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Sample records for acute lead toxicosis

  1. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  2. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  3. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  4. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  5. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  6. Lead Toxicosis in a Southern Ground Hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Katja N; Kemp, Lucy V

    2015-12-01

    The southern ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) has been classified as globally vulnerable and, in South Africa, regionally endangered, with a negative population trend. Factors contributing to the population decline in South Africa are poisoning, electrocution, and illegal capture for trade, coupled with slow reproductive rates and extensive habitat requirements. Lead toxicosis is a previously undescribed threat for the population. An adult southern ground hornbill presented with acute lead toxicosis due to lead particles in the gizzard, which required intensive treatment. Two other hornbills were likely exposed. The source of the lead in these cases was likely a carcass of a porcupine that was killed with lead shot. This report highlights the importance of the use of lead-free ammunition within the habitat of the southern ground hornbill in South Africa.

  7. Lead toxicosis and salt glands in domestic ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiani, S.S.; Rindi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supraorbital nasal glands (salt glands), although present in all birds, have an important functional significance in marine birds and water fowl. In these species, such organs are remarkably developed and it has been demonstrated these nasal glands provide an extra-renal pathway for the excretion of sodium chloride mostly when the environmental conditions oblige these birds to consume quantities of salt greater than their relative ability of renal clearance. In the light of these facts and knowing the interaction of lead on the ATP-ase activity, we have analyzed the nasal glands from domestic ducks lead-dosed, upon various experimental conditions.

  8. Acute monensin toxicosis in Stone sheep (Ovis dalli stonei), blesbok (Damaliscus dorcus phillipsi), and a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Boever, W J; Junge, R E; Thornburg, L P; Raisbeck, M F

    1990-01-01

    Accidental monensin toxicosis developed in 5 Stone sheep (Ovis dalli stonei), 5 blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), and a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) at the St Louis Zoological Park. Eight animals died acutely and 1 was euthanatized because of chronic hind limb paresis. All affected animals had clinicopathologic evidence of severe muscle necrosis, serum electrolyte disturbances, and hemoconcentration. PMID:2295548

  9. Metal toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S W

    2001-12-01

    The ubiquity and stability of metals in the environment make them unique as a pollutant or an essential dietary component. Metals are neither created nor destroyed by chemical processes but are redistributed in the environment. In combination with other elements, metal compounds and alloys are essential materials of the contemporary world. Inappropriate use or distribution in the environment leads to adverse health effects on all biologic systems, including horses. Gastrointestinal upset is a common feature of acute toxicosis with metals in general. Among the metals discussed, arsenic and inorganic mercury have a propensity to do severe damage to the gut. Deposition of cadmium on forage is the source most likely to intoxicate horses. This subchronic to chronic problem in horses is manifest as disease of the musculoskeletal system and kidneys. Iron-containing hematinics are widely used in racetrack horses and occasionally result in hepatopathy when excessive doses are administered. Lead continues to be recognized as the most significant environmental metal pollutant. Poisoning is encountered routinely in humans and animals. Of the animal species of veterinary concern, lead-poisoned horses are not a frequent encounter. Lead-intoxicated horses show signs of peripheral neuropathy (laryngeal hemiplegia), intermittent colic, and mild anemia. Acute mercury poisoning sometimes occurs from the common use of mercury-containing blistering agents, with most clinical findings related to acute renal failure. Chronic excessive intake of zinc by horses is uncommon but devastating in rapidly growing foals. The mechanism of chronic zinc toxicosis is coupled to the induced copper deficiency. The condition is a disease of cartilage in the articular and growth physes.

  10. Lead toxicosis and trace element levels in wild birds and mammals at a firearms training facility.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L A; Poppenga, R J; Davidson, W R; Fischer, J R; Morgan, K A

    2001-08-01

    In May 1999, lead poisoning was diagnosed in a yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) found at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Glynn County, GA, based on detection of 6.2 and 90.0 ppm wet weight (WW) lead in the liver of the warbler and squirrel, respectively. From October 21--26, 1999, 72 wild animals (37 mammals and 35 birds), comprised of 22 different species, were collected from a 24-ha area surrounding the FLETC outdoor firearms shooting range complex to evaluate exposure to lead and other trace elements. Ten animals were used as controls (five mammals and five birds) and were collected from areas 1.5--3 km outside the shooting range area. Kidney and liver tissues were analyzed for lead, zinc, and other trace elements. Bird gizzards and white-tailed deer abomasums were examined grossly and radiographically to detect metallic objects. Twenty-four (33.3%) animals (11 species) had kidney or liver tissue lead levels > 1.00 ppm, and 12 of these (6 species) had levels > 2.00 ppm. Carcasses of one brown-thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) contained lead fragments. Elevated liver tissue levels of zinc (111.0 ppm) were detected in one brown thrasher that also had elevated kidney and liver tissue lead levels. In February 2000, seven yellow-rumped warblers and one solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius) found dead near the FLETC firearms shooting range also were diagnosed with lead poisoning, with liver and kidney tissue lead levels from 1.77--11.6 and 4.55--17.8 ppm WW, respectively. This frequency of elevated tissue lead levels among the animals examined, in combination with confirmed lead toxicosis in both avian and mammalian species at FLETC, indicates significant lead exposure of local wild bird and mammal communities via bullets and fragments in and on the soil surface of the four outdoor ranges. Most FLETC firearms training is being shifted to new baffled ranges

  11. Lead toxicosis of captive vultures: case description and responses to chelation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    CaNa2EDTA therapy, while oxidised glutathione was significantly lower in both pre- and post-treatment birds. A chick in an egg produced by a Cinereous Vulture female two months after lead toxicosis died on day 40 of artificial incubation. Lead concentrations in foetal tissues were consistent with levels causing avian mortality. Conclusions The reported blood parameters and reproduction impairment in captive birds may have implications for professionals dealing with lead exposure in wild birds. PMID:23324224

  12. A rapid postmortem screening test for lead toxicosis in common loons (Gavia immer) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Kornetsky, Rachel; Rock, Meagan; Pokras, Mark

    2013-07-01

    In live animals, lead poisoning can be diagnosed by analyzing blood samples. For postmortem testing, blood samples are not available and analysis of liver or kidney is often used for diagnosis. Liver and kidney analysis is relatively expensive and results might not be quickly available. We examined an inexpensive, rapid method to screen animals for lead toxicosis postmortem by testing the mixture of body fluids (termed "tissue fluids") that pool in the body cavity at necropsy for lead. At necropsy we collected body fluid and liver samples from Common Loon (Gavia immer) and Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) carcasses and determined concentrations of lead in tissue fluid using a desk-top blood lead analyzer. Concentrations of lead in liver were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. There was strong correlation between tissue fluid and liver tissue lead concentrations, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis gave an area under the curve of 0.91, indicating that postmortem measurements of lead in tissue fluids can be utilized as a screening method for lead toxicosis.

  13. A rapid postmortem screening test for lead toxicosis in common loons (Gavia immer) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Kornetsky, Rachel; Rock, Meagan; Pokras, Mark

    2013-07-01

    In live animals, lead poisoning can be diagnosed by analyzing blood samples. For postmortem testing, blood samples are not available and analysis of liver or kidney is often used for diagnosis. Liver and kidney analysis is relatively expensive and results might not be quickly available. We examined an inexpensive, rapid method to screen animals for lead toxicosis postmortem by testing the mixture of body fluids (termed "tissue fluids") that pool in the body cavity at necropsy for lead. At necropsy we collected body fluid and liver samples from Common Loon (Gavia immer) and Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) carcasses and determined concentrations of lead in tissue fluid using a desk-top blood lead analyzer. Concentrations of lead in liver were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. There was strong correlation between tissue fluid and liver tissue lead concentrations, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis gave an area under the curve of 0.91, indicating that postmortem measurements of lead in tissue fluids can be utilized as a screening method for lead toxicosis. PMID:23778630

  14. CHRONICALLY EMBEDDED LEAD PROJECTILES IN WILDLIFE: A CASE SERIES INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL FOR LEAD TOXICOSIS.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, Elise E B; Kagan, Rebecca; Scanlan, Michael; Viner, Tabitha

    2015-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that intramuscularly embedded lead in humans and rats may cause direct plumbism, albeit rarely, and has identified risk factors to this end. To the authors' knowledge, this has not been investigated in wildlife, despite a high incidence of embedded lead in these animals secondary to cynegetic activities. Fourteen wildlife cases submitted to the National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory for cause-of-death determination had chronically embedded lead projectiles that were unrelated to the cause of death. Tissue lead levels were measured in all cases and revealed clinically significant hepatic lead levels in two cases. The results corroborate comparative literature and suggest that embedded lead fragments carry a low risk for direct plumbism, even in the face of risk factors such as fractures, inflammation, and projectile fragmentation. Wildlife morbidity and mortality from embedded lead is more commonly realized secondary to incidental ingestion and ballistic trauma rather than by direct toxicity.

  15. Acute vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) toxicosis in horses: case report and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D D

    1982-04-15

    Acute accidental vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) toxicosis was diagnosed in a 6-month-old foal with extensive lesions of soft tissue mineralization. In an experimental study, three 18-month-old horses were given ergocalciferol per os at a rate of 9,300, 22,200, or 47,200 IU/kg of body weight/day for 21 days. Clinical signs or lesions were not seen in horses given the low and intermediate doses, whereas the horse receiving the highest dose developed clinical signs and lesions similar to those noted in the foal. Signs included depression, loss of appetite, weakness, limb stiffness with impaired mobility, and cessation of growth or weight loss. Gross and histologic lesions of mineralization of various soft tissues, especially of the endocardium and wall of large blood vessels, were seen in the foal and the horse given the high dose. Marked, persistent, hyperphosphatemia (7.0 to 13.0 mg of P/dl of serum) developed in each horse. The horse given the intermediate dose remained normocalcemic. Horses given the low and high doses became hypercalcemic (13.6 to 14.5 mg of Ca/dl of serum), but serum calcium concentrations varied from day to day and both horses were normocalcemic at necropsy (12.4 to 12.7 mg of Ca/dl of serum). Distal metacarpal bone ash concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium of the foal were mg/g of bone ash) 400.5, 180.5, and 5.30, respectively. In the horses, treatment with ergocalciferol also had no significant effect on serum magnesium (1.88 to 2.18 mg/dl of serum) or distal metacarpal bone ash concentrations of calcium (352.5 to 362.5 mg/g of bone ash), phosphorus (182.5 to 184.0 mg/g of bone ash), or magnesium (5.48 to 6.02 mg/g of bone ash).

  16. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  17. Lead toxicosis in tundra swans near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Die-offs of waterfowl have occurred in the Coeur d`Alene River system in northern Idaho since at least the early 1900`s. We investigated causes of mortality and lead and cadmium contamination of 46 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) from 1987 to 1989; an additional 22 swans found dead in 1990 were not examined. We necropsied 43 of the 46 birds found from 1987 to 1989; 38 of these were from the Coeur d`Alene River system, which has been contaminated with mining and smelting wastes for a century, and the other 5 were from a nearby, relatively uncontaminated area. Of the 36 livers of swans from the contaminated area that were analyzed, 32 contained lethal levels of lead (6 to 40 micrograms/g, wet weight) and all birds exhibited several symptoms of lead poisoning, notably enlarged gall bladders containing viscous, darkgreen bile. Only 13% of the lead-poisoned birds (10% when data were included from other studies of swans in the area) contained shot, compared to 95% of lead-poisoning swans in studies outside northern Idaho. Lead concentrations in blood samples from 16 apparently healthy swans (0.5 to 2.3 micrograms/g, and 4 leadpoisoned birds found moribund (1.3 to 9.6 micrograms/g) indicating that tundra swans accumulated high levels of lead from ingestion of sediment that contained up to 8,700 micrograms/g of lead and plants that contained up to 400 micrograms/g. The swans spend only a few weeks in the area staging during the spring migration. The five tundra swans from the uncontaminated area had low levels of lead and essentially no symptoms of lead poisoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Ageratum houstonianum toxicosis in zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Sánchez, Luz María; Durand, Reina

    2004-08-01

    Ageratum houstonianum (Ageratum, flossflower, blue billygoat weed) is an annual plant that tends to become a pest in gardens and pastures. Clinical signs for A. houstonianum toxicosis in cattle are characterized by either an acute hemorrhagic course or sub-acute photodynamic dermatitis. The toxicosis has often been associated with Holstein-Friesian or crossbreed Holstein cattle less resistant to tropical climate conditions. During a recent especially dry spring about 40 adult Zebu cattle were found dead, while another 40/800 animals were sacrificed. The animals had been relocated to the problem area about 4 mo before, where due to the prolonged drought, A. houstonianum was almost exclusively the only pasture available. The intoxicated cattle did not show the characteristic toxic dermatitis reported for A. houstonianum acute toxicosis; but post-mortem examination revealed bloody serous fluid in coccyx-femoral joints and hemorrhages in the large muscle tissues, while liver, kidney and heart also had hemorrhages. To confirm the toxic plant as cause of the toxicosis, phytochemical Qualitative screening and a novel thin-layer chromatographic characterization of plant extracts were done. The chromatographic profiles of coumarin compounds, alkaloids and triterpens in ruminal and intestinal contents were similar to those obtained from A. houstonianum plants from the same area, confirming ingestion of A. houstonianum as cause of the toxicosis. The coincidence of adverse nutritional conditions together with the cattle's ignorance of the grazing area predisposed the plant toxicosis. PMID:15303392

  19. Haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Blundell, R; Adam, F

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of zinc toxicity in a 14-month-old, female, neutered, Cavalier King Charles spaniel with a 48-hour history of haematochezia, icterus and collapse. Regenerative anaemia with a packed-cell volume of 7 per cent was seen. Prior to referral, radiography had revealed a gastric, metallic foreign body which was removed at exploratory laparotomy. On presentation, the dog was comatose, hypothermic and bradycardic - resuscitation was performed successfully, but the dog then displayed marked abdominal pain. The dog died 12 hours after presentation. At postmortem examination, the animal showed severe icterus. Both kidneys were diffusely dark red; the pancreas was diffusely pale and nodular. Histopathological examination revealed evidence of intravascular haemolysis with blood vessel lumens containing haemoglobin. The renal tubules also contained large amounts of intraluminal haemoglobin with haemoglobin crystals scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. The pancreas exhibited multifocal coagulative necrosis, surrounded by a neutrophil-dominated inflammatory infiltrate. Zinc levels were markedly increased above the normal reference range in both liver and kidney. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a case of acute zinc toxicity in a dog following ingestion of a metallic object which resulted in marked haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis.

  20. Experimental lead toxicosis in ponies: comparison of the effects of smelter effluent-contaminated hay and lead acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, G.E.; Borchard, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    Grass hay produced in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin of northern Idaho was fed to a group of 4 ponies. The hay contained Pb in concentration of 423 +/- 82 mg/kg and Cd in concentration of 10.8 +/- 1.4 mg/kg, resulting in daily exposures of the ponies to approximately 7.4 mg of Pb/kg and 0.19 mg of Cd/kg/day. The results in this group of ponies were compared with those from a group fed noncontaminated grass hay and given a daily dose of 10 mg of Pb/kg of body weight, in the form of lead acetate. Clinical toxicologic signs, hematologic changes, and blood and tissue Pb concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. However, the severity of the disease process appeared to be greater in the ponies fed the Pb- and Cd-contaminated hay. This was shown clearly by the shorter interval between onset of clinical changes and death in the ponies fed contaminated hay. The possibility of multiple heavy metal effects is discussed. Clinical toxicologic signs observed include incoordination, labial paresis, pharyngeal paresis, CNS depression, anorexia, and body weight loss. Anemia or marginal anemia was common and was often accompanied by the appearance of nucleated RBC and Howell-Jolly bodies in peripheral blood. Neither the hematologic response nor the blood Pb concentrations were reflective of the severity of poisoning, although blood Pb concentrations were greater than 0.35 micrograms/ml once clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Liver, kidney, spleen, brain, and bone Pb concentrations and liver, kidney, and brain Cd concentrations were increased in both the ponies fed contaminated hay and the ponies given lead acetate.

