as well as clinical parameters. In 1995 his blood pressure became difficult to control despite a sequential increase in his antihypertensive medication dosages and the addition of new medications. In 1997 he began calcium supplementation and a high-calcium diet; his blood pressure declined markedly, allowing him to taper off of two of his four antihypertensive medications. This case demonstrates an occupational activity (construction) that has now become the dominant source of lead exposure for U.S. adults, the importance of a good occupational history to suspecting and making a diagnosis, the possible outcomes of chronic lead toxicity, and the importance of preventing further exposure and using proper methods to treat acute toxicity. It also highlights a current major etiologic question, that is, whether and to what degree lead exposure contributes to the development of hypertension, and raises the issue of whether lead-induced hypertension constitutes a subset of hypertension that is especially amenable to therapy with dietary calcium. PMID:11171531

  13. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  14. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  15. Acute Oral Toxicity Up-And-Down-Procedure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Up-and-Down Procedure is an alternative acute toxicity test that provides a way to determine the toxicity of chemicals with fewer test animals by using sequential dosing steps. Find out about this test procedure.

  16. Evaluation of acute toxicity potential of water hyacinth leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Guo, Xiaoguang; Huang, Mingliang

    2014-06-01

    Although higher protein yield per hectare of water hyacinth than that of soy, high protein content of its leaves and good essential amino acid pattern have been proven, its dietary toxicity for human or animal consumption has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the acute toxicity of water hyacinth leaves has been evaluated by an animal feeding test. The concentrations of common toxic metals including cadmium, lead, platinum, palladium, tin, mercury, barium, silver, stibium and aluminum in the water hyacinth leaf powder (WHLP) used for the animal feeding test were within their maximum limits in food additives as reported by the World Health Organization. The median lethal dose (LD50) of WHLP was more than 16 g kg(-1) body weight. In the study, after feeding for 7 and 28 days, the body weight of all the mice increased. The results of hematological analysis, clinical biochemical analysis, histopathological evaluation, general dissection or investigations of internal organs, appearance and behavior observations did not indicate any adverse effects from the diet containing WHLP. It is therefore concluded that water hyacinth leaves are not acutely toxic.

  17. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, J L

    1990-01-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms. PMID:2269228

  18. Acute toxicity of methanol to mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Helmstetter, A.; Gamerdinger, A.P.; Pruell, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Methanol is being promoted as an alternative fuel because of the clean air benefits of reduced carbon monoxide and other by-product emissions. In the event of an accidental spill or leakage from a storage tank, there is limited data available on the impact of alternative fuels on marine ecosystems. Before considering the impact of methanol on ecosystem processes, it is necessary to establish the acute toxicity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was selected for study because of its use as an indicator species of marine ecosystem health (Widdows and Donkin 1992). Our primary objective was to determine the LC-50 value of methanol to adult Mytilus edulis. We also not sublethal effects that were observed during the course of the 96-hr exposure. 16 refs., 1 fig. 3 tabs.

  19. Lead Toxicity and Iron Deficiency in Utah Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Stephen D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determines the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, aged 9-72 months. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen percent of all children tested, and 30 percent of those aged 9-23 months, were iron deficient. Hematocrit determination is an insensitive screen for iron deficiency.…

  20. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  1. Lead toxicity as a result of herbal medication.

    PubMed

    Ravi Raja, A; Vishal Babu, G N; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2008-04-01

    Awareness about the toxic effects of non-essential metals is still lacking in developing countries. Lead is one among them, which ranks second in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry' s top 20 lists of toxic metals. Some of the herbal medicines prepared from certain roots and leaves are known to contain this toxic metal at alarming levels. We have a case of a person who suffered from the toxic effects of lead such as vomiting and colicky abdominal pain after consuming a herbal remedy for Jaundice treatment. This went unrecognized initially because of the presence of multiple problems like Malaria and Renal calculi. Lead poisoning as causative factor for anemia, vomiting and colic were confirmed only when blood lead concentration was estimated. A combination of chelation therapy and nutritional supplementation was found to be useful in reducing the body lead burden.

  2. Toxicity of dietary lead in young cockerels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J Christian; Custer, Thomas W.

    1982-01-01

    Day-old cockerels received 1850 ppm dietary lead for 4 wks. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was reduced to 1.6% of control activity by the end of the study. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) in lead-exposed cockerels was significantly less than that of controls at 7, 14, and 28 days, and packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly reduced at 14 days. Blood lead residues reached 832 ug/dl in exposed cockerels; kidney residues were about three times liver residues. At the termination of the study mean body weight of lead-exposed birds was 47% of controls.

  3. Characterization of the dinophysistoxin-2 acute oral toxicity in mice to define the Toxicity Equivalency Factor.

    PubMed

    Abal, Paula; Louzao, M Carmen; Cifuentes, José Manuel; Vilariño, Natalia; Rodriguez, Ines; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2017-04-01

    Ingestion of shellfish with dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) can lead to diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The official control method of DSP toxins in seafood is the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS). However in order to calculate the total toxicity of shellfish, the concentration of each compound must be multiplied by individual Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF). Considering that TEFs caused some controversy and the scarce information about DTX2 toxicity, the aim of this study was to characterize the oral toxicity of DTX2 in mice. A 4-Level Up and Down Procedure allowed the characterization of DTX2 effects and the estimation of DTX2 oral TEF based on determination of the lethal dose 50 (LD50). DTX2 passed the gastrointestinal barrier and was detected in urine and feces. Acute toxicity symptoms include diarrhea and motionless, however anatomopathology study and ultrastructural images restricted the toxin effects to the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless enterocytes microvilli and tight junctions were not altered, disconnecting DTX2 diarrheic effects from paracellular epithelial permeability. This is the first report of DTX2 oral LD50 (2262 μg/kg BW) indicating that its TEF is about 0.4. This result suggests reevaluation of the present TEFs for the DSP toxins to better determine the actual risk to seafood consumers.

  4. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. Repeated doses (five oral doses per week for 2 weeks) of 300 mg/kg to rats produced slight weight loss in one of two replicate experiments. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. There were no alterations in livers from treated rabbits examined by light microscopy. No dermal sensitization was produced when concentrations of up to 50% were tested in guinea pigs. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  6. Lead toxicity and iron deficiency in Utah migrant children

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.D.; Lee, J.; Lutz, L.J.; Woolley, F.R.; Baxter, S. ); Civish, F. ); Johnson, M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors determined the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, ages 9-72 months, during the summer of 1985. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity, 13% of those tested and 30% of the children ages 9-23 months were iron deficient. Hematocrit determinations accurately predicted iron deficiency in only 35% of the children confirmed to have this disorder via erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening.

  7. Lead toxicity and iron deficiency in Utah migrant children.

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, S D; Lee, J; Lutz, L J; Woolley, F R; Baxter, S; Civish, F; Johnson, M

    1989-01-01

    We determined the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, ages 9-72 months, during the summer of 1985. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen per cent of those tested and 30 per cent of the children ages 9-23 months were iron deficient. Hematocrit determinations accurately predicted iron deficiency in only 35 per cent of the children confirmed to have this disorder via erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening. PMID:2650572

  8. Lead toxicity promotes autonomic dysfunction with increased chemoreceptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Geraldes, Vera; Carvalho, Mafalda; Goncalves-Rosa, Nataniel; Tavares, Cristiano; Laranjo, Sérgio; Rocha, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Mortality and morbidity by toxic metals is an important issue of occupational health. Lead is an ubiquitous heavy metal in our environment despite having no physiological role in biological systems. Being an homeostatic controller is expected that the autonomic nervous system would show a degree of impairment in lead toxicity. In fact, sympathoexcitation associated to high blood pressure and tachypnea has been described together with baroreflex dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the autonomic dysfunction and the interplay between baro- and chemoreflex are not yet fully clarified. The angiotensinogenic PVN-NTS axis (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus - nucleus tractus solitarius axis) is a particularly important neuronal pathway that could be responsible for the autonomic dysfunction and the cardiorespiratory impairment in lead toxicity. Within the current work, we addressed in vivo, baro- and chemoreceptor reflex behaviour, before and after central angiotensin inhibition, in order to better understand the cardiorespiratory autonomic mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of long-term lead exposure. For that, arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and baro- and chemoreceptor reflex profiles of anaesthetized young adult rats exposed to lead, from foetal period to adulthood, were evaluated. Results showed increased chemosensitivity together with baroreceptor reflex impairment, sympathetic over-excitation, hypertension and tachypnea. Chemosensitivity and sympathetic overexcitation were reversed towards normality values by NTS treatment with A-779, an angiotensin (1-7) antagonist. No parasympathetic changes were observed before and after A-799 treatment. In conclusion, angiotensin (1-7) at NTS level is involved in the autonomic dysfunction observed in lead toxicity. The increased sensitivity of chemoreceptor reflex expresses the clear impairment of autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular and

  9. Effects of diiospropyl-1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene malonate (NKK-105) on acute toxicity of various drugs and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Saito, H; Sugimoto, T; Yanaura, S; Kitagawa, H; Hosokawa, T; Sakamoto, K

    1982-05-01

    The influence of NKK-105 on the acute toxicity of strychnine nitrate, potassium cyanide, chloral hydrate, atropine, tetrodotoxin, mercuric chloride, cadmium chloride, lead acetate and arsenic trioxide were examined in rats. NKK-105 prolonged the time of death induced by strychnine, potassium cyanide and tetrodotoxin in acute toxicity. Survival time was prolonged in rats treated with the toxic metals by pretreatment with NKK-105. NKK-105 counteracted the lethal effect of strychnine, potassium cyanide, chloral hydrate, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride. NKK-105 significantly decreased the acute toxicity of these drugs but the inhibitory effect was not observed in the acute toxicity of atropine, tetrodotoxin, lead acetate and arsenic trioxide.

  10. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  11. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 alleviates lead toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Lead causes a broad range of adverse effects in humans and animals. The objective was to evaluate the potency of lactobacilli to bind lead in vitro and the protective effects of a selected Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 against lead-induced toxicity in mice. Nine strains of bacteria were used to investigate their binding abilities of lead in vitro, and L. plantarum CCFM8661 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent lead binding capacity. Both living and dead L. plantarum CCFM8661 were used to treat 90 male Kunming mice during or after the exposure to 1 g/L lead acetate in drinking water. The results showed oral administration of both living and dead L. plantarum CCFM8661 offered a significant protective effect against lead toxicity by recovering blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, decreasing the lead levels in blood and tissues, and preventing alterations in the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and reactive oxygen species caused by lead exposure. Moreover, L. plantarum CCFM8661 was more effective when administered consistently during the entire lead exposure, not after the exposure. Our results suggest that L. plantarum CCFM8661 has the potency to provide a dietary strategy against lead toxicity.

  12. Detection of sub-clinical lead toxicity in monocasters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.D.; Krishnaswamy, K.

    1995-06-01

    Lead poisoning has been documented since antiquity but occupational lead intoxication still continues to occur. Now there is a growing consensus that low levels of lead exposure often do not result in the manifestation of toxic symptoms, but may have subclinical toxicity on haemopoitic and renal system. Such toxicities are reported even at blood lead concentrations which were thought to be safe (60-80 {mu}g/dl) a decade ago. One of the several effects of lead, is inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD), rate limiting enzyme of the heme synthesis. Similar effect on d-ALAD has been reported even at the blood lead concentrations of 20-30 {mu}g/dl which are much below the toxic limits of 60 {mu}g/dl. Occupational lead nephropathy has been reported from several countries. Ultrastructural alteration in renal tubules, due to chronic exposure of lead, are seen in both animals and human renal biopsy samples. However, detecting early renal damage is a difficult task, since the routine renal function tests like creatine clearance, Insulin clearance (GFR) etc. are altered only after severe kidney damage. Recently increased urinary excretion of lysomal enzyme N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase, a marker of early nephrotoxicity has been reported in the workers exposed to various chemicals including lead. The present study has therefore been undertaken to evaluate the subclinical lead toxicity on haemopoetic and renal system using non invassive techniques in monocasters, who are occupationally exposed to lead fumes while preparing the type set letter blocks. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy. PMID:25594439

  14. Dietary strategies for the treatment of cadmium and lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qixiao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-14

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy.

  15. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  16. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  18. Towards a scheme of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for the acute toxicity of PAHs in sediment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Tom T; Law, Robin J; Rumney, Heather S; Kirby, Mark F; Kelly, Carole

    2011-11-01

    Toxic equivalency factors/quotients (TEF/TEQs) express the toxicity of complex mixtures. For PAHs, TEF values are available for assessing their carcinogenic potential and are expressed as benzo[a]pyrene equivalents. This study develops a similar approach for their acute toxicity in sediments. Acute toxicity (10 day EC₅₀) values were generated using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator bioassay for twelve low molecular weight PAHs. The results ranged from 24 to > 1000 mg/Kg sediment dry weight for 4-methyldibenzothiophene and anthracene, respectively. Phenanthrene was used as the reference compound (TEF=1) and so the TEQ values derived are expressed as phenanthrene equivalents. In order to illustrate the applicability of this approach to the development of marine indicators we plotted TEQ values for acute toxicity to UK environmental monitoring data. Further work is required to validate the TEF values produced and to extend the TEQ approach to include a wider range of low molecular weight PAHs.

  19. Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

  20. Lead toxicity resulting from chronic ingestion of opium.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mohammad; Azizkhani, Reza

    2009-11-01

    A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.

  1. Acute toxicity of the herbicide bromoxynil to Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Schmulbach, James C.

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicities of technical-grade bromoxynil octanoate (BO) and two commercial formulations, Buctril® and Bronate®, to < 24-h-old neonate Daphnia magna (Straus) were determined in soft, hard, and oligosaline water. In addition, effects of life stage, feeding, aging the herbicide, and exposure duration on BO toxicity to daphnids were investigated. Regardless of formulation, life stage, and water quality, BO was found to be extremely to highly toxic to daphnids in standard tests; 48-h EC50 values ranged from 41 to 161 m̈g/L. Bromoxynil octanoate was the most toxic to neonates in soft water and the least toxic in hard water. The acute toxicities of the three bromoxynil herbicides to a given age group of daphnids were similar within the same water type. Overall, neonates and 7-d-old adults were more sensitive than 14- or 15-d-old adults to each herbicide. Feeding daphnids during the toxicity test significantly decreased BO toxicity compared to not feeding them. Aging BO (as Buctril) in hard water decreased its toxicity, and the rate of deactivation was rapid, with an estimated half-life of biological activity of 13 h. Daphnids immobilized by exposures to toxic BO concentrations for ≤ 6 h recovered their mobility, whereas exposures of 18 and 24 h to BO produced toxic effects in daphnids similar to those exposed for 48 h. These results indicated that standard continuous exposure tests may not adequately predict the acute toxicity of BO to freshwater animals in the field.

  2. Developmental toxicity of lead contaminated sediment to mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 I?g/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  3. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 ug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  4. Hematopoietic toxicity from lead-containing Ayurvedic medications

    PubMed Central

    Kales, Stefanos N.; Christophi, Costas A.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Millions worldwide use Ayurvedic (traditional Indian) medicines. These medications are increasingly associated with lead poisoning, often accompanied by anemia. We compared the relative hematopoietic toxicity of Ayurvedic lead poisoning with a common form of occupational lead poisoning. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied 66 adult lead intoxications: 43 published Ayurvedic cases identified in published reports by searching MEDLINE (1966 to November 2005); 4 Ayurvedic patients seen at a referral center; and 19 lead paint intoxications from the same center. We considered patients’ age, gender and blood lead at presentation, and then compared the groups with respect to hematopoietic parameters. Results Ayurvedic lead poisoning was associated with higher blood lead (p<0.001), more basophilic stippling (p<0.001), lower hemoglobin (p<0.001) and higher protoporphyrin (p<0.001). Multiple regression adjusted for blood lead and gender found Ayurvedic lead poisoning associated with a 36.2 g/L (95% CI -48.8, -23.6 g/L) greater decrement in hemoglobin (p<0.001) as compared to paint-removal poisoning. Conclusions Ayurvedic poisoning produces greater hematopoietic toxicity than paint-removal poisoning. Ayurvedic ingestion should be considered in patients with anemia. Ayurveda users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. PMID:17599022

  5. Acute toxicity of seeds of the sapodilla (Achras sapota L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, P D; Simon, W R; West, M E

    1984-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sapodilla seed (Achras sapota L.) was acutely toxic to mice and rats (i.p. LD50 = 190 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) with symptoms of dyspnoea, apnoea and convulsions. Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic separation of the seed constituents yielded a brown amorphous solid containing saponin. This was heat-stable and toxic by the i.p. route (LD50 = 30-50 mg/kg) but non-toxic by the oral route in mice and rats. It is proposed that the toxicity of the sapodilla seed is due mainly to the saponin content.

  6. [Acute toxic hepatitis due to drinking water].

    PubMed

    Martínez Amate, Eva; Rodríguez Manrique, Marco A; González Sánchez, Mercedes; Casado Martin, Marta

    2010-11-01

    Toxic-induced liver disease is uncommon, although the true proportion of cases of hepatotoxicity is unknown, as this entity is underdiagnosed and underreported. The main reasons why toxic-induced liver disease goes unnoticed is the lack of pathognomonic data and the lack of spontaneous reporting by doctors and pharmacists. In some cases, the toxic substance can leave its «signature» in the form of clinical semiology suggestive of an underlying toxic cause. We present a case of hepatotoxicity induced by drinking water (chlorinated), which produced a reactive metabolites syndrome (trihalomethanes from the reaction of chlorine with organic products). Although the clinical presentation was typical, the case posed a diagnostic challenge for the various professionals involved.

  7. Acute toxicity prediction to threatened and endangered ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluating contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered (listed) species and protectiveness of chemical regulations often depends on toxicity data for commonly tested surrogate species. The U.S. EPA’s Internet application Web-ICE is a suite of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models that can extrapolate species sensitivity to listed taxa using least-squares regressions of the sensitivity of a surrogate species and a predicted taxon (species, genus, or family). Web-ICE was expanded with new models that can predict toxicity to over 250 listed species. A case study was used to assess protectiveness of genus and family model estimates derived from either geometric mean or minimum taxa toxicity values for listed species. Models developed from the most sensitive value for each chemical were generally protective of the most sensitive species within predicted taxa, including listed species, and were more protective than geometric means models. ICE model estimates were compared to HC5 values derived from Species Sensitivity Distributions for the case study chemicals to assess protectiveness of the two approaches. ICE models provide robust toxicity predictions and can generate protective toxicity estimates for assessing contaminant risk to listed species. Reporting on the development and optimization of ICE models for listed species toxicity estimation

  8. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  9. On the performance of acute toxicity tests using the National Reference Toxicant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidhk, B.

    1995-12-31

    The US National Reference Toxicant Database was used to compile data from 158 Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 187 fathead minnow acute toxicity tests. The data are analyzed using the EPA flow-chart for acute toxicity tests to determine the distribution of test methods selected. The data are reanalyzed using maximum likelihood estimation assuming probit, logit and Gompertz tolerance distributions and non-parametrically using the Spearman-Karber method with and without trimming. The results of these analyses are compared with respect to mean square error for the parametric methods and confidence intervals for the point estimate for all analyses.

  10. Low Level Lead Toxicity: The Hidden Challenge for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Patrick P.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the widespread problem of low level lead toxicity and how it affects young children's behavior and learning ability. Discusses what medical and environmental measures can be taken to remedy the problem. Briefly notes what role states have taken. Also suggests actions early childhood teachers can take to remedy the problem. (BB)

  11. [Acute toxicity and bioavailability of nano red elemental selenium].

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, L

    2000-01-30

    The reaction ratio of nano red elemental selenium (nanose) with GSH in vitro was one-tenth of that of sodium selenite. Mice were fed with nanose and sodium selenite separately at 50 micrograms/kg BW for 30 days. Both selenium forms could significantly increased Se concentration of blood, liver and activity of blood GSH-Px. Acute toxicity experiment of mice implied that the acute toxicity of nanose was nearly one-seventh of that of sodium selenite. The LD50 for nanose se was 112.98 mg kg BW, and the LD50 for sodium selenite was Se 15.72 mg/kg BW. The acute toxicity of nanose was low for mice.

  12. Cellular defense mechanisms against lead toxicity in the vascular system.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that can cause a range of health problems. In this context, the vascular system is a particular target of the deleterious effects of lead. Lead exerts its toxicity through substitution of other divalent cations such as calcium and zinc, resulting in disruption of homeostasis. Based on the evidence that lead up-regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and/or antioxidant proteins such as hemeoxygenase-1, it is believed that the heavy metal is able to induce ER and/or oxidative stress in cells. These events also suggest that the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and the antioxidant defense system Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-nuclear factor (NF)-E2-related factor 2 (Keap1-Nrf2) play a critical role in adaptive response to lead. In this review, we summarize recent progress in lead toxicity in terms of cellular defense systems, including stress proteins and transcription factors involved in the vascular system.

  13. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    An extreme sensitivity of pen-reared black ducks (BDs) to lead shot was observed incidental to development of an enzyme assay (Pain & Rattner, 1988). Intubation of pen-reared BDs with one no. 4 lead shot resulted in 60% mortality in 6 days. It was concluded that BDs were more sensitive to lead shot than expected, or that lead toxicity may be exacerbated by stressful conditions (elevated temperature, confinement in small pens). We reexamined lead shot toxicity in BDs and mallards (MLs). In winter 1986 (Ta=1.7-14.6? C), pen-reared and wild BDs, and game-farm and wild MLs were sham-dosed or given one no. 4 shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional shot. Since the original observation of enhanced. shot toxicity to BDs occurred during summer, the study was also repeated in summer 1987 (Ta=I7:6-30.9?C), with pen-reared BDs and game-farm MLs. Mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and protoporphyrin concentration were used to compare sensitivity among groups. Sensitivity to lead shot was similar between BDs and MLs. However, the wild ducks appeared more vulnerable than their domesticated counterparts, and signs of intoxication were more pronounced in winter than in summer.

  14. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepesh; Tiwari, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. Though various occupational and public health measures have been undertaken in order to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. These alterations play a prominent role in disease manifestations. Modulation of cellular thiols for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been used as a therapeutic strategy against lead poisoning. N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, vitamin E, quercetin and a few herbal extracts show prophylaxis against the majority of lead mediated injury in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review provides a comprehensive account of recent updates describing health effects of lead exposure, relevant biomarkers and mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. It also updates the readers about recent advances in chelation therapy and newer therapeutic strategies, like nanoencapsulation, to treat lead induced toxic manifestations. PMID:23118587

  15. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  16. Relative toxicity of lead and selected substitute shot types to game farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.

    1967-01-01

    The acute toxicity of lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot were tested in year-old male game farm mallards. Mallards (Anus platyrhynchos) were fed eight number 6 shot of each type and observed for a period of 60 days. Ducks used totaled 230 and most shot types were tested in three replicates of 8 ducks each. Mortality and losses of body weight were the criteria used for judging toxicity. Three types of plastic-coated lead shot were as toxic (93 percent) as the commercial lead shot (96 percent). The average mortality in mallards fed lead-magnesium alloy shot was less (58 percent) than that occurring in birds fed commercial lead shot. Mortality among mallards fed iron, copper, zinc-coated iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot was significantly less than in birds fed lead shot, and was not significantly greater than the conrtols.

  17. Resolving some practical questions about Daphnia acute toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.

  18. Acute toxicity and QSAR of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Chambon, P.

    1986-10-01

    Chlorophenols which are released into natural waters from various industrial processes and from agricultural uses have been recognized as a group of chemical substances potentially hazardous to the aquatic environment. Therefore it is important to estimate their toxic impact on biota. Thus, the scope of this research was to obtain acute toxicity data for seventeen chlorophenols towards Daphnia magna and to explore the possibilities of deriving QSAR's (quantitative structure-activity relationship) from the above values.

  19. Degradation and acute toxicity studies of degradable implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michelle Suzette

    The present study investigated the acute toxicities of the degradation product components of six degradable polymers, the acute toxicities of nine metallic ions and accelerated degradation of one degradable polymer. Prior to these studies, the effect of the anticipated test conditions on the Microtox acute toxicity assay was determined. It was shown that the Microtox is unaffected by pH of water within the range of 5 to 10 and that the test is unaffected by tris buffer at physiologic pH and concentration. The toxicity and rates of degradation of poly(glycolic acid), PGA; two samples of poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA; samples of different molecular weights, poly(caprolactone), PCL; poly(ortho ester), POE; and poly(hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate), PHBV, were compared, along with the toxicity of their degradation product components. The toxic concentrations ranged from 100 muM (lactic acid) to 125,000 muM (pentaerythritol). The degradation product components in order of most toxic to least toxic are lactic acid, caproic acid, glycolic acid, cyclohexanedimethanol, propionic acid, hydroxybutyric acid, 1,6-hexanediol, pentaerythritol dipropionate, pentaerythritol and hydroxyvaleric acid. Acute toxicity was determined for metallic ions in water and buffer. The toxic concentrations ranged from 33 muM (Tisp{4+} in water) to 3,580 muM (Wsp{6+} in buffer). The four most toxic ions in water (Tisp{4+}, Mosp{5+}, Fesp{3+}, Crsp{3+}) caused solution pH to decrease markedly. The six other ions (Vasp{3+}, Cosp{3+}, Alsp{3+,} Tisp{4+} adjusted to pH 6.1, Nisp{2+} and Wsp{6+}) markedly. The six other ions (Vasp{3+}, Cosp{3+}, Alsp{3+}, Tisp{4+} adjusted to pH 6.1, Nisp{2+} and Wsp{6+}) did not appreciably affect pH. In buffer, Alsp{3+}, Nisp{2+}, Wsp{6+} and Vsp{3+} became much less toxic, suggesting formation of complexes. In general the least toxic ions do not create an acid environment and/or do form protective complexes. PHBV has good mechanical properties and, compared with the

  20. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new therapeutant for parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. This study determined the acute toxi...

  1. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Amitabha

    2010-01-01

    One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia. PMID:21369420

  2. Draft Test Guideline: Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  3. Draft Test Guideline: Penaeid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  4. Draft Test Guideline: Mysid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wollenberger, L; Halling-Sørensen, B; Kusk, K O

    2000-04-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC), streptomycin (ST), sulfadiazine (SU), tetracycline (TC), tiamulin (TI) and tylosin (TY) was tested in accordance to the ISO (1989) and OECD (1996) standard procedures. The acute toxicities (48-h EC50 value, mg/l) in decreasing order were OA (4.6), TI (40), SU (221), ST (487), TY (680) and OTC (approximately 1000). NOECs were 340 mg/l for TC and 1000 mg/l for M and OL. Toxic effect on reproduction occurred generally at concentrations, which were one order of magnitude below the acute toxic levels. The chronic toxicity (EC50 values, mg/l) in the D. magna reproduction test in decreasing order were TI (5.4), SU (13.7), TC (44.8) and OTC (46.2). The NOECs (mg/l) obtained in the reproduction test with OA, ST, TY and M were 0.38 for OA, 32 for ST, 45 for TY and 250 for M. The observed toxicity of OA to D. magna indicates that this substance, which is a commonly used feed additive in fish farms, has a potential to cause adverse effects on the aquatic environment.

  6. Extrapolation of acute toxicity across bee species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen

    2016-10-01

    In applying cross-species extrapolation safety factors from honeybees to other bee species, some basic principles of toxicity have not been included, for example, the importance of body mass in determining a toxic dose. The present study re-analyzed published toxicity data, taking into account the reported mass of the individuals in the identified species. The analysis demonstrated a shift to the left in the distribution of sensitivity of honeybees relative to 20 other bee species when body size is taken into account, with the 95(th) percentile for contact and oral toxicity reducing from 10.7 (based on μg/individual bee) to 5.0 (based on μg/g bodyweight). Such an approach results in the real drivers of species differences in sensitivity-such as variability in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in and target-receptor binding-being more realistically reflected in the revised safety factor. Body mass can also be used to underpin the other parameter of first-tier risk assessment, that is, exposure. However, the key exposure factors that cannot be predicted from bodyweight are the effects of ecology and behavior of the different species on exposure to a treated crop. Further data are required to understand the biology of species associated with agricultural crops and the potential consequences of effects on individuals at the levels of the colony or bee populations. This information will allow the development of appropriate higher-tier refinement of risk assessments and testing strategies rather than extensive additional toxicity testing at Tier 1. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:622-626. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Biochemical Studies on the Toxicity of Tetraethyl Lead and Other Organo-Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Jill E.

    1959-01-01

    The actions of purified tetra-, tri-, and di-ethyl lead on rats and rat brain slices and brain brei have been examined. A method based on a reaction with dithizone and capable of estimating tri- and di-ethyl tin in rat tissues has been developed. After injection into rats tetraethyl lead is converted into triethyl lead and this is responsible for the toxic effects. Diethyl lead is much less toxic and the effects are different. The utilization of lactate and the oxidation of glucose by brain brei and slices respectively are inhibited by triethyl lead. A similar effect is seen in slices taken from rats poisoned with tetra- or tri-ethyl lead. Rat liver cell microsomes readily convert tetraethyl to triethyl lead and the latter is stable and remains in the animal tissues for several days. The concentration of triethyl lead in the brain is not high in comparison with other tissues but brain tissue appears to be unduly sensitive to its toxic action. Neither tetra- nor tri-ethyl lead reacts with B.A.L. or ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (E.D.T.A.). Diethyl lead reacts with B.A.L. but not with E.D.T.A. PMID:13812764

  8. Motor behavior and brain enzymatic changes after acute lead intoxication on different strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Correa, Mercè; Roig-Navarro, Antoni F; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2004-03-05

    Lead is a nonphysiological metal that has been implicated in toxic processes that affect several organ systems in humans and other animals. Although the brain generally has stronger protective mechanisms against toxic substances than other organs have, exposure to lead results in several neurophysiological and behavioral symptoms. The administration of a single injection (i.p.) of lead acetate in mice is a model of acute Pb2 + toxicity. In the present study, this model was used to explore the magnitude of the effect of different doses, time intervals and mice strains on several biobehavioral parameters. We investigated the effects of acute lead acetate administration on body and brain weight, brain lead acetate accumulation and specially, spontaneous locomotion and brain catalase activity. Lead acetate was injected i.p. in outbred (Swiss or CD1) and inbred (BALB/c, C57BL/J6 or DBA/2) mice at doses of 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg. At different time intervals following this acute treatment, several biochemical, physiological and behavioral responses were recorded. Results indicated that acute lead acetate has deleterious dose-dependent effects on brain and body weight. The effect on body weight in the present study was transient, although lead acetate was detected in neural tissues for several days after administration. Spontaneous locomotor activity only was reduced up until 24 hours. The effect of lead on body weight was strain-dependent, with Swiss mice showing greater resistance compared to the other strains. Total brain catalase activity in lead-pretreated Swiss mice showed a significant induction. This enzymatic upregulation could provide a protective mechanism for oxidative stress in these mice.

  9. Evaluation of a remediation process for lead contaminated soil by toxicity bioassays: Plants and earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Chana, L.W.; Smith, K.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site contaminated with heavy metals (predominantly lead) was treated using the TERRAMET{reg_sign} lead extraction process. Earthworm acute toxicity and plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of the soil before treatment (BT), after treatment (AT) and after treatment, followed by rinsing with water, intended to simulate exposure to rainfall (RT). The results showed BT and RT were not toxic to earthworms in a 14-day exposure while AT showed significant toxicity. The LC{sub 50} values for Eisenia and Lumbricus were 44.04 and 28.83 (as % AT soil/test soil mixture), respectively. The phytotoxicity data indicated that all 3 test soils significantly inhibited lettuce SG/RE in a dose-related manner, with AT being the most phytotoxic. In oats, RT had no effect on SG/RE and AT was more toxic than BT. For the two local-site grass seeds tested (blue grama and sideoat grama), the AT soil was the most phytotoxic followed by BT and RT. The results suggest that the soil after this remediation process exerts significant toxicity on both plant and earthworm, but after a rain-simulating rinse, the toxicity is the same as, or less than, the toxicity before treatment. Further studies are in progress to confirm the assumption that the high salt concentrations generated by acidification during the leaching process, followed by neutralization are responsible for the increased toxicity of unrinsed soil in both plant and earthworm.

  10. [Acute toxicity of bemithyl and bromithyl].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Spasov, A A; Verovskiĭ, V E; Iezhitsa, I N

    2000-01-01

    The experiments on rats showed for bemithyl LD50 = 581.48 (350.17-965.57) mg/kg and for bromithyl LD50 = 1750.30 (1463.07-2093.92) mg/kg (males) and 1584.29 (1280.46-1960.22) mg/kg (females). The therapeutic ratios are 4-6 for both drugs, while the toxicity index is 10-15 for bemithyl and 20 <196> 22 for bromithyl. It was established that ergotropic effects prevail in the toxicity of bemithyl administered in the 20-80 mg/kg dose range, while trophotropic effects are dominating at doses above 100 mg/kg. Bromithyl exhibits a dose-dependent trophotropic effect in the entire dose range.

  11. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, D. S. T.; Alves, O. L.; Barbieri, E.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO3-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO3-MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO3-MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  12. Acute toxicity of pinnatoxins E, F and G to mice.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andrew I; Rhodes, Lesley

    2012-11-01

    The acute toxicities to mice of pinnatoxins E, F and G, members of the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins, by intraperitoneal injection and/or oral administration, have been determined. These substances were all very toxic by intraperitoneal injection, with LD(50) values between 12.7 and 57 μg/kg. Pinnatoxin E was much less toxic by oral administration than by intraperitoneal injection, but this was not the case for pinnatoxin F. The median lethal doses of the latter substance by gavage and by voluntary intake were only 2 and 4 times higher than that by injection. The high oral toxicity of pinnatoxin F raises concerns as to the possibility of adverse effects of this substance in shellfish consumers, although it should be noted that no toxic effects in humans have been recorded with pinnatoxins or with any other compound of the cyclic imine group.

  13. Asparaginase-associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hijiya, Nobuko; van der Sluis, Inge M

    2016-01-01

    Asparaginase is an integral component of multiagent chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Positive outcomes are seen in patients who are able to complete their entire prescribed course of asparaginase therapy. Toxicities associated with asparaginase use include hypersensitivity (clinical and subclinical), pancreatitis, thrombosis, encephalopathy, and liver dysfunction. Depending on the nature and severity of the toxicity, asparaginase therapy may be altered or discontinued in some patients. Clinical hypersensitivity is the most common asparaginase-associated toxicity requiring treatment discontinuation, occurring in up to 30% of patients receiving Escherichia coli-derived asparaginase. The ability to rapidly identify and manage asparaginase-associated toxicity will help ensure patients receive the maximal benefit from asparaginase therapy. This review will provide an overview of the common toxicities associated with asparaginase use and recommendations for treatment management.

  14. Cellular and molecular toxicity of lead in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, J.G. ); Long, G.J.; Rosen, J.F. )

    1991-02-01

    To fully understand the significance of bone as a target tissue of lead toxicity, as well as a reservoir of systemic lead, it is necessary to define the effects of lead on the cellular components of bone. Skeletal development and the regulation of skeletal mass are ultimately determined by the four different types of cells: osteoblasts, lining cells, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. These cells, which line and penetrate the mineralized matrix, are responsible for matrix formation, mineralization, and bone resorption, under the control of both systemic and local factors. Systemic components of regulation include parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, and calcitonin; local regulators include numerous cytokines and growth factors. Lead intoxication directly alters many aspects of bone cell function. First, lead may indirectly alter bone cell function through changes in the circulating levels of those hormones, particularly 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, which modulate bone cell function. Second, lead may directly alter bone cell function by perturbing the ability of bone cells to respond to hormonal regulation. Third, lead may impair the ability of cells to synthesize or secrete other components of the bone matrix, such as collagen or bone sialoproteins (osteopontin). Finally, lead may directly effect of substitute for calcium in the active sites of the calcium messenger system. The effects of lead on the recruitment and differentiation of bone cells remains to be established. Many of the toxic effects of lead on bone cell function may be produced by perturbation of the calcium and cAMP messenger systems in these cells.

  15. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acute toxicity of chemical substances and mixtures (“chemicals”) subject to environmental effects test... per volume of nutrient medium or test solution in a specified period of time. (5) Static system means a test container in which the test solution is not renewed during the period of the test. (c)...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS... mixtures. In order to minimize the need for animal testing, the Agency encourages the review of existing acute toxicity information on mixtures that are substantially similar to the mixture under...

  17. Acute Toxicity of Thionyl Chloride Vapor for Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-19

    C. and H. V. Davis (1971), The Acute Toxicity of Brief Exposures to Hydrogen Fluoride, Hydrogen Chloride, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Hydrocyanic Acid ...ELECTRODE • • •WAITE ’SOLENOID VALVE P V|TOW ACID -FLEX - ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTIONS CHART RECORDER Figure 2. Analysis system for total chloride

  18. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been suggested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two products contai...

  19. Acute toxicity of karlotoxins to mice

    PubMed Central

    Place, Allen R.; Munday, R.; Munday, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Karlotoxins, polyketide derivatives produced by the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum, are associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries world wide. In this study, the acute effects of 3 pure karlotoxin analogs (KmTx 1, KmTx 3 and KmTx 2) have been examined in mice. Transient lethargy and increased respiratory rates were observed soon after dosing with the karlotoxins by intraperitoneal injection, but no deaths were recorded in animals dosed with KmTx 2 at up to 500 μg/kg or with KmTx 1 or KmTx 3 at up to 4000 μg/kg. Animals dosed intraperitoneally with KmTx 1 and KmTx 3 at 4000 μg/kg showed a pronounced decrease in food and water intake, lasting 3–4 days after dosing, accompanied by a significant decrease in body weight. After this time, the lost body weight was regained and the behavior and appearance of the mice remained normal throughout the following 10 day observation period. No effects were seen in mice dosed orally with KmTx 1 or KmTx 3 at a dose of 4000 μg/kg. It is concluded that contamination of seafood if it were to occur with these karlotoxins is unlikely to pose a major risk of acute intoxication in consumers. PMID:25150200

  20. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Singh, Raghavendra; Nazmi, Arshed; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM) resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70), mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx) levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) but not reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning. PMID:24987671

  1. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Korani, M; Rezayat, S M; Gilani, K; Arbabi Bidgoli, S; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  2. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  3. Method and apparatus for diagnosis of lead toxicity

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, John F.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Wielopolski, Lucian

    1989-01-01

    Improved methods and apparatus for in vivo measurement of the skeletal lead burden of a patient and for diagnosis of lead toxicity are disclosed. The apparatus comprises an x-ray tube emitting soft low energy x-rays from a silver anode, a polarizer for polarizing the emitted x-rays, and a detector for detecting photons fluoresced from atoms in the patient's tibia upon irradiation by the polarized x-rays. The fluoresced photons are spectrally analyzed to determine their energy distribution. Peaks indicating the presence of lead are identified if the patient has relatively high bone lead content. The data may be compared to data recorded with respect to a similar test performed on patients having also had the conventional EDTA chelation tests performed thereon in order to correlate the test results with respect to a particular patient to the conventionally accepted EDTA chelation test.

  4. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Because consumption of lead-contaminated sediment has been suspected as the cause of waterfowl mortality in the Coeur d?Alene River basin in Idaho, we studied the bioavailability and toxicity of this sediment to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In experiment 1, one of 10 adult male mallards died when fed a pelleted commercial duck diet that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 3,400 μg/g lead in the sediment). Protoporphyrin levels in the blood increased as the percentage of lead-contaminated sediment in the diet increased. Birds fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment exhibited atrophy of the breast muscles, green staining of the feathers around the vent, viscous bile, green staining of the gizzard lining, and renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment had means of 6.1 μg/g of lead in the blood and 28 μg/g in the liver (wet-weight basis) and 1,660 μg/g in the feces (dry-weight basis). In experiment 2, we raised the dietary concentration of the lead-contaminated sediment to 48%, but only about 20% sediment was actually ingested due to food washing by the birds. Protoporphyrin levels were elevated in the lead-exposed birds, and all of the mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment had renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. The concentrations of lead in the liver were 9.1 μg/g for mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment and 16 μg/g for mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment. In experiment 3, four of five mallards died when fed a ground corn diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 4,000 μg/g lead in this sample of sediment), but none died when the 24% lead-contaminated sediment was mixed into a nutritionally balanced commercial duck diet; estimated actual ingestion rates for sediment were 14% and 17% for the corn and commercial diets. Lead exposure caused elevations in protoporphyrin, and four of the five mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment in a commercial diet and all five

  5. Sediment acute toxicity testing utilizing short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two new bioassays for acute toxicity assessments of sediments. A bacterial bioassay based on inhibition of alpha-glucosidase biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis and a 48-hour lethality bioassay employing the benthic cladoceran, Chydorus sphaericus. were evaluated by direct comparisons with standard bioassays, using sediment samples collected from various sites in Florida. This study showed that the bioassay based on inhibition of alpha-glucosidase biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis was useful in the acute toxicity screening of sediment elutriates. In regards to Escambia County, Florida samples, the assay was comparable with the Microtox assay and was especially sensitive for samples containing metals. To determine an appropriate procedure for assessing hydrophobic contaminants of sediments in the B. licheniformis bioassay, two extracting procedures were compared. Based on the responses in the Microtox bioassay, shaking sediment samples in methylene chloride produced extracts that were significantly higher in toxicity than extracts obtained by sonication for eight of the ten sediment samples tested. Comparisons of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as exchange solvents revealed that there was generally no significant difference between these solvents in terms of toxicity in the Microtox assay. Solvent extracts prepared by shaking and exchanged into methanol showed lower toxicity in the B. licheniformis bioassay than in the Microtox assay. Observed sediment toxicity in both bioassays was expressed in terms of the equivalent dry weight concentration of sediment causing 50% inhibition of the assay organism.

  6. Lead toxicity: from overt to subclinical to subtle health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1990-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead was recognized centuries ago, concern was restricted to overt symptoms: colic, encephalopathy, anemia, or renal disease. Two major reasons for lack of progress in restricting toxicity were that interest was limited to occupational exposures and there was lack of awareness of specific biochemical or metabolic effects. Identification of subclinical effects has been possible the last 15 or 20 years because of the development of sensitive measures to detect cognitive and behavioral changes that are not apparent clinically and because of methods to measure the reduced activity of heme enzymes. This progress was driven by basic and clinical research that resulted in a better understanding of cellular toxicology. The new awareness prompted the lowering of acceptable occupational exposures, as measured by blood lead from 80 to 40 to 60 micrograms/dL range, and the establishment of maximum recommended exposures in children to a blood lead level of 25 micrograms/dL. Lowering the lead content in gasoline has been accomplished by a nearly 50% decrease in average blood levels of persons in the United States (NHANES II data). Current research implicates lead as a contributing etiologic factor in a number of common diseases affecting large portions of the population such as subtle cognitive and neurological deficits, hypertension, congenital malformations, immunotoxicity, and deficits in growth and development. For each of these disorders there may be multiple etiologic factors; the scientific challenge is to develop sensitive methodology to detect the specific role of lead. Other potential subtle health effects include the influence of small amounts of lead on cell proliferation and lead as a cofactor in carcinogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1. PMID:2205487

  7. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Denny R; Mayer, Foster L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-11-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  8. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  9. Cellular and molecular toxicity of lead in bone.

    PubMed Central

    Pounds, J G; Long, G J; Rosen, J F

    1991-01-01

    To fully understand the significance of bone as a target tissue of lead toxicity, as well as a reservoir of systemic lead, it is necessary to define the effects of lead on the cellular components of bone. Skeletal development and the regulation of skeletal mass are ultimately determined by the four different types of cells: osteoblasts, lining cells, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. These cells, which line and penetrate the mineralized matrix, are responsible for matrix formation, mineralization, and bone resorption, under the control of both systemic and local factors. Systemic components of regulation include parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and calcitonin: local regulators include numerous cytokines and growth factors. Lead intoxication directly and indirectly alters many aspects of bone cell function. First, lead may indirectly alter bone cell function through changes in the circulating levels of those hormones, particularly 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which modulate bone cell function. These hormonal changes have been well established in clinical studies, although the functional significance remains to be established. Second, lead may directly alter bone cell function by perturbing the ability of bone cells to respond to hormonal regulation. For example, the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated synthesis of osteocalcin, a calcium-binding protein synthesized by osteoblastic bone cells, is inhibited by low levels of lead. Impaired osteocalcin production may inhibit new bone formation, as well as the functional coupling of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Third, lead may impair the ability of cells to synthesize or secrete other components of the bone matrix, such as collagen or bone sialoproteins (osteopontin). Finally, lead may directly effect or substitute for calcium in the active sites of the calcium messenger system, resulting in loss of physiological regulation. The effects of lead on the recruitment and differentiation of bone cells remains to be

  10. Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

  11. Acute toxicity of 50 metals to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akira; Yamamuro, Masumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-07-01

    Metals are essential for human life and physiological functions but may sometimes cause disorders. Therefore, we conducted acute toxicity testing of 50 metals in Daphnia magna: EC50s of seven elements (Be, Cu, Ag, Cd, Os, Au and Hg) were < 100 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 13 elements (Al, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Y, Rh, Pt, Tl and Pb) were between 100 and 1000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 14 elements (Li, V, Mn, Fe, Ge, As, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, W and Ir) were between 1,001 and 100,000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of six elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Mo) were > 100,000 µg l(-1) ; and. 7 elements (Ti, Zr, Bi, Nb, Hf, Re and Ta) did not show EC50 at the upper limit of respective aqueous solubility, and EC50s were not obtained. Ga, Ru and Pd adhered to the body of D. magna and physically retarded the movement of D. magna. These metals formed hydroxides after adjusting the pH. Therefore, here, we distinguished this physical effect from the physiological toxic effect. The acute toxicity results of 40 elements obtained in this study were not correlated with electronegativity. Similarly, the acute toxicity results of metals including the rare metals were also not correlated with first ionization energy, atomic weight, atomic number, covalent radius, atomic radius or ionic radius.

  12. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  13. Protection against oxaliplatin acute neurosensory toxicity by venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jean-Philippe; Brezault, Catherine; Goldwasser, François

    2003-07-01

    Venlafaxine (Effexor; Wyeth Lederlé) has previously shown therapeutic effects for the management of chronic and neuropathic pains. We report here the efficacy of venlafaxine upon acute neurosensory symptoms secondary to oxaliplatin toxicity. A dose of 50 mg of venlafaxine was given orally at the beginning of the oxaliplatin infusion. Patients did not experience any or very low paresthesias, even in the cold. As the results were very dramatic and reproducible, we propose that venlafaxine may be of use in the daily management of oxaliplatin-related neurosensory toxicity.

  14. Acute toxicity of nickel nanoparticles in rats after intravenous injection

    PubMed Central

    Magaye, Ruth R; Yue, Xia; Zou, Baobo; Shi, Hongbo; Yu, Hongsheng; Liu, Kui; Lin, Xialu; Xu, Jin; Yang, Cui; Wu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to add scientific data in regard to the use of metallic nanoparticles in nanomedicine. The acute toxicity of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (50 nm), intravenously injected through the dorsal penile vein of Sprague Dawley rats was evaluated in this study. Fourteen days after injection, Ni nanoparticles induced liver and spleen injury, lung inflammation, and caused cardiac toxicity. These results indicate that precautionary measures should be taken with regard to the use of Ni nanoparticles or Ni compounds in nanomedicine. PMID:24648736

  15. The oxidative stress of Phanerochaete chrysosporium against lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jia; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Huang, Chao; Lai, Cui; Li, Ningjie; Wei, Zhen; Xu, Piao; He, Xiaoxiao; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

    2015-02-01

    Among the technologies for heavy metal remediation, bioremediation technology has gained extensive attention because of its low processing costs and high efficiency. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) which has a good tolerance to heavy metals has been widely used in the heavy metal bioremediation. In order to figure out the molecular mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress of P. chrysosporium against metal toxicity, we examined the effect of Pb(2+) on the levels of reactive oxygen species and the production of malondialdehyde. Results showed that P. chrysosporium could adjust Pb-stressed condition by regulating the unique oxidation-antioxidation process in cells and kept a balance between oxidation and antioxidation when it was threatened by a different dose of Pb(2+). Investigations into the oxidative stress of P. chrysosporium to lead could not only provide a better understanding of the relationship between lead and oxidative stress in P. chrysosporium, but also offer important informations on the development of fungal-based remediation technologies to reduce the toxic effects of lead.

  16. Gasoline sniffing and lead toxicity in Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coulehan, J L; Hirsch, W; Brillman, J; Sanandria, J; Welty, T K; Colaiaco, P; Koros, A; Lober, A

    1983-01-01

    During a 6-year period, 23 Navajo adolescents were hospitalized 47 times for presumed lead intoxication secondary to gasoline sniffing. Most patients were male (87%) and sniffed gasoline as a social activity, more frequently in spring and summer. Sixty-five percent of the patients first presented with toxic encephalopathy. Of total episodes, 31% involved asymptomatic lead overload; 31% involved tremor, ataxia, and other neurologic signs; and 38% involved encephalopathy with disorientation and hallucinations. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels were not consistently high, although blood lead levels were all elevated. One death occurred. Approximately 11% of 537 Navajo adolescents said they inhaled gasoline for enjoyment at least occasionally. Among 147 junior high school students, blood lead levels averaged 18 +/- 6 micrograms/dL with no values greater than 40 micrograms/dL. Three of these students had elevated zinc protoporphyrin levels and all three were anemic. No correlation was found between levels of blood lead or zinc protoporphyrin and whether or not the youth reported sniffing gasoline. However, sniffing gasoline was associated with poor school performance and delinquent behavior. Although apparently many Navajo adolescents experiment with gasoline inhalation, only a few engage in this activity frequently enough to develop either asymptomatic or symptomatic lead overload.

  17. Age and sensitivity to lead toxicity: a review.

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, E B

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years considerable attention has been focused on the epidemiologic features of childhood lead poisoning in the United States. Large numbers of children with symptomatic intoxication, as well as those with incipient symptoms, were commonplace a decade ago for physicians working in inner-city hospitals. With the recent availability of improved screening techniques, as well as a variety of environmental control measures, the incidence of symptomatic lead poisoning in children has diminished significantly in recent years. With the focus shifting from children with dangerously elevated body lead burdens to those with less significant exposures, increased attention has been directed to the various inherent metabolic and physical characteristics of the young that may influence the toxic effects of lead exposure. A number of differences with respect to lead exposure, absorption and retention, and varying nutritional conditions between children and older individuals are discussed. Experimental studies dealing with age differences of lead-treated animals are examined, and relevant human studies are reviewed. PMID:510238

  18. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  19. Development of a general baseline toxicity QSAR model for the fish embryo acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Vogs, Carolina; Altenburger, Rolf; Escher, Beate I; Scholz, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Fish embryos have become a popular model in ecotoxicology and toxicology. The fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish embryo was recently adopted by the OECD as technical guideline TG 236 and a large database of concentrations causing 50% lethality (LC50) is available in the literature. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) of baseline toxicity (also called narcosis) are helpful to estimate the minimum toxicity of chemicals to be tested and to identify excess toxicity in existing data sets. Here, we analyzed an existing fish embryo toxicity database and established a QSAR for fish embryo LC50 using chemicals that were independently classified to act according to the non-specific mode of action of baseline toxicity. The octanol-water partition coefficient Kow is commonly applied to discriminate between non-polar and polar narcotics. Replacing the Kow by the liposome-water partition coefficient Klipw yielded a common QSAR for polar and non-polar baseline toxicants. This developed baseline toxicity QSAR was applied to compare the final mode of action (MOA) assignment of 132 chemicals. Further, we included the analysis of internal lethal concentration (ILC50) and chemical activity (La50) as complementary approaches to evaluate the robustness of the FET baseline toxicity. The analysis of the FET dataset revealed that specifically acting and reactive chemicals converged towards the baseline toxicity QSAR with increasing hydrophobicity. The developed FET baseline toxicity QSAR can be used to identify specifically acting or reactive compounds by determination of the toxic ratio and in combination with appropriate endpoints to infer the MOA for chemicals.

  20. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  1. Biochemical basis for the toxic effects of triethyl lead

    PubMed Central

    Galzigna, L.; Ferraro, M. V.; Manani, G.; Viola, A.

    1973-01-01

    Galzigna, L., Ferraro, M. V., Manani, G., and Viola, A. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 129-133. Biochemical basis for the toxic effects of triethyl lead. The effects of triethyl lead (PbEt3) have been studied in vitro on the cholinesterase activity of rat diaphragm and in vivo on serum cholinesterase in the dog. PbEt3 dramatically increases the duration of succinylcholine-induced myoneural block and pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide (PAM) is able to counteract both cholinesterase inhibition and the effects on neuromuscular transmission. On the other hand, PbEt3 catalyses the rearrangement of catecholamines to aminochromes in vitro and inhibits catecholamine effect on smooth muscle contraction. The toxicity of PbEt3 and particularly its action on the central nervous system can be explained by a combination of effects which might result from an upset of cholinergic and adrenergic central pathways due to the formation of endogenous psychotogenic complexes. Images PMID:4349924

  2. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  3. Acute toxicity testing in cultures of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Walum, E; Peterson, A

    1983-01-01

    Cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells (C1300) may be used as models for nerve cells since they have a number of properties in common with their normal counterparts in vivo. In order to test the possibility of using C1300 cells as alternative to experimental animals when testing for acute toxicity, cells (clone 41A3) were exposed to a number of common chemicals (CH3HgCl, CdCl2,HgCl2 ppDDT, n-butanol, benzene, dioxan, n-propanol, aceton and t-butanol). The toxic effect was quantified by measuring the degree of cell detachment in the cultures. The concentrations of chemicals that caused 25% of the total cell number to detach (TD25) were used for comparison with LD50 values. In spite of the very simplified situation in culture, where the toxicity of a substance is little or not at all influenced by factors like penetration, storage, metabolism and excretion a good correlation (corr. coeff. 0,98) was obtained between TD25 values and LD50 values. Good correlations between in vitro and in vivo tests have also been reported by others. One possible explanation to these findings could be simplified in vivo toxicokinetics of these substances when tested in high doses for general effects like animal death. If so, simple in vitro tests may be used for predicting acute toxicity of certain groups of substances.

  4. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  5. [Lead toxicity at its joint administration with nanostructured silica].

    PubMed

    Shumakova, A A; Trushina, E N; Mustafina, O K; Soto, S Kh; Gmoshinsky, I V; Khotimchenko, S Aa

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are present in the composition of the objects in the environment and foods together with contaminants of conventional nature, and may enhance their toxicity in certain conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of nanostructured silicon dioxide (SiO2), widely used as a food additive, on the accumulation and manifestation of the toxic effect of lead (Pb) when co-administered to rats in the subacute experiment. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Animals of the 1st group (control) received distilled water intragatrically by gavage. Rats of the 2nd and 3rd groups received dispersion of SiO2 NPs with primary particle size of 5-30 nm in the doses of 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of Group 4--lead acetate in the dose of 20 mg of lead/kg body weight, group 5 and 6--Pb acetate and SiO2 NPs dispersion in doses, respectively 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, for 22 days by intragastric gavage. The weight of the body and organs, standard haematological parameters, serum protein, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, glucose level, and -alkiline phosphatase, ALT and AST activity, urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were determined. Hepatocyte apoptosis was studied by flow-cytometry. The content of Pb, cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mg), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co) in organs (liver, kidney, brain) was determined by ICP-MS. The result showed that the introduction of Pb, but not NPs resulted in a significant increase in the mass of the kidneys and testes. Urinary excretion of 5-ALA in animals from groups 4-6 significantly (p < 0.001) increased, compared with animals 1-3 groups, not influenced by SiO2 NPs administration (p > 0.05). Introduction of SiO2 NPs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in blood hemoglobin, the effect of lead on this index had the opposite direction. Marked changes were noticed in the levels of glucose and serum albumin in combined exposure of Pb and

  6. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  7. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    weight and hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations in swans on control (no sediment) and reference (uncontaminated) sediment diets remained unchanged. These data provide evidence that mute swans consuming environmentally relevant concentrations of Coeur d'Alene River Basin sediment developed severe sublethal lead poisoning. Furthermore, toxic effects were more pronounced when the birds were fed lead contaminated sediment combined with rice, which closely resembles the diet of swans in the wild.

  8. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M.; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013–2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death. PMID:27875108

  9. Polymorphisms in MGP gene and their association with lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Abjal Pasha; Jamil, Kaiser

    2009-03-01

    Matrix gamma-carboxy glutamic acid protein (MGP) is a 10-kDa secreted protein containing five residues of the vitamin K-dependent calcium binding amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla). This study was carried out to examine the effects of MGP gene promoter polymorphism (T-138C) on blood lead levels (BLL) and hematological parameters in 113 battery manufacturing unit workers occupationally exposed to lead and 102 controls. Genotypes for the MGP T-138C polymorphism were determined by PCR and restriction fragment length digestion. BLL were determined by Anode Stripping Voltammetry using ESA Model 3010B Lead analyzer. Complete blood picture (CBP) was analyzed using ADVIA Cell counter for each sample. The frequencies of MGP-TT, CT and CC genotypes in our population were 38.6%, 44.3%, and 17.2%, respectively. The frequencies for T and C alleles were 0.612 and 0.386, respectively. Although BLL did not differ significantly among genotypes; they were higher in workers with TT/CT genotype compared to CC genotype subjects (76-88 microg/dL vs 22-45 microg/dL, p > 0.05). About 29.2% of volunteers (n = 33) from the occupationally exposed group had hemoglobin levels below 10.0 gms/dl. There was no significant difference in total white cell count and platelet count between occupational and non-exposed groups. The possible role of SNPs in the promoter region of MGP gene with relation to lead toxicity was investigated for the first time in the Indian population; although significance could not be achieved in this study, further assessments over a larger population size may help in better understanding of the consequences of lead exposure.

  10. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  11. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  12. The pattern of acute toxic nephropathy in Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adelekun, T A; Ekwere, T R; Akinsola, A

    1999-01-01

    All cases of acute renal failure (ARF) seen over a two year (1993-94) period were evaluated. Those that had acute toxic nephropathy were further studied to determine the aetiologic agents involved, the clinical features and the effect of available treatment on its prognosis. Ten cases (33.3%) out of 30 ARF had toxins responsible for their renal failure. They were 8 males and 2 females. Agents responsible were green water in 2, naphthalene containing remedies in 2 and analgesic combination in 1 while herbal remedies were implicated in 5 cases. Anuria was a prominent feature occurring in 9 (90%) of the patients. The patients were uraemic with a mean serum creatinine of 1460 +/- 485.0 umol/1 and urea of 33.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/1 on admission. They were all anaemic with packed cell volume less than 18% in eight of the patients. Six (60%) of the patients required haemodialysis while 4 were managed conservatively. Prognosis was good as 8 (80%) of the patients survived and were followed up in the clinic for periods anging 6 to 18 months and their serum creatinine and urea levels normalised. It is concluded that acute toxic nephropathy is common in our practice, and it is eminently preventable. The prognosis is good if dialytic therapy is available.

  13. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nimish B; Spann, James W; Hill, Elwood F

    2009-03-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex and Phos-Chek WD881) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881 and Silv-Ex were above the predetermined 2000mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  14. Data on acute toxicity of the progestin STS 557.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, H G; Hoffmann, H

    1983-02-01

    In mice and rabbits of both sexes the acute toxicity of STS 557 (17 alpha-cyanomethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-estra-4, 9-dien-3-one) was determined after its oral or parenteral (i.p., s.c.) administration. In rabbits increasing lethality was observed following STS 557 suspended in tylose solution at the dose range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/kg p.o. or i.p. The approximate LD50-values were 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg for the i.p. route and 1.0 to 2.0 g/kg for the oral route. Levonorgestrel injected i.p. did not cause any lethality up to the dose of 3.0 g/kg. After oral or s.c. administration to mice, doses of 4.0 g/kg STS 557 were well tolerated. A dose-related toxicity occurred only after i.p. doses between 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg (STS 557), and between 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg (levonorgestrel), respectively. Using an oily vehicle for the oral route in mice, the lethal threshold dose for STS 557 was lowered to about 2.0 g/kg. In conclusion, a low oral acute toxicity was determined for STS 557 corresponding to that of other progestagens like levonorgestrel or norethisterone.