  1. Ethylene glycol toxicosis in adult beef cattle fed contaminated feeds

    PubMed Central

    Barigye, Robert; Mostrom, Michelle; Dyer, Neil W.; Newell, Teresa K.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    Acute deaths of cows held in a drylot and fed several crop processing plant by-products were investigated. Clinical signs in affected cows included diarrhea, ataxia, recumbency, hypersalivation, and sunken eyes. A histological diagnosis of ethylene glycol toxicosis, based on numerous birefringent crystals in renal tubules, was supported by toxicologic findings. PMID:19119372

  2. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; De Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted. PMID:24155427

  3. Ingluviotomy tube placement for lead-induced crop stasis in the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Roberto F; Yoshicedo, Jill N; Parish, Chris N

    2012-09-01

    Six free-flying California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) were diagnosed with acute lead toxicosis that caused crop distension and stasis. Between January 2006 and January 2007, the birds were referred to the Phoenix Zoo in Arizona for emergency treatment. In 5 birds, an ingluviotomy was performed to place a feeding tube from the crop to the proventriculus, which allowed a temporary bypass of the dysfunctional esophagus until normal function and motility were regained. A crop-support pressure bandage was placed in 4 birds to improve crop emptying into the proventriculus and to prevent crop distension. Although chelation therapy is the gold standard treatment for lead toxicosis, severe cases of lead-induced crop stasis are not acutely reversible with pharmaceuticals. In these condors, placement of a feeding tube was deemed prudent to ensure a viable enteric route of nutritional support during the standard treatment and recovery period in acute lead toxicosis with crop stasis.

  4. Ingluviotomy tube placement for lead-induced crop stasis in the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Roberto F; Yoshicedo, Jill N; Parish, Chris N

    2012-09-01

    Six free-flying California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) were diagnosed with acute lead toxicosis that caused crop distension and stasis. Between January 2006 and January 2007, the birds were referred to the Phoenix Zoo in Arizona for emergency treatment. In 5 birds, an ingluviotomy was performed to place a feeding tube from the crop to the proventriculus, which allowed a temporary bypass of the dysfunctional esophagus until normal function and motility were regained. A crop-support pressure bandage was placed in 4 birds to improve crop emptying into the proventriculus and to prevent crop distension. Although chelation therapy is the gold standard treatment for lead toxicosis, severe cases of lead-induced crop stasis are not acutely reversible with pharmaceuticals. In these condors, placement of a feeding tube was deemed prudent to ensure a viable enteric route of nutritional support during the standard treatment and recovery period in acute lead toxicosis with crop stasis. PMID:23156980

  5. Euthyroid ''thyroxine toxicosis''

    SciTech Connect

    Mankikar, G.D.; Clark, A.N.

    1981-07-01

    A survey was made of thyroid function tests on 1,153 patients screened for thyroid disease during a two-year period in a Geriatric Department; 13 percent of the test results fell outside the normal range. Of 88 patients who showed above-normal results, only 12 presented with clinical features of thyrotoxicosis. In 37 patients, the biochemical findings indicated euthyroid ''thyroxine toxicosis''; high values were found for serum thyroxine (T4) and the free thyroxine index (FT4I) but there were no clinical signs or symptoms of thyrotoxicosis; the values reverted to normal within one to three weeks. This pattern was seen also in 7 examples of T4-treated hypothyroidism. (Overall, the test findings indicated 61 cases of hypothyroidism.) The significance of this transient increase in T4 and FT4I values is discussed. The false positive results suggest that, when laboratory findings are not compatible with the clinical signs, the thyroid function tests should be repeated after another two weeks.

  6. Airborne outbreak of trichothecene toxicosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, William A.; Jarvis, Bruce B.; Yatawara, C. S.

    A heavy infestation of Stachybotrys atra in a house in suburban Chicago has caused chronic health problems for the members of the household. Extracts of the S. atra contaminated household material proved toxic to animals; from these extracts were isolated several highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. After the contaminated duct work, insulation and building material had been replaced, the members of the household no longer complained of illnesses suggestive of trichothecene toxicosis.

  7. Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L A; Kelch, W J

    1998-08-01

    Four of approximately 15 dry cows introduced on a 10-acre fescue-clover-orchard grass-Dallis grass pasture in East Tennessee became recumbent. Clinical findings included depression, muscle tremors, increased heart and respiratory rates, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and elevated creatinine phosphokinase. Three cows recovered; 1 died. Differential diagnoses considered were hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, rabies and toxicoses from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed), Quercus spp (oak), Cassia spp (senna) oxalate (Aspergillus niger or flavus), mycotoxicosis, lead, arsenic or insecticides. Pigweed toxicosis was confirmed based on clinical and postmortem findings, partially ingested pigweed in the pasture, and ruling out other possible causes. Several factors probably contributed to this incident: since the cattle were newly introduced to the pasture, the cattle may have been attracted to the pigweed in the new pasture and became addicted to it; their rumen microflora had little time to acclimate to the pigweed; and dry weather produced poor forage quality thus forcing the cows to eat the pigweed.

  8. Mushroom toxicosis in dogs in general practice causing gastroenteritis, ptyalism and elevated serum lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Barton, L

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom toxicosis is rarely diagnosed in dogs and is poorly reported in the veterinary literature. This report suggests that mushroom toxicosis is a potentially under-diagnosed condition in first opinion practice in the UK. Nine dogs with clinical signs consistent with mushroom toxicosis were identified from the records of an out-of-hours emergency service between August 2010 and January 2011. Four dogs were later excluded because of clinical inconsistencies. Clinical signs included acute profuse ptyalism (5/5), diarrhoea (5/5), vomiting (4/5), hypovolaemia (4/5), stuporous (3/5) or obtunded mentation (1/5), miosis (2/5) and hypothermia (2/5). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4/4 dogs; canine-specific pancreatic lipase was elevated in the remaining dog. Four dogs recovered with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and supportive care; the remaining dog was euthanased due to severe clinical signs and financial constraints. Mushroom toxicosis is an important differential diagnosis for acute gastroenteritis and one possible cause of some cases of "Seasonal Canine Illness". Affected dogs may demonstrate elevated pancreatic enzymes and mushroom toxicosis should be considered in cases of elevated lipase or abnormal semi-quantitative canine-specific pancreatic lipase activities.

  9. A retrospective study of daylily toxicosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Hadley, R M; Richardson, J A; Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2003-02-01

    The Easter, Japanese, stargazer and tiger lilies (Lilium sp) are nephrotoxic to cats. This study examined risks posed to cats by the common daylily (Hemerocallis sp: H. dumortierei, H. fulvi, H. graminea, H. seiboldii) following ingestion. Records describing ingestion of Hemerocallis sp between January 1998 and June 2002 were reviewed for signalment, quantity ingested, clinical signs (onset, severity, duration), treatments administered, and outcome. Twenty-two cases of confirmed exposure resulting in toxicosis were evaluated. Cats that ingest daylilies are at risk for gastrointestinal distress and acute renal failure. Successful treatment can be accomplished with early decontamination and aggressive fluid therapy. PMID:12583697

  10. Bovine arsenic toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Neiger, Regg; Nelson, Nicole; Miskimins, Dale; Caster, Jim; Caster, Larry

    2004-09-01

    A ranch in central South Dakota had a number of dead calves because of arsenic poisoning. The clinical picture included diarrhea, central nervous system signs, and death. Gross necropsy findings included adequate body fat, stomachs full of normal-appearing ingesta, and large amounts of greenish brown watery fluid in the intestine and colon. Microscopically there was severe lymphoid tissue necrosis in the mesenteric lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Chemical analysis of kidneys showed no significant amounts of lead; however, kidney arsenic concentrations were 25 to 44 ppm. The source was a small pile of Paris Green (common name for cupric acetoarsenite) found in an old dump site in the pasture.

  11. Animal Models of Ricin Toxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kejing; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Gardner, Donald J.; Pincus, Seth H.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of ricin toxicosis are necessary for testing the efficacy of therapeutic measures, as well studying the mechanisms by which ricin exerts its toxicity in intact animals. Because ricin can serve as a particularly well-characterized model of tissue damage, and the host response to that damage, studies of the mechanisms of ricin toxicity may have more general applicability. For example, our studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ricin-induced hypoglycemia may help elucidate the relationship of type II diabetes, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Studies in non-human primates are most relevant for testing and developing agents having clinical utility. But these animals are expensive and limited in quantity, and so rodents are used for most mechanistic studies. PMID:21956160

  12. Bovine arsenic toxicosis from ingestion of ashed copper-chrome-arsenate treated timber.

    PubMed

    Hullinger, G; Sangster, L; Colvin, B; Frazier, K

    1998-06-01

    Arsenic toxicosis is reported in a variety of animal species. It occurs most commonly in cattle and ranks second only to lead as a cause of heavy metal poisoning. We describe a case of arsenic toxicosis attributable to ingestion of ashes from burned posts treated with an arsenic-containing preservative. Burning of the posts concentrated the arsenic and rendered lethal a product normally used around livestock. Lack of normal salt supplementation to the herd was conducive to pica-like behavior and ingestion of toxic ashes. Rapid diagnosis led to removal of the arsenic source and limited losses to 4 cows.

  13. Bovine arsenic toxicosis from ingestion of ashed copper-chrome-arsenate treated timber.

    PubMed

    Hullinger, G; Sangster, L; Colvin, B; Frazier, K

    1998-06-01

    Arsenic toxicosis is reported in a variety of animal species. It occurs most commonly in cattle and ranks second only to lead as a cause of heavy metal poisoning. We describe a case of arsenic toxicosis attributable to ingestion of ashes from burned posts treated with an arsenic-containing preservative. Burning of the posts concentrated the arsenic and rendered lethal a product normally used around livestock. Lack of normal salt supplementation to the herd was conducive to pica-like behavior and ingestion of toxic ashes. Rapid diagnosis led to removal of the arsenic source and limited losses to 4 cows. PMID:9610492

  14. Bile duct lesions associated with turnip (Brassica rapa) photosensitization compared with those due to sporidesmin toxicosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Collett, M G

    2014-09-01

    Cattle grazing turnips or other brassica forage crops occasionally develop hepatogenous photosensitization. In New Zealand, cases of bovine photosensitization associated with such crops frequently occur during late summer and fall, and this coincides with the facial eczema (sporidesmin toxicosis) "season." Clinical chemistry findings in acute photosensitization cases associated with both brassica and facial eczema include marked serum elevations in γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities. Distinctive bile duct lesions of "subacute" turnip photosensitization in 2 cows, comprising microscopic cholangiectasis with concentric periductal fibrosis of small bile ducts, and a spectrum of changes from bile duct necrosis progressing to obliterative sclerosis are described. These bile duct lesions are compared with those in 3 cases of "subacute" facial eczema in adult cows, where medium-sized and larger ducts tend to be involved and bile duct hyperplasia and portal fibrosis are more prominent, often leading to bridging between neighboring portal triads.

  15. Zinc toxicosis in a captive striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena).

    PubMed

    Agnew, D W; Barbiers, R B; Poppenga, R H; Watson, G L

    1999-09-01

    An 11-yr-old captive-born female striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) acutely developed lameness and swelling of the left front foot with anorexia, depression, and lethargy. Hematologic evaluation revealed regenerative anemia, azotemia, and other mild serum electrolyte and mineral abnormalities. Twenty radiographically visible coins and 10 coin fragments were removed by laparotomy and gastrotomy following unsuccessful medical therapy. The animal died during anesthetic recovery. Zinc serum levels were 41.0 ppm at first presentation and 36.0 ppm at the time of surgery, compared with concentrations of 1.78 ppm and 2.82 ppm for serum taken from this female and a male hyena 3 mo previously. Zinc toxicosis was diagnosed based on the similarity of clinical signs to those described in dogs, presence in the stomach of pennies minted after 1982 (when the zinc content of U.S. pennies was increased substantially), necropsy findings, and elevated serum and liver zinc values. The case highlights the risk posed by penny ingestion for subsequent zinc toxicosis in captive omnivores.

  16. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in a beef herd.

    PubMed

    Faires, Meredith C

    2004-04-01

    Over a 44-day period, 4 of 5 affected calves in a 170-head herd of beef cattle died after exhibiting clinical signs of lethargy, ataxia, anorexia, and diarrhea. Histopathological examination of tissues and toxicological analysis of a suspicious powder discovered in the pasture confirmed arsenic trioxide toxicosis.

  17. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  18. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  19. Toxicosis in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    BELASCU, MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim We present a new clinical entity in relation to the Helicobacter pylori infection characterized by complex and varied clinical extra-digestive manifestations. Clinical findings such as asthenia, adynamia, sleep disorders, hair and nails modifications, digestive symptoms and heart rhythm disorders describe the clinical aspect of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods The clinical presentation and therapy of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were analyzed. Results Combined drug therapy: antibiotics + proton pump inhibitors + colloidal bismuth compound determinate remission of the symptoms in the first 3 to 5 days. The characteristic of the relation between Helicobacter pylori and the mucus-epithelial cell complex, the properties of the bacterial cell components, and the inflammatory and immunological response targeting other organs describe the immuno-pathological outbreak of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion We support the term of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in selected cases. PMID:26527950

  20. Copper toxicosis in a Boer goat.

    PubMed

    Cregar, Laura C; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Ringen, Davin R; Evans, Tim J; Johnson, Gayle C; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented with a 1-day history of pigmenturia, anorexia, and shivering. Anemia was not present initially, but progressive hemolytic anemia developed subsequently and was characterized by the finding of Heinz bodies in both intact RBCs and in ghost cells and the presence of atypical fusiform RBCs. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase, hyperbilirubinemia, and azotemia. Histopathologic examination of a liver biopsy revealed necrosis of individual hepatocytes and intracytoplasmic rhodamine-positive granules, consistent with copper. Copper concentration in ante-mortem hepatic tissue was increased, and a diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made. Despite supportive therapy, the goat continued to decline and was euthanized. Necropsy findings included hepatic necrosis and hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Freshly collected specimens of liver and kidney had markedly increased copper concentrations. The mineral composition of the water, grass hay, and goat chow was evaluated, and toxins and significant mineral imbalances were not found. The underlying cause of the hepatic accumulation and subsequent release of copper remains unclear in this goat. Recently, Boer goats have been recognized as being prone to copper toxicosis and may be more susceptible than other breeds; similar to sheep, Boer goats may experience a hemolytic crisis secondary to copper toxicosis.

  1. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Riviere, J E; Boosinger, T R; Everson, R J

    1981-03-01

    In 4 occurrences of arsenic poisoning in cattle, the principal clinical sign was acute hemorrhagic diarrhea attributable to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and rumen contents varied. In one occurrence, arsenic in the hair of affected survivors was assayed at 0.8-3.40 ppm, vs 0.09-0.10 ppm in randomly selected control samples of hair. Sudden death was the only clinical sign in another occurrence in which gastric contents contained arsenic at 671 ppm. In another occurrence, arsenic poisoning caused lesions similar to those of salmonellosis.