  15. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  16. Acute toxicities of six manufactured nanomaterial suspensions to Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng; Tian, Shengyan

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of nanotechnology is stimulating research on the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). This paper summarizes a comprehensive study on the 48-h acute toxicity of water suspensions of six MNMs (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3, C60, SWCNTs, and MWCNTs) to Daphnia magna, using immobilization and mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results show that the acute toxicities of all MNMs tested are dose dependent. The EC50 values for immobilization ranged from 0.622 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 114.357 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs), while the LC50 values for mortality ranged from 1.511 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 162.392 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs). In these tests, TiO2, Al2O3, and carbon-based nanomaterials were more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, D. magna were found to ingest nanomaterials from the test solutions through feeding behaviors, which indicates that the potential ecotoxicities and environmental health effects of these MNMs cannot be neglected.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  18. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  19. Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    December 2001 Deputy Assistant to The Secretary of Defense Chemical and Biological (Warfare Agent) Defense ((DATSD- CBD ) interim-certified acute...avoidance (detection), protection, decontamination, and medical intervention. d. Compares the DATSD- CBD interim-certified acute toxicity values...defense. 2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. a. Translating Toxicity Information into ORM Terminology. The 2001 DATSD- CBD toxicity

  20. Toxicity of copper, lead, and zinc mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia carinata.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Naomi L; Bidwell, Joseph R; Kumar, Anu

    2009-07-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of copper, lead, and zinc mixtures on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia carinata. Copper, lead, and zinc combined at up to 5.2, 4.5, and 51.8 microg/L, respectively, did not cause significant mortality during acute exposures, although mixtures of 10.6, 9, and 101.1 microg/L and higher resulted in 65-100% mortality. Binary combinations of Cu+Zn (1.3+13.0 microg/L) and Cu+Pb (1.3+1.1 microg/L) and ternary combinations of Cu+Pb+Zn (1.3+1.1+13.0 microg/L) had a significant effect on reproduction of C. dubia. Toxic units and associated confidence intervals were calculated to characterize the nature of metal interactions. In most cases, and based on confidence intervals encompassing a value of 1, most of the metal interactions would be classified as additive. However, a more than additive effect was indicated by the acute tests for both species exposed to Cu+Pb, for D. carinata exposed to Cu+Zn, and for C. dubia exposed to all three metals.

  1. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  2. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  3. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  4. Acute renal toxicity after ingestion of Lava light liquid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Zabaneh, R; Reid, R

    1996-06-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse and seizure disorder presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, increased anion gap acidosis, phenytoin toxicity, and acute kidney failure. The patient had ingested the liquid contents of a Lava light, which contained chlorinated paraffin, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 200), kerosene, and micro-crystalline wax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of the patient's blood produced results consistent with the same analysis of the Lava light contents. After 3 days of declining mental status and worsening kidney function, the patient required hemodialysis. After a prolonged hospitalization, the patient was discharged home with residual renal insufficiency. Although multifactorial, the associated renal toxicity was most probably related to the low molecular weight polyethylene glycol content of the lamp's liquid contents.

  5. Acute renal insufficiency and toxic hepatitis following scorpions sting.

    PubMed

    Krkic-Dautovic, Sajma; Begovic, Begler

    2007-01-01

    Scorpion sting is a huge medical problem in countries of South America, Arabian Peninsula and Africa. In countries of Mediterranean region, where Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs, this problem is sporadic. Following the sting of very poisonous red scorpions, death may occur inside of 48 hours by reason of cardiac arrest and acute renal insufficiency (ARI). In our work we represent a case of 54-years old man. In his case, ARI and toxic hepatitis developed inside of 24 hours after the scorpion sting. Applied conservative therapy was not sufficient enough to solve ARI, so patient needed haemodialysis. With intensive conservative therapy and haemodialysis applied every other day, ARI and toxic hepatitis were solved within 25 days. After that, patient was released from hospital for ambulant treatment.

  6. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle - A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P < 0.0001) and month (P < 0.0001). Submissions were highest in 2009 (15.6%), 2001 (11.2%), and 2006 (9.9%). Most cases were observed during May, June, and July (62.3%). Cattle 6 months of age and younger were frequently poisoned (53.5%; P < 0.0001). Beef breeds were predominantly poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64).

  7. Quinolone arthropathy--acute toxicity to immature articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gough, A W; Kasali, O B; Sigler, R E; Baragi, V

    1992-01-01

    A class effect of quinolone antibacterial agents observed during animal toxicity testing is a specific arthropathy (QAP). Despite the growing list of laboratory animals susceptible to QAP and reports of arthralgia in patients treated with quinolones, the potential for QAP development in humans remains unknown. This review discusses current concepts in the biology of articular cartilage and how these concepts elucidate QAP pathogenesis. Biomechanical forces within synovial joints and toxicokinetic properties of quinolones contribute to QAP induction. Since a limited number of mechanistic pathways exist for acute articular damage, QAP may serve as a research tool to probe the pathobiology of injury to articular cartilage.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity toward the bacteria Vibrio fischeri of organic narcotics and epoxides: structural alerts for epoxide excess toxicity.

    PubMed

    Blaschke, Ulrike; Paschke, Albrecht; Rensch, Ines; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2010-12-20

    The acute and chronic bacterial toxicity of 34 organic compounds comprising 19 baseline narcotics and 15 epoxides has been determined with regard to 30-min bioluminescence and 24-h growth inhibition in terms of EC50 (effective concentration 50%) values employing Vibrio fischeri. For the narcotics, linear regression of log EC50 on log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient) yields r2 (squared correlation coefficient) and rms (root-mean-square error) values of 0.95 and 0.44 (30-min), and 0.94 and 0.34 (24-h), respectively. Employing the resultant baseline narcosis models, toxicity enhancement (Te) values were derived as a ratio of narcosis-predicted over experimental EC50 for the epoxides. For seven aliphatic epoxides, log Te was below 1 in both assays, indicating narcosis-range toxicity with regard to 30-min bioluminescence and 24-h growth inhibition. Concerning eight nonaliphatic epoxides, log Te values up to 2.4 were observed, reflecting excess toxicity through an enhanced electrophilic reactivity of the compounds. Here, however, the intercorrelation between both assays was very low (r2 = 0.09). The results are discussed in terms of electronic substituent effects activating an SN2-type epoxide reaction with nucleophilic protein sites and side-chain activation offering alternative electrophile-nucleophile reaction routes at side-chain sites, leading to respective structural alerts as indicators of excess toxicity. Surprisingly, 30-min bioluminescence appears to be slightly more sensitive to chemical stress than 24-h growth, which holds both for baseline narcotics and for most of the epoxides. This is also reflected by effective narcosis doses 50%, ED50, of 7.1 mmol/kg (30-min) and 7.7 mmol/kg (24-h) estimated from narcosis theory. Keeping in mind the different end points (bioluminescence vs growth) involved, this finding demonstrates that chronic toxicity is not always more sensitive than acute toxicity, calling for analyses with regard to further respective

  9. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Franson, J Christian; French, John B; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Warner, Sarah E; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-10-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000-3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33-4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11-3.0 (reference) and 1.3-30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43-8.5 (reference) and 7.6-72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32%) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9%) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12%) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58-82% in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  10. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Franson, J. Christian; French, John B.; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Warner, Sarah E.; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-01-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  11. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  12. Predicting fish acute toxicity using a fish gill cell line-based toxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, Katrin; Knöbel, Melanie; Busser, Frans J M; Sinnige, Theo L; Hermens, Joop L M; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-15

    The OECD test guideline 203 for determination of fish acute toxicity requires substantial numbers of fish and uses death as an apical end point. One potential alternative are fish cell lines; however, several studies indicated that these appear up to several orders of magnitude less sensitive than fish. We developed a fish gill cell line-based (RTgill-W1) assay, using several measures to improve sensitivity. The optimized assay was applied to determine the toxicity of 35 organic chemicals, having a wide range of toxicity to fish, mode of action and physicochemical properties. We found a very good agreement between in vivo and in vitro effective concentrations. For up to 73% of the tested compounds, the difference between the two approaches was less than 5-fold, covering baseline toxicants but as well compounds with presumed specific modes of action, including reactivity, inhibition of acetylcholine esterase or uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Accounting for measured chemical concentrations eliminated two outliers, the hydrophobic 4-decylaniline and the volatile 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, with an outlier being operationally defined as a substance showing a more than 10-fold difference between in vivo/in vitro effect concentrations. Few outliers remained. The most striking were allyl alcohol (2700-fold), which likely needs to be metabolically activated, and permethrin (190-fold) and lindane (63-fold), compounds acting, respectively, on sodium and chloride channels in the brain of fish. We discuss further developments of this assay and suggest its use beyond predicting acute toxicity to fish, for example, as part of adverse outcome pathways to replace, reduce, or refine chronic fish tests.

  13. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. PMID:24386634

  15. Effects of excess dietary selenite on lead toxicity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mayland, H F; Doyle, J J; Sharma, R P

    1986-07-01

    The hypothesis that excess dietary selenite ameliorates lead (Pb) toxicosis in domestic sheep was tested. Twenty 6-8-yr-old ewes fed alfalfa pellets were assigned to the following treatments: (1) control; (2) 9.8 mg Pb/kg body weight (b.w.)/d as PbCO3; (3) 3 mg Se/animal/d as Na2SeO3·5H2O; or (4) a combination of treatments 2 and 3. The gelatin-encapsulated salts were given orally. The study was terminated on d 104, by which time three animals in the Pb group and all five animals in the Pb+Se group had died. All remaining animals were slaughtered on d 104. Lead and Se concentrations were determined in six biweekly-collected blood samples and in soft tissues and bone. Sheep on the control and Se treatments had similar feed intakes, body weights, and tissue Pb levels. Those in the Pb+Se group had lower feed intake, but higher blood Pb values compared with the Pb group. Feeding either element increased (P<0.05) the concentration of that element in blood, kidney, liver, spleen, and bone. Muscle-Pb concentrations were not affected (P<0.05) by treatment. Selenium concentrations in kidney, liver, and muscle were greater (P<0.05), whereas those in heart were less (P<0.05) for the Pb+Se group than for the Se Group. Clinical signs associated with Pb toxicosis noted in other animals were not observed in the poisoned sheep in this study. Selenite did not protect sheep against Pb toxicity and likely served as a synergistic factor.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of the herbicide BUREX EKO in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Legáth, J; Mlynarcíková, H; Svický, E; Lenhardt, L; Kacmár, P; Benová, K; Kovác, G

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute LD50, clinical symptoms and pathological changes of acute BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants according to OECD No 205. Medium lethal dose (LD50) of BUREX EKO in pheasant is 3.84 ml/kg body weight with the upper level of reliability 4.50 ml and lower level of reliability 3.27 ml/kg body weight. As far as the calculation to the effective substance is concerned it is 1077 mg of chloridazone per kg body weight with the interval of reliability from 919 to 1263 mg/kg body weight. Calculated the effective substance of chloridazone (3.84 ml is LD50 of BUREX EKO which contains 1077 mg of chloridazone) BUREX EKO can be classified as the moderately toxic substance to pheasants. There were following clinical symptoms of the BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants: apathy, drowsiness, incapability to move, ruffled feathers, slight diarrhoea, strenuous respiration, tonico-clonical cramps before death, decease with the head expressively bent rearwards. There was a relatively fast beginning of rigor mortis in dead pheasants. Pathologico-anatomical dissection of the pheasants obtained under conditions of acute intoxication did not reveal any changes on the organs of both experimental and control pheasants which would be immediately connected with the effect of the administered substance. Hyperaemia was recorded by histologico-pathological investigation of the liver and kidneys. No changes on the brain and intestine wall were recorded.

  17. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  18. Acetone potentiation of acute acetonitrile toxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.J.; Hayes, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to investigate the nature and mechanism of a toxicologic interaction between acetonitrile and acetone. Results of oral doe-response studies utilizing 1:1 (w/w) mixture of acetonitrile and acetone, or varying doses of acetonitrile administered together with a constant dose of acetone, indicated that acetone potentiated acute acetonitrile toxicity three- to fourfold in rats. The onset of severe toxicity (manifested by tremors and convulsions) was delayed in the groups dosed with both solvents compared to the groups that received acetonitrile or acetone alone. Blood cyanide (a metabolite of acetonitrile) and serum acetonitrile and acetone concentrations were measured after oral administration of 25% aqueous solutions of acetonitrile, acetone, or acetonitrile plus acetone. Concentrations of cyanide in the blood of rats given acetonitrile plus acetone remained near baseline, in contrast to the high concentrations found in rats dosed with acetonitrile alone. At 34-36 h, high blood cyanide concentrations were found in rats dosed with both of the solvents. This delayed onset of elevation of blood cyanide coincided with the occurrence of clinical signs and with the disappearance of serum acetone. In further pharmacokinetic studies, blood cyanide concentrations were measured after similar dosage regimens of acetone and acetonitrile. Peak cyanide concentrations were found to be significantly greater in rats dosed with both solvents than in rats given only acetonitrile. Administration of either sodium thiosulfate or a second dose of acetone prevented the toxicity associated with exposure to both solvents.

  19. Acute toxicity and chemistry of urban and nonurban bed material, Maricopa County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The acute toxicity and chemistry of bed material in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were characterized to determine if urban activities degrade bed-material quality. Samples were collected from unpaved lots and ephemeral channels in urban and undeveloped drainage basins. Samples were sieved to less than 63 microns to make comparisons between samples and were analyzed for constituent concentrations and acute toxicity using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Analysis of variance with Tukeys` multiple comparison test indicated that bed-material samples from the undeveloped drainage basin were more toxic than samples from ephemeral channels. The toxicity of bed material was not significantly different between undeveloped and urban drainage basins and between urban drainage basins and ephemeral channels. The most toxic bed-material samples from urban drainage basins appeared to be those samples collected from areas where stormwater accumulates. Concentrations of ammonia, lead, cadmium, and zinc were significantly greater in urban bed-material samples than in samples from the undeveloped drainage basin and ephemeral channels. Zinc and cadmium were associated with organic carbon in urban bed-material samples, and trace metals were associated with iron and manganese in samples from the undeveloped drainage basin. Mortality rates in bed-material samples from the undeveloped drainage basin moderately correlated with recoverable concentrations of zinc (rank correlation of 0.71), lead (0.59), and copper (0.46). Mortality rates in bed-material samples from urban drainage basins significantly correlated with recoverable concentrations of cadmium (0.81) and zinc (0.70).The association of trace metals with iron and manganese seemed to increase trace-metal bioavailability when compared with trace metals associated with organic carbon.

  20. Neutral red uptake cytotoxicity tests for estimating starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S; Casati, Silvia; Strickland, Judy; Paris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used as alternative toxicity tests to reduce the total number of animals needed for acute oral toxicity tests. This unit describes two methods for determining the in vitro cytotoxicity of test substances using neutral red uptake (NRU) and using the in vitro data to determine starting doses for in vivo acute oral systemic toxicity tests, e.g., the up-and-down procedure or the acute toxic class method. The use of the NRU methods to determine starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests may reduce the number of animals required, and for relatively toxic substances, this approach may also reduce the number of animals that die or require humane euthanasia due to severe toxicity. An interlaboratory validation study has demonstrated that the methods are useful and reproducible for these purposes. Two standardized protocols provide details for performing NRU tests with rodent and human cells.

  1. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  2. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  3. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  4. Toxicity of white phosphorus to waterfowl: acute exposure in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Gustafson, M.; Klein, P.; Karouna-Renier, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand extensive, white phosphorus (P4)-induced waterfowl mortality at Eagle River Flats, Fort Richardson, Alaska, we conducted a number of acute toxicity tests using penned mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in 1993 and 1994. The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) for P4 dissolved in oil was 6.46 mg/kg in adult males and 6.96 mg/kg in adult females. Although the median lethal doses were not statistically different, the female dose-response curve had a statistically shallower slope than that of males. The LD50 for the ecologically more relevant pelletized form of P4 in adult males was 4.05 mg/kg. In mallards, one mechanism of P4 toxicity caused rapid (3 to 10 hr) mortality and had signs consistent with anoxia. A second, slower acting mechanism resulted in hepatic and renal pathology including extensive fat deposition in the liver and cellular necrosis. White phosphorus accumulated in adipose tissues, but only for a few days.

  5. Influence of chemical and environmental stressors on acute cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.N.; Benson, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that the cytosolic protein metallothionein (MT) is induced not only by exposure to certain heavy metals but also by a variety of other factors, including environmental stress. While MT synthesis has been observed with exposure to cold temperatures, there is a paucity of data concerning the influence of cold on heavy-metal toxicity. The present investigation focused on the influence of metal and cold pretreatments on the acute toxicity of cadmium. Mortalities of 80% and 100% were observed for mice orally administered challenge doses of 100 mg Cd/kg and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. To determine a protective cadmium pretreatment dose, animals were administered 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 mg Cd/kg 24 h prior to cadmium challenge. In animals pretreated with 10 mg Cd/kg, mortalities of 20% and 70% were observed with the respective challenge doses. Immediately following cold stress (4/sup 0/C, 12 h), mortalities of 30% and 90% were observed with cadmium challenge doses of 100 and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Significant correlations were demonstrated between induced hepatic MT concentrations and cadmium pretreatment, as well as cold pretreatment. The induced tolerance to cadmium was attributed, in part, to the induction of MT synthesis. Furthermore, the induced levels of MT resulting from cold stress may confound the simplistic approach of using MT as a biological monitor of occupational exposure to cadmium.

  6. Acute toxicity evaluation for quinolone antibiotics and their chlorination disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-09-01

    Acute toxicity of 21 quinolone antibiotics was monitored using photobacterium Vibrio fischeri assay. The minimum IC20 (inhibitory concentration for 20% luminescence elimination) was obtained at the least 18.86μmol/L for the tested quinolones. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established to investigate the possible mechanism for the acute toxicity. The critical physicochemical descriptors, describing σ and π atom electronegativity, implied that the electron transfer might occur between the quinolones and photobacterium V. fischeri. Although the quinolones exhibited limited acute toxicity to photobacterium, toxicity elevation was detected after their chlorination. Hence, chlorination disinfection treatment of quinolone-containing water should be of concerns.

  7. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-15

    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent.

  8. Clinico-biochemical studies on acute toxic nephropathy in goats due to uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Joshi, H.C.

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift eosinopenia, decreased monocytes and presence of 1-2% reticulocytes in the peripheral blood smears. On blood chemical analysis, a uniform and continuous rise was seen in serum creatinine with a concomitant daily increase of serum urea and uric acid. Simultaneous analysis of urine indicated polyuria leading to oliguria, acidic pH, albuminuria, glycosuria with presence of neutrophils, RBC's, epithelial and fatty casts, increase of triple phosphate, and cystine crystals reflecting acute damage of kidneys in the affected goats.

  9. Acute Selenium Toxicity Associated With a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    MacFarquhar, Jennifer K.; Broussard, Danielle L.; Melstrom, Paul; Hutchinson, Richard; Wolkin, Amy; Martin, Colleen; Burk, Raymond F.; Dunn, John R.; Green, Alice L.; Hammond, Roberta; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is an element necessary for normal cellular function, but it can have toxic effects at high doses. We investigated an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning. Methods A case was defined as the onset of symptoms of selenium toxicity in a person within 2 weeks after ingesting a dietary supplement manufactured by “Company A,” purchased after January 1, 2008. We conducted case finding, administered initial and 90-day follow-up questionnaires to affected persons, and obtained laboratory data where available. Results The source of the outbreak was identified as a liquid dietary supplement that contained 200 times the labeled concentration of selenium. Of 201 cases identified in 10 states, 1 person was hospitalized. The median estimated dose of selenium consumed was 41 749 μg/d (recommended dietary allowance is 55 μg/d). Frequently reported symptoms included diarrhea (78%), fatigue (75%), hair loss (72%), joint pain (70%), nail discoloration or brittleness (61%), and nausea (58%). Symptoms persisting 90 days or longer included fingernail discoloration and loss (52%), fatigue (35%), and hair loss (29%). The mean initial serum selenium concentration of 8 patients was 751 μg/L (reference range, ≤125 μg/L). The mean initial urine selenium concentration of 7 patients was 166 μg/24 h (reference range, ≤55 μg/24 h). Conclusions Toxic concentrations of selenium in a liquid dietary supplement resulted in a widespread outbreak. Had the manufacturers been held to standards used in the pharmaceutical industry, it may have been prevented. PMID:20142570

  10. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  11. Acute toxicity of methyl mercury to the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Mallatt, J.; Barron, M.G.; McDonough, C.

    1986-08-01

    Mercury compounds pollute many aquatic habitats and are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity of waterborne methyl mercury has been studied in several teleost species. Lampreys are taxonomically distant from teleosts and are used for comparative toxicological purposes. Landlocked sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, inhabit the Great Lakes region, and their larvae (ammocoetes) burrow in stream sediments. In this study, the authors present toxicity curves for ammocoetes exposed acutely to methyl mercuric chloride solutions. Susceptibility was related to temperature and animal size.

  12. Potential contribution of inorganic ions to whole effluent acute toxicity and genotoxicity during sewage tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Quan, Ying; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Shaokui; Liu, Xinchun

    2015-09-15

    Two acute toxicity tests (luminescent bacteria assay and cladoceran assay) and one genotoxicity test (broad bean assay) were used to evaluate whole effluent toxicity during the standard anion exchange resin-based pilot-scale sewage tertiary treatment that stably achieved significant dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions reduction. The effect of six representative inorganic ions (i.e., Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P) on the acute toxicity and genotoxicity was further investigated. Significant whole effluent genotoxicity reduction was observed as an ∼ 57% micronucleated cell frequency reduction and ∼ 46% mitotic index increment during the pilot-scale periods, which should be attributed to significant organic removal since no significant (p ≥ 0.116) increase in genotoxicity was observed with the increase in these ionic concentrations. However, no significant (p ≥ 0.14) reductions were observed for whole effluent acute toxicity using two acute toxicity assays during the pilot-scale periods, and these inorganic ions, especially NH4(+)-N, contributed considerably to the acute toxicity. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients, whole effluent acute toxicity showed significant positive (p < 0.001, r ≥ 0.758) correlations with the NH4(+)-N concentration. Two optimal models were finally developed using step-wise multiple linear regression to predict the whole effluent acute toxicity via NH4(+)-N concentrations.

  13. Tungsten speciation and toxicity: acute toxicity of mono- and poly-tungstates to fish.

    PubMed

    Strigul, Nikolay; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2010-02-01

    Tungsten is a widely used transition metal for which very limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available. Of particular interest is the lack of information linking tungsten speciation and environmental effects. Tungsten anions may polymerize (depending upon concentration, pH, and aquatic geochemistry) in aquatic and soil systems. However, to this date, of all soluble tungstate species only monotungstates have been scrutinized to a fair extent in toxicological studies. The objective of this work is a comparative assessment of the acute toxicity of monotungstates (sodium tungstate, Na(2)WO(4)) and polytungstates (sodium metatungstate, 3Na(2)WO(4).9WO(3)) to Poecilia reticulate. The experiments have been performed according to the OEDC protocols 203 and 204. LD50 values for 1-14 days show that sodium metatungstate is significantly more toxic to fish than sodium tungstate. Based on LD50 (0.86-3.88gL(-1) or 4.67-21.1x10(-3)molNa(2)WO(4)L(-1)), sodium tungstate may be classified as a chemical of low toxicity to fish. Sodium metatungstate caused similar fish mortality to sodium tungstate when it was introduced in 55-80 times lower concentrations (in terms of molL(-1)) than sodium tungstate. LD50 values for sodium metatungstate range from 0.13 to 0.85gWL(-1) or 5.69 to 38.71x10(-5)mol 3Na(2)WO(4).9WO(3)L(-1). Based on these values sodium metatungstate can be classified as a moderate toxic agent to fish.

  14. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Matthew Sean; Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials. PMID:26697225

  15. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  16. [Acute lead poisoning in cows due to feeding of lead contaminated ash residue].

    PubMed

    Schlerka, Gerd; Tataruch, Frieda; Högler, Sandra; Url, Angelika; Krametter, Reinhild; Kössler, Dieter; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In a dairy herd of 21 cows which were on pasture during the day at the end of May 2002, four eight years old cows were suddenly inappetent and showed severe diarrhoea consisting of black discolorate feces. A few days after the onset of the disease, three affected cows exhibited neurological disorders. These cows were admitted to the IInd Medical Clinic of the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna. Following clinical signs were observed: circulatory weakness, anorexia, atony of the rumen, diarrhoea and in accordance with acute lead poisoning typical signs of the central nervous system. One cow died and the other two animals were euthanized. Results of blood testing were anaemia, basophil spotting of erythrocytes, increase of liver enzymes and CK, hypocalcaemia, decrease of potassium and phosphate. The cerebrospinal fluid of two cows showed increased CK-, LDH- and AST-values. The lead contents of whole blood samples were between 0.486 and 0.928 mg/kg, of liver samples 13.3 to 114.4 mg/kg, of kidney samples 172.2 to 448 mg/kg and of rumen content 59 mg/kg fresh matter. At necropsy, enteritis, liver fluke disease and severe interstitial and alveolar pulmonary emphysema were found. Pathohistologically typical ischaemic necrosis of neurons predominantly at the tips of the gyri, disseminated petechial hemorrhages and moderate diffuse neovascularisation, but no acid-fast intranucleolar inclusion bodies in the renal tubules were observed. As causative agent of the acute lead poisoning a residue on combustion, taken up by the cows on the pasture, was confirmed. The ash residue was formed by combustion of three tires which contained 450 g heavy weights of 96.5% lead for wheel balance. The lead content of the ash residue was between 2.9 and 28 g/kg dry matter.

  17. Safety evaluation of Se-methylselenocysteine as nutritional selenium supplement: acute toxicity, genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Jia, Xudong

    2014-12-01

    The significant toxicity of selenium emphasizes the need to assess the health risk of various selenocompounds as nutritional supplements. Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMC) was recently reported to be more bioactive but the toxicological effects have not been sufficiently characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of SeMC and provide the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for its use in human diet. Our results demonstrated that SeMC, with the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of 12.6 and 9.26mg/kg BW in female and male mice, was of high potent of health hazard under acute oral exposure, but a battery of tests including Ames test, micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay suggested that SeMC was not genotoxic. The repeated dose study indicated little systemic toxicity of SeMC at supernutritional levels (0.5, 0.7, 0.9mg/kg BW/day) after 90-day oral exposure. Importantly, the 95% lower confidence value of Benchmark Dose (BMDL) was estimated as 0.34mg/kg BW/day according to the elevated relative liver weight. The ADI for human was established at 3.4μg/kg BW/day. The results suggested greater safety of SeMC as a nutritional selenium supplement, but health risk needs to be further evaluated when SeMC is applied beyond this level to achieve cancer chemoprevention.

  18. Acute toxicity testing of some herbicides-, alkaloids-, and antibiotics-metabolizing soil bacteria in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A; Classen, H G; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1981-01-01

    Seven strains of soil bacteria with the ability to metabolize herbicides, alkaloids or antibiotics were tested in rats for acute toxicity. 1. Upon oral administration of 9.0 x 10(8) to 6.6 x 10(10) cells daily during 7 d no adverse reactions were observed. 2. Exposure by air did not lead to specific pulmonary changes. 3. Intracutaneous injection of 7.5 x 10(6) to 1.4 x 10(8) cells did not lead to adverse skin reactions. 4. Intraperitoneal injections up to 10(8) cells per animal did not kill rats although bacteria entered blood. At higher concentrations some mortality occurred partly due to unspecific stress reactions. 5. Animal data and observations on 20 humans being exposed to these strains for 2 months up to 15 years support the view that the bacteria tested are essentially harmless for health.

  19. Bioremediation potential of spirulina: toxicity and biosorption studies of lead.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Pan, Shan-Shan

    2005-03-01

    This study examines the possibility of using live spirulina to biologically remove aqueous lead of low concentration (below 50 mg/L) from wastewater. The spirulina cells were first immersed for seven days in five wastewater samples containing lead of different concentrations, and the growth rate was determined by light at wavelength of 560 nm. The 72 h-EC50 (72 h medium effective concentration) was estimated to be 11.46 mg/L (lead). Afterwards, the lead adsorption by live spirulina cells was conducted. It was observed that at the initial stage (0-12 min) the adsorption rate was so rapid that 74% of the metal was biologically adsorbed. The maximum biosorption capacity of live spirulina was estimated to be 0.62 mg lead per 10(5) alga cells.

  20. Severe Acute Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Brentuximab in a Patient with Refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Yasmin; Ramirez, Saul; Rosell Cespedes, Elizabeth; Rensoli Velasquez, Marimer; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Gaur, Sumit; Figueroa-Casas, Juan B.; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Acute pulmonary toxicity associated with brentuximab appears to be a rare but serious adverse effect that can be potentially fatal. We report the case of a twenty-nine-year-old female with Hodgkin's lymphoma who was treated with brentuximab and later presented with severe acute pulmonary toxicity; she improved after the discontinuation of brentuximab and administration of antibiotics and glucocorticoid therapy. Currently there is very little data in the literature in regard to the clinical manifestations and characteristics of patients taking brentuximab and the potential development of acute severe pulmonary toxicity, as well as the appropriate therapeutic approach, making this particular case of successful treatment and resolution unique. PMID:27190667

  1. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  2. Pathology of acute 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol toxicity in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, H B; Nicholson, S; Kasali, O B; Hancock, D S; Greenhalgh, R

    1985-01-01

    Mice were killed 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after intragastrical administration of 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg body weight of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. The animals became clinically ill after 12 hours and some animals in the highest dose group died. Histological examination of duodenal crypts, thymus and spleen revealed, in all dose groups, presence of the characteristic lesions that are known to be produced by trichothecenes, but the intensity of lesions in the 40 mg group corresponded to lesions known to be caused by 4 mg/kg of T-2 toxin. A rabbit skin bioassay with 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol gave negative results on one occasion and a mild reaction to 100 to 500 micrograms/mL on another. It is concluded that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol is considerably less toxic than T-2 toxin, but causes acute effects in the dividing cells of the body in a manner characteristic of trichothecenes. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:4041976

  3. Evaluation of the anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and in vivo acute toxicity of Annona sylvatic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent emergence of extensively multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has further complicated the control of tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for the development of new molecular candidates antitubercular drugs. Medicinal plants have been an excellent source of leads for the development of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of 28 alcoholic extracts and essential oils of native and exotic Brazilian plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to further study these extracts through chemical fractionation, the isolation of their constituents, and an evaluation of the in vivo acute toxicity of the active extracts. To the best of our knowledge this is the first chemical characterization, antituberculosis activity and acute toxicity evaluation of Annona sylvatica. Methods The anti-mycobacterial activity of these extracts and their constituent compounds was evaluated using the resazurin reduction microtiter assay (REMA). To investigate the acute toxicity of these extracts in vivo, female Swiss mice were treated with the extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg · kg-1 of body weight. The extracts were characterized by LC-MS, and the constituents were isolated and identified by chromatographic analysis of spectroscopic data. Results Of the 28 extracts, the methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Annona sylvatica showed anti-mycobacterial activity with an minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 184.33 μg/mL, and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) resulting from liquid-liquid partitioning of the A. sylvatica extract showed an MIC of 115.2 μg/mL. The characterization of this extract by LC-MS identified flavonoids and acetogenins as its main constituents. The phytochemical study of the A. sylvatica EAF resulted in the isolation of quercetin, luteolin, and almunequin. Conclusions Among the compounds isolated from the EAF, luteolin and almunequin were the most promising, with MICs of 236.8

  4. Lead toxicity in a 14-year-old female with retained bullet fragments.

    PubMed

    Coon, Troy; Miller, Michael; Shirazi, Farshad; Sullivan, John

    2006-01-01

    In the past 3 decades, lead levels in North American children have been declining. Despite the decline in lead exposure, lead toxicity remains a significant childhood environmental health hazard. The usual route of lead exposure is through ingestion, but lead toxicity secondary to retained bullet fragments has been well documented in the adult literature. The diagnosis of lead toxicity is often difficult and delayed secondary to vague and transient symptoms. Recognizing high-risk characteristics of bullet fragments can improve clinician awareness to the possibility of lead toxicity. The primary management of patients with continued lead exposure is to remove the source of exposure. However, in the case of retained bullet fragments, initiation of chelation therapy before surgical removal may be essential in preventing systemic toxicity. We present the case of a 14-year-old female with lead toxicity who presented with an 18-month course of chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia 2 years after sustaining a gunshot wound to the right leg. The patient was treated with oral succimer and operative removal of bullet fragments.

  5. Importance of structural information in predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro cytotoxicity data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soyoung; Park, Keunwan; Ahn, Hee-Sung; Kim, Dongsup

    2010-07-15

    In this study, we tried to assess the utility of the structural information of drugs for predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro basal cytotoxicity, and to interpret the informative quality and the pharmacokinetic meaning of each structural descriptor. For this, human acute toxicity data of 67 drugs were taken from literature with their basal cytotoxicity data, and used to develop predictive models. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to construct feasible regression models by combining molecular descriptors and cytotoxicity data. We found that although the molecular descriptors alone had only moderate correlation with human acute toxicity, they were highly useful for explaining the discrepancy between in vitro cytotoxicity and human acute toxicity. Among many possible models, we selected the most explanatory models by changing the number and the type of combined molecular descriptors. The results showed that our selected models had high predictive power (R{sup 2}: between 0.7 and 0.87). Our analysis indicated that those successful models increased the prediction accuracies by providing the information on human pharmacokinetic parameters which are the major reason for the difference between human acute toxicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, we performed a clustering analysis on selected molecular descriptors to assess their informative qualities. The results indicated that the number of single bonds, the number of hydrogen bond donors and valence connectivity indices are closely related to linking cytotoxicity to acute toxicity, which provides insightful explanation about human toxicity beyond cytotoxicity.

  6. Anti-tumor potential and acute toxicity of Jacaranda puberula Cham. (Bignoniacea).

    PubMed

    de-Almeida, Michelle Rodrigues-Ayres; Ramos-Leal, Ivana Correa; Ruela, Halliny Siqueira; Justo-Araujo, Maria da-Graça; Martins, Thiago Martino; Pinto-Coelho, Marsen Garcia; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Carvalho-Sabino, Kátia Costa

    2013-09-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is an important strategy to treat this leading cause of death worldwide and plants may constitute a source of new antineoplastic agents. This work fractionated the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda puberula leaves and studied the in vitro antitumoral action and some toxicological effects of the most bioactive fraction. Cell lines related to worldwide cancers were used. The Dichloromethane (DCM) and PP fractions were the most bioactive ones. The anti-tumoral action of the DCM fraction was higher than that of the crude EtOH extract while that of PP fraction was higher than the original one (DCM) for both breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC3) and lung (A549) tumor cells, chronic leukemia cells. The K562 cells were the most sensitive cell line. The PP fraction (20 μg/mL) cytotoxicity for these cells was similar to that of the ursolic acid triterpene or the antineoplastic ethoposide. The PP fraction inhibited K562 cell proliferation without cell cycle arrest in a specific phase or apoptosis. PP increased the mitochondrial reduction activity of lymphocytes. After a single dose by oral route, PP fraction did not induce intrinsic acute toxicity or animal death. This work demonstrated that the J. puberula fraction (PP) present high in vitro anti-tumoral effect with no cytotoxicity for immune system cells or oral acute toxicity, improving the Jacaranda puberula ethnopharmacology and reporting new biological effects for the genus Jacaranda.

  7. Acute toxicity of 8 antidepressants: what are their modes of action?

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laetitia; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Lepailleur, Alban; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the hazard posed by pharmaceutical residues is a major concern of ecotoxicology. Most of the antidepressants belong to a family named the Cationic Amphipathic Drugs known to have specific interactions with cell membranes. The present study assessed the impact of eight antidepressants belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors by the combination of multi-approaches (in vivo, in vitro, in silico) and gives some insights on the mode of action for these molecules. Antidepressants were from the most to the least toxic compound for Daphnia magna: Sertraline (EC50=1.15 mg L(-1))>Clomipramine (2.74 mg L(-1))>Amitriptyline (4.82 mg L(-1))>Fluoxetine (5.91 mg L(-1))>Paroxetine (6.24 mg L(-1))>Mianserine (7.81 mg L(-1))>Citalopram (30.14 mg L(-1)) and Venlafaxine (141.28 mg L(-1)). These acute toxicities were found correlated to Log Kow coefficients (R=0.93, p<0.001) and to cytotoxicity assessed on abalone hemocytes through the neutral red uptake assay (R=0.96, p<0.001). If narcosis as mode of action is typically expected during acute ecotoxicity bioassays, we showed by molecular modeling that particular interactions can exist between antidepressants and phosphatidylcholine, a major component of cell membranes, leading to a more specific mode of action corresponding to a potential acidic hydrolysis of ester functions.

  8. Ecological impacts of lead mining on Ozark streams: Toxicity of sediment and pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Allert, A.L.; Poulton, B.C.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the toxicity of sediments downstream of lead-zinc mining areas in southeast Missouri, using chronic sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and pore-water toxicity tests with the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Tests conducted in 2002 documented reduced survival of amphipods in stream sediments collected near mining areas and reduced survival and reproduction of daphnids in most pore waters tested. Additional amphipod tests conducted in 2004 documented significant toxic effects of sediments from three streams downstream of mining areas: Strother Creek, West Fork Black River, and Bee Fork. Greatest toxicity occurred in sediments from a 6-km reach of upper Strother Creek, but significant toxic effects occurred in sediments collected at least 14 km downstream of mining in all three watersheds. Toxic effects were significantly correlated with metal concentrations (nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead) in sediments and pore waters and were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity risks based on sediment quality guidelines, although ammonia and manganese may also have contributed to toxicity at a few sites. Responses of amphipods in sediment toxicity tests were significantly correlated with characteristics of benthic invertebrate communities in study streams. These results indicate that toxicity of metals associated with sediments contributes to adverse ecological effects in streams draining the Viburnum Trend mining district.

  9. Environmental safety level of lead (Pb) pertaining to toxic effects on grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and tiger perch (Terapon jarbua).

    PubMed

    Hariharan, G; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic bioassay toxicity test of Lead (Pb) in Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus), and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua) was conducted. LC50 values (Lethal Concentration) from acute tests and chronic values were calculated by the geometric mean of the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) and the Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) in a study period of 30 days. This research was conducted to evaluate the quantitative relationship between toxicity test statistics and correlation between toxicant and the organisms exposed. Three test average LC50 was analyzed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and the 96 h average LC50 of M. cephalus and T. jarbua is 2.57 ± 0.47 and 2.99 ± 0.23 mg/L of Pb, respectively. Significant correlation is observed with the increased time duration and exposure concentration. The NOEC and LOEC values were calculated based on survival of test organisms for M. cephalus and T. jarbua and the values are 0.014 and 0.029 and 0.011 and 0.022 mg/L, respectively. The chronic value is found to be 0.011 mg/L for M. cephalus and 0.021 mg/L for T. jarbua. The intensity of biochemical and histological alterations increased gradually with increased Pb concentration and the exposure time. Toxicity testing is the primary step to determine the water quality safe limit on marine organisms. The outcome of the study indicates that the sensitivity of juvenile organisms to Pb, persistence of toxic effects and biomarkers as a tool capable of revealing the toxic effects of heavy metals on the environment and aquatic biota.

  10. Case report: lead toxicity associated with an extra-articular retained missile 14 years after injury.

    PubMed

    Eward, William C; Darcey, Dennis; Dodd, Leslie G; Zura, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Lead toxicity associated with extra-articular retained missiles (EARMs) is an uncommon yet potentially devastating complication of gunshot wounds. While the risk of lead toxicity with intra-articular retained missiles is well-known, EARMs are routinely permitted to remain in tissues indefinitely without surveillance for lead toxicity. We present a 34 year-old man who was found to have symptomatic lead toxicity 14 years after sustaining a gunshot-associated femoral fracture with retention of lead bullet fragments. A fluid-filled cyst containing two large lead bullet fragments was identified intraoperatively. Whole-blood lead concentration decreased after removal of the lead-filled cyst. Cyst formation and concomitant bone fracture are two of the risk factors for lead toxicity in patients with EARMs after gunshot wounds. Recognizing risk factors for EARM-associated elevation in lead levels is important as the adverse effects of increased lead burden may be asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose, yet debilitating and potentially lethal.

  11. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  12. Ankle Lead Arthropathy and Systemic Lead Toxicity Secondary to a Gunshot Wound After 49 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Zahra; Laflamme, Mélissa

    2017-02-24

    Intra-articular bullet wounds have been found to cause both local and systemic consequences, in particular, when retained over many years. Only a few such cases have been described in published reports, each with different implications, depending on the joint involved and whether the patient experienced lead toxicity. We report the rare case of a 63-year-old male with lead arthropathy of the ankle secondary to a gunshot wound 49 years earlier. In addition to his severe tibiotalar arthritis, he presented with significantly elevated blood lead levels. Although he remained asymptomatic of lead toxicity, the patient was treated with preoperative chelator therapy and arthroscopic debridement, excision of accessible bullet fragments, and partial synovectomy to alleviate his ankle pain. However, he continued to experience ankle pain, and his blood lead levels remained elevated. He, therefore, underwent arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis with preoperative chelator therapy to prevent a further increase in blood lead levels secondary to surgical manipulation. Although lead arthropathy and toxicity secondary to retained intra-articular bullets has been documented in various joints during the past decades, to the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first adult case of an affected ankle reported in published English studies in 40 years. The standard of care has evolved since then, in particular, in regard to chelator therapy and the necessity for removal of intra-articular lead fragments to prevent further lead toxicity. The present case serves as an example of lead arthropathy of the ankle and highlights the importance of balancing the standard of care with symptomatic care to optimize patient well-being.

  13. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-02

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  14. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  15. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  16. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  17. Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...

  18. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  19. Gene polymorphisms in folate metabolizing enzymes in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: effects on methotrexate-related toxicity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Rigolin, GianMatteo; Ambrosio, Cristina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Pellati, Agnese; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Caruso, Angelo; Catozzi, Linda; Gemmati, Donato

    2009-01-01

    Background The antifolate agent methotrexate is an important component of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although methotrexate-related toxicity is often a reason for interruption of chemotherapy. Prediction of toxicity is difficult because of inter-individual variability susceptibility to antileukemic agents. Methotrexate interferes with folate metabolism leading to depletion of reduced folates. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms for folate metabolizing enzymes with respect to toxicity and survival in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. To this purpose, we evaluated possible associations between genotype and hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity and effects on survival at 2 years of follow-up in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results Polymorphisms in the genes encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19 bp deletion) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity in single (odds ratio 5.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13–21.95 and odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–20.77, respectively) and in combined analysis (odds ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.38–33.59). MTHFR 677C>T also increased the risk of leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, whilst thymidylate synthase 28 bp repeat polymorphism increased the risk of anemia (odds ratio 8.48, 95% confidence interval 2.00–36.09). Finally, patients with MTHFR 677TT had a decreased overall survival rate (hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.46–8.45). Conclusions Genotyping of folate polymorphisms might be useful in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy, reducing the associated toxicity with possible effects on survival. PMID:19648163

  20. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  1. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATSDR Board of Scientific Counselors Lead in the environment: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Federal partner agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data, ...

  2. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment.

  3. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  4. Acute toxicity and histopathology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tandjung, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fingerling brook trout were exposed to different concentrations of Al at pH 5.6. The Basic Static Acute Toxicity Test was used to determine the 96-hr LC50. The toxicity of Al varied inversely with water hardness. The 96-hr LC/sub 50/ at a hardness of 2, 18, and 40 mg/l (CaCO/sub 3/) was 0.37, 3.4, and 6.53 mg/l Al respectively. Darkening of skin color was possible due to an increase in Na ions in the water as a result of body ion loss, activating the hormone MSH which causes melanin granules to spread within the melanocytes. Histology of all tissues of surviving fish appeared normal 3 months after transfer to uncontaminated water. The lateral line canal was regenerated by the end of the second month of the recovery period. In conclusion, we found that histology was essential to the interpretation of the toxicological effects of Al. The mortality of brook trout was attributed to Al toxicity that increased cell membrane permeability and mucification. Increased permeability resulted in the loss of body salt and an influx of Al and H ions. Mucus on gill surfaces caused anoxia leading to cell degeneration. Death was due to disturbances in osmoregulation, breakdown in enzyme activity, and disruption of O/sub 2/ transport.

  5. Acute toxicity, twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity of vanadyl trehalose in kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pingzhe; Ni, Zaizhong; Wang, Bin; Ma, Baicheng; Duan, Huikun; Li, Xiaodan; Ma, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qian; Ji, Xiangzhen; Liu, Qiqi; Xing, Shuguang; Li, Minggang

    2017-04-01

    A new trend has been developed using vanadium and organic ligands to form novel compounds in order to improve the beneficial actions and reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. In present study, vanadyl trehalose was explored the oral acute toxicity, 28 days repeated dose toxicity and genotoxicity in Kunming mice. The Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of vanadyl trehalose was revealed to be 1000 mg/kg body weight in fasted Kunming mice. Stomach and intestine were demonstrated to be the main target organs of vanadyl trehalose through 28 days repeated dose toxicity study. And vanadyl trehalose also showed particular genotoxicity through mouse bone marrow micronucleus and mouse sperm malformation assay. In brief, vanadyl trehalose presented certain, but finite toxicity, which may provide experimental basis for the clinical application.

  6. Acute to chronic estimation of Daphnia magna toxicity within the QSAAR framework.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Hayashi, T I; Tatarazako, N

    2016-10-21

    We constructed models for acute to chronic estimation of the Daphnia magna reproductive toxicities of chemical substances from their Daphnia magna acute immobilization toxicities. The models combined the acute toxicities with structural and physicochemical descriptors. We used multiregression analysis and selected the descriptors for the models by means of a genetic algorithm. Of the best 100 models (as indicated by the lack of fit score), 90% included the following descriptors: acute toxicity (i.e. an activity parameter), distribution coefficient (log D) and structural indicator variables that indicate the presence of -NH2 attached to aromatic carbon and the presence of a chlorine atom. We compared the predictive abilities of five of these quantitative structure-activity-activity relationship (QSAAR) acute to chronic estimation models with the predictive ability of a simple linear regression model. The comparison revealed that inclusion of structural and physicochemical descriptors such as those in QSAAR models can improve models for extrapolation from acute to chronic toxicity. Our results also provide a QSAAR framework that is expected to be useful for the further development of chronic toxicity estimation models.

  7. Unraveling the chronic toxicity of lead: an essential priority for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, A C; Wetmur, J G; Moline, J M; Godbold, J H; Levin, S M; Landrigan, P J

    1996-01-01

    Although population exposure to lead has declined, chronic lead toxicity remains a major public health problem in the United States affecting millions of children and adults. Important gaps exist in knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic lead intoxication. These gaps have impeded development of control strategies. To close current gaps in knowledge of chronic lead toxicity, we propose an integrated, multidisciplinary, marker-based research program. This program combines a) direct measurement of individual lead burden by 109Cd X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone, b) determination of ALA-D phenotype, an index of individual susceptibility to lead, and c) assessments of subclinical injury produced by lead in the kidneys, nervous system and, reproductive organs. Data from this research will provide answers to questions of great public health importance: a) Are current environmental and occupational standards adequate to prevent chronic lead intoxication? b) is lead mobilized from the skeleton during pregnancy or lactation to cause fetal toxicity? c) Is lead mobilized from bone during menopause to cause neurotoxicity? d) What is the significance of genetic variation in determining susceptibility to lead? e) What is the contribution of lead to hypertension, renal disease, chronic neurodegenerative disease or declining sperm counts? f) Is chelation therapy effective in reducing body lead burden in persons with chronic overexposure to lead? PMID:8722118

  8. Lead toxicity and metabolism from lead sulfate fed to Holstein calves

    SciTech Connect

    Logner, K.R.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Blackmon, D.M.; White, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Sixteen Holstein intact male calves averaging 85 kg and 74 days of age were assigned randomly to four dietary lead treatments according to body weight. They were fed for ad libitum consumption a control diet containing no added lead or the control diet supplemented with 500, 1500, or 4500 ppm lead as lead sulfate. One calf fed 1500 ppm lead and all four calves fed 4500 ppm lead died within 6 to 10 days after initiation of treatments. Death was sudden with few or no clinical signs prior to death. Those clinical signs that did appear included muscular tremors, gnashing of teeth, bellowing, and convulsions. Four control, four 500 ppm lead, and two 1500 ppm lead-fed calves survived the 7-wk experimental period. Feed consumption, body weight changes, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma, and hemoglobin were not affected significantly by lead treatments. Packed cell volume in calves fed 500 and 1500 ppm added lead was reduced. Lead concentrations in blood, kidney, liver, bone, brain, and muscle were elevated in lead supplemented calves above those of controls. The highest concentrations of lead were in kidney and liver. 27 references, 6 tables.

  9. Influence of sulfate, Ca, and Mg on the acute toxicity of potassium dichromate to Daphnia similis

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Mamoru; Kuroda, Koichi ); Endo, Ginji; Horiguchi, Shunichi )

    1991-03-01

    In the Daphnia test which is commonly employed for assessing effects of chemicals to aquatic environments, it is well known that the toxicity of chemicals is variable with test animals and also with the chemistry of test waters. However, it is not clear what constituents in water affect toxicity of chemicals. The authors report here experimental results which show that sulfate, calcium and magnesium, commonly contained in aquatic environments, decrease the toxicity of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is recommended as a reference toxicant in the acute toxicity test.

  10. Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Veith, G.D.; Call, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and the energy of the triplet state of a variety of PAHs. The authors have reexamined these data and propose a more mechanistic explanation for the prediction of photo-induced PAH toxicity. They sought a molecular descriptor which could be computed from structure rather than measured empirically.

  11. Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment Elevation May Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    induced shock, 30 swine were anesthetized and monitored and then intoxicated with a continuous cyanide infusion until severe hypotension (50 % of...TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATION Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment ElevationMay Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity Tylan A...Toxicology 2012 Abstract Cyanide causes severe cardiac toxicity resulting in tachycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest; however, the clinical diagnosis can

  12. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Acute Kidney Injury due to Glyphosate Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Indirakshi, J.; Sunnesh, A.; Aruna, M.; Reddy, M. Hari Krishna; Kumar, Anil C. V.; Chandra, V. Sarat; Sangeetha, B.; Katyarmal, D. T.; Ram, R.; Kumar, V. Siva

    2017-01-01

    The literature, particularly from India, is scarce on the renal effects of glyphosate poisoning. Glyphosate causes toxicity not only after its ingestion but also after dermal exposure by inhalation route and on eye exposure. We present a patient report of glyphosate consumption which resulted in toxic epidermal necrolysis – the first report after glyphosate consumption and acute kidney injury.

  13. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  14. Acute management of autoimmune toxicity in cancer patients on immunotherapy: Common toxicities and the approach for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Anna J; McNeil, Catriona

    2017-01-16

    When a patient receiving anti-cancer treatment presents acutely unwell, an understanding of associated side effects of their therapy is critical. This review will discuss the approach to patients receiving anti-cancer treatment with immunotherapy presenting with autoimmune toxicities in the emergency setting. These toxicities are commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAE might consist of, but are not limited to, dermatologic, gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, colitis), hepatic, endocrine (thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, adrenal crisis), renal, ocular and pulmonary toxicity. General principles of managing these irAE in the acute setting will be outlined. Steroid therapy is a critical component of the treatment algorithm, being administered at high doses and for prolonged periods to switch off immune over-activation. Prompt intervention might prevent multi-organ failure and fatality, and allow patients to remain on effective anti-cancer therapy.

  15. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  16. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  17. Synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide on acute toxicity of pyrethrins to Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Jeffrey; Gagne, James; Sharp, Janice

    2016-08-01

    A series of acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca was performed to quantify the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on pyrethrin toxicity. Concentrations of PBO <4 µg/L caused no toxicity enhancement, whereas toxicity increased with PBO concentrations between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L. Additive toxicity calculations showed that true synergism accounted for an increase in pyrethrin toxicity (decrease in median lethal concentration) of 1.4-fold to 1.6-fold and varied only slightly between 4 µg/L and 15 µg/L PBO, whereas direct toxicity of PBO accounted for an additional increase in mixture toxicity (up to 3.2-fold) that was proportional to PBO concentration. The results can be used to assess the risk of measured or predicted co-occurring concentrations of PBO and pyrethrins in surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2111-2116. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Toxicity of cadmium, lead, mercury and methyl parathion on Euchlanis dilatata Ehrenberg 1832 (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Arias-Almeida, Juan Carlos; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Acute toxicity tests with Cd, Pb, Hg, and methyl parathion were developed to compare the sensitivity of the rotifer Euchlanis dilatata with other model organisms used in aquatic ecotoxicology. Cd was the most toxic chemical (LC50 = 14.8 μg L(-1)), while methyl parathion was the least toxic (LC50 = 864.2 μg L(-1)). E. dilatata was more sensitive that other rotifer species, particularly of the genera Brachionus and Lecane. However, E. dilatata was less sensitive to mercury and methyl parathion than the crustacean, Daphnia magna. The high sensitivity of E. dilatata suggests that it may be an adequate benthic model to use in toxicity assessments of metal-contaminated sediments.

  19. Comparative toxicity to rats of lead acetate from food or water. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, K.R.; Rader, J.I.; Schaefer, J.M.; Kramer, S.N.

    1980-10-01

    Lead is an ubiquitous contaminant of food and water supplies. Under some circumstances, this contamination can be quite severe, as described in case reports of clinical lead poisoning in which food or water was the source of lead. It is not clear at present if lead is more toxic when added to food or to water because literature relating to this specific problem is limited. Because of the general effects of food intake on reduction of lead absorption in humans, it is possible that lead-contaminated water is more toxic than lead-contaminated food. The purpose of this study was to determine if equal concentrations of lead acetate added to food or to water were equally bioavailable to rats.

  20. MOAtox: A comprehensive mode of action and acute aquatic toxicity database for predictive model development.

    PubMed

    Barron, M G; Lilavois, C R; Martin, T M

    2015-04-01

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and other models has been limited by the availability of comprehensive high quality MOA and toxicity databases. The current study developed a dataset of MOA assignments for 1213 chemicals that included a diversity of metals, pesticides, and other organic compounds that encompassed six broad and 31 specific MOAs. MOA assignments were made using a combination of high confidence approaches that included international consensus classifications, QSAR predictions, and weight of evidence professional judgment based on an assessment of structure and literature information. A toxicity database of 674 acute values linked to chemical MOA was developed for fish and invertebrates. Additionally, species-specific measured or high confidence estimated acute values were developed for the four aquatic species with the most reported toxicity values: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Measured acute toxicity values met strict standardization and quality assurance requirements. Toxicity values for chemicals with missing species-specific data were estimated using established interspecies correlation models and procedures (Web-ICE; http://epa.gov/ceampubl/fchain/webice/), with the highest confidence values selected. The resulting dataset of MOA assignments and paired toxicity values are provided in spreadsheet format as a comprehensive standardized dataset available for predictive aquatic toxicology model development.

  1. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far.

  4. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

    2013-07-01

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25 µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation.

  5. The Genetic Basis for Variation in Sensitivity to Lead Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shanshan; Morozova, Tatiana V.; Hussain, Yasmeen N.; Luoma, Sarah E.; McCoy, Lenovia; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Mackay, Trudy F.C.; Anholt, Robert R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lead toxicity presents a worldwide health problem, especially due to its adverse effects on cognitive development in children. However, identifying genes that give rise to individual variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity is challenging in human populations. Objectives: Our goal was to use Drosophila melanogaster to identify evolutionarily conserved candidate genes associated with individual variation in susceptibility to lead exposure. Methods: To identify candidate genes associated with variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity, we measured effects of lead exposure on development time, viability and adult activity in the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and performed genome-wide association analyses to identify candidate genes. We used mutants to assess functional causality of candidate genes and constructed a genetic network associated with variation in sensitivity to lead exposure, on which we could superimpose human orthologs. Results: We found substantial heritabilities for all three traits and identified candidate genes associated with variation in susceptibility to lead exposure for each phenotype. The genetic architectures that determine variation in sensitivity to lead exposure are highly polygenic. Gene ontology and network analyses showed enrichment of genes associated with early development and function of the nervous system. Conclusions: Drosophila melanogaster presents an advantageous model to study the genetic underpinnings of variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity. Evolutionary conservation of cellular pathways that respond to toxic exposure allows predictions regarding orthologous genes and pathways across phyla. Thus, studies in the D. melanogaster model system can identify candidate susceptibility genes to guide subsequent studies in human populations. Citation: Zhou S, Morozova TV, Hussain YN, Luoma SE, McCoy L, Yamamoto A, Mackay TF, Anholt RR. 2016. The genetic basis for variation in

  6. Prediction and experimental validation of acute toxicity of beta-blockers in Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, Benoit; Garric, Jeanne

    2005-10-01

    Acute toxicity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers (beta-blockers) was studied with beta-blockers as single compounds or in mixture using the standardized acute 2-d Ceriodaphnia dubia immobility test. The tested compounds were selected according to their selectivity for the beta1-adrenoceptor, with three beta1-selective blockers (acebutolol, atenolol, and metoprolol) and three non-beta1-selective blockers (nadolol, oxprenolol, and propranolol). The acute toxicity (median effective concentration) of the six single compounds ranged from 1.4 mg/L for propranolol to 163 mg/L for nadolol. According to European Union directive 93/67EEC, these values range from toxic for aquatic organisms to nonclassified. The more toxic compounds, propranolol and oxprenolol, are both characterized by a membrane-stabilizing activity, a strong affinity for the beta1-adrenoceptor, and a high octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow). The property of beta-receptor selectivity seems not to be involved in the observed acute toxicity of the single compounds for C. dubia. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the selected compounds in mixture can be defined according to the beta1-selectivity. Two main joint effects have been detected: An independent action for the beta1-selective blockers, and an additive effect when either the nonselective beta1-selective blockers or the six compounds are tested together. The concentration addition model seems to be appropriate, providing a reasonable worst-case estimation of beta-blocker mixture toxicity for regulatory purposes.

  7. Lactose and milk replacer influence on lead absorption and lead toxicity in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.; Womac, C.W.; Rowe, L.D. Jr.; Wagner, B.

    1986-03-01

    The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.

  8. Combined toxicity of copper, cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, and chrome to the copepod Tisbe holothuriae

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Dimas, S.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years much work has been concerned with the determination of various contaminants in the environment and with the establishment of the toxicity of these compounds to marine animals. Heavy metals are of increasing concern as pollutants of marine and especially coastal environments. Mixtures of heavy metals may produce unexpected effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of six heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr) to the marine copepod Tisbe holothuriae Humes and to see whether there is any interaction between these metals, when applied jointly.

  9. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems.

  10. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle — A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P < 0.0001) and month (P < 0.0001). Submissions were highest in 2009 (15.6%), 2001 (11.2%), and 2006 (9.9%). Most cases were observed during May, June, and July (62.3%). Cattle 6 months of age and younger were frequently poisoned (53.5%; P < 0.0001). Beef breeds were predominantly poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64). PMID:27041761

  11. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively.

  12. Lead Toxicity to the Performance, Viability, And Community Composition of Activated Sludge Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, L; Zhi, W; Liu, YS; Karyala, S; Vikesland, PJ; Chen, X; Zhang, HS

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (<= 24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies.

  13. Lead toxicity to the performance, viability, and community composition of activated sludge microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Zhi, Wei; Liu, Yangsheng; Karyala, Saikumar; Vikesland, Peter J; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Husen

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (≤24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3–N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies.

  14. Regulation of lead toxicity by heat shock protein 90 (daf-21) is affected by temperature in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbiao; Xu, Songbai; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhui; Guo, Tai L

    2014-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress resistance can be regulated by dauer formation (daf) genes. In the present study, regulation of heavy metal lead (Pb) toxicity by the 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90; daf-21) was investigated in both wild-type C. elegans and daf-21/Hsp90 mutants by focusing on the effects of varied temperatures below (15°C) or above (25 and 30°C) the presumptive optimum growth temperature (20°C). More acute toxicity of Pb, indicated by the 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50), was observed in wild-type adults than in the daf-21 mutant adults at 15, 20 and 25°C; however, the daf-21 mutant adults showed more sensitivity at 30°C. Enhanced Pb sensitivity (e.g., decrease LC50) in both types of C. elegans was observed with both increased and decreased temperatures when compared to that at 20°C. Additional examined endpoints included time course of toxicity at LC50s, pharyngeal pumping, reproduction, life span, and Hsp90 expression. Collective results showed that temperatures both above and below 20°C exacerbated Pb toxicity, and that the protein level of daf-21/Hsp90 was one of the most sensitive indicators of Pb toxicity in wild-type C. elegans, while pharyngeal pumping was more Pb sensitive in daf-21 mutants. Therefore, the expression of daf-21/Hsp90 has apparent utility for the prediction and assessment of Pb-induced toxicity in nematodes. Further, the stress responses related to Hsp90 expression in C. elegans may have considerable potential as sensitive biomarkers for the monitoring of environmental Pb contamination.