  2. Curious case of calciphylaxis leading to acute mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Gallimore, Grant Gardner; Curtis, Blair; Smith, Andria; Benca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is uncommon and typically seen in patients with end-stage renal disease. It has been defined as a vasculopathic disorder characterised by cutaneous ischaemia and necrosis due to calcification, intimal fibroplasia and thrombosis of pannicular arterioles. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage III who developed calciphylaxis leading to mitral valve calcification, chordae tendineae rupture and acute mitral regurgitation. Although an alternative explanation can typically be found for non-uraemic calciphylaxis, her evaluation did not reveal any usual non-uraemic causes including elevated calcium–phosphorus product, hyperparathyroidism, or evidence of connective tissue disease. Her wounds improved with sodium thiosulfate, pamidronate, penicillin and hyperbaric oxygen therapies but she ultimately decompensated with the onset of acute mitral regurgitation attributed to rupture of a previously calcified chordae tendineae. This case highlights an unusual case of calciphylaxis without clear precipitant as well as a novel manifestation of the disease. PMID:24789150

  3. Rapid behavioural diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Peter; Reichmuth, Colleen; Gulland, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Domoic acid is a neurotoxic metabolite of widely occurring algal blooms that has caused multiple marine animal stranding events. Exposure to high doses of domoic acid, a glutamate agonist, may lead to persistent medial temporal seizures and damage to the hippocampus. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are among the most visible and frequent mammalian victims of domoic acid poisoning, but rapid, reliable diagnosis in a clinical setting has proved difficult owing to the fast clearance of the toxin from the blood stream. Here, we show that the behavioural orienting responses of stranded sea lions diagnosed with domoic acid toxicosis habituate more slowly to a series of non-aversive auditory stimuli than do those of sea lions with no apparent neurological deficits. A signal detection analysis based on these habituation measures was able to correctly identify 50 per cent of subjects with domoic acid toxicosis while correctly rejecting approximately 93 per cent of controls, suggesting potential diagnostic merit. PMID:21389016

  4. Rapid behavioural diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter; Reichmuth, Colleen; Gulland, Frances

    2011-08-23

    Domoic acid is a neurotoxic metabolite of widely occurring algal blooms that has caused multiple marine animal stranding events. Exposure to high doses of domoic acid, a glutamate agonist, may lead to persistent medial temporal seizures and damage to the hippocampus. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are among the most visible and frequent mammalian victims of domoic acid poisoning, but rapid, reliable diagnosis in a clinical setting has proved difficult owing to the fast clearance of the toxin from the blood stream. Here, we show that the behavioural orienting responses of stranded sea lions diagnosed with domoic acid toxicosis habituate more slowly to a series of non-aversive auditory stimuli than do those of sea lions with no apparent neurological deficits. A signal detection analysis based on these habituation measures was able to correctly identify 50 per cent of subjects with domoic acid toxicosis while correctly rejecting approximately 93 per cent of controls, suggesting potential diagnostic merit. PMID:21389016

  5. Selenium toxicosis in three California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Whitenack, D L; Alexander, J W; Solangi, M A

    1989-12-01

    Selenium poisoning occurs worldwide in nearly all domestic animals. Acute selenium poisoning is associated with feeding high levels or injecting excessive amounts of selenium and is usually fatal. The acute poisoning may cause gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle weakness, depression of the central nervous system, prostration and death (1-2). Chronic selenium poisoning in cattle, sheep and horses may result from the consumption of seleniferous plants over an extended period of time. Chronic selenium results in ataxia, incoordination, partial blindness, paralysis, loss of hair or wool, abnormal hoof growth and possibly abnormal changes in behavior (1). There is little information regarding the clinical signs and pathology of selenium toxicosis in marine mammals. Likewise, there is little information regarding normal tissue levels or toxicologically significant levels of selenium in these species. The results of these investigations in sea lions, based on clinical signs, pathologic findings and tissue levels of selenium, suggest subacute or chronic selenium poisoning was most likely from dietary fish high in selenium. PMID:2617840

  6. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Altier, Craig; Bischoff, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Acer rubrum (red maple), especially when wilted in the fall, cause severe oxidative damage to equine erythrocytes, leading to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Gallic acid and tannins from A. rubrum leaves have been implicated as the toxic compounds responsible for red maple toxicosis, but the mechanism of action and toxic principle(s) have not been elucidated to date. In order to investigate further how red maple toxicosis occurs, aqueous solutions of gallic acid, tannic acid, and ground dried A. rubrum leaves were incubated with contents of equine ileum, jejunum, cecum, colon, and liver, and then analyzed for the metabolite pyrogallol, as pyrogallol is a more potent oxidizing agent. Gallic acid was observed to be metabolized to pyrogallol maximally in equine ileum contents in the first 24 hr. Incubation of tannic acid and A. rubrum leaves, individually with ileum contents, produced gallic acid and, subsequently, pyrogallol. Ileum suspensions, when passed through a filter to exclude microbes but not enzymes, formed no pyrogallol, suggesting a microbial basis to the pathway. Bacteria isolated from ileum capable of pyrogallol formation were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, gallotannins and free gallic acid are present in A. rubrum leaves and can be metabolized by K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae found in the equine ileum to form pyrogallol either directly or through a gallic acid intermediate (gallotannins). Identification of these compounds and their physiological effects is necessary for the development of effective treatments for red maple toxicosis in equines.

  7. Arsenic toxicosis and suspected chromium toxicosis in a herd of cattle.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, C D; Meldrum, J B; Wikse, S E; Whittier, W D

    1985-07-15

    Arsenic toxicosis and suspected chromium toxicosis were diagnosed in a herd of cattle that ingested ashes from lumber treated with copper, chromium, and arsenic. Findings included peracute death, depression, ataxia, weakness, recumbency, and watery diarrhea. Chemical analyses of liver, kidney, abomasal contents, rumen contents, and ashes revealed high concentrations of arsenic and chromium. Histologically, specimens of abomasum and duodenum had diffuse mucosal degeneration and engorged capillaries. Epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules and distal collecting tubules of the kidney were swollen and had mild granular cytoplasmic degeneration. Burning lumber treated with copper, chromium, and arsenic does not remove the heavy metals from them, and ingestion of the ashes from the wood constitutes a hazard to livestock health.

  8. Acute lead poisoning in nursing home and psychiatric patients from the ingestion of lead-based ceramic glazes.

    PubMed

    Vance, M V; Curry, S C; Bradley, J M; Kunkel, D B; Gerkin, R D; Bond, G R

    1990-10-01

    To our knowledge, acute inorganic lead poisoning from single ingestions of lead compounds has been only rarely reported. During a 14-month period, we were contacted regarding eight instances of acute ingestions of liquid lead-based ceramic glazes by mentally impaired residents of nursing homes or psychiatric facilities participating in ceramic arts programs. While some ingestions did not cause toxic effects, some patients developed acute lead poisoning characterized by abdominal pain, anemia, and basophilic stippling of red blood cells. In the blood of several patients, lead concentrations were far above normal (4 to 9.5 mumol/L). Urinary lead excretions were tremendously elevated during chelation therapy, with one patient excreting 535.9 mumol/L of lead during a 6-day period, the largest lead excretion ever reported in a patient suffering from acute lead poisoning, to our knowledge. All patients recovered following supportive care and appropriate use of chelating agents. Lead-based glazes are commonly found in nursing homes and psychiatric facilities. We suspect that acute or chronic lead poisoning from the ingestion(s) of lead-based ceramic glazes may be an unrecognized but not uncommon problem among such residents. We urge physicians to take ingestions of lead-based glazes seriously and to consider the diagnosis of lead poisoning in nursing home and psychiatric patients who have participated in ceramic crafts programs. PMID:2222094

  9. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aman; Wanchu, Ajay; Mahesha, V; Sakhuja, V; Bambery, Pradeep; Singh, Surjit

    2006-01-01

    Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis). He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function PMID:17118188

  10. Hepatocellular toxicosis associated with the alternate administration of carprofen and meloxicam in a siberian husky.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Yamagami, Tetsushi; Takemura, Naoyuki

    2005-10-01

    A 4-year-old female Siberian Husky was diagnosed with pyogranulomatous steatitis at the site of a recurrence of left anal sac rupture (day 1). Carprofen and orbifloxacin were given for 13 days without improvement. A single dose of meloxicam was administered prior to surgical resection of the anal sac, and based on elevated liver enzyme activity, liver supportive therapy was initiated. The dog received carprofen and orbifloxacin orally on the evening of day 14. The dog became anorectic the following morning, and began vomiting. Despite supportive therapy, the dog was unresponsive to treatment and died on day 16. Postmortem examination revealed severe vacuolar change and acute necrosis of hepatocytes consistent with carprofen and meloxicam induced-toxicosis.

  11. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S.; Evans, Tim J.; Rucker, Ed; Rottinghaus, George E.; Spiers, Donald E.

    2008-03-15

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.

  12. VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE) TOXICOSIS IN FALCONS.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Perlman, Janine; Kinne, Jörg; Baskar, Vijay; Wernery, Ulrich; Dorrestein, Gerry

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections. Three individuals vomited frothy, partially digested blood and had clonic spasms and convulsions. Postmortem and histopathology revealed multifocal severe hepatic necrosis, splenic lymphoid tissue depletion and hemorrhages with arterial necrosis, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Following administration of a different, oral, mineral-vitamin supplement, a total of 21 peregrine falcons in two separate European facilities died suddenly. Histology of the liver showed diffuse congestion and multifocal coagulative necrosis with mild infiltration of heterophils. The particular nutritional supplement, used by both breeders, was analyzed and found to contain 5-9.7% Vit B6. Other randomly selected lots of the product contained 0.007-0.27% Vit B6. According to the product label, Vit B6 should have been present at 0.004%. To confirm the hypothesis that Vit B6 was responsible for the deaths of the falcons in Abu Dhabi, Vit B6 (British Pharmacopoeia [BP] grade) in powder form was diluted in water for injection and administered IM to four groups of falcons. Groups of four gyrfalcon × peregrine hybrid falcons or gyrfalcons (or both) were given a single IM dose of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg of Vit B6 or received an oral dose of 25, 50, or 75 mg of Vit B6. Only birds in the lowest

  13. VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE) TOXICOSIS IN FALCONS.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Perlman, Janine; Kinne, Jörg; Baskar, Vijay; Wernery, Ulrich; Dorrestein, Gerry

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections. Three individuals vomited frothy, partially digested blood and had clonic spasms and convulsions. Postmortem and histopathology revealed multifocal severe hepatic necrosis, splenic lymphoid tissue depletion and hemorrhages with arterial necrosis, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Following administration of a different, oral, mineral-vitamin supplement, a total of 21 peregrine falcons in two separate European facilities died suddenly. Histology of the liver showed diffuse congestion and multifocal coagulative necrosis with mild infiltration of heterophils. The particular nutritional supplement, used by both breeders, was analyzed and found to contain 5-9.7% Vit B6. Other randomly selected lots of the product contained 0.007-0.27% Vit B6. According to the product label, Vit B6 should have been present at 0.004%. To confirm the hypothesis that Vit B6 was responsible for the deaths of the falcons in Abu Dhabi, Vit B6 (British Pharmacopoeia [BP] grade) in powder form was diluted in water for injection and administered IM to four groups of falcons. Groups of four gyrfalcon × peregrine hybrid falcons or gyrfalcons (or both) were given a single IM dose of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg of Vit B6 or received an oral dose of 25, 50, or 75 mg of Vit B6. Only birds in the lowest

  14. Fenvalerate/N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet) toxicosis in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dorman, D C; Buck, W B; Trammel, H L; Jones, R D; Beasley, V R

    1990-01-01

    Toxicosis attributable to fenvalerate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet) exposure was suspected in 2 cats. Clinical signs of toxicosis developed within 4 to 6 hours of dermal application of the pesticide. Clinical signs of toxicosis seen in both cats included hypersalivation, ataxia, and depression. In addition, seizures were seen in 1 cat. Both cats died. Analysis of skin, kidney/urine, liver, and brain tissues confirmed the presence of fenvalerate and Deet. The pyrethroid fenvalerate and the insect repellent Deet are used for the control of fleas and ticks on cats. Suspected fenvalerate/Deet toxicosis in cats is associated with tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, vomiting, depression, and seizures. PMID:2295539

  15. Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, T; Mazet, J.A.K; Zabka, T.S; Langlois, G; Colegrove, K.M; Silver, M; Bargu, S; Van Dolah, F; Leighfield, T; Conrad, P.A; Barakos, J; Williams, D.C; Dennison, S; Haulena, M; Gulland, F.M.D

    2007-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms are increasing worldwide, including those of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. producing domoic acid off the California coast. This neurotoxin was first shown to cause mortality of marine mammals in 1998. A decade of monitoring California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) health since then has indicated that changes in the symptomatology and epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in this species are associated with the increase in toxigenic blooms. Two separate clinical syndromes now exist: acute domoic acid toxicosis as has been previously documented, and a second novel neurological syndrome characterized by epilepsy described here associated with chronic consequences of previous sub-lethal exposure to the toxin. This study indicates that domoic acid causes chronic damage to California sea lions and that these health effects are increasing. PMID:18006409

  16. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions.

  17. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Borelli, Vanessa; Lucioli, Joelma; Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Hoepers, Patrícia Giovana; Roveda, Juliano Fleck; Traverso, Sandra Davi; Gava, Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions. PMID:19407101

  18. Confirmed 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Annie V; Bagley, Rodney S; Talcott, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year-old, intact male Weimaraner was evaluated for episodic extensor rigidity and a stiff gait of 24 hours' duration. Percussion of the proximal appendicular muscles with a reflex hammer resulted in formation of dimples consistent with myotonia. Electromyography identified myotonic potentials. Residues of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were detected in both serum and urine. The dog was treated with intravenous fluid therapy for 36 hours, and clinical signs improved dramatically. Toxicosis with 2,4-D should be considered a differential for acquired myotonia in dogs with or without systemic signs. Exposed dogs with only clinical signs of myotonia can have good clinical outcomes. A confirmed clinical case of 2,4-D toxicosis in the dog has not previously been reported.

  19. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    PubMed

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause. PMID:27364782

  20. Fumonisin toxicosis in swine: an overview of porcine pulmonary edema and current perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Haschek, W M; Gumprecht, L A; Smith, G; Tumbleson, M E; Constable, P D

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisin toxicosis in swine was named porcine pulmonary edema (PPE) after outbreaks of a fatal disease in pigs fed Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme)-contaminated corn screenings from the 1989 corn crop in Iowa, Illinois, and Georgia. Pigs that died had severe pulmonary edema, which has not been identified in other species after exposure to fumonisins. The disease has been reproduced experimentally by feeding of naturally contaminated corn, F. verticillioides culture material, and by intravenous administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Hepatic lesions consisting of apoptosis, necrosis, and hepatocyte proliferation also are observed. As in other species, alterations in clinical pathology reflect hepatic injury as well as elevated serum cholesterol concentration. In chronic studies, esophageal plaques, hyperplastic hepatic nodules, and right ventricular hypertrophy were found. In pigs, as in other species, fumonisin alters sphingolipid biosynthesis, with the greatest alterations in sphingosine and sphinganine concentrations in kidney, liver, lung, and heart. Our recent studies on fumonisin toxicosis in pigs have focused on immune effects and the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. The specific immune system was not affected; however, FB1 inhibited phagocytosis and sphingolipid biosynthesis in pulmonary macrophages. Fumonisin induced an accumulation of membranous material in pulmonary capillary endothelial cells; this change appears specific to this cell type and to swine. In short-term cardiovascular studies, fumonisin decreased left ventricular dP/dt(max) (an index of cardiac contractility), mean systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output, and increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. These changes are compatible with the inhibition of L-type calcium channels by increased sphingosine and/or sphinganine concentration. Therefore, fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine appears to result from acute left

  1. Acute perforation in spite of implantation with an "antiperforation" defibrillator lead.

    PubMed

    Chien, Walter W; Chin, John

    2009-12-01

    A 74-year-old male underwent implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator per multicenter automatic defibrillator trial two criteria. The new St. Jude Medical Riata STS Durata defibrillator lead (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) was used. This lead has a slight curve at the right ventricle shock coil and a silicone tip designed to decrease tip pressure at the endocardium interface. We presented a case of acute perforation during implantation of this lead. The patient was treated with pericardiocentesis and recovered.

  2. Simulation of LV pacemaker lead in marginal vein: potential risk factors for acute dislodgement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Burger, Mike; Liu, Yi; Das, Mithilesh K; Combs, William; Wenk, Jonathan F; Guccione, Julius M; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2011-03-01

    Although left ventricular (LV) coronary sinus lead dislodgement remains a problem, the risk factors for dislodgement have not been clearly defined. In order to identify potential risk factors for acute lead dislodgement, we conducted dynamic finite element simulations of pacemaker lead dislodgement in marginal LV vein. We considered factors such as mismatch in lead and vein diameters, velocity of myocardial motion, branch angle between the insertion vein and the coronary sinus, degree of slack, and depth of insertion. The results show that large lead-to-vein diameter mismatch, rapid myocardial motion, and superficial insertion are potential risk factors for lead dislodgement. In addition, the degree of slack presents either a positive or negative effect on dislodgement risk depending on the branch angle. The prevention of acute lead dislodgment can be enforced by inducing as much static friction force as possible at the lead-vein interface, while reducing the external force. If the latter exceeds the former, dislodgement will occur. The present findings underscore the major risk factors for lead dislodgment, which may improve implantation criterion and future lead design. PMID:21303182

  3. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: dietary exposure, tissue concentrations, and macroscopic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Green, D.E.; Sanderson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    A feeding study with mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was conducted during March-July, 1988 in Laurel, Maryland, to identify diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in birds. One-year-old male mallards in groups of 21 were fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 parts per million (ppm) selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, for 16 weeks. All ducks receiving 80 ppm died. Ducks receiving 40 or 80 ppm selenium consumed less feed than ducks in the other treatment groups. Body weights of ducks receiving 40 or 80 ppm selenium declined during the study. The post-breeding molt was delayed in ducks receiving 40 ppm; most ducks receiving 80 ppm selenium died prior to the onset of molt. At necropsy, numerous abnormalities were observed in ducks that died but only a small number of abnormalities were observed in ducks surviving to the end of the study in the 40 ppm group. Weights of the heart, spleen, and pancreas were mostly lower and weights of the kidney were higher for ducks dying during the study than for euthanized ducks. Liver weights were unaffected. Selenium accumulated in soft tissues approximately in proportion to dietary concentrations. Selenium concentrations in tissues of all ducks that died were different from those of surviving ducks in the 0, 10, and 20 ppm groups, but were not different from those of surviving ducks in the 40 ppm group. Proposed diagnostic criteria for fatal chronic selenosis were derived from body weight, macroscopic abnormalities, organ weights, and concentrations of selenium in the liver. Proposed diagnostic criteria for non-fatal chronic selenosis were derived from body weight, plumage condition, macroscopic abnormalities, concentrations of selenium in the liver, reproductive failure, and alterations of blood and tissue chemistries. Lead or dioxin poisoning have diagnostic criteria most similar to selenium toxicosis.