  15. Implementing Lecane quadridentata acute toxicity tests to assess the toxic effects of selected metals (Al, Fe and Zn).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Félix Torres; González, Francisco Javier Avelar; Martínez, Roberto Rico

    2010-03-01

    An environmental study revealed that three metals (Al, Fe and Zn) are common in the San Pedro River (SPR) (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Regrettably, in many samples the concentrations of these metals exceeded the maximum allowed toxicant concentrations levels as defined in by Mexican legislation. The highest concentrations of the three metals were found during the 2005 dry season, with elevated Al concentrations present along the entire river. Not surprisingly, the highest concentrations for all three metals came from locations adjacent to industrial areas. Estimates of the contribution of these metals to total toxicity revealed that these three metals are important contaminants of the river and responsible for most of the lethal toxicity found in environmental samples. To assess the importance of these reports, we conducted acute toxicity tests to determine LC50 for Al, Fe and Zn on the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata. This permitted us to estimate the contribution of these metals to total toxicity during 2005-2006. Based on LC50 values, all three metals should be considered very toxic, with the zinc LC50 value (0.12 mg L(-1)) making it the most toxic metal for L. quadridentata. This approach can be applied to other sites with similar concentrations of these metals.

  16. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  17. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window.

  18. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-01-06

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants.

  19. Comparison of methods for evaluating acute and chronic toxicity in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Darrin; Bay, Steven; Anderson, Brian; Chandler, G Thomas; Farrar, J Daniel; Keppler, Charles; Phillips, Bryn; Ringwood, Amy; Young, Diana

    2008-04-01

    Sublethal test methods are being used with increasing frequency to measure sediment toxicity, but little is known about the relative sensitivity of these tests compared to the more commonly used acute tests. The present study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of several acute and sublethal methods and to investigate their correlations with sediment chemistry and benthic community condition. Six sublethal methods (amphipod: Leptocheirus plumulosus survival, growth, and reproduction; polychaete: Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth; benthic copepod: Amphiascus tenuiremis life cycle; seed clam: Mercenaria mercenaria growth; oyster: Crassostrea virginica lysosome destabilization; and sediment-water interface testing with mussel embryos, Mytilus galloprovincialis) and two acute methods (amphipod survival with Eohaustorius estuarius and L. plumulosus) were used to test split sediment samples from stations in California. The test with Amphiascus proved to be the most sensitive sublethal test and the most sensitive overall, identifying 90% of the stations as toxic. The Leptocheirus 10-d test was the most sensitive of the acute tests, identifying 60% of the stations as toxic. In general, the sublethal tests were not more sensitive to sediments than the acute tests, with the sublethal tests finding an average of 35% of the stations to be toxic while the acute found 44%. Of the sublethal tests, only the Amphiascus endpoints and Neanthes growth significantly (p toxicity endpoints and the indicators of benthic community condition. Differences in test characteristics such as mode of exposure, species-specific contaminant sensitivity, changes in contaminant bioavailability, and influence of noncontaminant stressors on the benthos may have been responsible for variation in response among the tests and low correspondence with benthic community condition. The

  20. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  1. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  2. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  3. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  4. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) harmonized test guideline 870.1100 (August... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative.... EPA will accept three alternative Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)...

  5. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of Periodate in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    sodium periodate via oral gavage resulted in a cascade of effects that were secondary to kidney toxicity. Decreased mass of ovaries and epididymides and...testicular degeneration were observed in sodium periodate groups with signs of kidney toxicity. These groups also exhibited decreased T3 and T4 in the...presence of decreased TSH, a pattern associated with uremia. Sodium periodate exposed rats exhibited both activation of the innate immune system and

  6. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  7. Mitigation of malathion's acute toxicity by four submersed macrophyte species.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-07-01

    Some submersed macrophyte species rapidly sorb some insecticides from the water, potentially reducing exposure for aquatic species. The rates at which macrophytes remove insecticides, however, can differ widely among plant species. Furthermore, few studies have examined how much macrophytes actually influence insecticide toxicity to sensitive animals. The authors quantified the ability of several macrophyte species to mitigate insecticide toxicity by comparing the survival of the aquatic herbivore, Daphnia magna, following exposure to a factorial combination of 3 malathion concentrations (0 µg/L, 3 µg/L, and 24 µg/L) and 7 macrophyte treatments (no macrophytes, 4 different macrophyte monocultures, and 2 inert substrates: plastic plants and polypropylene rope). The authors also quantified the rate that different macrophytes reduced malathion's toxicity by exposing D. magna to water samples collected from each treatment after 2 h, 8 h, and 48 h of exposure. The results revealed that whereas 3 µg/L and 24 µg/L of malathion decimated D. magna in the no-macrophyte, plastic plant, and rope treatments, all 4 macrophyte species strongly mitigated these effects. When the authors compared the rate at which malathion's toxicity decreased, they found that all macrophytes negated malathion's toxicity within 2 h, whereas it took more than 8 h in the absence of macrophytes or in the presence of inert substrates. These results demonstrate that numerous macrophyte species can equally and strongly mitigate insecticide toxicity, whereas inert substrates cannot.

  8. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    used to assess the adequacy of current pollution abatement technologies and thus influence research and development in this area. This report...wastewater samples, was defined as a 1.6-to-I mixture o! TNT and RDX. "The results of flow-through acute toxicity terzs with the inverte - brate Daphniamagna...The "unadjusted" confidence interval for the LCSO is derived by inverting the likelihood ratio test for determining whether any specified

  9. Investigations in Fish Control: 92. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Rotenone to Daphnia magna, 93. Toxicity of Rotenone to Developing Rainbow Trout, 94. Oral Toxicity of Rotenone to Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    completed as part of the EPA requirements. One of the studies required consisted of acute and chronic toxicity tests on Daphnia magna , the organism chosen because it is sensitive to toxic substances.

  10. Acute toxicity and effects analysis of endosulfan sulfate to freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2011-02-01

    Endosulfan sulfate is a persistent environmental metabolite of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide-acaricide presently registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. There is, however, limited acute fish toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate. This study determines the acute toxicity (LC₅₀s and LC₁₀s) of endosulfan sulfate to three inland Florida native fish species (mosquitofish [Gambusia affinis]; least killifish [Heterandria formosa]; and sailfin mollies [Poecilia latipinna]) as well as fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Ninety-six-h acute toxicity tests were conducted with each fish species under flow-through conditions. For all of the above-mentioned fish species, 96-h LC₅₀ estimates ranged from 2.1 to 3.5 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. The 96-h LC₁₀ estimates ranged from 0.8 to 2.1 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. Of all of the fish tested, the least killifish appeared to be the most sensitive to endosulfan sulfate exposure. The above-mentioned data were combined with previous acute toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish for an effects analysis. The effects analysis estimated hazardous concentrations expected to exceed 5, 10, and 50% of the fish species' acute LC₅₀ or LC₁₀ values (HC₅, HC₁₀, and HC₅₀). The endosulfan sulfate freshwater-fish acute tests were also compared with the available freshwater-fish acute toxicity data for technical endosulfan. Technical endosulfan is a mixture of α- and β-endosulfan. The LC₅₀s had a wider range for technical endosulfan, and their distribution produced a lower HC₁₀ than for endosulfan sulfate. The number of freshwater-fish LC₅₀s for endosulfan sulfate is much smaller than the number available for technical endosulfan, reflecting priorities in examining the toxicity of the parent compounds of pesticides. The toxicity test results and effects analyses provided acute effect values for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish that might be applied

  11. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    PubMed

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  12. Sensitivity of Danio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during two stages of development based on acute toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Freiry, R; Stelzer, J A A; Maltchik, L; Arenzon, A

    2014-10-01

    The sensitivity of Danio rerio to three chemicals was compared at two growth stages [larval (10 ± 2 after hatching) and post-larval (60 ± 4 days after hatching)] based on acute toxicity tests. Thirty-nine 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed with the substances CuSO4, NaCl and KCl. The 48 h LC50 values at the two growth stages were compared by independent samples t-tests. The results showed a clear decrease in sensitivity when post-larval organisms were used. Since acute toxicity test methods for D. rerio that recommend using post-larval stage fish do not represent the most sensitive stage of the test organism, our study suggests a revision of the methods to use larval fish.

  13. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute and one subchronic, were conducted to seek effects of the VOC, toluene, in rats and to compare the effects between acute and subchronic exposures. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to toluene vapor (n = 6 per group) at a concentration of 0 or l 019 ± 14 ppm for 6 h in the acute study and at 0 ± 0, 10 ± 1.4, 97 ± 7, or 995 ± 43 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/week for 13 weeksin the subchronic study. For the acute study, brains were dissected on ice within 30 min of the end of exposure, while for the subchronic study, brains were dissected 18 h after the last exposure. Frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum were assayed for a variety of oxidative stress (OS) parameters including total aconitase (TA), protein carbonyls, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione transferase (GST), y-­glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidants (TAS), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase- 1 (NQO1 ), and NADH ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD) activities using commercially available kits. Following acute exposure, UBIQ-RD, GCS and GRD were increased significantly only in the cerebellum, while TAS was increased in frontal cortex. On the other

  14. Detoxification of a highly toxic lead-loaded industrial solid waste by stabilization using apatites.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, T A; Zouboulis, A I

    2003-02-28

    Apatites are known for their properties to immobilize lead contained in aqueous solutions or contaminated soils. In this study, apatites were examined as stabilization additives for lead-loaded industrial solid toxic wastes. The specific waste was the residue, obtained after thermal treatment of sludges (incineration), which was derived from tetraethyl lead fuel storage tanks. It was found to contain around 30 wt.% lead and 33 wt.% iron. Standard leaching tests (according to DIN 38414 S-4) were applied for the determination of leachability of metals from the ash and, thus, of chemical toxicity; the proposed leaching tests examined both initial and stabilized products in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied additives. The results obtained demonstrate the fact that lead concentrations in leachates, after the application of the proposed leaching tests using apatites as additives and with a ratio of 50% solid waste-50 wt.% apatite, could be reduced to the range of 1mg/l.

  15. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  16. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  17. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  18. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  19. Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

  20. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  1. Acute toxicity assessment of ANAMMOX substrates and antibiotics by luminescent bacteria test.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

  2. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Sonja; Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin; Sterzing, Florian; Habl, Gregor; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  3. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    PubMed

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  4. Evaluation of the importance of astrocytes when screening for acute toxicity in neuronal cell systems.

    PubMed

    Woehrling, E K; Hill, E J; Coleman, M D

    2010-02-01

    Reliable, high throughput, in vitro preliminary screening batteries have the potential to greatly accelerate the rate at which regulatory neurotoxicity data is generated. This study evaluated the importance of astrocytes when predicting acute toxic potential using a neuronal screening battery of pure neuronal (NT2.N) and astrocytic (NT2.A) and integrated neuronal/astrocytic (NT2.N/A) cell systems derived from the human NT2.D1 cell line, using biochemical endpoints (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarisation and ATP and GSH depletion). Following exposure for 72 h, the known acute human neurotoxicants trimethyltin-chloride, chloroquine and 6-hydroxydopamine were frequently capable of disrupting biochemical processes in all of the cell systems at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Astrocytes provide key metabolic and protective support to neurons during toxic challenge in vivo and generally the astrocyte containing cell systems showed increased tolerance to toxicant insult compared with the NT2.N mono-culture in vitro. Whilst there was no consistent relationship between MMP, ATP and GSH log IC(50) values for the NT2.N/A and NT2.A cell systems, these data did provide preliminary evidence of modulation of the acute neuronal toxic response by astrocytes. In conclusion, the suitability of NT2 neurons and astrocytes as cell systems for acute toxicity screening deserves further investigation.

  5. Towards global QSAR model building for acute toxicity: Munro database case study.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Swapnil; Nicholls, Ian A; Karlsson, Björn C G; Rosengren, Annika M; Ballabio, Davide; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2014-10-09

    A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER) equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  6. Perspective on lead toxicity, a comparison between the United States and Iran.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Ali; Khedir Al-Tiae, Tareq; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann

    2012-10-30

    Lead is a pervasive toxin that has been implicated in human poisonings throughout history. Exposure mitigation strategies in the United States and worldwide have led to a decline in symptomatic poisonings and population blood lead levels; however, lead remains a major health hazard. In this article, we review the history of lead toxicity, clinical manifestations ranging from subclinical and subtle features to life-threatening complications, and the subsequent public health interventions in the US. In addition, we explore common routes of lead exposure and the unique differences between the US and Iran. Although the US has made significant strides with regard to this public health issue, lead poisoning in both countries continues to be a health hazard in the adult and pediatric populations. It is also critical to consider natural disasters and reconstruction efforts as potential sources of lead contamination. In conclusion, we make recommendations that both the US and Iranian authorities can implement to eradicate lead as a public health hazard.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity testing for prediction of acute human toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barile, F A; Dierickx, P J; Kristen, U

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the cytotoxic concentrations of chemicals, determined with three independent in vitro cytotoxicity testing protocols, with each other and with established animal LD50 values, and against human toxic concentrations for the same chemicals. Ultimately, these comparisons allow us to evaluate the potential of in vitro cell culture methods for the ability to screen a variety of chemicals for prediction of human toxicity. Each laboratory independently tested 50 chemicals with known human lethal plasma concentrations and LD50 values. Two of the methods used monolayer cell cultures to measure the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins and cellular protein content, while the third technique used the pollen tube growth test. The latter is based on the photometric quantification of pollen tube mass production in suspension culture. Experiments were performed in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during an 18- to 24-h incubation. Inhibitory concentrations were extrapolated from concentration-effect curves after linear regression analysis. Comparison of the cytotoxic concentrations confirms previous independent findings that the experimental IC50 values are more accurate predictors of human toxicity than equivalent toxic blood concentrations (HETC values) derived from rodent LD50s. In addition, there were no conclusive statistical differences among the methods. It is anticipated that, together, these procedures can be used as a battery of tests to supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for human risk assessment.

  8. Acute toxicity of pesticides in adult and weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Gaines, T B; Linder, R E

    1986-08-01

    LD50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Thirty-six of the chemicals were also tested by the oral route in one sex of weanlings. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and four tested by the dermal route (bufencarb, chlordimeform, dichlofenthion, leptophos) were more toxic to females than to males whereas famphur and 2,4,5-T (oral route) were less toxic to females. Eighteen of the test chemicals were more toxic to the adult than to the weanling and four compounds (leptophos, methidathion, pyrazon, and sulfoxide) were more toxic to the weanling. In additional studies the variability of the LD50 value over a 1-year period was examined for two typical insecticides. Six consecutive bimonthly oral LD50 determinations for parathion and DDT in adults of both sexes indicated that the LD50 values were little affected by the time of year that the tests were done.

  9. Draft Test Guideline: Oyster Acute Toxicity Test (Shell Deposition)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  10. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Acute Toxicity Test, Freshwater And Marine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  11. Draft Test Guideline: Bivalve Acute Toxicity Test (Embryo Larval)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  12. Draft Test Guideline: Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity Invertebrates, Marine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  13. Draft Test Guideline: Aquatic Invetebrate Acute Toxicity, Test, Freshwater Daphnids

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  14. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Acute Toxicity Mitigated By Humic Acid

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  15. Draft Test Guideline: Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity Invertebrates, Freshwater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  16. Lead toxicity thresholds in 17 Chinese soils based on substrate-induced nitrification assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Huang, Yizong; Hu, Ying; Jin, Shulan; Bao, Qiongli; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Meng; Xie, Huiting

    2016-06-01

    The influence of soil properties on toxicity threshold values for Pb toward soil microbial processes is poorly recognized. The impact of leaching on the Pb threshold has not been assessed systematically. Lead toxicity was screened in 17 Chinese soils using a substrate-induced nitrification (SIN) assay under both leached and unleached conditions. The effective concentration of added Pb causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 185 to >2515mg/kg soil for leached soil and 130 to >2490mg/kg soil for unleached soil. These results represented >13- and >19-fold variations among leached and unleached soils, respectively. Leaching significantly reduced Pb toxicity for 70% of both alkaline and acidic soils tested, with an average leaching factor of 3.0. Soil pH and CEC were the two most useful predictors of Pb toxicity in soils, explaining over 90% of variance in the unleached EC50 value. The relationships established in the present study predicted Pb toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. These relationships between Pb toxicity and soil properties could be used to establish site-specific guidance on Pb toxicity thresholds.

  17. Support Vector Machine (SVM) as Alternative Tool to Assign Acute Aquatic Toxicity Warning Labels to Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Michielan, Lisa; Pireddu, Luca; Floris, Matteo; Moro, Stefano

    2010-01-12

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis has been frequently utilized as a computational tool for the prediction of several eco-toxicological parameters including the acute aquatic toxicity. In the present study, we describe a novel integrated strategy to describe the acute aquatic toxicity through the combination of both toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic behaviors of chemicals. In particular, a robust classification model (TOXclass) has been derived by combining Support Vector Machine (SVM) analysis with three classes of toxicokinetic-like molecular descriptors: the autocorrelation molecular electrostatic potential (autoMEP) vectors, Sterimol topological descriptors and logP(o/w) property values. TOXclass model is able to assign chemicals to different levels of acute aquatic toxicity, providing an appropriate answer to the new regulatory requirements. Moreover, we have extended the above mentioned toxicokinetic-like descriptor set with a more toxicodynamic-like descriptors, as for example HOMO and LUMO energies, to generate a valuable SVM classifier (MOAclass) for the prediction of the mode of action (MOA) of toxic chemicals. As preliminary validation of our approach, the toxicokinetic (TOXclass) and the toxicodynamic (MOAclass) models have been applied in series to inspect both aquatic toxicity hazard and mode of action of 296 chemical substances with unknown or uncertain toxicodynamic information to assess the potential ecological risk and the toxic mechanism.

  18. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

  19. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol-A and other bisphenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Yu; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2002-02-01

    Although abundant data are available on the toxicity of bisphenol-A (2,2-bis (4-hydroxydiphenyl)propane; BPA), little is known about the toxicities of the structurally similar compounds, namely bisphenols (BPs). A variety of BPs were examined for their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna, mutagenicity, and estrogenic activity using the Daphtoxkit (Creasel Ltd.), the umu test system, and the yeast two-hybrid system, respectively, in comparison with BPA. BPA was moderately toxic to D. magna (48-h EC50 was 10 mg/l) according to the current U.S. EPA acute toxicity evaluation standard, and it was weakly estrogenic with 5 orders of magnitude lower activity than that of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol in the yeast screen, while no mutagenicity was observed. All seven BPs tested here showed moderate to slight acute toxicity, no mutagenicity, and weak estrogenic activity as well as BPA. Some of the BPs showed considerably higher estrogenic activity than BPA, and others exhibited much lower activity. Among the tested BPs, two compounds, i.e., bisphenol-S (bis(4-hydroxydiphenyl)sulfone) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, have never been reported for their estrogenic activity previously.

  20. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  2. Acute toxicity during external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Comparison of different techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, S.; Awan, A.; Karrison, T.; Culbert, H.; Chan, S.; Kolker, J.; Low, N.; Halpern, H.; Rubin, S.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Weicheselbaum, R.R. )

    1993-01-15

    The chronic and acute toxicities associated with conventional radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer are well documented. However, the degree and incidence of toxicities with conformal techniques are not known. Studying side effects associated with modern radiotherapeutic techniques is more important now since there has been a general trend to use computerized tomography-based techniques in recent years; beam's eye view-based conformal techniques are also becoming more commonplace. It is possible that the local disease control can be improved with the delivery of higher doses than currently used. Conformation of the treatment volume to the target volume may facilitate such dose-escalation. However, prior to such dose-escalation, it is important to know the toxicities associated with such techniques with conventional doses. We have compared week-by-week acute toxicities associated with conventional (Group A, 16 patients), computerized tomography-based, manual (Group B, 57 patients) and beam's eye view-based (Group C, 43 patients) techniques during 7 weeks of radiotherapy. Group B and C patients were treated contemporaneously (1988-1990). The incidence of acute toxicities was significantly less with the beams eye view-based technique than with the other two methods. A trend suggesting increased severity of toxicity with increase in the volume of treatment was seen.

  3. Lead toxicity in rice: effects, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies--a mini review.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Umair; Kanu, Adam Sheka; Mo, Zhaowen; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Khan, Imran; Abbas, Rana Nadeem; Tang, Xiangru

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major environmental pollutant that affects plant morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes. Its higher levels in the environment are not only toxic to human beings but also harmful for plants and soil microbes. We have reviewed the uptake, translocation, and accumulation mechanisms of Pb and its toxic effects on germination, growth, yield, nutrient relation, photosynthesis, respiration, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense system of rice. Lead toxicity hampers rice germination, root/shoot length, growth, and final yield. It reduces nutrient uptake through roots, disrupts chloroplastic ultrastructure and cell membrane permeability, induces alterations in leaves respiratory activities, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), and triggers some enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants (as defense to oxidative damage). In the end, biochar amendments and phytoremediation technologies have been proposed as soil remediation approaches for Pb tainted soils.

  4. Lead removal and toxicity reduction from industrial wastewater through biological sulfate reduction process.

    PubMed

    Teekayuttasakul, Paphungkorn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2008-10-01

    The practicability of lead removal from sulfate-rich wastewater through biological sulfate reduction process with hydrogen as electron donor was investigated. Sulfide, which was converted from sulfate by a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in a gas-lift reactor, was used to remove lead as lead sulfide precipitate. Furthermore, the toxicity of wastewater in terms of whole effluent toxicity (WET) before and after treatment was analyzed by using Microtox analyzer. The experiment was divided into three stages as follows: Stage I, startup and operation of sulfidogenic process fed with synthetic wastewater in a gas-lift reactor; Stage II, operation of sulfidogenic process fed with real wastewater in the same reactor and analysis of toxicity; and Stage III, separation of lead from wastewater. In stage I, the volumetric sulfate-sulfur loading rate was gradually increased from 1.0 g/L.d until no improvement of sulfide-sulfur production efficiency was evident at 2.58 g/L.d and maximum sulfide-sulfur concentration was set to 340 mg/L. In stage II, the results showed that the laboratory scale reactor could treat a real wastewater without inhibition or any remarkable problem. The produced sulfide-sulfur, 200 mg/L, was a little less in comparison with that of the previous stage. It could be due to the higher concentration of total dissolved solid (TDS). However, the sulfate concentration was still reduced by approximately 30%. The WET test by Microtox showed that toxicity was reduced more than 13 times. In stage III, the effluent from the reactor containing sulfide-sulfur of about 200 mg/L and lead-containing solution of 20 mg/L were fed with sulfide to lead ratio 3 moles: 1 mole into the precipitation chamber in which the optimum pH for lead sulfide precipitation of 8.0 was maintained. It was found that lead removal of 99% was attained.

  5. Will Toxic Amounts of Lead be Released from Astronauts' Bones During Long Duration Missions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contaminants in the air, water, or food are a source of concern, both on Earth and in spacecraft. In microgravity, however, another source of potential toxicants can be introduced: astronauts' bones. Space toxicologists have been concerned about the possibility that crew members of long duration missions could suffer from lead poisoning due to the release of lead into their blood from stores of lead in their bones. If this occurs, NASA would be unable to set a Spacecraft Water Exposure Guideline (SWEG) for permissible lead concentrations in spacecraft drinking water that would be protective of astronaut health. Lead ingested earlier in life is stored in the bones where it can remain for many years without causing toxicity unless something happens to cause the release of lead into the blood. Microgravity is known to accelerate bone resorption, leading to the release of calcium and lead from bones into the blood. Relatively small increases in the concentration of lead in the blood can cause toxic effects in a variety of organ systems including the brain and kidneys. One mathematical model [1] of the rate of release of lead from bones in microgravity predicts that blood lead levels (BLLs) exceeding the current level of concern for adults (25 µg/dL) could be achieved within about 100 days in microgravity in some astronauts. Another, more complex mathematical model [2], however, predicts a much more limited release of lead, such that clinically significant concentrations of lead in the blood are not achieved. To determine which of these predictions is more accurate, BLL measurements were taken in a sample of astronauts before and after stays of at least 150 days on the International Space Station. BLLs measured before flight and compared to BLLs upon landing confirmed that no measurable increases in BLLs are observed in crew members of long-duration missions. In all astronauts tested, BLLs were below the U.S. population average of about 2 μg/dL both before and

  6. Lead-free solders: issues of toxicity, availability and impacts of extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, A.; Shapiro, A. A.; Kua, A.; Ogunseitan, O.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This project set out to evaluate the critical issues of toxicity and public health effects, material availability, and the environmental impacts of raw material extraction and metal finishing, with the goal of using environmental impact as a factor in selecting feasible lead-free alloys.

  7. Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Shilpi; Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Satish K; Verma, M S

    2005-05-01

    Acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted in flow-through systems to determine the lethal toxicity of a heavy metal compound, mercuric chloride, and an organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, to air-breathing teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) and to study their behavior. The 96-h LC50 values were determined, as well as safe levels. The results indicate that mercuric chloride is more toxic than malathion to the fish species under study. Dose- and dose-time-dependent increases in mortality rate were also observed in response to both test chemicals.

  8. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of lead in the Danio rerio body.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; DeWolf, Sarah; Carneiro, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lead has been utilized throughout history and is widely distributed and mobilized globally. Although lead in the environment has been somewhat mitigated, the nature of lead and its extensive uses in the past prohibit it from being completely absent from our environment and exposure to lead is still a public health concern. Most studies regarding lead toxicity have focused on the brain. However, little is found in the literature on the effects of lead in other tissues. Here, we utilize the zebrafish model system to investigate effects of lead exposure during early developmental time windows at 24, 48 and 72 h post fertilization in the body. We analyze whole body, notochord and somatic muscle changes, vascular changes of the body, as well as motor neuron alterations. We find lead exposure induces a curved body phenotype with concomitant changes in somite length, decreased notochord staining and abnormal muscle staining using live and in situ approaches. Furthermore, altered vasculature within the somatic regions, loss and/or alternations of motor neuron extension both dorsally and ventrally from the spinal cord, loss of Rohon-Beard sensory neurons, and increased areas of apoptosis were found. We conclude that lead is developmentally toxic to other areas of the developing embryo, not just the brain.

  9. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning.

  10. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  11. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Physiology is pivotal for interactions between salinity and acute copper toxicity to fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Grosell, M; Blanchard, J; Brix, K V; Gerdes, R

    2007-08-30

    The present paper presents original data and a review of the copper (Cu) toxicity literature for estuarine and marine environments. For the first time, acute Cu toxicity across the full salinity range was determined. Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, eggs were hatched in freshwater (FW), 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22 and 35 ppt (seawater, SW) and juveniles were allowed to acclimate for 7 days prior to acute toxicity testing. Sensitivity was highest in FW (96 h LC50: 18 microg/l), followed by SW (96 h LC50: 294 microg/l) with fish at intermediate salinities being the most tolerant (96 h LC50 > 963 microg/l at 10 ppt). This approximately 50-fold, non-linear variation in sensitivity could not be accounted for by Cu speciation or competition among cations but can be explained by physiology. The relative Na(+) gradient from the blood plasma to the water is greatest in FW followed by SW and is smallest at 10 ppt. Regression of Cu toxicity versus the equilibrium potential for Na(+), which reflects the relative Na(+) gradient, revealed that 93% of the variation can be attributed to Na(+) gradients and thus osmoregulatory physiology. Examination of the existing literature on acute Cu toxicity in SW (defined as >25 ppt) confirmed that early life stages generally are most sensitive but this pattern may be attributable to size rather than developmental stage. Regardless of developmental stage and phylogeny, size clearly matters for Cu sensitivity. The existing literature on the influence of salinity on acute Cu toxicity as well as studies of mechanisms of Cu toxicity in fish and invertebrates are reviewed.

  13. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Artola-Garicano, Elsa; Sinnige, Theo L; van Holsteijn, Ineke; Vaes, Wouter H J; Hermens, Joop L M

    2003-05-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benthic organisms. Polycyclic musks are frequently used fragrances, and they have been detected in different compartments of the environment. The aim of this study was to fill some empirical data gaps for AHTN and HHCB for benthic organisms. Results show that differences exist between both organisms. Chironomus riparius exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for AHTN and HHCB substantially lower than predicted for nontransformed organics. The BCFs for both chemicals increased after coexposure of the organism to the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide. Thus, the low BCF values were the result of rapid biotransformation of AHTN and HHCB in the midge larvae. Bioconcentration kinetics indicated that both chemicals induced their own cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Acute toxicity of AHTN to midge larvae was reduced compared to predicted baseline toxicity and was similar for HHCB. Bioconcentration of AHTN and HHCB in the worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) is in agreement with predictions based on the octanol-water partition coefficients of these chemicals. Acute toxicity was found to be similar to predicted values for baseline toxicity. Summarizing, for AHTN and HHCB, acute toxicity and bioconcentration behavior in L. variegatus was in accordance with predicted data for nontransformed organics. In C. riparius, bioconcentration as well as toxicity were reduced.

  14. The Acute, Aquatic Toxicity of Selected Mineral Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Graphite; Daphnia magna " 06 1i Nickel...whiskers, nickel-graphite fibers, and synthetic graphite Micro-260 (M-260). Each compound was tested against the cladoceran, Daphnia magna (D. Magna ...graphite fibers, polycrystalline iron whiskers, and graphite Micro-260 (M-260) were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia mag . The

  15. Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Hexachloroethane in Laboratory Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-09

    camphoraceous odor, readily sublimes without meltinq and is solubl,: in alcohol. benzene, chloroform, ether and oil: insoluble in water. It is used as a solvent...in explosives, as ý camphor suostitute in celluloid, and as a rubber vulcanizing accelerator.’ It is used in veterinary practice as an anthelminthic...moderately toxic orally, produced reversible eye irritation and little or no skin irritation. Although it sublimes at room temperature

  16. Reduced risk of acute poisoning in Australian cattle from used motor oils after introduction of lead-free petrol.

    PubMed

    Burren, B G; Reichmann, K G; McKenzie, R A

    2010-06-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning of cattle has been relatively common in Australia and sump oil has been identified as an important cause of Pb toxicity for cattle because they seem to have a tendency to drink it. Lead-free petrol has been available in Australia since 1975, so the aim of this study was to assess the current risk to cattle from drinking used automotive oils. Sump or gear box oil was collected from 56 vehicles being serviced. The low levels of Pb found suggest that the removal of leaded petrol from the Australian market as a public health measure has benefited cattle by eliminating the risk of acute poisoning from used engine oil.

  17. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J.

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  18. Primary chemical and physical characterization of acute toxic components in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Svenson, A.; Linlin, Z.; Kaj, L. )

    1992-10-01

    A chemical and physical primary characterization work sheet was developed based on the Microtox test, a bacterial bioluminescence system used as a rapid estimate of acute aquatic toxic effects. Measurements of the variation in light reduction upon different pretreatments provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the main toxic component(s) in test wastewater samples. This primary characterization of a wastewater sample was performed within 1 day. Tests of pure toxic chemical compounds and wastewaters with known and unknown primary toxicants are presented. Outlines to the chemical analysis and identification of toxic components may be deduced from the primary characterization. The provisional characterization may also provide information on wastewater treatment techniques.

  19. [Interaction between calcium and lead affects the toxicity to embryo of zebrafish (Danio rerio)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Zhi; Zhu, Lin; Yao, Kun; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Ding, Jun-Nan

    2009-04-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased Ca2+ content increases the sensitivity of the developing embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Pb. And the aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which calcium can individually mitigate lead ion toxicity based on the concept of biotic ligand model (BLM). Embryos of the zebrafish were exposed to various Pb concentrations. Chemical characteristics of water and representative toxicological endpoints of zebrafish embryo were recorded. And general growth retardation as a major toxicological endpoint was used for analysis at 72 h due to its sensitivity and facility. The BLM software of Visual MINTEQ (Version 2.5.2) was employed to calculate the chemical speciation in the solution. The results showed that when Ca2+ concentration increased from 0.25 mmol/L to 2.00 mmol/L, the toxicity of lead on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) decreased markedly after 72 h. And a large part of these decrease can be explained by the positive linear relations between EC50{Pb2+}/EC50[Pb]T (expressed as lead ion activity/dissolved total concentration) and activity/total concentration of Ca2+, through which the influence of Ca2+ on toxicity could be predicted. The results support the assumptions of the BLM and associated with competition between lead and calcium for binding on transport and toxic action sites on biological surfaces. However, when Ca2+ concentration increased from 2.00 mmol/L to 4.00 mmol/L, the toxicity of lead on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) seemed to be constant at 72 h.

  20. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  1. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  2. T cell abundance in blood predicts acute organ toxicity in chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, Sybille D.; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Schirmer, Markus A.; Stadelmann, Christine; Canis, Martin; Wolff, Hendrik A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) often results in high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT). As these adverse effects impair the patients' quality of life and the feasibility of the planned therapy, we sought to analyze immunological parameters in tumor material and blood samples obtained from 48 HNSCC patients in order to assess the potential to predict the individual acute organ toxicity. T cells in the tumor stroma were enriched in patients developing HGAOT whereas levels of soluble factors in the plasma and gene expression in whole blood did not coincide with the occurrence of acute organ toxicity. In contrast, the frequency and absolute numbers of selected leukocyte subpopulations measured in samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) directly before the beginning of CRT were significantly different in patients with HGAOT as compared to those without. When we validated several potential markers including the abundance of T cells in a small prospective study with 16 HNSCC patients, we were able to correctly predict acute organ toxicity in up to 81% of the patients. We conclude that analysis of PBMCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) might be a convenient strategy to identify patients at risk of developing HGAOT caused by CRT, which might allow to adapt the treatment regimen and possibly improve disease outcome. PMID:27589568

  3. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  4. Partial Life-Cycle and Acute Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids to Freshwater Mussels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24–96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glo...

  5. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  6. EXTRAPOLATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AMONG AQUATIC SPECIES BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides inter-species QSARs for acute toxicity to ciliates, fish and daphnia...The inter-species QSARs can be also useful in the analysis of the relative species sensitivity to a variety of pollutants and will be useful in assisting in risk assessments of potential ...

  7. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  8. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  9. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) formulations to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been suggested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two products contai...

  10. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  11. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  12. Effects of food availability on the acute and chronic toxicity of the insecticide methomyl to Daphnia spp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    The widespread increase of pesticides application in crops threats vicinal freshwater lentic ecosystems, frequently leading to their contamination. Due to their position in the aquatic food web, the responses to these pesticide inputs of freshwater filter-feeding zooplankters, as daphnids, provide relevant information the general risk to the ecosystem of xenobiotics. Moreover, cladoceran grazers often face fluctuations in food availability due to the phytoplankton dynamics in lentic water bodies, and food acquisition naturally conditions their fitness. In this study, the responses of Daphnia magna, and of three genotypes within the Daphnia longispina complex, to acute and chronic exposures of methomyl, were assessed. In addition, we focused on whether the food level can model the Daphnia life-history responses to the insecticide. Results showed that methomyl was acutely and chronically toxic to both D. magna and the D. cf longispina populations at very low concentrations, and remarkable differences in sensitivity were noticed when comparing the responses to the toxic among taxa/genotypes. Furthermore, food availability conditioned the overall fitness of the species although not interacting specifically on the response to the toxicant stress.

  13. Pain from a Bullet Lingers on: An Uncommon Case of Lead Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Albin; Singh, Jaspreet; Mustacchia, Paul; Rizvon, Kaleem

    2012-05-01

    Lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause for abdominal pain is rarely considered. Given its unpredictable latent period and nonspecific clinical symptoms, such cases are difficult to diagnose but may be fatal if unrecognized. We present the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain, weight loss and constipation. His past history was significant for a gunshot wound to the left hip about 20 years before. Radiographic studies confirmed the same with the presence of numerous intra-articular bullet fragments and a calcified hemarthrosis surrounding the left femoral head. Blood lead levels were elevated following which the patient was started on chelation therapy with succimer which resulted in symptomatic improvement. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause of abdominal pain and to review the relevant literature.

  14. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. The chronic toxic effects of lead include anemia, neuropathy, chronic renal disease and reproductive impairment. Lead is a carcinogen in three animal species. Cadmium causes emphysema, chronic renal disease, cancer of the prostate and possibly of the lung. Inorganic mercury causes gingivitis, stomatitis, neurologic impairment and nephrosis, while organic mercurials cause sensory neuropathy, ataxia, dysarthria and blindness. Arsenic causes dermatitis, skin cancer, sensory neuropathy, cirrhosis, angiosarcoma of the liver, lung cancer and possibly lymphatic cancer. PMID:7164433

  15. [Clinical and immunological features of acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver damage].

    PubMed

    Furyk, E; Ryabokon, E

    2013-02-01

    The article presents information obtained during the survey in 64 patients with acute hepatitis B. We show that acute hepatitis B in patients with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized by a marked imbalance of cytokine status due to a lower level of interleukin-2 and a higher content of interleukin-8, the highest levels of nitrite content, spontaneous oxidative modifications of blood proteins and the lowest content of L -arginine in the blood serum in the dynamics of disease compared with patients without this concomitant factor. In the period of convalescence these changes in patients with acute hepatitis B with concomitant chronic toxic liver characterized combined with higher cytolysis of liver cells, often circulating in the blood of HBsAg seroconversion and less frequently with the advent of anti-HBeAg.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, K. S.; Sri Nurestri, A. M.; Sinniah, S. K.; Kim, K. H.; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. PMID:20548939

  17. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Time Varying Toxic Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-12

    package, which we are calling EAGLE, in the sections below. The package contains the tabulated AEGL data for chlorine (CL2) and ammonia (NH3) at...200C. The molecular weight for chlorine (CL2) is MW = 70.9 and for ammonia (NH3), MW = 17.03. Figure 1 just below reproduces the chlorine table...below shows the same information as Table 1, but for ammonia . The toxicity levels are 50 or 60 times lower than for chlorine, but the behavior with

  18. Acute Oral Toxicity Potential of 4-Nitrophenyl Methkyl Phenyl Phosphinate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    methyl phenyl phosphinate Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: None Molecular structure: C Ii NO P 13 12 4 .0 0~ NO., CH3 o o...C 56.33 56.17 H 4.36 4.28 N 5.05 5.14 P 11.17 11.25 2. Chemical Name: Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 9005-65-6...administration particularly in chronic toxicity studies in experimental data. 3. Chemical Name: Citric Acid, monohydrate Chemical Abstract Service

  19. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning. PMID:23226111

  20. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  1. Prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals in mixtures: worms Tubifex tubifex and gas/liquid distribution.

    PubMed

    Tichý, M; Borek-Dohalský, V; Matousová, D; Rucki, M; Feltl, L; Roth, Z

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is to support our proposal of the procedure for predicting acute toxicity of binary mixtures by QSAR analysis techniques. The changes of a mixture composition are described by molar ratio R and visualized in the R-plot (QCAR--quantitative composition-activity relationships). The approach was inspired by Rault and Dalton's laws, their positive and negative deviations in the behavior of a mixture of real gases, by Loewe and Muischnek isoboles and by the Finney test of additivity. Acute toxicity was determined by the laboratory test with woms Tubifex tubifex. The additivity of the acute toxicity in the binary mixture benzene + nitrobenzene was confirmed and a new interaction is described: "mixed interaction" with the binary mixture aniline + ethanol. The "mixed interaction" means that depending on mixture composition, both potentiation and inhibition can occur. As the first physicochemical descriptor of the changes caused by the changing composition of binary mixtures, the gas/liquid equilibrium was studied and a composition of the gaseous phase was determined by a gas chromatographic method. The method for determination of concentrations in the gaseous phase was described. The gaseous phase composition of benzene + nitrobenzene. benzene + ethanol, benzene + aniline and ethanol + aniline mixtures was analyzed. It was found that if the concentrations of the mixture's components in the gaseous phase behave nonideally (they are not additive), the acute toxicity of the same mixture is not additive as well. Another descriptor to distinguish between potentiation and inhibition will be, however, necessary. The properties, both gaseous phase composition and the acute toxicity, of the benzene + nitrobenzene mixture are additive. In mixtures with the mixed interaction, the R-plot of the composition of the gaseous phase is complex with a large variation of results.

  2. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats*

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Masran; Omar, Baharuddin; Taib, Izatus Shima; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4 000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality. The median lethal dose value was 3 488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg. The subacute toxicity study of L. elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight, and food and water consumptions. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined, except for the hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum sodium. However, these differences were still within the normal range. No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver, pancreatic islet of Langerhans, and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups. In conclusion, L. elliptica essential oil can be classified in the U group, which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification. PMID:23024045

  3. Acute toxoplasmosis leads to lethal overproduction of Th1 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Mordue, D G; Monroy, F; La Regina, M; Dinarello, C A; Sibley, L D

    2001-10-15

    Virulence in Toxoplasma gondii is strongly influenced by the genotype of the parasite. Type I strains uniformly cause rapid death in mice regardless of the host genotype or the challenge dose. In contrast, the outcome of infections with type II strains is highly dependent on the challenge dose and the genotype of the host. To understand the basis of acute virulence in toxoplasmosis, we compared low and high doses of the RH strain (type I) and the ME49/PTG strain (type II) of T. gondii in outbred mice. Differences in virulence were reflected in only modestly different growth rates in vivo, and both strains disseminated widely to different tissues. The key difference in the virulent RH strain was the ability to reach high tissue burdens rapidly following a low dose challenge. Lethal infections caused by type I (RH) or type II (PTG) strain infections were accompanied by extremely elevated levels of Th1 cytokines in the serum, including IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IL-18. Extensive liver damage and lymphoid degeneration accompanied the elevated levels of cytokines produced during lethal infection. Increased time of survival following lethal infection with the RH strain was provided by neutralization of IL-18, but not TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma. Nonlethal infections with a low dose of type II PTG strain parasites were characterized by a modest induction of Th1 cytokines that led to control of infection and minimal damage to host tissues. Our findings establish that overstimulation of immune responses that are normally necessary for protection is an important feature of acute toxoplasmosis.

  4. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  5. Acute toxicity of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drodge, C.S.; Boychak, O.; Patel, S.; Usmani, N.; Amanie, J.; Parliament, M.B.; Murtha, A.; Field, C.; Ghosh, S.; Pervez, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy (hfrt) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt), with inclusion of the pelvic lymph nodes (plns), plus androgen suppression therapy (ast) in high-risk prostate cancer patients should improve patient outcomes, but acute toxicity could limit its feasibility. Methods Our single-centre phase ii prospective study enrolled 40 high-risk prostate cancer patients. All patients received hfrt using imrt with daily mega-voltage computed tomography imaging guidance, with 95% of planning target volumes (ptv68 and ptv50) receiving 68 Gy and 50 Gy (respectively) in 25 daily fractions. The boost volume was targeted to the involved plns and the prostate (minus the urethra plus 3 mm and minus 3 mm from adjacent rectal wall) and totalled up to 75 Gy in 25 fractions. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during and 3 months after radiotherapy (rt) administration. Results For the 37 patients who completed rt and the 3-month follow-up, median age was 65.5 years (range: 50–76 years). Disease was organ-confined (T1c–T2c) in 23 patients (62.1%), and node-positive in 5 patients (13.5%). All patients received long-term ast. Maximum acute genitourinary (gu) and gastrointestinal (gi) toxicity peaked at grade 2 in 6 of 36 evaluated patients (16.6%) and in 4 of 31 evaluated patients (12.9%) respectively. Diarrhea and urinary frequency were the chief complaints. Dose–volume parameters demonstrated no correlation with toxicity. The ptv treatment objectives were met in 36 of the 37 patients. Conclusions This hfrt dose-escalation trial in high-risk prostate cancer has demonstrated the feasibility of administering 75 Gy in 25 fractions with minimal acute gi and gu toxicities. Further follow-up will report late toxicities and outcomes. PMID:25908924

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  8. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  9. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  10. "Sagging heart syndrome": a cause of acute lead dislodgment in two patients.

    PubMed

    Iskos, D; Lurie, K G; Shultz, J J; Fabian, W H; Benditt, D G

    1999-02-01

    Acute passive fixation atrial lead dislodgment occurred due to an unexpected and marked postural descent of the heart after permanent pacemaker implantation in two patients. Sagging of the heart in these two individuals may have been related to a history of morbid obesity followed by weight loss of over 100 pounds. Lead replacement with active fixation leads was required in both cases. The term "sagging heart syndrome" is proposed to describe this clinical entity. In certain adult populations, such as in patients with a history of significant weight loss, the "sagging heart syndrome" may represent a previously unrecognized cause of acute lead dislodgment.

  11. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  12. Correlation of toxicity with lead content in root tip cells (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Marcano, Letty; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2008-12-01

    The present study determines lead content in onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.), correlating it with its toxicity. The treatment was carried at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C using aqueous solutions of lead chloride at 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1 ppm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. For each treatment, a control where the lead solution was substituted by distilled water was included. After treatment, the meristems were fixed with a mixture of alcohol-acetic acid (3:1) and colored according to the technique of Feulgen. Lead content was quantified by graphite furnace absorption atomic spectrometry. The lead content in the roots ranged from 3.25 to 244.72 microg/g dry weight, with a direct relation with the concentration and time of exposure. A significant negative correlation was presented (r = -0.3629; p < 0.01) among lead content and root growth increment, and a positive correlation (r = 0.7750; p < 0.01) with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, lead is able to induce a toxic effect in the exposed roots, correlated with its content.

  13. The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-/CO32- (referred to as “major ions”) are present in all fresh waters and are physiologically required by aquatic organisms, but can be increased to harmful levels by a variety of anthropogenic activities that speed geochemical weathering or otherwise introduce or concentrate ions. While toxicity of these ions to aquatic organisms has been previously shown, it is also known that their toxicity can vary depending on the concentrations of other co-occurring anions, and understanding these relationships is key to predicting toxicity and establishing appropriate environmental limits. In this paper we conduct a series of experiments with Ceriodaphnia dubia to evaluate the acute toxicity of all twelve major ionsalts (pairing one of the cations with one of the anions) and to determine how toxicity of these salts varies as a function of background water chemistry. All salts except CaSO4 and CaCO3 were acutely toxic to C. dubia below saturation, with the lowest LC50s found for K salts. Of the remaining salts, all but CaCl2 showed some degree of decreased toxicity as the ionic content of the background water increased. Experiments that independently varied Ca:Mg ratio, Na:K ratio, Cl:SO4 ratio, and alkalinity/pH were used to show that Ca concentration was the primary factor influencing the toxicities of Na and Mg salts. In contrast, the toxicities of K salts were primarily influenced by the concentration of Na. Th

  14. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver. PMID:9125564

  15. Emerging biomarkers and metabolomics for assessing toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Mussap, M; Noto, A; Fanos, V; Van Den Anker, J N

    2014-01-01

    Identification of novel drug-induced toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers has been designated as a top priority by the American Society of Nephrology. Increasing knowledge in the science of biology and medicine is leading to the discovery of still more new biomarkers and of their roles in molecular pathways triggered by physiological and pathological conditions. Concomitantly, the development of the so-called "omics" allows the progressive clinical utilization of a multitude of information, from those related to the human genome (genomics) and proteome (proteomics), including the emerging epigenomics, to those related to metabolites (metabolomics). In preterm newborns, one of the most important factors causing the pathogenesis and the progression of AKI is the interaction between the individual genetic code, the environment, the gestational age, and the disease. By analyzing a small urine sample, metabolomics allows to identify instantly any change in phenotype, including changes due to genetic modifications. The role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and other emerging technologies is strategic, contributing basically to the sudden development of new biochemical and molecular tests. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) are closely correlated with the severity of kidney injury, representing noninvasive sensitive surrogate biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring, and quantifying kidney damage. To become routine tests, uNGAL and KIM-1 should be carefully tested in multicenter clinical trials and should be measured in biological fluids by robust, standardized analytical methods.

  16. Ca2+ toxicity and mitochondrial damage in acute pancreatitis: translational overview

    PubMed Central

    Maléth, József; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of hospitalization among non-malignant gastrointestinal disorders. The mortality of severe AP can reach 30–50%, which is most probably owing to the lack of specific treatment. Therefore, AP is a major healthcare problem, which urges researchers to identify novel drug targets. Studies from the last decades highlighted that the toxic cellular Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial damage are key pathogenic steps in the disease development affecting both acinar and ductal cell functions. Moreover, recent observations showed that modifying the cellular Ca2+ signalling might be beneficial in AP. The inhibition of Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum or the activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ influx channels decreased the severity of AP in experimental models. Similarly, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening also seems to improve the outcome of AP in in vivo animal models. At the moment MPTP blockers are under detailed clinical investigation to test whether interventions in MPTP openings and/or Ca2+ homeostasis of the cells can be specific targets in prevention or treatment of cell damage in AP. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377719

  17. Effect of cytochrome P450 inhibitors and anticonvulsants on the acute toxicity of acrylonitrile.

    PubMed

    Benz, Frederick W; Nerland, Donald E

    2005-10-01

    Some of the more striking expressions of toxicity are the tremors and seizures observed approximately 100 min after exposure of rats to an acutely toxic dose of acrylonitrile (AN). These early events are followed by a second wave of severe clonic convulsions that occur just prior to death at about 3-4 h. For AN, at least two chemical entities could produce these toxic effects, namely the parent AN molecule, the metabolically-released cyanide, or both. Which of these two agents is responsible for each of the symptoms of acute intoxication is not known. To help dissect the toxicity, it was anticipated that an effective inhibitor of the oxidative metabolism of AN to cyanide could help us to understand which toxic symptoms might be associated with each agent. Three inhibitors of oxidative metabolism were tested, namely SKF-525A, 1-benzylimidazole and metyrapone and one alternative substrate, ethanol. As compared to SKF-525A and metyrapone, both 1-benzylimidazole and ethanol were highly effective in reducing blood cyanide levels to insignificant levels in rats treated with an LD90 dose of AN. In addition, both agents abolished the early seizure activity, suggesting that this first phase of seizures is due to cyanide and not the parent molecule. 1-Benzylimidazole did not prevent the severe clonic convulsive phase preceding death, suggesting that these terminal convulsions are due to the toxic effects of the parent AN molecule. The CNS depressant ethanol was only partially effective in attenuating the terminal convulsions. None of these agents affected the incidence of AN-induced mortality, clearly establishing that, even in the absence of cyanide, the parent AN molecule is acutely toxic. The partial effectiveness of ethanol suggested that anticonvulsants might be of benefit. Both phenobarbital and phenytoin protected rats from both the early and terminal convulsions, while valproic acid was ineffective. These effects were not related to a reduction in blood cyanide

  18. Development of a salinity/toxicity relationship to predict acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms. Interim final report, June 1990-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Gulley, D.D.

    1992-04-01

    Discharge of produced water to surface waters is generally regulated as part of the NPDES permit problem and, therefore, may be subject to discharge limits for aquatic toxicity. Most produced waters contain elevated (relative to fresh water) concentrations of major ions (e.g., sodium, chloride) that can be toxic to fresh water organisms regardless of other organic and inorganic constituents. The objective of the research was to develop a Salinity/Toxicity Relationship (STR) that predicts the acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms based on the concentrations of major ions in solution. Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to measure the acute toxicity of major ions to three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and fathead minnows). These laboratory toxicity data were then incorporated into multi-variate logistic regression equations that predict the acute toxicity of any combination of major ions. Logistic regression equations represented the toxicity data quite well, generally explaining in excess of 80 percent of the overall variance in survival. Application of the Ceriodaphnia STR to field data collected from surface waters receiving produced water discharges showed very strong correlation of STR predictions with the results of toxicity tests conducted on field-collected samples.

  19. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  20. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  1. Acute acetaminophen toxicity in transgenic mice with elevated hepatic glutathione.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, S J; Bounous, D I; Jones, D P; Brackett, B G

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that elevation of hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentrations protect against acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity in mice. Employing transgenic mice overexpressing glutathione synthetase, this study was conducted to determine if sustained elevation of hepatic GSH concentrations could ameliorate or prevent APAP toxicity. International Cancer Research transgenic mouse males and matched (ie same strain, sex, and age) control nontransgenic mice were pretreated ip with GSH synthetase substrate gamma-glutamylcysteinyl ethyl ester (gamma-GCE) or with saline. After a 16-h fast, mice received a single dose of 500 mg APAP/kg bw in saline ip and were sacrificed 4 h later. Other mice similarly pretreated were killed without APAP challenge. The elevated GSH concentrations in transgenic mice livers did not lessen APAP hepatotoxicity. Instead higher degrees of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were observed in transgenic mice than in controls as indicated by higher serum alanine aminotransferase activity and more severe histopathological lesions in transgenic mice livers and kidneys. Pretreatment with gamma-GCE did not affect either initial or post-APAP treatment tissue GSH concentrations or observed degrees of toxicity. Detection of a higher level of serum APAP in transgenic mice and the histopathological lesions found in transgenic mice kidneys together with no observable nephrotoxicity in control mice indicated early kidney damage in transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that high levels of GSH-APAP conjugates resulting from increased GSH concentrations in the livers of transgenic mice caused rapid kidney damage. Compromised excretory ability may have caused retention of APAP, which, in effect, elicited higher hepatotoxicity than that observed in nontransgenic mice.

  2. Selected chemical characteristics and acute toxicity of urban stormwater, streamflow, and bed material, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical analyses indicated that urban stormwater could degrade the quality of streamflow because of oil and grease, pesticides, dissolved trace metals, and ammonia in stormwater. Ammonia, lead, cadmium, and zinc are released by urban activities and accumulate in bed material. Ammonia could be from fertilizers, fecal matter, and other sources. Lead is probably from vehicles that use leaded gasoline. Cadmium and zinc could be from particulate metal in oil, brake pads, and other sources. Samples of the initial runoff from urban drainage basins appeared to be more toxic than flow-weighted composite samples, and stormwater was more harmful to fathead minnows than to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Streamflow samples from the Salt River were not toxic to either species. The sensitivity of fathead minnows to urban stormwater from most urban drainage basins indicated that the toxicants were detrimental to fish and could be present in stormwater throughout Phoenix. Results of toxicity identification evaluations indicated the toxicity was mostly due to organic constituents. Mortality, however, did not correlate with organophosphate pesticide concentrations. Surfactants and (or) other constituents leached from asphalt could be toxic. The most toxic bed-material samples were collected from an undeveloped drainage basin. Within urban-drainage basins, bed-material samples collected where stormwater accumulates appeared to be more toxic than samples collected from areas unaffected by stormwater. Mortality rates correlated with recoverable concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium; however these rates correlated poorly with pesticide concentrations. The bioavailability of trace metals appeared to be controlled by the adsorption properties of bed material.

  3. Eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia leading to acute stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Dézsi, Döme A; Bokori, György; Faluközy, József; Bujáky, Csaba; Fogarassy, György; Veress, Gábor; Aradi, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    A 71-year old female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 3 h of symptom onset. She was preloaded with 300 mg aspirin and 600 mg clopidogrel before PCI. Coronary angiogram showed occlusion of the right coronary artery. During PCI, eptifibatide was initiated due to the large thrombus burden. Few hours after the procedure, on eptifibatide infusion, a severe drop in platelet count was observed (from 210,000/μl to 35,000/μl) and the infusion was discontinued. One hour later, still under eptifibatide effect and with severe thrombocytopenia, acute stent thrombosis developed. Lack of prior heparin exposure, quick onset of thrombocytopenia made heparin induced thrombocytopenia improbable that was later excluded by specific immunoassay. However, platelet function testing suggested that eptifibatide induced thrombocytopenia was mediated by activating autoantibodies since platelet reactivity was paradoxically very high at the time of stent thrombosis but decreased radically with eptifibatide washout. The patient was successfully managed without further complications on the basis of platelet function data obtained in the subsequent days. This rare subtype of thrombocytopenia highlights that not only platelet count but also platelet function should be closely monitored in case of severe thrombocytopenia to better balance bleeding and thrombosis.

  4. Lead toxicity: consequences and interventions in an intensively managed (Gyps coprotheres) vulture colony.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri; Espie, Ian; Kotze, Antoinette

    2012-09-01

    The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG) is involved in the ex situ conservation of Gyps coprotheres, the Cape Griffon vulture (CGV) and houses 24 birds in a 100-yr-old aviary. Following the death of one vulture with high liver lead concentrations, an investigation was launched to ascertain the source(s) and consequences of lead toxicity in this breeding colony. Whole blood from 24 CGV, paint from the enclosure, water, and soil sampled at various locations within the enclosure were evaluated for their lead concentration, and data were gathered from NZG's medical records. The lead concentration in the paint, water, and enclosure soil was 5,100 microg/g, 0.5 microg/dl, and 72.48 +/- 21.83 microg/g, respectively. The whole-blood lead concentrations were 56.58 +/- 11 microg/dl. The breeding history of six pairs within the contaminated enclosure since 2002 showed 45 eggs laid, of which 44% were infertile and 24% successfully reared. The medical records revealed evidence of osteodystrophy despite adequate nutrition. As intervention measures, six birds were treated with Ca2+EDTA and the topsoil inside the enclosure was replaced. As a result, the lead concentration in the enclosure soil dropped to 14.74 +/- 14.39 microg/g, and the whole-blood lead concentrations declined to 42.75 +/- 11.64 microg/dl. It was concluded that lead concentrations in whole blood in excess of 100 microg/dl leads to clinical signs of lead toxicity in the CGV. Lower levels appear to interfere mainly with reproductive potential.

  5. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Eriobotrya japonica Leaf Triterpene Acids in ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianai

    2017-01-01

    The interest focusing on Eriobotrya japonica leaf triterpene acid (ELTA) has increased recently because of its beneficial effects on health. However, there has been a lack of experimental data on its toxicity. The present study therefore was conducted to evaluate its toxicity in ICR mice. The results showed that ELTA produced neither mortality nor toxicity of the main organs in ICR male and female mice in both acute (0.30, 0.65, 1.39, and 3.00 g·kg−1 body weight) and subacute (150, 300, and 600 mg·kg−1 BW) 28-day toxicity studies. Because of lacking apparently adverse effects found in the hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histopathology evaluation, results of the present study together with the beneficial effects make ELTA as a promising dietary supplement and indicated that ELTA administered orally might have a large safety margin for human.

  6. Nrf2-dependent protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Yuji; Nguyen, Vu Thanh; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-08-15

    Transcription factor Nrf2 induces a number of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins to confer protection against the toxic effects of a diverse range of chemicals including inorganic arsenicals. Although a number of studies using cultured cells have demonstrated that Nrf2 has a cell-protective function against acute and high-dose arsenic toxicity, there is no clear in vivo evidence of this effect. In the present study, we genetically investigated the protective role of Nrf2 against acute sodium arsenite toxicity using the zebrafish Nrf2 mutant, nrf2a(fh318). After treatment with 1mM sodium arsenite, the survival of nrf2a(fh318) larvae was significantly shorter than that of wild-type siblings, suggesting that Nrf2 protected the zebrafish larvae against high-dose arsenite exposure. To understand the molecular basis of the Nrf2-dependent protection, we analyzed the gene expression profiles after arsenite exposure, and found that the genes involved in the antioxidative function (prdx1 and gclc), arsenic metabolism (gstp1) and xenobiotic elimination (abcc2) were induced in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Furthermore, pre-treatment with sulforaphane, a well-known Nrf2 activator improved the survival of zebrafish larvae after arsenic exposure. Based on these results, we concluded that Nrf2 plays a fundamental and conserved role in protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity.

  7. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  8. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of six anticancer drugs on rotifers and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Fiumano, Vittorio; Isidori, Marina

    2014-11-01

    The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mgL(-)(1), higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil showed the highest toxic potential in all test organisms, inducing 50% reproduction inhibition in crustaceans at concentrations on the order of μgL(-)(1). Rotifers were less susceptible to these pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low effective concentrations suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study could be an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances.

  10. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02).

  11. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  13. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rat using local lazy learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute toxicity means the ability of a substance to cause adverse effects within a short period following dosing or exposure, which is usually the first step in the toxicological investigations of unknown substances. The median lethal dose, LD50, is frequently used as a general indicator of a substance’s acute toxicity, and there is a high demand on developing non-animal-based prediction of LD50. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurately predict compound LD50 using a single QSAR model, because the acute toxicity may involve complex mechanisms and multiple biochemical processes. Results In this study, we reported the use of local lazy learning (LLL) methods, which could capture subtle local structure-toxicity relationships around each query compound, to develop LD50 prediction models: (a) local lazy regression (LLR): a linear regression model built using k neighbors; (b) SA: the arithmetical mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (c) SR: the weighted mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (d) GP: the projection point of the compound on the line defined by its two nearest neighbors. We defined the applicability domain (AD) to decide to what an extent and under what circumstances the prediction is reliable. In the end, we developed a consensus model based on the predicted values of individual LLL models, yielding correlation coefficients R2 of 0.712 on a test set containing 2,896 compounds. Conclusion Encouraged by the promising results, we expect that our consensus LLL model of LD50 would become a useful tool for predicting acute toxicity. All models developed in this study are available via http://www.dddc.ac.cn/admetus. PMID:24959207

  14. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: common mechanisms across multiple metals.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca(2+) uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca(2+) pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca(2+) levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca(2+) uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na(+), which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K(+) were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na(+) losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na(+) uptake in zebrafish (Na(+) uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na(+)).