  4. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in acute lead encephalopathy: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, T W; Mushak, P; O'Tuama, L A; Krigman, M R

    1975-12-01

    Acute lead encephalopathy was induced in adult guinea pigs by administering daily oral doses of lead carbonate. During the development of the encephalopathy, the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier was evaluated with electron microscopy and tracer probes. Blood, cerebral gray matter, liver, and kidney were analyzed for lead, calcium, and magnesium content. The animals regularly developed an encephalopathy after four doses of lead. There were no discernible pathomorphologic alterations in the cerebral capillaries or perivascular glial sheaths. Furthermore, no evidence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction was demonstrated with Evans blue-albumin complex or horseradish peroxidase. Blood-brain barrier permeability to radiolead was not increased in the intoxicated animals. During the development of the encephalopathy there was a progressive rise in the lead concentration in all tissues. Concurrently, there was a significant rise in brain calcium. These results suggest that the encephalopathic effects of lead may be mediated directly at the neuronal level.

  5. Metalloproteinase Inhibition Protects against Reductions in Circulating Adrenomedullin during Lead-induced Acute Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Regina A; Mendes, Gabryella; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Kushima, Hélio; Delella, Flavia K; Dias-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    Intoxication with lead (Pb) results in increased blood pressure by mechanisms involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recent findings have revealed that MMP type two (MMP-2) seems to cleave vasoactive peptides. This study examined whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activities increase after acute intoxication with low lead concentrations and whether these changes were associated with increases in blood pressure and circulating endothelin-1 or with reductions in circulating adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Here, we expand previous findings and examine whether doxycycline (a MMPs inhibitor) affects these alterations. Wistar rats received intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1st dose 8 μg/100 g of lead (or sodium) acetate, a subsequent dose of 0.1 μg/100 g to cover daily loss and treatment with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water by gavage for 7 days. Similar whole-blood lead levels (9 μg/dL) were found in lead-exposed rats treated with either doxycycline or water. Lead-induced increases in systolic blood pressure (from 143 ± 2 to 167 ± 3 mmHg) and gelatin zymography of plasma samples showed that lead increased MMP-9 (but not MMP-2) levels. Both lead-induced increased MMP-9 activity and hypertension were blunted by doxycycline. Doxycycline also prevented lead-induced reductions in circulating adrenomedullin. No significant changes in plasma levels of endothelin-1 or CGRP were found. Lead-induced decreases in nitric oxide markers and antioxidant status were not prevented by doxycycline. In conclusion, acute lead exposure increases blood pressure and MMP-9 activity, which were blunted by doxycycline. These findings suggest that MMP-9 may contribute with lead-induced hypertension by cleaving the vasodilatory peptide adrenomedullin, thereby inhibiting adrenomedullin-dependent lowering of blood pressure. PMID:25308714

  6. Acute liver failure associated with prolonged use of bromfenac leading to liver transplantation. The Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Fontana, R J; McCashland, T M; Benner, K G; Appelman, H D; Gunartanam, N T; Wisecarver, J L; Rabkin, J M; Lee, W M

    1999-11-01

    Bromfenac, a nonnarcotic analgesic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was associated with reversible, minor elevations in serum aminotransferase levels during clinical trials. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, laboratory, and histological features of 4 patients with severe bromfenac hepatotoxicity identified at 3 tertiary care centers participating in the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Bromfenac was administered for chronic musculoskeletal disorders to 4 women in therapeutic doses of 25 to 100 mg/d for a minimum of 90 days. All patients reported a prodrome of malaise and fatigue and presented with severe, symptomatic hepatocellular injury with associated hypoprothrombinemia. None of the subjects had underlying liver or kidney disease, and there was no evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction. Other identifiable causes of acute liver failure were uniformly excluded. Despite supportive measures, all the subjects developed progressive liver failure over 5 to 37 days, leading to emergency liver transplantation in 3 patients and death in 1 patient while awaiting transplantation. Extensive confluent parenchymal necrosis that appeared to begin in the central zones and was accompanied by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate was noted in all the livers examined. Nodular regeneration was seen in the 2 patients with a more protracted clinical course. Administration of therapeutic doses of bromfenac for greater than 90 days was associated with the development of acute liver failure leading to liver transplantation or death in 4 adult women. The poor outcomes observed in this series, coupled with the inability to identify individuals at risk for severe, idiosyncratic bromfenac hepatotoxicity, preclude further use of bromfenac in the medical community.

  7. Zinc-associated acute pancreatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mikszewski, J S; Saunders, H M; Hess, R S

    2003-04-01

    Zinc-induced haemolytic anaemia is a common phenomenon in dogs in the USA following the ingestion of pennies minted after 1982. A case of acute pancreatitis secondary to zinc toxicosis in a dog is described. Acute pancreatitis has been reported in humans, following the ingestion of liquid zinc chloride, but zinc-associated pancreatitis has not been reported previously in the dog. The mechanism of toxicity is unknown, although the pathophysiology may relate to the role of the pancreas in zinc excretion. Acute pancreatitis as a sequela to zinc toxicosis in the dog represents a complication that may prolong hospitalisation and worsen the prognosis.

  8. Transient ST-segment elevation in precordial leads by acute marginal branch occlusion during stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Arzola, Leidimar Carballo; Esteban, Marcos T Rodríguez; Niebla, Javier García

    2016-01-01

    The isolated right ventricular infarction is a rare entity. Our case presented a selective occlusion of an acute marginal branch that supplies the right ventricular free wall with isolated ST elevation in precordial leads simulating an occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and without pseudonormalization in inferior due to the non-involvement of the main branch in the ischemic process. Our case clearly illustrates a rare differential diagnosis when a new ST segment elevation appears in earlier precordial leads in patients with symptoms of myocardial ischemia.

  9. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle - A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P < 0.0001) and month (P < 0.0001). Submissions were highest in 2009 (15.6%), 2001 (11.2%), and 2006 (9.9%). Most cases were observed during May, June, and July (62.3%). Cattle 6 months of age and younger were frequently poisoned (53.5%; P < 0.0001). Beef breeds were predominantly poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64).

  10. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle - A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P < 0.0001) and month (P < 0.0001). Submissions were highest in 2009 (15.6%), 2001 (11.2%), and 2006 (9.9%). Most cases were observed during May, June, and July (62.3%). Cattle 6 months of age and younger were frequently poisoned (53.5%; P < 0.0001). Beef breeds were predominantly poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64). PMID:27041761

  11. Acute transient non-physiological over-sensing in the ventricle with a DF4 lead

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kevin Kit; Gould, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The DF-4 is a new defibrillator lead technology. We present two cases of non-physiological transient ventricular over-sensing in patients who underwent implantation of an ICD for secondary prevention. Case 1 had ventricular over-sensing during pacing threshold evaluation post defibrillation testing while Case 2 had the lead integrity alert triggered immediately post discharge with transient over-sensing. No lead-connector issues were found. Case 1 was likely due to improper venting of the header and trapped air. Case 2 was hypothesized to be due to intermittent header pin non-contact secondary to blood in the header. These cases reveal that DF-4 leads are subject to both reported and potentially novel causes of transient acute ventricular over-sensing. PMID:26937124

  12. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  13. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-11

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  14. Acute lead poisoning with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in calves on a farm receiving land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, C.R.; Tuomari, D.; Reddy, C.; Logan, T.J.

    1986-03-01

    A total of 3 cases of acute lead poisoning in calves was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis of biological samples, presence of an acute lead exposure source, clinical signs of impaired vision in one case and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in another case. One of two other calves which died approximately 2 months earlier had nervous signs and it is likely that they also had lead poisoning. Dams of two of the cases did not have elevated lead levels. Municipal sewage sludge had been applied to most fields on the farm during the preceding 5 year period. There had been approximately a doubling of the lead content in the soil; however, the foodstuffs produced on the farm had low lead concentrations. The extremely high lead levels in the abomasal contents and feces of calves eliminated sludge as the source of the lead in this acute poisoning episode. The contents of oil filters, accessible to calves but not to adult cattle, had lead levels as high as 26,922 micrograms/g and was the most likely lead source responsible for this lead intoxication. It appears that the manifestation of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in lead poisoning cases may occur in young calves as well as in cows and in acute as well as in chronic intoxications.

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  16. Acute iron overload leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Emilly M; Marques, Vinicius B; Nunes, Dieli de O; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; dos Santos, Leonardo; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role in a mammal's physiological processes. However, iron tissue deposits have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters. Studies that evaluate the effect of acute iron overload on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that acute iron overload leads to HPG axis abnormalities, including iron accumulation and impairment in reproductive tract morphology. Female rats were treated with iron-dextran (Fe rats) to assess their HPG morphophysiology. The increasing serum iron levels due to iron-dextran treatment were positively correlated with higher iron accumulation in the HPG axis and uterus of Fe rats than in control rats. An increase in the production of superoxide anions was observed in the pituitary, uterus and ovary of Fe rats. Morphophysiological reproductive tract abnormalities, such as abnormal ovarian follicular development and the reduction of serum estrogen levels, were observed in Fe rats. In addition, a significant negative correlation was obtained between ovary superoxide anion and serum estrogen levels. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that acute iron overload is toxic for the HPG axis, a finding that may be associated with the subsequent development of the risk of reproductive dysfunction.

  17. Salt toxicosis in ruddy ducks that winter on an agricultural evaporation basin in California.

    PubMed

    Gordus, Andrew G; Shivaprasad, H L; Swift, Pamela K

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural evaporation basins are used as a means to dispose of highly saline underground-tile-drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley (California, USA). The hypersaline water conditions encourage high aquatic invertebrate production, primarily brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana), which attract birds to these sites. Cool winter temperatures (< 4 C) and hypersaline water conditions (> 70,000 mumhos/cm) resulted in feather salt encrustation and salt toxicosis in ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis). During December 1998 and January 1999, approximately 200 dead and sick ruddy ducks were collected from an evaporation basin and five healthy control ruddy ducks were collected from a freshwater wetland. Brains contained > or = 1,890 ppm sodium (wet tissue mass) in seven dead birds and contained < or = 1,150 ppm sodium in the control birds. Liver arsenic, lead, and mercury concentrations were < 1 ppm in all birds examined. Manganese, molybdenum, and copper liver concentrations did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the two groups of ducks. The dead ducks had significantly higher liver selenium, cadmium, iron, and zinc than the controls, but the concentrations were not sufficient to cause toxicity. Significant gross and microscopic lesions in most of the dead birds included conjunctivitis, lens opacity and cataract formation, vascular congestion in various organs most notably in the meninges of the brain, and myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration.

  18. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. PMID:26459519

  19. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates.

  20. Diagnosing domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) using behavioral criteria: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Wittmaack, Christiana; Lahvis, Garet P; Keith, Edward O; Self-Sullivan, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is difficult to diagnose using presence of toxin alone because the duration of domoic acid presence in blood and urine is generally less than 48 hr following exposure. Because domoic acid toxicosis is often suggested by presentation of behavioral abnormalities, we asked whether assessment of behavior might be useful for diagnostic purposes. We developed an ethogram to categorize behavioral data collected via continuous focal animal sampling. In total, 169 subjects were observed at a rehabilitation center. Sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis displayed head weaving (P < 0.0001) and muscle fasciculations (P < 0.01) significantly more often than animals in a comparison group. Dragging hind flippers and swift scanning were observed exclusively in animals from the domoic acid toxicosis group. The data show that behavioral diagnostic criteria can be effective in the diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion.

  1. Acute heat shock leads to cortical domain internalization and polarity loss in the C. elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepika; Odedra, Devang; Lehmann, Christina; Pohl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Many developmental processes are inherently robust due to network organization of the participating factors and functional redundancy. The heterogeneity of the factors involved and their connectivity puts these processes at risk of abrupt system collapse under stress. The polarization of the one-cell C. elegans embryo constitutes such an inherently robust process with functional redundancy. However, how polarization is affected by acute stress has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that heat shock (34°C, 1 h) triggers a highly reproducible loss of the anterior and collapse of the posterior polarity domains. Temperature-dependent loss of cortical non-muscle myosin II drastically reduces cortical tension and leads to internalization of large plasma membrane domains including the membrane-associated polarity factor PAR-2. After internalization, plasma membrane vesicles and associated factors cluster around centrosomes and are thereby withdrawn from the polarization process. Transient formation of the posterior polarity domain suggests that microtubule-induced self-organization of this domain is not compromised after heat shock. Hence, our data uncover that the polarization system undergoes a temperature-dependent collapse under acute stress.

  2. Rheumatoid myositis leading to acute lower extremity compartment syndrome: a case-based review.

    PubMed

    Jo, Daniel; Pompa, Tiffany; Khalil, Ambreen; Kong, Frank; Wetz, Robert; Goldstein, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Muscle pain and weakness in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient has a broad differential, and myositis should be considered early in the disease course as serious limb and life-threatening sequelae may occur. A 55-year-old woman with a past medical history of methotrexate-controlled RA presented with right leg pain for 4 days. The patient suffered sensory loss in the right foot and decreased strength in the toes. Lab tests revealed elevated creatine kinase, ESR, and anti-rheumatoid factor antibody titers. CT scan revealed myositis of posterior compartment muscles. Progressive edema, pain, and neuromuscular deficits persisted despite steroid and antibiotic therapy, so the patient was taken for urgent fasciotomy for acute compartment syndrome. The muscle biopsy showed diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration as well as perivascular and perineural involvement consistent with rheumatoid myositis (RM). The patient did well post-op on a prednisone taper. This case underlines the systemic nature of RA and exemplifies the severity of inflammation that may lead to grave consequences such as compartment syndrome. The histopathology is diagnostic when there is evidence of mononuclear cell infiltration; however, this is not entirely specific. Early, aggressive therapy with immunosuppressives is warranted in such patients. RM has not, to our knowledge, been recorded to cause acute compartment syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon manifestation of RA keeping the various presentations of rheumatoid disease in mind when faced with these patients.

  3. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  4. Acute acetaminophen intoxication leads to hepatic iron loading by decreased hepcidin synthesis.

    PubMed

    van Swelm, Rachel P L; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Blous, Linda; Peters, Janny G P; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N; van der Kraan, Peter M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

    2012-09-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), a major cause of acute liver injury in the Western world, is mediated by metabolism and oxidative stress. Recent studies have suggested a role for iron in potentiating APAP-induced liver injury although its regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. The current study was designed to unravel the iron-regulating pathways in mice after APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice with severe injury showed a significant increase in liver iron concentration and oxidative stress. Concurrently, the plasma concentration of hepcidin, the key regulator in iron metabolism, and hepatic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (Hamp) mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced. We showed that hepcidin transcription was inhibited via several hepcidin-regulating factors, including the bone morphogenetic protein/small mother against decapentaplegic (BMP/SMAD) pathway, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and possibly also via erythropoietin (EPO). Downregulation of the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway was most likely caused by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which was increased in mice with severe APAP-induced liver injury. HIF-1α stimulates cleaving of hemojuvelin, the cofactor of the BMP receptor, thereby blocking BMP-induced signaling. In addition, gene expression levels of C/ebpα were significantly reduced, and Epo mRNA expression levels were significantly increased after APAP intoxication. These factors are regulated through HIF-1α during oxidative stress and suggest that HIF-1α is a key modulator in reduced hepcidin transcription after APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, acute APAP-induced liver injury leads to activation of HIF-1α, which results in a downregulation in hepcidin expression through a BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and through C/EBPα inhibition. Eventually, this leads to hepatic iron loading associated with APAP cytotoxicity. PMID:22610607

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Pussini, Nicola; Battey, Thomas W K; Barakos, Jerome; Dennison, Sophie; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances

    2010-09-17

    Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions.

  6. Zinc toxicosis due to ingestion of a penny in a gray-headed chachalaca (Ortalis cinereiceps).

    PubMed

    Droual, R; Meteyer, C U; Galey, F D

    1991-01-01

    Zinc toxicosis was diagnosed in a gray-headed chachalaca (Ortalis cinereiceps) due to ingestion of a copper-plated zinc penny. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the pancreas. These lesions included apoptosis, zymogen granule depletion, and loss of normal acinar architecture. There was also severe gizzard erosion. Heavy metal analysis revealed abnormal levels of zinc and iron in the liver. Iron pigment in the liver was most concentrated in Kupffer cells. This, along with evidence of erythrophagocytosis in the spleen, suggested that extravascular hemolysis was also associated with zinc toxicosis in this case.

  7. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  8. Increased rodenticide exposure rate and risk of toxicosis in barn owls (Tyto alba) from southwestern Canada and linkage with demographic but not genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Andrew C; Elliott, John E; Hindmarch, Sofi; Lee, Sandi L; Maisonneuve, France; Bowes, Victoria; Cheng, Kimberly M; Martin, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Among many anthropogenic drivers of population decline, continual rapid urbanization and industrialization pose major challenges for the survival of wildlife species. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in southwestern British Columbia (BC) face a multitude of threats ranging from habitat fragmentation to vehicle strikes. They are also at risk from secondary poisoning of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), a suite of toxic compounds which at high doses results in a depletion of blood clotting factors leading to internal bleeding and death. Here, using long-term data (N = 119) for the hepatic residue levels of SGAR, we assessed the risk of toxicosis from SGAR for the BC barn owl population over the past two decades. We also investigated whether sensitivity to SGAR is associated with genetic factors, namely Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls. We found that residue concentration for total SGAR was significantly higher in 2006-2013 (141 ng/g) relative to 1992-2003 (57 ng/g). The proportion of owls exposed to multiple SGAR types was also significantly higher in 2006-2013. Those measures accordingly translate directly into an increase in toxicosis risk level. We also detected demographic differences, where adult females showed on average lower concentration of total SGAR (64 ng/g) when compared to adult males (106 ng/g). Juveniles were overall more likely to show signs of toxicosis than adults (33.3 and 6.9 %, respectively), and those symptoms were positively predicted by SGAR concentrations. We found no evidence that SNPs in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls were associated with intraspecific variation in SGAR sensitivity. We recommend several preventative measures be taken to minimize wildlife exposure to SGAR. PMID:27151403

  9. Arsenic toxicosis in sheep: The first report from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Alamdari, Mehran; Esfahani, Tahereh Ali; Mozafari, Morteza; Nourian, Ali Reza; Bahari, Ali Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been previously reported in Ghopuz, a village located in the Northwest of Iran. Samples were taken from consuming and irrigation water and plants of the region for chemical analysis. A seven-year old ewe, which had lived in and fed a lifelong at the same place, with clinical signs such as weakness, wasting and inappropriate integument was necropsied. Grossly, buccal erosion, stomatitis, cutaneous ulcers and serous atrophy of fat deposits were observed. Rumen contents, wool and several tissue samples were obtained for toxicological and histopathological examinations. Mean arsenic concentration in the spring water, irrigation water and grass/algae were 70.11, 48.74 and 141.85 ppb (µg/kg), respectively. Arsenic levels were 486.73, 247.94, 127.92, 125.97 and 231.24 ppb in wool, skin, rumen contents, liver and kidney, respectively. Microscopic study revealed hyperemia and heavy parasitic infestation of the abomasal wall. Hyperemia and regeneration of renal tubule epithelia were observed in kidneys and hyperkeratosis, suppurative deep dermatitis and paniculitis were found in skin. Periacinar fibrosis and a poorly differentiated cholangiocarcinoma were seen in liver. In pancreas, reduced cell density of islands of Langerhans was noticeable. In the central nervous system, perineuronal and perivascular edema, ischemic changes in gray matter neurons, and microcavitation of white matter were present. Our findings confirmed chronic arsenic toxicosis in small ruminants in this region. It can be concluded that long-term consumption of arsenic contamined water and forage may be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning in domestic animals and human beings, with consequent neoplastic disease and induction of diabetes in this region. PMID:24179435

  10. Arsenic toxicosis in sheep: The first report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ashrafihelan, Javad; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Alamdari, Mehran; Esfahani, Tahereh Ali; Mozafari, Morteza; Nourian, Ali Reza; Bahari, Ali Asghar

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been previously reported in Ghopuz, a village located in the Northwest of Iran. Samples were taken from consuming and irrigation water and plants of the region for chemical analysis. A seven-year old ewe, which had lived in and fed a lifelong at the same place, with clinical signs such as weakness, wasting and inappropriate integument was necropsied. Grossly, buccal erosion, stomatitis, cutaneous ulcers and serous atrophy of fat deposits were observed. Rumen contents, wool and several tissue samples were obtained for toxicological and histopathological examinations. Mean arsenic concentration in the spring water, irrigation water and grass/algae were 70.11, 48.74 and 141.85 ppb (µg/kg), respectively. Arsenic levels were 486.73, 247.94, 127.92, 125.97 and 231.24 ppb in wool, skin, rumen contents, liver and kidney, respectively. Microscopic study revealed hyperemia and heavy parasitic infestation of the abomasal wall. Hyperemia and regeneration of renal tubule epithelia were observed in kidneys and hyperkeratosis, suppurative deep dermatitis and paniculitis were found in skin. Periacinar fibrosis and a poorly differentiated cholangiocarcinoma were seen in liver. In pancreas, reduced cell density of islands of Langerhans was noticeable. In the central nervous system, perineuronal and perivascular edema, ischemic changes in gray matter neurons, and microcavitation of white matter were present. Our findings confirmed chronic arsenic toxicosis in small ruminants in this region. It can be concluded that long-term consumption of arsenic contamined water and forage may be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning in domestic animals and human beings, with consequent neoplastic disease and induction of diabetes in this region.

  11. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  12. Acute toxicity of lead, chromium, and other heavy metals to ciliates from activated sludge plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madoni, P.; Gorbi, G. ); Davoli, D. )

    1994-09-01

    Numerous papers deal with the occurrence of heavy metals in the various components of freshwater ecosystems and sewage treatment systems. However, few papers refer to the presence and effect of heavy metals in populations of aquatic cilated protozoa. In particular, the lethal concentrations (LC50) of heavy metals in ciliate populations that colonize the activated sludge or the biofilm of waste treatment plants. Ciliated protozoa are very numerous in all types of aerobic biological-treatment systems. They play an important role in the purification process removing, through predation, the major part of dispersed bacteria that cause high turbidity in the final effluent. Changes in the community structure and types of ciliate species may affect the food web of these artifical ecosystems, and may also influence the biological performance of plants. Heavy metals can limit growth of protozoa in aquatic environments. The toxicity of heavy metals in biological treatment depends mainly upon two factors, namely, metal species and concentration. Although the resistance of biological systems to metal toxicity may be enhanced greatly by proper acclimatization, a too-high metal concentration may cause serious upsets in the system. It is important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals causing lethal effects on ciliates. Madoni recently studied the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc on six species of ciliated protozoa from activated sludge plants. The present paper describes the toxic effects of lead and chromium (VI) on 6 cilate species. The acute toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn on two other ciliates (Drepanomonas revoluta and Spirostomum teres) is also reported. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Gergő A.; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2nd and 3rd days (p<0.05 vs. controls), and the kinetics follows the intensity of the systemic inflammation correlating with serum procalcitonin levels. In a similar study subset, urinary meta-tyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (p<0.01 for both). Using linear regression model, meta-tyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + ortho-tyrosine)/para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  14. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry--leading the charge for National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database.

    PubMed

    Chin, S P; Jeyaindran, S; Azhari, R; Wan Azman, W A; Omar, I; Robaayah, Z; Sim, K H

    2008-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most rampant non-communicable diseases in the world. It begins indolently as a fatty streak in the lining of the artery that soon progresses to narrow the coronary arteries and impair myocardial perfusion. Often the atherosclerotic plaque ruptures and causes sudden thrombotic occlusion and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). This phenomenon is called acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is the leading cause of death not only in Malaysia but also globally. In order for us to tackle this threat to the health of our nation we must arm ourselves with reliable and accurate information to assess current burden of disease resources available and success of current strategies. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry is the flagship of the National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD) and is the result of the dedicated and untiring efforts of doctors and nurses in both public and private medical institutions and hospitals around the country, ably guided and supported by the National Heart Association, the National Heart Foundation, the Clinical Research Centre and the Ministry of Health of Malaysia. Analyses of data collected throughout 2006 from 3422 patients with ACS admitted to the 12 tertiary cardiac centres and general hospitals spanning nine states in Malaysia in this first report has already revealed surprising results. Mean age of patients was 59 years while the most consistent risk factor for STEMI was active smoking. Utilization of medications was high generally. Thirty-day mortality for STEMI was 11%, for NSTEMI 8% and UA 4%. Thrombolysis (for STEMI only) reduced in-hospital and 30-day mortality by nearly 50%. Percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI also reduced 30-day mortality for patients with non-ST elevation MI and unstable angina. The strongest determinants of mortality appears to be Killip Class and age of the patient. Fewer women received

  15. Depolarization changes during acute myocardial ischemia by evaluation of QRS slopes: standard lead and vectorial approach.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel; Ringborn, Michael; Laguna, Pablo; Pahlm, Olle; Pueyo, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes can be improved by adding information from the depolarization phase (QRS complex) to the conventionally used ST-T segment changes. In this study, ischemia-induced changes in the main three slopes of the QRS complex, upward ( ℑ(US)) and downward ( ℑ(DS) ) slopes of the R wave as well as the upward ( ℑ(TS)) slope of the terminal S wave, were evaluated as to represent a robust measure of pathological changes within the depolarization phase. From ECG recordings both in a resting state (control recordings) and during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-induced transmural ischemia, we developed a method for quantification of ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) that incorporates dynamic ECG normalization so as to improve the sensitivity in the detection of ischemia-induced changes. The same method was also applied on leads obtained by projection of QRS loops onto their dominant directions. We show that ℑ(US), ℑ(DS), and ℑ(TS) present high stability in the resting state, thus providing a stable reference for ischemia characterization. Maximum relative factors of change ( ℜ(ℑ)) during PCI were found in leads derived from the QRS loop, reaching 10.5 and 13.7 times their normal variations in the control for ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS), respectively. For standard leads, the relative factors of change were 6.01 and 9.31. The ℑ(TS) index presented a similar behavior to that of ℑ(DS). The timing for the occurrence of significant changes in ℑ(US) and ℑ(DS) varied with lead, ranging from 30 s to 2 min after initiation of coronary occlusion. In the present ischemia model, relative ℑ(DS) changes were smaller than ST changes in most leads, however with only modest correlation between the two indices, suggesting they present different information about the ischemic process. We conclude that QRS slopes offer a robust tool for evaluating depolarization changes during myocardial ischemia.

  16. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  17. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  18. Clinical signs of cardiovascular effects secondary to suspected pimobendan toxicosis in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Reinker, L Noelani; Lee, Justine A; Hovda, Lynn R; Rishniw, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the medical records of dogs that were either suspected or known to have ingested large doses of pimobendan and to describe the clinical signs associated with pimobendan toxicosis. The database of Pet Poison Helpline, an animal poison control center located in Minneapolis, MN, was searched for cases involving pimobendan toxicosis from Nov 2004 to Apr 2010. In total, 98 cases were identified. Of those, seven dogs that ingested between 2.6 mg/kg and 21.3 mg/kg were selected for further evaluation. Clinical signs consisted of cardiovascular abnormalities, including severe tachycardia (4/7), hypotension (2/7), and hypertension (2/7). In two dogs, no clinical signs were seen. Despite a wide safety profile, large overdoses of pimobendan may present risks for individual pets. Prompt decontamination, including emesis induction and the administration of activated charcoal, is advised in the asymptomatic patient. Symptomatic and supportive care should include the use of IV fluid therapy to treat hypotension and address hydration requirements and blood pressure and electrocardiogram monitoring with high-dose toxicosis. Practitioners should be aware of the clinical signs associated with high-dose pimobendan toxicosis. Of the dogs reported herein, all were hospitalized, responded to supportive care, and survived to discharge within 24 hr of exposure. PMID:22611208

  19. Application of carvedilol in a dog with pseudoephedrine toxicosis-induced tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2012-07-01

    A 15-year-old Yorkshire terrier dog was presented after ingesting 1 capsule of an over-the-counter cold medication containing pseudoephedrine (120 mg/capsule) and cetirizine (5 mg/capsule). Treatment was initiated with acepromazine and carvedilol. The dog responded well to treatment. This is the first known case report using carvedilol to control pseudoephedrine toxicosis.

  20. Effect of fescue toxicosis on ruminal kinetics, nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of ruminal kinetics, as well as N and energy balance during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=217 ±7 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and pair-fed throughout a cross-over design experiment with a 2x2 factorial treatment str...

  1. Value of posterior and right ventricular leads in comparison to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in evaluation of ST-segment elevation in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Rydman, R J; Sloan, E P; Hahn, K H; Cooke, D; Fagan, J; Fligner, D J; Hessions, W; Justis, D; Kampe, L M; Shah, S; Tucker, J; Zwicke, D

    1997-06-15

    In this multicenter prospective trial, we studied posterior (V7 to V9) and right ventricular (V4R to V6R) leads to assess their accuracy compared with standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients aged >34 years with suspected AMI received posterior and right ventricular leads immediately after the initial 12-lead ECG. ST elevation of 0.1 mV in 2 leads was blindly determined and inter-rater reliability estimated. AMI was diagnosed by World Health Organization criteria. The diagnostic value of nonstandard leads was determined when 12-lead ST elevation was absent and present and multivariate stepwise regression analysis was also performed. Of 533 study patients, 64.7% (345 of 533) had AMI and 24.8% received thrombolytic therapy. Posterior and right ventricular leads increased sensitivity for AMI by 8.4% (p = 0.03) but decreased specificity by 7.0% (p = 0.06). The likelihood ratios of a positive test for 12, 12 + posterior, and 12 + right ventricular ECGs were 6.4, 5.6, and 4.5, respectively. Increased AMI rates (positive predictive values) were found when ST elevation was present on 6 nonstandard leads (69.1%), on 12 leads only (88.4%), and on both 6 and 12 leads (96.8%; p <0.001). Treatment rates with thrombolytic therapy increased in parallel with this electrocardiographic gradient. Logistic regression analysis showed that 4 leads were independently predictive of AMI (p <0.001): leads I, II, V3, V5R; V9 approached statistical significance (p = 0.055). The standard ECG is not optimal for detecting ST-segment elevation in AMI, but its accuracy is only modestly improved by the addition of posterior and right ventricular leads. PMID:9202344

  2. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Coping with tall fescue toxicosis: Solutions and realities.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, R L

    2015-12-01

    Beef cattle consume more tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] than any other perennial cool-season grass in North America. Tall fescue forms a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Morgan-Jones and W. Cams) C.W. Bacon & Schardl, comb. nov.; these plants are often referred to as endophyte-infected tall fescue. Agronomically, endophyte infection is good; endophyte-infected plants resist biotic and abiotic stresses better than do endophyte-free plants. However, tall fescue plants infected with a common toxic endophyte produce the ergot alkaloids that cause tall fescue toxicosis. Several agronomic practices can eliminate or reduce the effects of tall fescue toxicosis. Renovating tall fescue fields infected with a common toxic endophyte to new cultivars infected with a novel (or nontoxic) endophyte eliminates the problem for that field. Although the cost to renovate currently exceeds US$600/ha, most economic analyses show it to be a good long-term investment, especially on fields with high forage production potential. Less effective, but popular, methods of dealing with tall fescue toxicosis include adding clovers ( spp.) or other forage species to the pastures to dilute the effects of the toxins, avoiding the use of high rates of nitrogen fertilizers, feeding supplements, and rotating cattle to warm-season forages in summer. Also, the alkaloid concentration in forage can be reduced by making it (drying) into hay. Recent research shows that animal tolerance to tall fescue toxicosis is possible, although there is still much to learn about this topic. Tall fescue toxicosis is likely a reality in the beef industry for some time to come. We contend that renovation of the most productive fields to cultivars infected with a novel endophyte coupled with the prospect of using tolerant livestock in scenarios where renovation is not possible will give innovative producers a competitive edge. PMID:26641158