  15. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (p<0.05). The experimental results for mixtures containing unequal ratios of IBU and APAP indicated that mixtures with high APAP concentrations and low IBU concentrations exhibited markedly greater toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=4.78 mg/L) than APAP or IBU alone. However, mixtures with high IBU concentrations and low APAP concentrations exhibited lower toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=6.78 mg/L) than IBU or APAP alone. This study demonstrated that different mixtures of IBU and APAP were associated with different toxic effects in green neon shrimp.

  16. [Attenuation effects of compatible medicines on arsenical and lead toxicity of badu shengji san].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanli; He, Rong; Peng, Bo; Gao, Jie; Li, Jianrong

    2011-08-01

    Badu Shengji San(BDSJS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for drawing out toxin, eliminating suppuration and promoting granulation. Toxic minerals such as arsenic and lead are the two most important components of BDSJS. Previous hypothesis indicated that according to the compatibility theory of TCM, the toxicity of the entire BDSJS was weaker than that of arsenic and lead, respectively. In the present study, SD rats with injured skin were treated with distilled water and different composition of BDSJS (complete formulations, compatible herbs, mineral medicine containing arsenic and lead, mineral medicine containing arsenic and mineral medicine containing lead) once a day for consecutive 2 weeks. Kidney coefficient and urinary beta-N-acetyl glucosidase (NAG) were used as the indicators of renal toxicity and the content of malondiadehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) in the renal tissue were measured. Our data showed that kidney coefficient, the severity of renal pathological lesion and MT level in the kidney of the entire BDSJS group decreased significantly compared with arsenic and lead group. Additionally, the NAG content of the entire BDSJS group had the decreased trend. The kidney CuZn-SOD level of the entire BDSJS group had the increased trend, but the MDA, GSH-PX, GSH level had no obvious difference. Our results suggested that compatible herbs in BDSJS relieved renal injury induced by arsenic and lead, and the attenuation mechanism may be related to MT and CuZn-SOD, but not to MDA, GSH-PX and GSH directly.

  17. [Acute toxicity by methotrexate used for abortion purpose. Case report].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Altamirano, Ariel; Chacón-Solís, Rogerio Armando; Hernández-Pacheco, José Antonio; Belmont-Gómez, Aurora; Valenzuela-Jirón, Arlen; Carvajal-Valencia, Javier Andrés; Maya-Quiñones, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 16 years old female patient, with a pregnancy history of 11.4 weeks by ultrasound and intrauterine fetal death. In a private clinic were prescribed methotrexate 500 mg intramuscular single dose, and vaginal misoprostol. She had a clinical feature of five days of evolution characterized by fever of 39 degrees C, nausea, general attack and vomiting. The initial diagnosis was severe sepsis secondary to septic abortion, oral candidiasis and acute poisoning by methotrexate. After that, she was referred to the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, where stayed with fever for four days, and was managed with hydration, antibiotics, folinic acid and alkalizing. Her recovery was gradual. She was discharged after 12 days with significant clinical improvement. The literature review describes that the use of methotrexate for abortion purpose with therapeutic-dose presents a similar adverse effects to those found in our patient, however there are no case reports that describe the use of this drug in macrodosis for the same purpose, and their cytotoxic effects. We present this case because the patient used a macrodosis of this antimetabolite and due to the premature and empirical management with folinic acid, joined with alkalinization of urine, is the ideal treatment and as it is illustrated in our case.

  18. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  19. Childhood lead toxicity and impaired release of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Huseman, C.A.; Moriarty, C.M.; Angle, C.R.

    1987-04-01

    Decreased stature of children is epidemiologically associated with increased blood lead independent of multiple socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Since endocrine dysfunction occurs in adult lead workers, they studied two girls, 2 years of age, before and after calcium disodium edetate chelation for blood leads (PbB) of 19-72 ..mu..g/dl. The height of both children had crossed from the 50th to below the 10th percentile during the course of chronic lead toxicity. Basal free T/sub 4/, T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, cortisol, somatomedin C, and sex steroids were normal. A decrease in the growth hormone response and elevation of basal prolcatin and gonadotropins were noted in one. Both children demonstrated blunted thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in six of seven challenges. This prompted in vitro studies of cultured cells from rat pituitarities. After incubation of pituitary cells with 0.1-10 ..mu..M Pb/sup 2 +/ for 2 hr, followed by the addition of TRH, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH release Lead did not interfere with the assay of TSH. To investigate the interaction of lead and calcium, /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ kinetic analyses were done on rat pituitary slices after 1 hr incubation with 1.0 ..mu..M lead. The impaired late efflux was consistent with a decrease in the size and exchangeability of the tightly bound pool of intracellular microsomal or mitochondrial calcium. The rat pituitary cell model provides a model for the decreased TSH release of lead poisoning, supports the biological plausibility of a neuroendocrine effect on growth, and suggests that interference with calcium-mediated intracellular responses is a basic mechanism of lead toxicity.

  20. Antidotal treatment of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O

    1984-09-01

    Rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially were infused with 0.15 mg/kg/min. verapamil; without antidotal treatment, they died after 51.1+/-7.1 min. The survival time more than trebled upon an additional infusion with calcium chloride, epinephrine, isoprenaline, orciprenaline or prenalterol and nearly doubled upon administration of a plasma expander. It was not increased, however, by treatment with angiotensin or atropine. The infusion of verapamil declined the arterial blood pressure by 75%, and heart rate, cardiac output and peripheral resistance by about 50%; in the ECG, sinus bradycardia followed by AV-dissociation with nodal rhythm occurred. All antidotes that raised the lethal dose of verapamil increased the cardiac output. Calcium and the sympathomimetics with alpha-adrenergic activity also counteracted the verapamil-induced hypotension. Calcium did not influence the ECG alterations produced by verapamil, while the sympathomimetics restored the sinus rhythm or accelerated the nodal pacemaker. Calcium, epinephrine and isoprenaline also antagonized the strong decrease of left-ventricular dp/dt max. induced by verapamil. In conclusion, calcium as well as sympathomimetic amines are potent antidotes against the cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil, the latter being superior to calcium in their ability to improve pacemaker activity and AV-conduction.

  1. Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent simulants are employed for a range of testing and training activities where use of chemical agents is less than suitable from a safety and environmental standpoint. A variety of chemical simulant materials are used to simulate either nerve agents or blister agents. The following research describes the environmental effects and persistence of four simulants. These are the nerve agent stimulants diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphonate (BIS), and the mustard stimulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The vapor pressures for DIMP, DFP, and CEES are relatively high, reported to be 0.17, 0.58 and 3.4 mm Hg, respectively; while that of BIS is substantially less at 5.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ mm Hg at 25/degree/C. The chemical characteristics of DFP and CEES are very similar to G/VX-agents and mustard, respectively, and are employed for materials evaluation under controlled conditions. However, their toxicity precludes their use in the environment. DIMP and BIS are currently used for testing in the open air. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  3. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  4. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Sappington, L C; Buckler, D R; Bridges, C M; Greer, I E; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Kunz, J L; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Mount, D R; Hattala, K; Neuderfer, G N

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  5. Relative toxicity of lead and five proposed substitute shot types to pen-reared mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grandy, J.W.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.

    1968-01-01

    A 30-day toxicity test was made to determine the relative toxicity of lead, a tin-lead alloy, zinc, nickel, teflon-coated steel, and tin, all in shot form, to pen-reared mallard drakes. All of the 15 ducks dosed \\vith lead died. Twenty-seven percent of 15 dosed with alloy, and 20 percent of 15 dosed with zinc also died. Ten of the remaining zinc-dosed ducks showed signs of distress, including losses of muscular control and body weight. There were no deaths among 15 ducks dosed with nickel, 15 dosed with teflon-coated steel, and 15 dosed with tin. Seventy-three percent of those dosed with nickel shot eliininated all shot before the end of the 30-day period. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of mallards dosed with commercial lead shot, or with tin-lead alloy shot, but not in the kidneys of birds given nickel, tin, or teflon-coated steel shot. Atypical, pale, acid-fast bodies were found in kidneys of 1 of 15 birds dosed with zinc. An iron-containing pigment, which stained positive with the Prussian blue technique, was present in variable amounts in almost all livers. Zinc-dosed ducks that died or were killed while still showing signs of zinc intoxication had higher iron levels in the liver than ducks that had recovered from zinc intoxication.

  6. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Bradbury, S.P.; Niemi, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aqueous toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a mode-of-action database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted.

  7. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  8. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species.

  9. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment.

    PubMed Central

    McKim, J M; Bradbury, S P; Niemi, G J

    1987-01-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a "mode-of-action" database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted. PMID:3297660

  10. Acute and subchronic (13-week) toxicity of fermented Acanthopanax koreanum extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, MyoungLae; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Ha; Park, Sun-Ok; Lee, Sang-Jong; Shin, HyunMu; Lee, Boo-Yong; Kang, Il-Jun; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The biological fermentation of plants is usually used to improve their product properties, including their biological activity. Acanthopanax koreanum is a plant indigenous to Jeju, Korea; however, fermented A. koreanum (FAK) has not been guaranteed to be safe. Therefore, in this study, a safety evaluation of aqueous extracts of FAK was performed using Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity of FAK did not influence animal mortality, body weight changes or the animals' clinical appearance at a concentration of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Using doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a subchronic (13-week) toxicity study, the administration of FAK in male rats increased their body weight, food consumption, absolute liver weight, liver-associated enzymes and total cholesterol content. However, these effects of FAK were not considered toxic because the changes were not accompanied by any evidence of clinical signs or any change in the histopathological examination. On the other hand, the FAK-treated female rats did not exhibit significant changes in their body weight, food consumption, absolute and relative organ weights or liver enzymes. These results suggest that the acute oral administration of FAK is non-toxic to rats, and 13 weeks of repeated dosing demonstrated no FAK-related toxicity at a concentration of 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of FAK was determined to be 2000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats.

  11. Effect of sulfate concentration on acute toxicity of selenite and selenate to invertebrates and fish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; McCauley, D.J.; McCool, P.; Winkler, N.; DeGraeve, M.

    1998-12-01

    The effect of sulfate concentration on the acute toxicity of selenite (Se IV) and selenate (Se VI) to freshwater organisms was evaluated using toxicity test data generated from this study and toxicity data obtained from the open literature. The acute toxicity of Se IV and Se VI to fathead minnows and two amphipod species, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Hyalella azteca, were determined in four different sulfate concentrations. The newly generated toxicity data combined with the data obtained from the literature were evaluated using analysis of covariance to determine if there was a significant relationship between acute toxicity and sulfate concentration. The analysis of the Se IV data indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the acute toxicity of Se IV and sulfate concentration. A significant relationship was found between the acute toxicity of Se VI to freshwater organisms and sulfate concentration. Statistically significant slopes describing the relationship between Se VI toxicity and sulfate concentration were determined for individual species and for the combined data. A sulfate-based equation was constructed using the pooled slope to modify the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for selenate: CMC = e{sup [0.4259(ln[sulfate]) + 4.6305]}.

  12. Acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium pentachlorophenate to daphnids and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Paulson, R.L.; Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.

    1986-08-01

    When estimating the toxicity of effluents it is desirable to use organisms sensitive to a wide range of pollutants. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommends the use of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas to assess the toxicity of freshwater effluents. Ceriodaphnia sp. has also received increased attention as a standard toxicity test organism due to its sensitivity, short generation time, and ubiquitous distribution. Comparison of toxicity data generated by different investigators is often difficult because of differences in test procedures, dilution waters, or nutritional history of test organisms. The primary objectives of this research were to compare the sensitivity of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia reticulata, and Pimephales promelas to the reference toxicants CdCl/sub 2/ and sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP) and to compare results with those obtained by other investigators. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dilution waters on the acute toxicity of these reference toxicants to the above test organisms.

  13. Ameliorated effects of green tea extract on lead induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mehana, E E; Meki, Abdel Raheim M A; Fazili, Khalid Majid

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on lead induced toxicity was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of rats were used in the study. Lead and GTE was given orally to the rats with drinking water for 8 weeks. Lead concentration in the digested tissues of liver was detected using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were used as markers to evaluate the anti oxidant status of tissues. Lead exposure was found to attenuate the antioxidant potential of liver, which was however augmented when supplemented with green tea extract. Liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP and serum protein determinations indicated the protective effects of green tea extract. Histopathological studies of liver revealed that supplementation of green tea extract resulted in mild degeneration and congestion of the blood vessels and an enhanced regenerative capacity.

  14. The role of modified citrus pectin as a safe and effective chelator of lead in children hospitalized with toxic lead levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Lead toxicity is an ongoing concern world wide, and children, the most vulnerable to the long lasting effects of lead exposure, are in urgent need of a safe effective heavy metal chelating agent to overcome the heavy metals and lead exposure challenges they face day to day. Objective: This...

  15. Acute Dermal Toxicity of CHF1, CHR2 and Saline in Rabbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    yellowish-white foci in the liv*-r that are typical (f lecions caused by Eimeria stiedae , a coccidia that infects in-rahentic bile ducts of rabbits . Thene...AD-A12i 944 ACUTE DERI1ALTTOXICITY OF CHFi CHR2 AND SALINE IN / RABBITS (U) LETTERMAN ARMY INST OF RESEARCH PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO CA M A HANES ET...NdATIONiAL 3SPIA OF SITiOAM - 963 -A - INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 130 S ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY OF CHF 1, CHR 2 AND SALINE IN RABBITS MARTHA A. HANES, DVM, CPT VC JOHN

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  17. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Shedd, T.R.; Widder, M.W.; Toussaint, M.W.; Sunkel, M.C.; Hull, E.

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.

  18. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  19. Evaluation of acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a nickel mining waste to Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Ferreira, Maria Fernanda Nince; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2010-11-01

    The pyrometallurgical process of mining for obtaining ferronickel involves a stage of calcinations. At this stage a residue is generated described as a calcination dust of fine black grains. Analysis of this material revealed a significant presence of Fe, around 53,000 ppm and Ni, around 14,000, beyond of other metals as Al, Mn, and Cr. Adults and larvae of Oreochromis niloticus were used to evaluate acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and histopathological effects. The data obtained show absence of toxicity in concentrations of 5, 10 and 50% but a considerable potential for bioaccumulation in the fish's body.

  20. Acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the non target organism Hyalella curvispina.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Paracampo, Ariel; Marrochi, Natalia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the amphipod Hyalella curvispina was evaluated by means of a toxicity test under laboratory conditions. Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used insecticides in Argentina. H. curvispina is a widely distributed and commonly abundant component of the invertebrate assemblages in shallow waters of southern South America. The experiments were repeated three times. The mean 48-h LC(50) value for H. curvispina was estimated at 0.066μg/l. H. curvispina represents a good model for exotoxicological risk assessment.

  1. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  2. A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ayurvedic medications consist of herbs that may be intentionally combined with metals, such as lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. Ayurvedic practitioners and their patients believe that the toxic properties of the metals are reduced or eliminated during preparation and processing. Case report A 69 year old Caucasian male retired professional with a prior history of stroke presented for evaluation of new onset depression, fatigue, generalized weakness, constipation, anorexia, and weight loss. History revealed that his symptoms were temporally related to initiation of an Ayurvedic herbal medication. The patient had been previously admitted to another hospital for these symptoms and was found to have a severe anemia for which no etiology was found. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated blood lead level and a diagnosis of symptomatic lead toxicity was made. The patient was treated with intramuscular, intravenous, and oral chelation therapy to promote lead excretion. Because of complaints of continued poor mental function, neuropsychological tests were administered before and after one of the chelation treatments and showed improvement in measures of attention and other cognitive domains. In addition, the patient was able to discontinue use of antidepressant medication after chelation. Discussion A high index of suspicion of metal toxicity is necessary among persons with characteristic symptoms and signs in the absence of occupational exposure. Despite limited evidence for chelation in adults and in those with modest blood lead levels, this patient appeared to benefit from repeated chelation therapy. Both allopathic and alternative medicine practitioners and public health specialists need to be aware of the potential for contamination of and side effects from alternative pharmacologic and herbal therapies. PMID:24083830

  3. HMX: Analysis of Dosing Formulations Used in Acute, Sub-Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-31

    14.72 - 1 50 78 1 79 1 1 I I 72 15.30 1 I 50 781 I I I 3 1 1 1 1 5 0 1 1 1 I i 15.07 -5 1 112 1 ,? 3 1 4,3 74 15.251 " 1 1 50 1 114 1 113 0 I I I 75...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED HMX: Analysis of dosing formulations...HMX: Analysis of Dosing Formulations Used in Acute, Sub-acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Studies Final Report by: M.S. Henderson 3 , July,, 1985 Supported

  4. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  5. Combined toxicity of cadmium and lead on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Yun; Li, Dingsheng; Li, Mei

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil have received extensive attention due to their potential toxicological effects. This study analyzed the combined toxicity of Cd and Pb on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Cellulase activity and DNA damage were chosen as toxic endpoints. Factorial analysis was applied to identify the interaction of Cd and Pb. The results showed that single Pb and Cd could increase the cellulase activity and DNA damage of coelomocytes. The combination of both metals could significantly inhibit cellulase activity. For low Cd concentration, the addition of Pb could increase the DNA damage. However, for high Cd concentration, Pb could decrease the DNA damage. Factorial analysis showed that the changes of Cd concentrations exerted the highest influence on the combined toxicity, followed by factor "Cd*Pb" and "Pb". The combined toxicological effects between Cd and Pb were complex, which might be influenced by the competition adsorption of both metals in soil and biomembrane and their bioavailability. The results of this study are useful for understanding of combined toxicity of Cd and Pb on terrestrial invertebrates.

  6. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  7. Acute Toxicity in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Androgen Suppression and Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pervez, Nadeem; Small, Cormac; MacKenzie, Marc; Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Ghosh, Sunita; Mihai, Alina; Amanie, John; Murtha, Albert; Field, Colin; Murray, David; Fallone, Gino; Pearcey, Robert

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.

  8. Toxicity and bioavailability of metals in the Missouri River adjacent to a lead refinery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Allert, Ann L.; Fairchild, James F.; May, Thomas W.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Callahan, Edward V.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of contaminated groundwater from the ASARCO metals refining facility adjacent to the Missouri River in Omaha, Nebraska. Surface waters, sediments, and sediment pore waters were collected from the Burt-Izard drain, which transects the facility, and from the Missouri River adjacent to the facility. Groundwater was also collected from the facility. Waters and sediments were analyzed for inorganic contaminants, and the toxicity of the waters was evaluated with the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-day test. Concentrations of several elemental contaminants were highly elevated in the groundwater, but not in river sediment pore waters. Lead concentrations were moderately elevated in whole sediment at one site, but lead concentrations in pore waters were low due to apparent sequestration by acid-volatile sulfides. The groundwater sample was highly toxic to C. dubia, causing 100% mortality. Even at the lowest groundwater concentration tested (6.25%) C. dubia survival was reduced; however, at that concentration, reproduction was not significantly different from upstream porewater reference samples. Sediment pore waters were not toxic, except reproduction in pore water collected from one downstream site was somewhat reduced. The decrease in reproduction could not be attributed to measured elemental contaminants.

  9. [Acute toxicity of 10 Moroccan plants reported to be hypoglycemic agents].

    PubMed

    Jaouhari, J T; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    1999-01-01

    An acute toxicity study of twelve medicinal plants on Swiss albino mice has been carried out. The extracts were administered orally at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Animals were observed for 7 days and changes in weight and behaviour were noted. On the eighth day, the animals were sacrificed and an anatomo-histopathologic survey was undertaken. The results showed a change in behaviour and some histologic modifications following the administration of certain plant extracts.

  10. Bioaccumulation and tolerance characteristics of a submerged plant (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) exposed to toxic metal lead.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Ling-Lei; Li, Jia; He, Xiao-Jia; Cai, Jun-Chi

    2015-12-01

    A hydroponic study was conducted to investigate the lead bioaccumulation and tolerance characteristics of Ceratophyllum demersum L. exposed to various lead concentrations (5-80 μM) for 7, 14 or 21 days. Lead accumulation increased with increasing concentrations of metal in the solution, to a maximum accumulation of 4016.4 mg kg(-1) dw. Unexpectedly, the release of accumulated lead from the plants into solution was observed for all experimental groups except those exposed to 5 μM. Both the biomass and protein content of the plants responded significantly to lead stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased substantially at lead concentrations below 20 μM, further indicating that this metal is toxic to the plants. To reveal the mechanism underlying the defense against lead stress, plants were also assayed for the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as other relevant enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The activities of both SOD and CAT increased at lower lead concentrations and with shorter exposure times, followed by a decline, but the activities of POD and its isoenzymes continued to increase under all conditions. Moreover, increases in the activities of PAL and PPO were observed only for the 14-day treatment, and these two enzymes were not sensitive to lead concentration. These results suggest that C. demersum exhibits strong tolerance within a specific concentration range of lead in solution; according to regression analysis, 40 μM is suggested to be this plant's tolerance threshold for lead in water. Furthermore, the malfunction of this tolerance mechanism might accelerate the metal-release process. These attributes are likely to be beneficial for utilizing C. demersum in phytoremediation applications.

  11. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  12. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  13. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency.

  14. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  15. Sequential measurements of bone lead content by L X-ray fluorescence in CaNa sub 2 EDTA-treated lead-toxic children

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T. ); Wielopolski, L. ); Kalef-Ezra, J.A. ); Slatkin, D.N. )

    1991-06-01

    With the development of L X-ray fluorescence (LXRF) to measure cortical bone lead directly, safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, the present study was undertaken to (a) evaluate LXRF as a possible replacement for the CaNa{sub 2}EDTA test; (b) quantify lead in tibial cortical bones of mildly to moderately lead-toxic children before treatment; and (c) quantify lead in tibial cortical bones of lead-toxic children sequentially following one to two courses of chelation therapy. The clinical research design was based upon a longitudinal assessment of 59 untreated lead-toxic children. Based upon a discriminant analysis, 90% of lead-toxic children were predicted correctly as being CaNa{sub 2}EDTA-positive or CaNa{sub 2}EDTA-negative. Using LXRF and PbB values to predict CaNa{sub 2}EDTA outcomes, the specificity and sensitivity of these two predictors were 86 and 93%, respectively. The data suggest that LXRF measurements of lead in tibial cortical bone have considerable promise to replace the CaNa{sub 2}EDTA test and to provide a more appropriate end point of chelation therapy than the conventional indices of PbB and EP. Moreover, markedly elevated bone lead values accumulated during early childhood may have an intergenerational impact, as maternal lead stores amassed during childhood cross the placenta and directly affect the developing fetus.

  16. Acute toxicity reduction and toxicity identification in pigment-contaminated wastewater during anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) treatment process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Minjie; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Na, Chunhong; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Han, Shuping; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated. Results indicated that the raw pigment-contaminated wastewater was acutely toxic to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum), Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Danio rerio (D. rerio). The acute toxicity was decreased in some degree after A/A/O treatment, but the final effluent still exhibited acute toxicity to D. magna and D. rerio with the toxic units (TU) of 1.1 and 2.0, respectively. Chemical analyses showed the presence of various refractory and toxic nitrogen-containing polycyclic and heterocyclic compounds in the pigment-contaminated wastewater. Toxicity identification by combining chemical analyses and correlation analysis showed that N-containing refractory organic toxicants were the main toxicity source for the pigment-contaminated wastewater, and several toxicants showed significant correlation with P. phosphoreum and D. magna. This study indicated that the A/A/O process was not efficient for pigment-contaminated wastewater treatment, and it was irradiative for technology improvement in the WWTPs receiving pretreated industrial wastewater effluents.

  17. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd+2) and lead (Pb+2) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2•¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant. PMID:28018407

  18. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd(+2)) and lead (Pb(+2)) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg(-1)) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  19. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  20. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected.

  1. A microfluidic device for continuous sensing of systemic acute toxicants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-12-03

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. PMID:27379341

  3. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats.

    PubMed

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females.

  4. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  5. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  6. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  7. Male reproductive toxicity of lead in animals and humans. ASCLEPIOS Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P.; Kiss, P.; Porru, S.; Bonde, J. P.; Vanhoorne, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature on male reproductive toxicity of lead in animals and humans. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified a total of 32 experimental studies in animals and 22 epidemiological studies, one case report on humans and five review articles or documents. The studies were evaluated by paying attention mainly to sample size, study design, exposure, and dose characterisation, analytical method standardisation, and quality assurance. RESULTS: Several studies on rats and other rodents indicated that blood lead concentrations > 30-40 micrograms/dl were associated with impairment of spermatogenesis and reduced concentrations of androgens. However, other animal studies, mainly about histopathological, spermatozoal, and hormonal end points, indicated that certain species and strains were quite resistant to the reproductive toxicity of lead and that different testicular lead concentrations could account for these differences. The human studies focused mainly on semen quality, endocrine function, and birth rates in occupationally exposed subjects, and showed that exposure to concentrations of inorganic lead > 40 micrograms/dl in blood impaired male reproductive function by reducing sperm count, volume, and density, or changing sperm motility and morphology. No relevant effects were detected on endocrine profile. CONCLUSION: Several factors make it difficult to extrapolate the animal data to the human situation. The difficulties are mainly due to differences between species in reproductive end points and to the level of exposure. Concentrations of blood lead > 40 micrograms/dl seemed to be associated with a decrease in sperm count, volume, motility, and morphological alterations and a possible modest effect on endocrine profile. Dose-response relation, in particular at a threshold level, is poorly understood, and site, mode, or mechanism of action are unknown. Also, the effects were not always the same or associated in the same on

  8. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Eun-Chae; Kim, Hyeon Joe; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used. PMID:25518842

  9. The Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats from the Pyrolysis Products of Four Fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V. L., Jr.; Bafus, D. A.; Warrington, H. P.; Harris, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225?250 g) were exposed to the thermal degradation products from four fluoropolymers. The three polymers containing vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) were pyrolyzed at 550? and 800?C, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was pyrolyzed at 625 and 800?C. At the lower temperatures, the pyrolysate from the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) was less toxic than the pyrolysates from either the terpolymer of vinyidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene, and tetrafluoroethylene (VF2/HFP/TFE) or the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene with ?additives? (VF2/HFP-A). However, the pyrolysates from the VF2/HFP-containing materials produced less toxic products than the pyrolysate from PTFE at 625?C. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased to 800?C, very little difference was noted between the pyrolysis toxicity for any of the VF2/HFP-containing polymers with the most toxic pyrolysate again produced by PTFE. Carbon monoxide levels were all sublethal. No correlation could be established between hydrolyzable fluoride levels and the lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48 hr due to acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Survival of this acute phase was followed by alveolar lymphocytic infiltration and peribronchial tissue proliferation.

  10. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.

  11. Acute toxicity assessment of explosive-contaminated soil extracting solution by luminescent bacteria assays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjie; Jiang, Zhenming; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Su, Hongping; Gao, Xuewen; Ye, Zhengfang

    2016-11-01

    Explosive-contaminated soil is harmful to people's health and the local ecosystem. The acute toxicity of its extracting solution was tested by bacterial luminescence assay using three kinds of luminescent bacteria to characterize the toxicity of the soil. An orthogonal test L 16 (4(5)) was designed to optimize the soil extracting conditions. The optimum extracting conditions were obtained when the ultrasonic extraction time, ultrasonic extraction temperature, and the extraction repeat times were 6 h, 40 °C, and three, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the main components of the contaminated soil's extracting solution were 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-3-SO3(-)); 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-5-SO3(-)); and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT). Compared with Photobacterium phosphoreum and Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. is more suitable for assessing the soil extracting solution's acute toxicity. Soil washing can remove most of the contaminants toxic to luminescent bacterium Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov., suggesting that it may be a potential effective remediation method for explosive-contaminated soil.

  12. CerioFAST{trademark}: An acute toxicity test based on Ceriodaphnia dubia feeding behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Rhodes, K.; Koopman, B.

    1996-02-01

    The authors have developed a rapid acute toxicity test (CerioFAST{trademark}) based on suppression of feeding activity of Ceriodaphnia dubia in the presence of toxicants. The bioassay consists of a 1-h exposure period to a given toxicant. Yeast cells, stained with a fluorescent dye, are added 20 min before the end of the exposure period. Response to a toxic sample is indicated by the absence of fluorescence in the gut of the daphnids. CerioFAST was compared to the standard 48-h C. dubia acute bioassay, using heavy metals and organic compounds.CerioFAST EC50s of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ag, Zn, and carbofuran were in the 0.01--0.1-mg/L range, whereas EC50s of hexachloroethane, pentachlorophenol, trichlorophenol, and lindane were in the 1--10-mg/L range. CerioFAST EC50s of the heavy metals and organics were well correlated with Ec50s obtained with the 48-h C. dubia bioassay.

  13. Acute toxicity and toxicokinetics of dipfluzine hydrochloride, a novel calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Yongli; Pei, Tingmei; Dong, Lei; Xu, Yanfang

    2009-06-01

    Dipfluzine hydrochloride, diphenylpiperazine calcium channel blocker, is a promising candidate to treat ischemic stroke. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the acute toxicity and toxicokinetics of dipfluzine hydrochloride after single intravenous doses in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed in rats at doses of 5, 6, 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, and 40mg/kg. Concentrations of dipfluzine in plasma and tissues were determined with a reverse-phase HPLC method after single doses of 5, 15 and 30mg/kg. The results demonstrated that no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), maximal tolerance dose (MTD), and minimal lethal dose (MLD) were respectively 5, 6, 30, 35mg/kg for i.v. administration of dipfluzine hydrochloride. The toxicokinetic study revealed that the severity of toxicity was linear with the level of systemic exposure. The highest tissue exposure was detected in lung tissue and it may primarily contribute to the pulmonary congestion in dead rats. Longer elimination half-lives of dipfluzine in kidney, brain, liver, and pancreas imply a possible accumulation of dipfluzine in these tissues for long-term exposure. In addition, a temporary impairment in liver and heart was observed for clinical chemistry in 30mg/kg dose group. The findings will help to design further studies to characterize the repeat-dose toxicity of dipfluzine hydrochloride.

  14. Acute toxicity of some hydrazine compounds to salamander larvae, Ambystoma spp

    SciTech Connect

    Slonim, A.R.