  3. PKA Enhances the Acute Insulin Response Leading to the Restoration of Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Kaihara, Kelly A.; Dickson, Lorna M.; Ellenbroek, Johanne H.; Orr, Caitlin M.D.; Layden, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes arises from insufficient insulin secretion and failure of the β-cell mass to persist and expand. These deficits can be treated with ligands to Gs-coupled G-protein-coupled receptors that raise β-cell cAMP. Here we studied the therapeutic potential of β-cell cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in restoring glucose control using β-caPKA mice. PKA activity enhanced the acute insulin response (AIR) to glucose, which is a primary determinant of the efficacy of glucose clearance. Enhanced AIR improved peripheral insulin action, leading to more rapid muscle glucose uptake. In the setting of pre-established glucose intolerance caused by diet-induced insulin resistance or streptozotocin-mediated β-cell mass depletion, PKA activation enhanced β-cell secretory function to restore glucose control, primarily through augmentation of the AIR. Enhanced AIR and improved glucose control were maintained through 16 weeks of a high-fat diet and aging to 1 year. Importantly, improved glucose tolerance did not increase the risk for hypoglycemia, nor did it rely upon hyperinsulinemia or β-cell hyperplasia, although PKA activity was protective for β-cell mass. These data highlight that improving β-cell function through the activation of PKA has a large and underappreciated capacity to restore glucose control with minimal risk for adverse side effects. PMID:25475437

  4. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. A review of episodes of zinc phosphide toxicosis in wild geese (Branta spp.) in Oregon (2004−2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bildfell, Rob J.; Rumbeiha, Wilson K.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Gillin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    Epizootic mortality in several geese species, including cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis), has been recognized in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for over a decade. Birds are generally found dead on a body of water or are occasionally observed displaying neurologic clinical signs such as an inability to raise or control the head prior to death. Investigation of these epizootic mortality events has revealed the etiology to be accidental poisoning with the rodenticide zinc phosphide (Zn3P2). Gross and histologic changes are restricted to acute pulmonary congestion and edema, sometimes accompanied by distension of the upper alimentary tract by fresh grass. Geese are unusually susceptible to this pesticide; when combined with an epidemiologic confluence of depredation of specific agricultural crops by rodents and seasonal avian migration pathways, epizootic toxicosis may occur. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate sample collection and handling, plus specific test calibration for this toxicant. Interagency cooperation, education of farmers regarding pesticide use, and enforcement of regulations has been successful in greatly decreasing these mortality events since 2009.

  6. Acute exposure of methylglyoxal leads to activation of KATP channels expressed in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Konduru, Anuhya S; Cui, Ningren; Yu, Lei; Trower, Timothy C; Shi, Weiwei; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Highly reactive carbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO) is one of the metabolites excessively produced in diabetes. We have showed that prolonged exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells to MGO leads to instability of the mRNA encoding ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. In the present study we investigated the effects of MGO on the activity of KATP channels. Methods: Kir6.1/ SUR2B, Kir6.2/SUR2B or Kir6.2Δ36 (a truncated Kir6.2 isoform) alone was expressed in HEK293 cells. Whole-cell currents were recorded in the cells with an Axopatch 200B amplifier. Macroscopic currents and single-channel currents were recorded in giant inside-out patches and normal inside-out patches, respectively. Data were analyzed using Clampfit 9 software. Results: The basal activity of Kir6.1/SUR2B channels was low. The specific KATP channel opener pinacidil (10 μmol/L) could fully activate Kir6.1/SUR2B channels, which was inhibited by the specific KATP channel blocker glibenclamide (10 μmol/L). MGO (0.1-10 mmol/L) dose-dependently activated Kir6.1/SUR2B channels with an EC50 of 1.7 mmol/L. The activation of Kir6.1/SUR2B channels by MGO was reversible upon washout, and could be inhibited completely by glibenclamide. Kir6.2Δ36 channels expressed in HEK293 cells could open automatically, and the channel activity was enhanced in the presence of MGO (3 mmol/L). Single channel recordings showed that MGO (3 mmol/L) markedly increased the open probability of Kir6.1/SUR2B channels, leaving the channel conductance unaltered. Conclusion: Acute application of MGO activates KATP channels through direct, non-covalent and reversible interactions with the Kir6 subunits. PMID:24122011

  7. An ecological risk assessment of lead shot exposure in upland game birds and raptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.I.; Lacher, T.E. Jr.; Bunck, C.

    1995-12-31

    There is concern about exposure of birds in terrestrial ecosystems to spent lead shot. Upland birds, particularly mourning doves, ingest spent lead shot; raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, neurological dysfunction, immune suppression and reproductive impairment are effects of exposure to lead. The authors conducted an ecological risk assessment (using the new USEPA Ecological Risk Assessment Paradigm) on the impact of lead shot exposure in upland birds. Large amounts of lead shot are released into the environment each year from shooting and hunting. Doves collected from fields cultivated to attract mourning doves for hunting contain ingested spent lead shot. This might underestimate risk because doves ingesting shot may experience lead toxicosis and not be collected by hunters. Because lead can cause both acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and there is evidence of widespread liberation of lead shot in terrestrial ecosystems, concern for impacts on upland game birds and raptors is warranted. Although this ecological risk assessment does not clearly define a significant risk of upland game birds to lead shot, there is little evidence to rebut the presumption of risk. This issue merits continued scrutiny to protect upland game bird and raptor resources.

  8. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Kokki, I.; Smith, D.; Simmonds, P.; Ramalingam, S.; Wellington, L.; Willocks, L.; Johannessen, I.; Harvala, H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014). A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59%) had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70%) had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29%) had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%); three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion) are required. PMID:26904201

  9. Epidemiological-environmental study of lead acid battery workers. II. Acute effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hancock, J.

    1984-10-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five (225) workers in five lead acid battery plants were administered a questionnaire containing work-related symptoms, underwent spirometry, and had personal samples for H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ taken over the shift. Most personal samples were less than 1 mg/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Mass median aerodynamic diameter of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ from area samples in the formation areas was 2.6-10 ..mu..m. Workers with a higher exposure to acid did not have an increased rate of acute work-related symptoms. Changes in pulmonary function over the shift were not related to levels of airborne lead or airborne acid, sex, age, or smoking status. In acclimated workers, there is no evidence of acute symptoms or reductions in pulmonary function over the shift at concentrations less than 1 mg/m/sup 3/.

  10. Use of IV lipid emulsion for treatment of ivermectin toxicosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, James H; Buckley, Gareth J; Allen, Ashley E; Bandt, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Ivermectin toxicosis in cats is infrequently reported. IV lipid emulsion (ILE) is a novel treatment in veterinary medicine that has been used for amelioration of adverse effects seen with multiple lipid soluble compounds. Previously, ILE has been investigated in experimental models with rats, rabbits, pigs, and dogs, mainly for resuscitation of cardiopulmonary arrest and treatment of hypotension due to local anesthetic drug overdose. There are few case reports in veterinary medicine of using ILE for drug toxicity. Only one feline case has been reported, with IV lipids used for treatment of lidocaine toxicity. This report describes a case of ivermectin toxicosis in a 1 yr old domestic shorthair that was safely and successfully treated using ILE. PMID:24216496

  11. Suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide toxicosis in avian species at a zoological institution.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Julie; Bradley, Gregory A

    2013-06-01

    Over a 2-month period, individual birds belonging to species in multiple avian families, including Bucerotidae, Sturnidae, Columbidae, Corvidae, and Anatidae, were presented to the Animal Care Center at the Phoenix Zoo for emergency medical care. Common clinical findings were subdued behavior, weight loss, and an inability to fly. Biochemical abnormalities commonly included high calcium and uric acid concentrations and high to high-normal phosphorus concentrations. In cases in which necropsies were done, mineralization of organs often was present, frequently of the kidneys and cardiovascular system. Because of the high calcium and phosphorus concentrations, mineralization of tissues, cases representing multiple avian species, and the recent addition of rodent bait boxes containing cholecalciferol to the zoo's pest control program, a presumptive diagnosis of cholecalciferol toxicosis was made. Treatment most commonly consisted of daily fluid diuresis. These cases demonstrate that, although cholecalciferol is considered unlikely to cause relay toxicosis, primary toxicosis still should be considered in cases with sudden onset of nonspecific signs when exposure to cholecalciferol was possible. PMID:23971222

  12. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle — A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Vanessa; Blakley, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle over the 16-year period of 1998 to 2013 and reports background bovine tissue lead concentrations. Case records from Prairie Diagnostic Services, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, identified 525 cases of acute lead toxicity over the investigational period. Poisonings were influenced by year (P < 0.0001) and month (P < 0.0001). Submissions were highest in 2009 (15.6%), 2001 (11.2%), and 2006 (9.9%). Most cases were observed during May, June, and July (62.3%). Cattle 6 months of age and younger were frequently poisoned (53.5%; P < 0.0001). Beef breeds were predominantly poisoned. Mean toxic lead concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in the blood, liver, and kidney were 1.30 ± 1.70 (n = 301), 33.5 ± 80.5 (n = 172), and 56.3 ± 39.7 (n = 61). Mean normal lead concentrations in the blood, liver, and kidney were 0.036 ± 0.003 mg/kg (n= 1081), 0.16 ± 0.63 mg/kg (n = 382), and 0.41 ± 0.62 mg/kg (n = 64). PMID:27041761

  13. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days.

  14. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-04-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk.

  15. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J.

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  16. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in

  17. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and

  18. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and

  19. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  20. Acute toxicity of lead particulates on pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Ultrastructural and microanalytical studies

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, C.R.; Ingram, P.; Walker, S.R.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    An in vitro system was designed to investigate the effects of lead oxide particles of respirable size on the rabbit alveolar macrophage. The studies were concerned with the intracellular solubility of PbO and Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and changes in fine structure attributable to lead toxicity. The distribution of phagocytosed lead and its intracellular reprecipitation complexes was established by electron microprobe analysis and secondary ion mass spectroscopy in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and backscatter imaging. It was found that Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4/, PbO and PbO-coated particles were ingested by the rabbit alveolar macrophages and that each of these lead oxide compounds produced similar damage to the fine structure of the cell. Swelling of the mitochondria, nuclear membrane, and endoplasmic reticulum was common, as well as were characteristic reprecipitation complexes of lead, phosphorous, and calcium within the nuclear heterochromatin and cytoplasm of the cell. The precipitation complexes were not seen in cells incubated with the particles if phagocytosis was blocked by 0.22-microns, membrane filters. It was concluded that phagocytosis of these lead oxide particles was necessary to produce the cytopathic changes. It is suggested that solubilization of lead from the ingested particles in phagosomes of macrophages results in the liberation of intracellular lead with the resultant formation of reprecipitation complexes.

  1. Acute toxicity of lead particulates on pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Ultrastructural and microanalytical studies

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, C.R.; Ingram, P.; Walker, S.R.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Although it is well established that respiratory uptake of lead-containing particles plays a substantial role in the epidemiology of plumbism, relatively little is known about the role of the pulmonary alveolar macrophage in lead poisoning. An in vitro system was designed to investigate the effects of lead oxide particles of respirable size on the rabbit alveolar macrophage. The studies were concerned with the intracellular solubility of PbO and Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and changes in fine structure attributable to lead toxicity. The distribution of phagocytosed lead and its intracellular reprecipitation complexes was established by electron microprobe analysis and secondary ion mass spectroscopy in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and backscatter imaging. It was found that Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4/, PbO and PbO-coated particles were ingested by the rabbit alveolar macrophages and that each of these lead oxide compounds produced similar damage to the fine structure of the cell. Swelling of the mitochondria, nuclear membrane, and endoplasmic reticulum was common, as well as were characteristic reprecipitation complexes of lead, phosphorous, and calcium within the nuclear heterochromatin and cytoplasm of the cell. The precipitation complexes were not seen in cells incubated with the particles if phagocytosis was blocked by 0.22-microns, membrane filters. It was concluded that phagocytosis of these lead oxide particles was necessary to produce the cytopathic changes. It is suggested that solubilization of lead from the ingested particles in phagosomes of macrophages results in the liberation of intracellular lead with the resultant formation of reprecipitation complexes.

  2. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ari L.; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Goldfine, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). 44 (21%) of patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were 10 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions. PMID:24323716

  3. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ari L; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D; Victor, Jonathan D; Goldfine, Andrew M

    2014-04-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Forty-four (21%) of the patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were ten times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions.

  4. Extending Supplementary Feeding for Children Under Five with Moderate Acute Malnutrition Leads to Lower Relapse Rates

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Indi; Banerjee, Somalee; Murray, Ellen; Ryan, Kelsey N.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Methods Rural Malawian children 6-59 months old with MAM, defined as a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) between -2 and -3, were provided supplementary feeding for a fixed duration of 12 weeks. The children were then followed for 12 months to assess long-term nutritional status, and compared to children initially treated only until they first reached WHZ > -2. Results Compared to children treated until they reached WHZ > -2, children treated for 12 weeks were more likely to remain well-nourished (71% vs. 63%, P = 0.0015) and maintain more normal anthropometric indices during 12 months of follow-up; there was also a trend towards lower rates of severe acute malnutrition (7% vs. 10%, P = 0.067) and death (2% vs. 4%, P = 0.082). Regression modeling showed that mid-upper arm circumference and WHZ at the end of supplementary feeding were the most important factors in predicting which children remained well-nourished (P < 0.001 for each). Conclusions The duration of supplementary feeding for children with MAM may not be as important as their anthropometry in terms of remaining well-nourished after initial recovery. The currently accepted recovery criteria of WHZ of -2 may be insufficient for ensuring long-term nutritional health; consideration should be given to setting higher recovery criteria. PMID:25419681

  5. Accuracy of localization of acute myocardial infarction by 12 lead electrocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, T.; Ribeiro, L.G.; Holman, B.L.; Alpert, J.S.; Maroko, P.R.

    1982-04-01

    Until recently, ECG accuracy in localizing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could be assessed only by comparing the ECGs with autopsy findings. This approach, however, preselected patients, including only those who died. It is possible that this postmortem group of patients would be different from the whole population of patients with AMI. Myocardial imaging with /sup 99/mTc-pyrophosphate offers the advantage of directly localizing the region of injured myocardium in the acute phase of AMI. In 34 patients with confirmed AMI and focal uptake of /sup 99/mTc-pyrophosphate, serial ECGs were obtained and interpreted by two independent observers. The sensitivity and specificity of serial ECGs in determining the location of AMI in the five left ventricular (LV) wall segments were determined: (1) in the anterior wall sensitivity was 86.7% and specificity was 89.5%; (2) in the lateral wall sensitivity was 73.7% and specificity was 80.0%; (3) in the high lateral wall sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity was 87.5%; (4) in the inferior wall sensitivity was 87.5% and specificity was 100%; (5) in the true posterior wall sensitivity was 83.3% and specificity was 86.4%. Overall, in the 170 LV wall segments (five per patient) examined, scans localized with a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 88.8%. After four patients with LBBB were excluded, sensitivity increased to 87.1%. Overall, localization of AMI by serial ECG was accurate in 85.9% of the 34 patients included in the study.

  6. A field investigation into a suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis in horses in western Queensland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B; Gummow, B

    2015-03-01

    A disease outbreak investigation was conducted in western Queensland to investigate a rare suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicosis in horses. Thirty five of 132 horses depastured on five properties on the Mitchell grass plains of western Queensland died in the first six months of 2010. Clinical-pathological findings were consistent with PA toxicosis. A local variety of Crotalaria medicaginea was the only hepatotoxic plant found growing on affected properties. Pathology reports and departure and arrival dates of two brood mares provided evidence of a pre wet season exposure period. All five affected properties experienced a very dry spring and early summer preceded by a large summer wet season. The outbreak was characterised as a point epidemic with a sudden peak of deaths in March followed by mortalities steadily declining until the end of June. The estimated morbidity (serum IGG>50IU/L) rate was 76%. Average crude mortality was 27% but higher in young horses (67%) and brood mares (44%). Logistic regression analysis showed that young horses and brood mares and those grazing denuded pastures in December were most strongly associated with dying whereas those fed hay and/or grain based supplements were less likely to die. This is the first detailed study of an outbreak of PA toxicosis in central western Queensland and the first to provide evidence that environmental determinants were associated with mortality, that the critical exposure period was towards the end of the dry season, that supplementary feeding is protective and that denuded pastures and the horses physiological protein requirement are risk factors.