    1986-11-01

    Although hydrazine compounds have been used extensively by industry for a very long time, they have become important in recent years as propellants for aerospace operations. The study of hydrazine compounds in this laboratory began about two decades ago and developed into a large pharmacological and toxicological research program that included also environmental considerations. Subsequently, acute toxicity studies were conducted on the common guppy (Lebistes reticulatus Peters) using four hydrazine compounds of interest. The toxicity of these propellants were evaluated next on other species of aquatic organisms such as mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) and amphibians. Two different studies were conducted on amphibians: One utilized amphibian eggs and the other amphibian larvae. The larvae of spotted and marbled salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum and A. opacum, respectively) were used primarily in numerous static bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of hydrazine, UDMH and Aerozine-50 on these organisms. The remaining larvae were used in other tests mainly to corroborate previous experimental results (e.g., to see whether toxicity is affected by organism size, aeration of test solutions, and water hardness). The results on the larvae are presented in this paper.

  15. Effect of copper status on acute toxicity of cocaine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Reddy, P.P.; Seung, S.K.; Combs, G.F.; Dulin, A.M.; Danford, D.E. )

    1989-02-09

    Both copper (Cu) nutriture and cocaine (Coc) ingestion have been shown to affect cardiovascular integrity. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine if Cu status affects the acute toxicity of Coc. 20 weanling male rats (45 {plus minus} 5 g) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 1 fed a copper deficient (CuD) (<1ppmCu) and the other a copper supplemented (CuS) diet (ca.6ppm, Cu). After 7 wks, the rats, paired for Cu status, were injected (ip) with Coc-HCl at reported LD{sub 50} doses ranging from 80-90 mg/kg bw. The CuD was established by cardiac hypertrophy, depressed hematocrit, lowered serum, liver and heart Cu compared to the CuS controls. The acute toxicity resulted in tachycardia and hyperactivity followed by ataxia with isolated muscle twitchings and violent grand-mal type seizures. For those animals that died, death was apparently due to respiratory arrest followed by ventricular fibrillation; animals that survived were killed by exsanguination. The severity of toxicity was greater for the CuD rats as evidenced by 100% exhibiting seizures compared to 80% for the CuS group. In addition, the incidence of death was 60% for the CuD group compared to 20% for the CuS rats. Although these results suggest that CuD exacerbates the toxic effects of Coc, it is not established that the effects are specific for this essential nutrient.

  16. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.

  17. Safety assessment of vitacoxib: Acute and 90-day sub-chronic oral toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Lv, Pengyue; Li, Jing; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-02-24

    Vitacoxib, is a newly developed coxibs NSAID (selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2). To date, no experimental data have been published concerning its safety for use as an additive in the human diet. In the present study, we assessed the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of vitacoxib administered by gavage. The acute toxicity tests in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and ICR mice demonstrated that vitacoxib at a dose of 5000 mg/kg BW failed to alter any of the parameters studied. In the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity test, vitacoxib was administered to SD rats at the doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 mg/kg BW. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences for most indexes of sub-chronic toxicity throughout the experiment at the dose of 5-20 mg/kg BW, indicating no apparent dose-dependent. However, there were significant histopathology changes in the liver and kidney, and alterations in some biochemical parameters in the 60 mg/kg BW group. Based on these findings, the gavage LD50 was determined to be > 5000 mg/kg in SD rats and ICR mice, and the 90-day gavage no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of vitacoxib was considered to be 20 mg/kg BW under the present study conditions.

  18. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased.

  19. Mycophenolate mofetil toxicity mimicking acute cellular rejection in a small intestinal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Apostolov, Ross; Asadi, Khashayar; Lokan, Julie; Kam, Ning; Testro, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an important medication used for maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplants. A common gastrointestinal (GI) side effect of MMF is enterocolitis, which has been associated with multiple histological features. There is little data in the literature describing the histological effects of MMF in small intestinal transplant (SIT) recipients. We present a case of MMF toxicity in a SIT recipient, with histological changes in the donor ileum mimicking persistent acute cellular rejection (ACR). Concurrent biopsies of the patient’s native colon showed similar changes to those from the donor small bowel, suggesting a non-graft specific process, raising suspicion for MMF toxicity. The MMF was discontinued and complete resolution of these changes occurred over three weeks. MMF toxicity should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis for ACR and graft-versus-host disease in SITs. PMID:28280702

  20. Inhibition of erythrocyte phosphoribosyltransferases (APRT and HPRT) by Pb2+: a potential mechanism of lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Dziedziejko, V; Safranow, K; Gutowska, I; Marchlewicz, M; Dołegowska, B; Rać, M E; Wiszniewska, B; Chlubek, D

    2009-05-02

    Many reports show that red blood cells of people exposed to lead have a decreased ATP concentration, decreased adenylate energy charge value and many metabolic and morphological abnormalities. Since the synthesis of nucleotides in erythrocytes occurs only through salvage pathways, we hypothesized that a decrease in nucleotide concentrations may be caused by lead-induced inhibition of erythrocyte phosphoribosyltransferases: adenine APRT (EC 2.4.2.7) and hypoxanthine-guanine HPRT (EC 2.4.2.8). These enzymes enable the reutilization of purine bases (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine) converting them to mononucleotides (AMP, GMP, IMP), substrates for the synthesis of high-energy nucleotides. To confirm the hypothesis two experiments were performed: (i) in vitro, using a lysate of human erythrocytes incubated (5, 10, 30min) with lead ions (100microM, 10microM, 1microM, 500nM, 100nM lead acetate) and 100microM sodium acetate for the control, (ii) in vivo, using a lysate of rat erythrocytes taken from rats chronically exposed to lead (0.1% lead acetate in drinking water for 9 months, resulting in whole blood lead concentration 7microg/dL). The activities of APRT and HPRT were determined using HPLC method, which allowed concurrent determination of the activity of both enzymes in erythrocyte lysates. We have shown that, lead ions: (i) moderately inhibit both phosphoribosyltransferases in erythrocytes, this influence being detectable even at very low concentrations (ii) participate in hemolysis, the intensity of which negatively correlates with the activity of phosphoribosyltransferases. Our results indicate the necessity of further research on the role of lead-induced APRT and HPRT inhibition as one of the mechanisms of lead toxicity.

  1. Identification and characterization of toxicity of contaminants in pet food leading to an outbreak of renal toxicity in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Roy L M; Motlagh, Safa; Quijano, Mike; Cambron, R Thomas; Baker, Timothy R; Pullen, Aletha M; Regg, Brian T; Bigalow-Kern, Adrienne S; Vennard, Thomas; Fix, Andrew; Reimschuessel, Renate; Overmann, Gary; Shan, Yuching; Daston, George P

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes research relating to the major recall of pet food that occurred in Spring 2007 in North America. Clinical observations of acute renal failure in cats and dogs were associated with consumption of wet pet food produced by a contract manufacturer producing for a large number of companies. The affected lots of food had been formulated with wheat gluten originating from China. Pet food and gluten were analyzed for contaminants using several configurations of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed a number of simple triazine compounds, principally melamine and cyanuric acid, with lower concentrations of ammeline, ammelide, ureidomelamine, and N-methylmelamine. Melamine and cyanuric acid, have been tested and do not produce acute renal toxicity. Some of the triazines have poor solubility, as does the compound melamine cyanurate. Pathological evaluation of cats and dogs that had died from the acute renal failure indicated the presence of crystals in kidney tubules. We hypothesized that these crystals were composed of the poorly soluble triazines, a melamine-cyanuric acid complex, or a combination. Sprague dawley rats were given up to 100 mg/kg ammeline or ammelide alone, a mixture of melamine and cyanuric acid (400/400 mg/kg/day), or a mixture of all four compounds (400 mg/kg/day melamine, 40 mg/kg/day of the others). Neither ammeline nor ammelide alone produced any renal effects, but the mixtures produced significant renal damage and crystals in nephrons. HPLC-MS/MS confirmed the presence of melamine and cyanuric acid in the kidney. Infrared microspectroscopy on individual crystals from rat or cat (donated material from a veterinary clinic) kidneys confirmed that they were melamine-cyanuric acid cocrystals. Crystals from contaminated gluten produced comparable spectra. These results establish the causal link between the contaminated gluten and the adverse effects and provide a mechanistic explanation

  2. Lead toxicity induces autophagy to protect against cell death through mTORC1 pathway in cardiofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sui, Li; Zhang, Rui-Hong; Zhang, Ping; Yun, Ke-Li; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Li; Hu, Ming-Xu

    2015-03-31

    Heavy metals, such as lead (Pb(2+)), are usually accumulated in human bodies and impair human's health. Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. In the present study, we proposed to investigate the effects of lead toxicity in cultured cardiofibroblasts. After lead treatment, cultured cardiofibroblasts showed severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the lead-treated cardiofibroblasts were not dramatically apoptotic. Further, we found that these cells determined to undergo autophagy through inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) may dramatically enhance lead toxicity in cardiofibroblasts and cause cell death. Our data establish that lead toxicity induces cell stress in cardiofibroblasts and protective autophagy is activated by inhibition of mTORC1 pathway. These findings describe a mechanism by which lead toxicity may promote the autophagy of cardiofibroblasts cells, which protects cells from cell stress. Our findings provide evidence that autophagy may help cells to survive under ER stress conditions in cardiofibroblasts and may set up an effective therapeutic strategy for heavy metal toxicity.

  3. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical.

  4. Dominant, toxic gain-of-function mutations in gars lead to non-cell autonomous neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Stuart J.; Sleigh, James N.; Motley, William W.; Liu, Ji-Long; Burgess, Robert W.; Talbot, Kevin; Cader, M. Zameel

    2015-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) neuropathies are collectively the most common hereditary neurological condition and a major health burden for society. Dominant mutations in the gene GARS, encoding the ubiquitous enzyme, glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS), cause peripheral nerve degeneration and lead to CMT disease type 2D. This genetic disorder exemplifies a recurring motif in neurodegeneration, whereby mutations in essential, widely expressed genes have selective deleterious consequences for the nervous system. Here, using novel Drosophila models, we show a potential solution to this phenomenon. Ubiquitous expression of mutant GlyRS leads to motor deficits, progressive neuromuscular junction (NMJ) denervation and pre-synaptic build-up of mutant GlyRS. Intriguingly, neuronal toxicity is, at least in part, non-cell autonomous, as expression of mutant GlyRS in mesoderm or muscle alone results in similar pathology. This mutant GlyRS toxic gain-of-function, which is WHEP domain-dependent, coincides with abnormal NMJ assembly, leading to synaptic degeneration, and, ultimately, reduced viability. Our findings suggest that mutant GlyRS gains access to ectopic sub-compartments of the motor neuron, providing a possible explanation for the selective neuropathology caused by mutations in a widely expressed gene. PMID:25972375

  5. Bio-accumulation and toxicity of lead (Pb) in Lemna gibba L (duckweed).

    PubMed

    Sobrino, Alma S; Miranda, Maria G; Alvarez, Carlos; Quiroz, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The vascular aquatic plant Lemna gibba (duckweed) was exposed during seven days to lead (Pb) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 300 mg/L in a greenhouse with controlled photoperiod and temperature. The effects of Pb on growth of Lemna gibba were examined during 13 days in the same experimental design. The maximum accumulation of lead by Lemna gibba occurs during the third day in the 50 mg/L test, and at the sixth day, lead in all test concentrations produces approximately a 100% inhibitory effect on duckweed growth. In all tests, the maximum relative growth rates were achieved on the third day and then, the toxicity effects were: 59.3% total soluble starch reduction; 94.7% total soluble proteins reduction; 246% increase in total soluble amino acids; 50% increase in total soluble sugars and an 18.2% increase in total phenols. This experiment showed that the transfers of Pb from nutritive solution to plants were fast. Nevertheless, Pb produced toxic effects on Lemna gibba; however duckweed was able to remove Pb at the experimental concentrations used.

  6. Emerging Biomarkers and Metabolomics for Assessing Toxic Nephropathy and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in Neonatology

    PubMed Central

    Mussap, M.; Noto, A.; Fanos, V.; Van Den Anker, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of novel drug-induced toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers has been designated as a top priority by the American Society of Nephrology. Increasing knowledge in the science of biology and medicine is leading to the discovery of still more new biomarkers and of their roles in molecular pathways triggered by physiological and pathological conditions. Concomitantly, the development of the so-called “omics” allows the progressive clinical utilization of a multitude of information, from those related to the human genome (genomics) and proteome (proteomics), including the emerging epigenomics, to those related to metabolites (metabolomics). In preterm newborns, one of the most important factors causing the pathogenesis and the progression of AKI is the interaction between the individual genetic code, the environment, the gestational age, and the disease. By analyzing a small urine sample, metabolomics allows to identify instantly any change in phenotype, including changes due to genetic modifications. The role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and other emerging technologies is strategic, contributing basically to the sudden development of new biochemical and molecular tests. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) are closely correlated with the severity of kidney injury, representing noninvasive sensitive surrogate biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring, and quantifying kidney damage. To become routine tests, uNGAL and KIM-1 should be carefully tested in multicenter clinical trials and should be measured in biological fluids by robust, standardized analytical methods. PMID:25013791

  7. The (1)H NMR structure of bovine Pb(2+)-osteocalcin and implications for lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dowd, T L; Li, L; Gundberg, C M

    2008-11-01

    Structural information on the effect of Pb(2+) on proteins under physiologically relevant conditions is largely unknown. We have previously shown that low levels of lead increased the amount of osteocalcin bound to hydroxyapatite (BBA 1535:153). This suggested that lead induced a more compact structure in the protein. We have determined the 3D structure of Pb(2+)-osteocalcin (49 amino acids), a bone protein from a target tissue, using (1)H 2D NMR techniques. Lead, at a stoichiometry of only 1:1, induced a similar fold in the protein as that induced by Ca(2+) at a stoichiometry of 3:1. The structure consisted of an unstructured N-terminus and an ordered C-terminal consisting of a hydrophobic core (residues 16-49). The genetic algorithm-molecular dynamics simulation predicted the lead ion was coordinated by the Gla 24 and Gla 21 residues. It is proposed that mineral binding occurs via uncoordinated Gla oxygen ions binding to calcium in hydroxyapatite. A comparison of Pb(2+)- and Ca(2+)-osteocalcin suggests Pb(2+), at a lower stoichiometry, may induce similar conformational changes in proteins and subsequent molecular processes normally controlled by calcium alone. This may contribute to a molecular mechanism of lead toxicity for calcium binding proteins. Lead exposure may alter the amount of mineral bound osteocalcin and contribute to abnormal bone remodeling.

  8. Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Ranville, James F; Pontasch, Mandee; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Adams, William J

    2015-04-01

    Standard static-exposure acute lethality tests were conducted with Daphnia magna neonates exposed to binary or ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn in moderately hard reconstituted water that contained 3 mg dissolved organic carbon/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. These experiments were conducted to test for additive toxicity (i.e., the response to the mixture can be predicted by combining the responses obtained in single-metal toxicity tests) or nonadditive toxicity (i.e., the response is less than or greater than additive). Based on total metal concentrations (>90% dissolved) the toxicity of the tested metal mixtures could be categorized into all 3 possible additivity categories: less-than-additive toxicity (e.g., Cd-Zn and Cd-Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cu was titrated into Cd-containing waters), additive toxicity (e.g., some Cu-Zn mixtures), or more-than-additive toxicity (some Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cd was titrated into Cu-containing waters). Exposing the organisms to a range of sublethal to supralethal concentrations of the titrated metal was especially helpful in identifying nonadditive interactions. Geochemical processes (e.g., metal-metal competition for binding to dissolved organic matter and/or the biotic ligand, and possibly supersaturation of exposure waters with the metals in some high-concentration exposures) can explain much of the observed metal-metal interactions. Therefore, bioavailability models that incorporate those geochemical (and possibly some physiological) processes might be able to predict metal mixture toxicity accurately.

  9. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  10. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    PubMed

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F

    1996-02-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  11. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  12. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV

  13. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants.

  14. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  15. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  16. Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  17. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Methods Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Results Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc), mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia) but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR). Conclusion Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted. PMID:21466696

  18. The acute and chronic toxicity of major geochemical ions to Hyalella azteca Ion interactions and comparisons to other species

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of major geochemical ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3) to Ceriodaphnia dubia can involve multiple, independent mechanisms. The toxicities of K, Mg, and Ca salts were best related to the chemical activity of the c...

  19. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  20. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Gaikowski, M P; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; McDonald, S F; Summers, C H

    1996-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13-32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19-32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135-787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168-2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519-6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50 for each formulation).

  1. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of acute bioassays for assessing toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Barlow, L.A.; Bent, S.; Elseewi, A.A.; Cliath, M.; Resketo, M.; Doyle, C.

    1986-03-01

    Proposed State of California regulations use fish toxicity information as one criterion in municipal or industrial waste hazard evaluation. Static 96-hr bioassays were performed using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis), and glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) exposed to soil experimentally contaminated with up to 500 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor fluid added at a concentration of 500 mg liter-1. Other bioassays were conducted with a 6-day mixing period prior to the bioassay or with acetone added to solubilize the PCBs. No mortality attributable to PCB toxicity was observed in definitive bioassays using the two fish and one invertebrate species. PCB levels leached from soil containing 500 ppm Aroclor 1242 ranged from less than 0.6 to 3.4 ppb in freshwater tests to 3.5 ppb in seawater bioassays. Using these data as the basis for waste classification, soils contaminated with up to 500 ppb PCBs during capacitor spills would be designated nonhazardous. PCBs are known to be environmentally persistent and to bioaccumulate. Acute toxicity tests, therefore, do not adequately evaluate the general toxicity of PCB-contaminated soils. Hazardous waste regulations for hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs should instead be based upon chronic toxicity data and should also consider bioaccumulation potential.

  3. Evaluation of acute bioassays for assessing toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E; Barlow, L A; Bent, S; Elseewi, A A; Cliath, M; Resketo, M; Doyle, C

    1986-03-01

    Proposed State of California regulations use fish toxicity information as one criterion in municipal or industrial waste hazard evaluation. Static 96-hr bioassays were performed using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis), and glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) exposed to soil experimentally contaminated with up to 500 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor fluid added at a concentration of 500 mg liter-1. Other bioassays were conducted with a 6-day mixing period prior to the bioassay or with acetone added to solubilize the PCBs. No mortality attributable to PCB toxicity was observed in definitive bioassays using the two fish and one invertebrate species. PCB levels leached from soil containing 500 ppm Aroclor 1242 ranged from less than 0.6 to 3.4 ppb in freshwater tests to 3.5 ppb in seawater bioassays. Using these data as the basis for waste classification, soils contaminated with up to 500 ppb PCBs during capacitor spills would be designated nonhazardous. PCBs are known to be environmentally persistent and to bioaccumulate. Acute toxicity tests, therefore, do not adequately evaluate the general toxicity of PCB-contaminated soils. Hazardous waste regulations for hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs should instead be based upon chronic toxicity data and should also consider bioaccumulation potential.

  4. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  5. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Acute toxicity and aqueous solubility of some condensed thiophenes and their microbial metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, D.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M.; Verbeek, A.G.

    1997-04-01

    Petroleum or creosote contamination of surface waters, soils, or groundwaters introduces countless aromatic compounds to these environments. Among these are condensed thiophenes that were shown to be oxidized to sulfoxides, sulfones, and 2,3-diones by microbial cultures. In this study, the acute toxicities of 12 compounds (benzothiophene, benzothiophene sulfone, benzothiophene-2,3-diones, dibenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene sulfoxide, and dibenzothiophene sulfone) were determined by the Microtox{reg_sign} and Daphnia magna bioassays. To aid in determining the toxicities, the solubilities of many of these compounds were determined, which showed that the oxidized compounds were much more water soluble than the parent thiophenes. In nearly every case, the oxidized compounds were less toxic than their parent thiophenes. The Microtox method was more sensitive than the D. magna bioassay, but in general, there was a good correlation between toxicities measured by the two tests. Samples were removed from batch cultures of a Pseudomonas strain capable of oxidizing the thiophenes, and these samples were subjected to Microtox bioassays. These experiments showed that the toxicities of the culture supernatants decreased with incubation time.

  7. Three cases of lead toxicity associated with consumption of ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Raviraja, A; Vishal Babu, G N; Sehgal, Anusha; Saper, Robert B; Jayawardene, Innocent; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Venkatesh, T

    2010-07-01

    Ayurveda is a traditional form of medicine used by majority of the Indians. Here we report three cases of lead toxicity, following intake of Ayurvedic medicines. Three patients presented with blood lead levels (BLLs) of 122.4, 115 and 42.8 μg/dl respectively at the time of hospitalization. The first case was chelated with D- penicillamine, the second with calcium disodium ethylene diamino tetra acetate (EDTA) and the third with environmental intervention and education. Associated Ayurvedic products were collected from patients and analyzed for metallic concentration. Cessation of Ayurvedic medication along with chelation, nutritional intervention and education, reduced the BLL to 27.4 μg/dl in the first case after 1 year, 21.1 μg/dl after 9 months in the second and 18.2 μg/dl after 6 months in the third case.

  8. Neuroprotective Actions of Clinoptilolite and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Against Lead-induced Toxicity in Mice Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Mahaboob P.; Begum, Shabana; Mir, Bilal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Oxidative stress is considered as a possible molecular mechanism involved in lead (Pb2+) neurotoxicity. Very few studies have been investigated on the occurrence of oxidative stress in developing animals due to Pb2+ exposure. Considering the vulnerability of the developing brain to Pb2+, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of Pb2+ exposure in brain regions especially on antioxidant enzyme activities along with ameliorative effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and clinoptilolite. Methods: Three-week old developing Swiss mice Mus musculus were intraperitoneally administered with Pb2+ acetate in water (w/v) (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days and control group was given distilled water. Further Pb2+-toxicated mice were made into two subgroups and separately supplemented with EDTA and clinoptilolite (100 mg/kg body weight) for 2 weeks. Results: In Pb2+-exposed mice, in addition to increased lipid peroxidation, the activity levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) found to decrease in all regions of brain indicating, existence of severe oxidative stress due to decreased antioxidant function. Treatment of Pb2+-exposed mice with EDTA and clinoptilolite lowered the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels revealing their antioxidant potential to prevent oxidative stress. Similarly their administration led to recover the level of catalase, SOD, and GPx enzymes affected during Pb2+ toxicity in different regions of brain. Conclusions: The protection of brain tissue against Pb2+-induced toxicity by clinoptilolite and EDTA in the present experiment might be due to their ability to react faster with peroxyl radicals there by reducing the severity of biochemical variable indicative of oxidative damage. Thus, the results of present study indicate the neuroprotective potential of clinoptilolite and EDTA against Pb2+ toxicity. PMID:24403728

  9. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures.

  10. Sequential measurements of bone lead content by L X-ray fluorescence in CaNa sub 2 EDTA-treated lead-toxic children

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T. ); Wielopolski, L. ); Kalef-Ezra, J.A. ); Slatkin, D.N. )

    1991-02-01

    With the development of L x-ray fluorescence (LXRF) to measure cortical bone lead directly, safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, the present study was undertaken to (a) evaluate LXRF as a possible replacement for the CaNa{sub 2}EDTA test; (b) quantify lead in tibial cortical bones of mildly to moderately lead-toxic children before treatment; and (c) quantify lead in tibial cortical bones of lead-toxic children sequentially following one to two courses of chelation therapy. The clinical research design was based upon a longitudinal assessment of 59 untreated lead-toxic children. At enrollment, if the blood lead (PbB) was 25 to 55 {mu}g/dL and the erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentration was {ge}35 {mu}g/dL, LXRF measurement of tibial bonelead was carried out. One day later, each child underwent a CaNa{sub 2}EDTA provocative test. The LXRF instrument consists of a low energy x-ray generator with a silver anode, a lithium-doped silicon detector, a polarizer of incident photons, and a multichannel x-ray analyzer. These data suggest that LXRF measurements of lead in tibial cortical bone have considerable promise to replace the CaNa{sub 2}EDTA of PbB and EP. Moreover, markedly elevated bone lead values accumulated during early childhood may have an intergenerational impact, as maternal lead stores amassed during childhood cross the placenta and directly affect the developing fetus.

  11. Proton Therapy for Spinal Ependymomas: Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbaugh, Mark J.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Zhu, Ron; Wages, Cody; Crawford, Cody N.; Palmer, Matthew; De Gracia, Beth; Woo Shiao; Mahajan, Anita

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report acute toxicities and preliminary outcomes for pediatric patients with ependymomas of the spine treated with proton beam therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Eight pediatric patients received proton beam irradiation between October 2006 and September 2010 for spinal ependymomas. Toxicity data were collected weekly during radiation therapy and all follow-up visits. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: All patients had surgical resection of the tumor before irradiation (7 subtotal resection and 1 gross total resection). Six patients had World Health Organization Grade I ependymomas, and two had World Health Organization Grade II ependymomas. Patients had up to 3 surgical interventions before radiation therapy (range, 1-3; median, 1). Three patients received proton therapy after recurrence and five as part of their primary management. The entire vertebral body was treated in all but 2 patients. The mean radiation dose was 51.1 cobalt gray equivalents (range, 45 to 54 cobalt gray equivalents). With a mean follow-up of 26 months from the radiation therapy start date (range, 7-51 months), local control, event-free survival, and overall survival rates were all 100%. The most common toxicities during treatment were Grade 1 or 2 erythema (75%) and Grade 1 fatigue (38%). No patients had a Grade 3 or higher adverse event. Proton therapy dramatically reduced dose to all normal tissues anterior to the vertebral bodies in comparison to photon therapy. Conclusion: Preliminary outcomes show the expected control rates with favorable acute toxicity profiles. Proton beam therapy offers a powerful treatment option in the pediatric population, where adverse events related to radiation exposure are of concern. Extended follow-up will be required to assess for late recurrences and long-term adverse effects.

  12. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Elham; Shafaei, Armaghan; Hor, Sook Yee; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Yam, Mun Fei; Asmawi, Mohd Z.; Ismail, Zhari

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg. PMID:23778480

  13. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  14. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels.

  15. Acute intravenous infusion of disodium dihydrogen (1-hydroxyethylidene)diphosphonate: mechanism of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L

    1984-08-01

    The acute intravenous toxicity of disodium dihydrogen (1-hydroxyethylidene)diphosphonate (etidronate disodium; I) and the mechanism of this toxic response have been investigated in 40 beagle dogs. The intravenous toxicity of I is dependent on the total dose administered and the length of the infusion interval. The toxicity of I is directly related to the ability of the drug to bind or complex with the circulating calcium in the blood. Maximum depressions in ionized calcium coincide in time with peak blood levels of I, and at lethal doses electrocardiographic changes indicative of hypocalcemia are observed. For a 2-min infusion of 2 mg of I/kg, no effect is observed on ionized calcium levels, and the electrocardiogram remains normal. At doses of 16 and 32 mg/kg, coincident with an immediate fall in ionized calcium levels, there is a transient rise in total calcium and a fall in phosphorus levels. The ionized calcium level rises, and total calcium level falls and stabilizes at baseline levels within 30 min after the infusion. However, the phosphorus level rises and exceeds the baseline value, reaching 3-4 times normal by 72 h after the infusion. With proven lethal doses of I (60 mg/kg infused over 2 min) and the simultaneous infusion of an ionized calcium salt such as calcium gluconate (20 mg of Ca2+/kg), electrocardiograms remain normal and death is prevented. Thus, an effective antidote in the event of an overdose or too rapid an infusion of I can be employed to prevent acute toxic effects.

  16. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24h old neonates for 48h in the case of D. pulex and with 2-9 days old offspring for 96h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5-2.0mM), Na (0.5-2.0mM) and Mg (0.125-0.5mM). The effect of pH (6.5-8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and

  17. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while <1% of harmful compounds were misclassified as non-toxic. Since repeated dose toxicity studies can be performed in vivo until 2013, the proposed approach could have an immediate impact for the testing of cosmetic ingredients.

  18. Could hydroxyethyl starch be a therapeutic option in management of acute aluminum phosphide toxicity?

    PubMed

    Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Arefi, Mohammad; Behnoush, Behnam; Nasrabad, Mahdi Ghazanfari; Nasrabadi, Zeynab Nasri

    2011-04-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide poisoning is a serious toxicity and results in high mortality rate despite the progress of critical care. After ingestion, phosphine gas is released and absorbed quickly, causing systemic poisoning and cell hypoxia. Excessive thirst, severe hypotension, arrhythmias, tachypnea, and severe metabolic acidosis are the common clinical manifestations. We think acute metabolic response which characteristically occurs in severe injury also happens in aluminum phosphide poisoning. Necropsy examinations indicate congestion in almost all vital organs because of leakage of fluids from intravascular to extravascular space. The most favorable type of fluid for intravascular volume resuscitation persists and is disputed. Colloids remain in the intravascular space rather than crystalloids, and provide more rapid hemodynamic stabilization. Furthermore, hydroxyethyl starch solution may have other benefits e.g. it can reduce the extra vascular leak of albumin and fluids from an endothelial injury site. As refractory hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, because leakage of fluids from intravascular to extravascular space are common cause of death in this toxicity, we propose that hydroxyethyl starch can dominate this refractory hypotension and consequently acute metabolic response.

  19. Acute Lead Exposure Increases Arterial Pressure: Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério F.; Vescovi, Marcos Vinícius A.; de Jesus, Honério C.; Padilha, Alessandra S.; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Salaices, Mercedes; Fioresi, Mirian

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg), and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na+,K+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1) produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL); 2) increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg); 3) increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct); and 4) did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase, AT1 and AT2. Pre-treatment with an AT1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg) or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg) blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg) did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. Conclusion Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:21494558

  20. A QSAR study of acute toxicity of N-substituted fluoroacetamides to rats.

    PubMed

    Juranić, Ivan O; Drakulić, Branko J; Petrović, Slobodan D; Mijin, Dusan Z; Stanković, Milena V

    2006-01-01

    Acute toxicity in vivo toward rats, of nineteen N-alkyl and N-cycloalkyl fluorocetamides [F-CH(2)-C(O)-NH-R] was correlated with their structure-dependent properties. Used descriptors are: molecular weights (M(w)) and heat of formation (DeltaH(f)) of compounds; molar refractivity (CMR), lipophilicity (ClogP), Broto lipol values, virtual logP, molecular lipophilic potential (MLP), Van der Waals surfaces (VdW SAS) and hydropathicity surface (ILM) of whole molecules; Taft steric parameters (E(s)); E(s) values with Hancock corrections (E(s)(CH)) and Verloop sterimol (B(5)) and (L) parameters of alkyl and cycloalkyl residues; superdelocalizabilities and electron densities on the [NH-C(O)-CH(2)-F] fragment. Strong quantitative structure-activity relationships were assessed. Obtained correlation suggested that lipophilicity, shape and bulkiness of the alkyl and cycloalkyl substituents, particular nearest vicinity of the amide nitrogen, as well charges on the amide moiety are the main factors that influence on the acute toxicity of studied compounds toward rats. Mechanism of toxic action was proposed.