  7. Experimemntal Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) Toxicosis in Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons livestock in the southwestern United States. Similarities with white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum) poisoning and nearly identical chemical analyses lead early research to conclude trematol, a mixture of benzofuran ketones is the rayless g...

  8. Assessment of toxic metal exposure following the Camelford water pollution incident: evidence of acute mobilization of lead into drinking water.

    PubMed

    Powell, J J; Greenfield, S M; Thompson, R P; Cargnello, J A; Kendall, M D; Landsberg, J P; Watt, F; Delves, H T; House, I

    1995-03-01

    Following the incident of acidic pollution of water by aluminium sulfate centred around Camelford in July 1988, we have carried out a retrospective analysis of the mobilization of toxic metals to residents of the area. An advanced nuclear technique was used to measure trace levels of elements within hair, thus, avoiding surface contamination. In contrast to controls, lead, but no other toxic metals, was consistently found within sections of hair that dated to mid-1988 from four residents; they must, therefore, have consumed this metal around the time of the incident. The source of this lead was probably local water pipe residue, and this was found on analysis to have a matrix specific to such soft-water areas that, prior to the incident, had slowly accumulated certain toxic metals such as cadmium and uranium and particularly lead. Lead is mobilized from such residues by acidic water and could, therefore, have heavily contaminated mains water after the incident. However, analyses of residents' plasma and whole blood, and of urine following a lead-chelation test, showed no evidence of either long-term increased body burdens of toxic metals or depletion of essential elements. In addition, we found no evidence of continued poor water quality in the area. In conclusion, during a short period following the pollution, some residents who consumed mains water would have been acutely exposed to lead and other toxic metals. Prediction of the scale of metal exposure to individuals was not possible owing to heterogeneity of the water distribution network, but long-term effects to residents from lead are not anticipated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in four species of birds of prey presented to a wildlife clinic in Massachusetts, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Murray, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    Mortalities among birds of prey from anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) toxicosis have been documented in several countries. Reports on extent of exposure within regions of the United States are limited. This study investigated AR exposure and toxicosis in four species of birds of prey (red-tailed hawks [Buteo jamaicensis], barred owls [Strix varia], eastern screech owls [Megascops asio] and great horned owls [Bubo virginianus]) presented to a wildlife clinic in Massachusetts. The aims of this study are to document the proportion of these four species that died or were euthanized due to their presenting injuries that had detectable amounts of ARs in liver tissue; to identify and quantify ARs present; to describe clinical, postmortem, and histopathologic signs of toxicosis; to evaluate potential sublethal effects of AR exposure; and to associate liver AR level with toxicosis. Birds included in the study were sampled without regard to signs of AR toxicosis. Postmortem examinations were conducted, and liver samples were analyzed for AR residues. Of 161 birds tested, 86% had AR residues in liver tissue. The second-generation AR (SGAR) brodifacoum was identified in 99% of positive birds. Mortality from AR toxicosis was diagnosed in 6% of birds. No indications of sublethal effects of exposure were found, and no association between liver brodifacoum level and signs of toxicosis was apparent. Given the high proportion of birds in this study exposed to ARs, specifically brodifacoum, continued monitoring is warranted as new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations on the sale and use of SGARs are enacted. PMID:22946375

  10. Educational intervention for parents and healthcare providers leads to reduced antibiotic use in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Småbrekke, Lars; Berild, Dag; Giaever, Anton; Myrbakk, Torni; Fuskevåg, Airin; Ericson, Johanna U; Flaegstad, Trond; Olsvik, Orjan; Ringertz, Signe H

    2002-01-01

    We used a controlled before-and-after design with the aims of reducing both the total consumption of antibiotics and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics against acute otitis media (AOM), and to study to what extent prescriptions for antibiotics against AOM were dispensed. Information on evidence-based treatment of uncomplicated AOM was provided to doctors and nurses, and written guidelines were implemented. Pamphlets and oral information concerning symptomatic treatment and the limited effect of antibiotic use in AOM were given to parents. Eligible patients were 819 children aged 1-15 y. The proportion of patients receiving a prescription for antibiotics was reduced from 90% at baseline to 74% during the study period. The proportion of prescriptions for penicillin V increased from 72% at baseline to 85% during the study period. There were no significant changes at the control site. The proportion of dispensed prescriptions was 70% both at baseline and during the study period. Educational efforts reduced the total consumption of antibiotics and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for AOM in children aged 1-15 y at an emergency call service. Data on antibiotic use in AOM based only on prescribing overestimates the use of antibiotics.

  11. Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ≥80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

  12. Lead accumulation, oxidative damage and histopathological alteration in testes and accessory glands of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, induced by acute lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hou, Yu-hua; Ma, Dan-dan; Jing, Wei-xin; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Wang, Lan

    2015-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants and known to exert multiple toxic effects including gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. In order to understand toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) on the testes and the accessory glands of crabs, we investigated Pb accumulation in testes and accessory glands and the survival rate of sperms of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense. The tissue damaging effects of Pb was also investigated by histopathological examination and analyses of antioxidant enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation. Crabs were exposed to different Pb concentrations (0, 3.675, 7.35, 14.7, 29.4 and 58.8 mg/L) for 3, 5 and 7 days. The results showed that Pb levels in testes and accessory glands increased significantly following Pb exposure for 5 and 7 days in almost all treated groups, and survival rate of sperm decreased with increasing Pb concentrations at 5 and 7 days. Morphological changes identified histologically were discovered in testes, including a disordered arrangement of germ cells, a decreased number of sperm in the lumina of the seminiferous tubules, extensive necrosis in the germinal layer of the seminiferous tubules, etc. At the same time, histological abnormalities were discovered in accessory glands, the wall cells were separated from the basement membrane, and wall cells were missing partly. The activities of SOD, GPx and CAT in testes showed no statistically significant changes compared to the control for 3 days, and initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Pb concentrations at 5 and 7 days. The antioxidant enzyme activities in accessory glands initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Pb concentrations and Pb exposure. This was accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in a concentration-dependent manner. These results showed that acute Pb exposure led to a reduction of survival rate of sperm and harmful effects at the cellular level of crab testes and accessory

  13. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323 µg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704 µg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  14. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  15. Ultrastructural alterations in the atrial myocardium of pigs with acute monensin toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monensin, A Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produces left atrial damage in pigs given toxic doses. Eight weanling pigs were given mycelial monensin orally (40 mg/kg body weight) and were killed on days 1, 2, 4, and 16 (two animals at each time interval) for ultrastructural study of the left atrial lesions. On days 1-4, extensive necrosis with contraction bands was present. Rapid macrophagic invasion and phagocytosis of sarcoplasmic debris was seen on days 2 and 4. Missing necrotic myocytes were outlined by persistent "tubes" of external laminas. In some surviving myocytes, sublethal injury was evident on day 1 by mitochondria with condensed conformation and on days 2, 4, and 16 by moderate to marked myofibrillar lysis and sarcoplasmic vacuolation. Monensin cardiotoxicity in pigs constitutes a unique example of selective injury to atrial myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6696048

  16. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  17. Effect of acute exposure to malathion and lead on sprint performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Holem, R R; Hopkins, William A; Talent, Larry G

    2006-07-01

    There are few ecotoxicological studies involving reptiles, despite the fact that anthropogenic pollutants have been identified as a major threat to reptile populations worldwide. Particularly lacking are effects-based studies in reptiles exposed to known concentrations of contaminants. We hypothesized that acute exposure to neurotoxic metals and pesticides could influence locomotor performance of reptiles. To test this hypothesis, we exposed western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) to two common and widely studied neurotoxic contaminants, malathion and lead (Pb). Single doses were administered via oral gavage at order-of-magnitude levels ranging from 0.2 to 200 and 1.0 to 1,000 mg/kg (body weight basis) for malathion and Pb, respectively. Lizard sprint velocity was determined using a 2.3-m sprint track interfaced with a laptop computer 24 hrs prior to dosing and again at 4, 24, 120, and 312 hrs post-dose. Twenty percent and 30% mortality occurred at the highest malathion and Pb dose levels (200 and 1000 mg/kg) and 70% of the lizards exposed to 200 mg/kg malathion exhibited clinical symptoms of organophosphate poisoning. Contrary to our predictions, exposure to Pb had no effect on locomotor performance, and exposure to the highest concentration of malathion increased sprint velocity. Based on the fact that the lower and most ecologically relevant concentrations of Pb and malathion had no effect on sprint velocity, we suggest that other performance parameters that require fine locomotor skills (e.g., climbing ability) may be more sensitive metrics of acute neurotoxicity and warrant further study. PMID:16465557

  18. A review of the toxicosis and biological properties of the genus Eupatorium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, O P; Dawra, R K; Kurade, N P; Sharma, P D

    1998-01-01

    Eupatorium genus grows wild in many parts of the world. A number of species of Eupatorium are toxic to grazing animals. Milk sickness in humans is caused by ingestion of milk of the animals reared on the pastures infested with Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot). While some information is available on the toxins in various species of Eupatorium, ambiguities still persist in extrapolation of the data to field incidence of toxicosis. Eupatorium genus has been used for its medicinal properties for many decades. A number of bioactive natural products have been reported in the extracts of Eupatorium spp. and the genus is a promising bioresource for preparation of drugs and value-added products. PMID:9851506

  19. Reversal of Lead-Induced Acute Toxicity by Lipoic Acid with Nutritional Supplements in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sangeeta; Sharma, Yamini; Shrivastava, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a pleiotropic toxicant. The potential role of oxidative stress injury that is associated with Pb poisoning suggests that antioxidants may enhance the efficacy of treatment designed to mitigate Pb-induced toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the comparative ameliorative potential of lipoic acid (LA) alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Pb acetate (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 3 d. After 24 h of the last toxicant dose, LA (100 mg/kg, orally [po]) alone or in conjuction with Ca (50 mg/kg, po) and Zn (10 mg/kg, po) was administered for 3 d. Significant alterations in the concentration of urea, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione as well as alterations in enzyme activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase were observed following acute Pb exposure. These findings were also supported by elevated mean DNA damage and Pb body burden in blood and soft tissues compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Three d posttreatment with LA along with Zn and Ca could significantly restore the biochemical parameters and Pb body burden to near-normal status through antioxidant activity or by preventing bioaccumulation of Pb within the blood and tissues of experimental rats. PMID:27481494

  20. Does acute lead (Pb) contamination influence membrane fatty acid composition and freeze tolerance in intertidal blue mussels in arctic Greenland?

    PubMed

    Thyrring, Jakob; Juhl, Bodil Klein; Holmstrup, Martin; Blicher, Martin E; Sejr, Mikael K

    2015-11-01

    In their natural habitats, organisms are exposed to multiple stressors. Heavy metal contamination stresses the cell membrane due to increased peroxidation of lipids. Likewise, sub-zero air temperatures potentially reduce membrane functionality in ectothermal animals. We tested if acute lead (Pb) exposure for 7 days would influence survival in intertidal blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) after exposure to realistic sub-zero air temperatures. A full factorial experiment with five tissue Pb concentrations between 0 and 3500 μg Pb/g and six sub-zero temperatures from 0 to -17 °C were used to test the hypothesis that sub-lethal effects of Pb may increase the lethality caused by freezing in blue mussels exposed to temperatures simulating Greenland winter conditions. We found a significant effect of temperature on mortality. However, the short-term exposure to Pb did not result in any effects of Pb, nor did we find interactions between Pb and temperature. We analysed the relative abundance of major phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the gill tissue, but we found no significant effect of Pb tissue concentration on PLFA composition. Results suggest that Pb accumulation has limited effects on freeze tolerance and does not induce membrane damage in terms of persistent lipid peroxidation.

  1. Acute cholesterol depletion leads to net loss of the organic osmolyte taurine in Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Duelund, Lars; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2010-11-01

    In mammalian cells, the organic osmolyte taurine is accumulated by the Na-dependent taurine transporter TauT and released though the volume- and DIDS-sensitive organic anion channel. Incubating Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (5 mM, 1 h) reduces the total cholesterol pool to 60±5% of the control value. Electron spin resonance data indicate a concomitant disruption of cholesterol-rich micro-domains. Active taurine uptake, cellular taurine content, and cell volume are reduced by 50, 20 and 20% compared to control values, respectively, whereas the passive taurine release is increased 4.5-fold under isotonic conditions following cholesterol depletion. However, taurine release under isotonic conditions is insensitive to DIDS and inhibitors of the volume-regulated anion channel. Uptake and release of meAIB are similarly affected following cholesterol depletion. Kinetic analysis reveals that cholesterol depletion increases TauT's affinity toward taurine but reduces its maximal transport capacity. Cholesterol depletion has no impact on TauT regulation by protein kinases A and C. Phospholipase A2 activity, which is required for the activation of volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), is increased under isotonic and hypotonic conditions following cholesterol depletion, whereas taurine release under hypotonic conditions is reduced following cholesterol depletion. Hence, acute cholesterol depletion of Ehrlich Lettré cells leads to reduced TauT and VSOAC activities and at the same time increases the release of organic osmolytes via a leak pathway different from the volume-sensitive pathways for amino acids and anions. PMID:20499258

  2. An examination of co-infection in acute gastroenteritis and histo-blood group antigens leading to viral infection susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    FURUYA, KENTA; NAKAJIMA, HITOSHI; SASAKI, YOUSUKE; URITA, YOSHIHISA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract in terms of viruses, bacteria and the ABO blood group. We hypothesized that a combination of norovirus (NV) and bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract could affect the likelihood of an individual to contracting NV. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are considered to act as receptors that can lead to NV susceptibility. In addition to genetics, co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract may be associated with this mechanism. A total of 370 patients with acute gastroenteritis presenting with diarrhea (14–89 years) were recruited. The male/female ratio was 20/17. Single infection (bacteria or virus), co-infection with two viruses, and co-infection with one virus and one bacterium were statistically analyzed. In total, 88 of the 376 subjects (23.4%) were positive for one virus, and 50 (13.3%) were positive for one bacterium. Co-transfection with bacteria and a virus were detected in 46 (47.9%) of the 96 bacterial gastroenteritis cases. Statistical analysis revealed that co-infection of bacteria and NV was not significant in all viral infections (P=0.768). In terms of the ABO histo-blood group type and NV infection, the frequency in the O type was not significantly increased (P=0.052). Co-infection of bacteria and a virus occurred frequently in the gastrointestinal tract. The ABO blood phenotype expression was not a significant factor in NV infection in the present case series and the results did not suggest an affinity of NV for specific bacteria. PMID:26998270

  3. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  4. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid

  5. Neuropathology of experimental 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid toxicosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S; Rice, D A; Cush, P F

    1986-07-01

    Twenty pigs were fed a diet containing 187.5 mg kg-1 of 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-nitro). Ten pigs were euthanized at intervals up to 29 days, 3-nitro was withdrawn from the diet of the remaining pigs on day 30, and these animals were subsequently euthanized at intervals up to 49 days after commencement of the experiment. A nervous syndrome characterized by clonic convulsive episodes inducible by exercise, developed at day 11. Paraparesis was apparent at day 22 progressing to paraplegia by day 33 (3 days after cessation of 3-nitro feeding). Histopathologic examination revealed myelin and axonal degeneration in the white matter of the spinal cord coincident with the onset of nervous signs. Marchi-positive degeneration was present in the dorsal funiculus at cervical level at day 22. Lesions intensified with increasing duration of toxicosis and while degenerate fibers were seen in all funiculi, there was preferential involvement of the fasciculi gracilis and cuneatus, the peripheral regions of the ventral and lateral funiculi, and a discrete area of the dorsal region of the lateral funiculus. Peripheral and optic neuropathies were evident from day 32 but were always mild and focal. The experiment establishes 3-nitro as a central-peripheral neurotoxicant of pigs.

  6. Thallium toxicosis in a dog consequent to ingestion of Mycoplasma agar plates.

    PubMed

    Puschner, Birgit; Basso, Marguerite M; Graham, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    A 1-year-old dog ingested a mixture of blood agar and Mycoplasma agar plates. The Mycoplasma agar plates contained thallium acetate, which resulted in an estimated minimum dose of 5 mg thallium acetate/kg bodyweight. Clinical signs over the course of 2-3 weeks included vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, alopecia, dysphonia, ataxia, paresthesia, intension tremors, megaesophagus with subsequent aspiration pneumonia, and several seizure episodes. The dog was treated with intravenous fluids and placement of a gastric feeding tube. Thallium concentrations in hair were 8.2 µg/g in samples taken on day 19, 16.4 µg/g in samples taken 3 months after exposure, 13.4 µg/g in samples taken 5 months after exposure, and nondetectable in samples taken 7 months after exposure. The blood thallium concentration was 190 µg/l on day 19 and nondetec table 3 months after exposure. Megaesophagus and dysphonia continued for 10 months after exposure. This case of thallium poisoning following ingestion of mycoplasma agar plates demonstrates that unusual sources of thallium still exist and suggests that thallium toxicosis should be included in the list of differential diagnoses in dogs presented with megaesophagus, especially if alopecia and other unexplained peripheral neuropathies are present. Hair and blood samples are useful specimens to reach an accurate diagnosis even if taken several weeks post exposure. The postexposure blood and hair thallium concentrations reported in this case are useful data for diagnosticians investigating dogs with potential thallium poisoning.

  7. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Lin

    2015-12-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10(-6)M Cd and 10(-6)M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H(+) in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  8. Analysis of 1,000 consecutive cases of acute poisoning in the suburb of Tokyo leading to hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Matsuo, H; Tanaka, J; Yamashita, M

    1996-02-01

    We have analyzed retrospectively 1,000 consecutive admissions due to acute poisonings over 13 years. Total mortality was 27%. Acute poisonings due to pesticides, therapeutic drugs and other substances were 518, 332 and 150 cases with mortalities of 51, 1 and 5%, respectively. The most frequent cause of acute poisoning was paraquat/diquat products, whose mortality reached 76% (220 deaths/291 cases). The second most frequent cause was organophosphate/carbamate products with a mortality of 24% (37/155). When these 2 pesticides are excluded, the mortality was only 3% (15/554). To reduce instances of paraquat/diquat poisoning, dilution of the available product or formulation in other than liquid form would be desirable, because no effective treatment is currently available. In cases of organophosphate/carbamate poisoning, early hospitalization and stabilization is crucial.

  9. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  10. Failure of dietary bentonite clay, Silent Herder mineral supplement, or parenteral Banamine to alleviate locoweed toxicosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Dugarte-Stavanja, M; Smith, G S; Edrington, T S; Hallford, D M

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate treatments purportedly beneficial for livestock grazing locoweeds (LW), growing rats were fed diets containing 10 or 20% whole-plant Oxytropis sericea (LW) with and without Silent Herder mineral mix (1.5% of diet) or bentonite clay (1.5% of diet). Pregnant female rats fed 10% LW were treated i.m. with Banamine (a prostaglandins suppressor) or saline. The LW contained swainsonine (430 micrograms/g DM) and elicited toxicosis within 10 d at intake of 2 mg/kg BW. In Trial 1, 96 immature male Sprague-Dawley rats (BW approximately 100 g) were fed commercial rat feed (CRF) with and without LW, as follows: 100% CRF, free choice; 100% CRF, restricted intake to equal average intake of rats consuming 10 and 20% LW; 90% CRF+10% LW free choice; and 80% CRF+20% LW free choice. Diets with LW contained either no supplement or supplemental mineral mixture (Silent Herder, 1.5% of diet) or added bentonite clay (1.5% of diet). Twelve rats received each of eight dietary regimens through 28 d. Locoweed depressed (P < .05) feed intake and BW gain, increased (P < .05) relative size of liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, and testes, and altered blood serum components (P < .05) indicating toxicosis. Dietary provision of Silent Herder or bentonite failed to benefit rats that ingested approximately 4 or 8 mg of swainsonine/kg BW daily through 28 d. In Trial 2, 68 young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (approximately 230 g BW) were mated and directly assigned to three diets (100% CRF, free choice, 100% CRF, intake restricted slightly below average intake of diet by rats consuming LW, or 90% CRF+10% LW free choice) and two treatments (i.m. saline or i.m. Banamine at .25 mg/kg BW daily for 10 d) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. Approximately half (31 of 68) of the impregnated rats were killed at d 10, when Banamine was discontinued, but diets were continued until the remaining females gave birth. Ingested LW provided approximately 2 mg swainsonine/kg BW daily and elicited toxicosis in 10

  11. Effects of acute and chronic waterborne lead exposure on the swimming performance and aerobic scope of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Fathead minnows were subjected to an incremental velocity test using swim tunnel respirometry for the analysis of aerobic scope and swimming performance, as critical aerobic swim speed (U(crit)), following chronic exposures (33-57 ) to 0.9±0.4, 157±18 or 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb and an acute exposure (24 h) to 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (mean±SEM). Assessment of Pb-induced anemia and neurological impairment were evaluated by blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and a cost of transport (COT) analysis, respectively. Fish from the acute 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.4±1.2 BL s⁻¹) and chronic 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.6±0.9 BL s⁻¹) treatments exhibited reduced U(crits) compared to control fish (27.6±0.8 BL s⁻¹). Aerobic scope was reduced by acute Pb exposure (8.6±2.6 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 22.6±3.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls) owing to a decrease in maximum oxygen consumption rate (38.8±0.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 54.0±4.2 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls). However, no effect on aerobic scope was observed with fish chronically exposed to Pb. Significant differences were not observed for Hb concentrations or COT. These findings suggest that the impaired swimming performances arising from acute and chronic Pb exposures reflect different mechanisms of toxicity.

  12. Acute encephalopathy of the temporal lobes leading to m.3243A>G. When MELAS is not always MELAS.

    PubMed

    Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Orsucci, Daniele; Simoncini, Costanza; Montano, Vincenzo; LoGerfo, Annalisa; Siciliano, Gabriele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2016-09-01

    MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic condition whose differential diagnosis is often posed with juvenile stroke, but more rarely even with inflammatory/infectious encephalitis, causing diagnostic challenges. Here we report the case of a young man harbouring the m.3243A>G MELAS mutation presenting an acute onset mimicking the clinical and neuroimaging features of infective encephalitis.

  13. Donor selection for natural killer cell receptor genes leads to superior survival after unrelated transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Sarah; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Klein, John P.; Wang, Tao; Le, Chap T.; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Geraghty, Daniel; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Michael D.; Ladner, Martha; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Parham, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes form a diverse, immunogenetic system. Group A and B KIR haplotypes have distinctive centromeric (Cen) and telomeric (Tel) gene-content motifs. Aiming to develop a donor selection strategy to improve transplant outcome, we compared the contribution of these motifs to the clinical benefit conferred by B haplotype donors. We KIR genotyped donors from 1409 unrelated transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; n = 1086) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 323). Donor KIR genotype influenced transplantation outcome for AML but not ALL. Compared with A haplotype motifs, centromeric and telomeric B motifs both contributed to relapse protection and improved survival, but Cen-B homozygosity had the strongest independent effect. With Cen-B/B homozygous donors the cumulative incidence of relapse was 15.4% compared with 36.5% for Cen-A/A donors (relative risk of relapse 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.57; P < .001). Overall, significantly reduced relapse was achieved with donors having 2 or more B gene-content motifs (relative risk 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.86; P = .003) for both HLA-matched and mismatched transplants. KIR genotyping of several best HLA-matched potential unrelated donors should substantially increase the frequency of transplants by using grafts with favorable KIR gene content. Adopting this practice could result in superior disease-free survival for patients with AML. PMID:20581313

  14. Poliomyelitis in Oman: acute flaccid paralysis surveillance leading to early detection and rapid response to a type 3 outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, S. E.; Suleiman, A. J.; Mehta, F. R.; al-Dhahry, S. H.; el-Bualy, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Countries are increasingly requesting guidance on carrying out acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, aimed at detecting and confirming all cases of acute paralytic poliomyelitis. The experience of Oman provides many lessons in this respect. AFP surveillance in Oman was established systematically. First, an epidemiologist was assigned to coordinate surveillance, and a laboratory for performing polio-virus isolation was identified. Next, operational guidelines for AFP surveillance were developed and widely promoted among health staff. The quality of the system has been monitored for more than 3 years with selected performance indicators. From January 1990 to April 1993, 49 AFP cases were reported, corresponding to an average annual rate of 2.1 AFP cases per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years. A total of 98% of the AFP cases were investigated within 48 hours of being reported; two stool samples were obtained from 94% of the cases. Following complete investigation, nearly a third of the reported AFP cases were classified as being clinically compatible with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Four AFP cases, all reported in 1991, were confirmed to be due to wild type 3 poliovirus. Because AFP surveillance detected these cases rapidly, Oman was able to carry out outbreak control measures promptly and more than 350,000 extra doses of oral poliovirus vaccine were delivered to children under 6 years of age. PMID:7867136

  15. Methodological issues in current practice may lead to bias in the development of biomarker combinations for predicting acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Allison; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Coca, Steven G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Individual biomarkers of renal injury are only modestly predictive of acute kidney injury (AKI). Using multiple biomarkers has the potential to improve predictive capacity. In this systematic review, statistical methods of articles developing biomarker combinations to predict acute kidney injury were assessed. We identified and described three potential sources of bias (resubstitution bias, model selection bias and bias due to center differences) that may compromise the development of biomarker combinations. Fifteen studies reported developing kidney injury biomarker combinations for the prediction of AKI after cardiac surgery (8 articles), in the intensive care unit (4 articles) or other settings (3 articles). All studies were susceptible to at least one source of bias and did not account for or acknowledge the bias. Inadequate reporting often hindered our assessment of the articles. We then evaluated, when possible (7 articles), the performance of published biomarker combinations in the TRIBE-AKI cardiac surgery cohort. Predictive performance was markedly attenuated in six out of seven cases. Thus, deficiencies in analysis and reporting are avoidable and care should be taken to provide accurate estimates of risk prediction model performance. Hence, rigorous design, analysis and reporting of biomarker combination studies are essential to realizing the promise of biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:26398494

  16. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD. PMID:27338097

  17. Corruption of dendritic cell antigen presentation during acute GVHD leads to regulatory T-cell failure and chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Koyama, Motoko; Le Texier, Laetitia; Markey, Kate A; Cheong, Melody; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Alexander, Kylie A; Clouston, Andrew D; Blazar, Bruce R; Hill, Geoffrey R; MacDonald, Kelli P A

    2016-08-11

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major cause of late mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is characterized by tissue fibrosis manifesting as scleroderma and bronchiolitis obliterans. The development of acute GVHD (aGVHD) is a powerful clinical predictor of subsequent cGVHD, suggesting that aGVHD may invoke the immunologic pathways responsible for cGVHD. In preclinical models in which sclerodermatous cGVHD develops after a preceding period of mild aGVHD, we show that antigen presentation within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of donor dendritic cells (DCs) is markedly impaired early after BMT. This is associated with a failure of regulatory T-cell (Treg) homeostasis and cGVHD. Donor DC-restricted deletion of MHC class II phenocopied this Treg deficiency and cGVHD. Moreover, specific depletion of donor Tregs after BMT also induced cGVHD, whereas adoptive transfer of Tregs ameliorated it. These data demonstrate that the defect in Treg homeostasis seen in cGVHD is a causative lesion and is downstream of defective antigen presentation within MHC class II that is induced by aGVHD.

  18. A prophylactic fresh frozen plasma transfusion leads to a possible case of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasree; Hussain, Rashid; Mazer, Jeffrey; Carino, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old man with cholangiocarcinoma presented with fever and abdominal pain. He was hypotensive, jaundiced and had right upper quadrant tenderness. Laboratory testing showed a leucocytosis, elevated liver function tests, total bilirubin and International Normalised Ratio (INR). Given the concern for cholangitis, the patient was given antibiotics and three units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) before biliary drain placement. After drain placement, and within 3 h of receiving blood products, the patient became tachypnoeic and hypoxic with a chest X-ray revealing new bilateral airspace disease. The rapid development of respiratory distress was determined to most likely be transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). He rapidly progressed to intubation and required 100% FiO2, high positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and intermittent-prone ventilation for 48 h but eventually recovered and was extubated. TRALI is an under-recognised aetiology for respiratory distress in the critically ill. Adopting a conservative transfusion strategy may prevent TRALI.

  19. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS.

  20. The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, Heather M.; Calcatera, Samantha M.; Dimmick, Marcy A.; Andrae, John G.; Duckett, Susan K.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  1. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. PMID:24176292

  2. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality. PMID:26641162

  3. The bull sperm microRNAome and the effect of fescue toxicosis on sperm microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Heather M; Calcatera, Samantha M; Dimmick, Marcy A; Andrae, John G; Duckett, Susan K; Pratt, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  4. Does T wave inversion in lead aVL predict mid-segment left anterior descending lesions in acute coronary syndrome? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Nobuto; Goto, Tadahiro; Ikeda, Tomoya; Kasai, Atsunobu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Limited data are available regarding the predictive value of electrocardiographic T wave inversion in lead aVL for mid-segment left anterior descending (MLAD) lesions among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Setting Retrospective single-centre study, using a prospectively-collected coronary angiography database from January 2012 to December 2013. Participants We included consecutive adult patients with ACS who underwent urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 24 h after arriving at the hospital. We excluded patients who did not undergo an ECG before PCI, patients with proximal MLAD occlusion and patients diagnosed with vasospastic angina. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was MLAD lesion >50%. The other outcome of interest was MLAD lesion as a cause of ACS. First, we evaluated the diagnostic values of T wave inversion in lead aVL regardless of other T wave changes for each outcome. Second, we evaluated the diagnostic values of isolated T wave inversion in lead aVL. Results Overall, 219 patients were eligible for the analysis. T wave inversion in lead aVL regardless of other T wave changes had a sensitivity of 32.9%, specificity of 48.2%, positive predictive value of 27.6% and negative predictive value of 54.5% for predicting MLAD lesions. Isolated T wave inversion in lead aVL had a sensitivity of 9.8%, specificity of 86.9%, positive predictive value of 30.8% and negative predictive value of 61.7% for predicting MLAD lesions. These diagnostic values did not change materially when focusing on patients with MLAD lesion as the cause. Conclusions While T wave inversion in lead aVL regardless of other T wave changes had low diagnostic values for predicting MLAD lesions, isolated T wave inversion in lead aVL had a high specificity. Our inferences underscore the importance of a cautious interpretation of T wave inversion in lead aVL among patients with ACS. PMID:26832434

  5. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adverse physiological effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to its competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research demonstrated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice...

  6. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  7. Short- and long-term prognostic significance of ST-segment elevation in lead aVR in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taglieri, Nevio; Marzocchi, Antonio; Saia, Francesco; Marrozzini, Cinzia; Palmerini, Tullio; Ortolani, Paolo; Cinti, Laura; Rosmini, Stefania; Vagnarelli, Fabio; Alessi, Laura; Villani, Caterina; Scaramuzzino, Giuseppe; Gallelli, Ilaria; Melandri, Giovanni; Branzi, Angelo; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2011-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of ST-segment elevation (STE) in lead aVR in unselected patients with non-STE acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We enrolled 1,042 consecutive patients with NSTE-ACS. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to the following electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns on admission: (1) normal electrocardiogram or no significant ST-T changes, (2) inverted T waves, (3) isolated ST deviation (ST depression [STD] without STE in lead aVR or transient STE), (4) STD plus STE in lead aVR, and (5) ECG confounders (pacing, right or left bundle branch block). The main angiographic end point was left main coronary artery (LM) disease as the culprit artery. Clinical end points were in-hospital and 1-year cardiovascular death defined as the composite of cardiac death, fatal stroke, and fatal bleeding. Prevalence of STD plus STE in lead aVR was 13.4%. Rates of culprit LM disease and in-hospital cardiovascular death were 8.1% and 3.8%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, patients with STD plus STE in lead aVR (group 4) showed an increased risk of culprit LM disease (odds ratio 4.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31 to 9.64, p <0.001) and in-hospital cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio 5.58, 95% CI 2.35 to 13.24, p <0.001) compared to patients without any ST deviation (pooled groups 1, 2, and 5), whereas patients with isolated ST deviation (group 3) did not. At 1-year follow-up 127 patients (12.2%) died from cardiovascular causes. On multivariable analysis, STD plus STE in lead aVR was a stronger independent predictor of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.64, p <0.001) than isolated ST deviation (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.36, p = 0.06). In conclusion, STD plus STE in lead aVR is associated with high-risk coronary lesions and predicts in-hospital and 1-year cardiovascular deaths in patients with NSTE-ACS. Therefore, this promptly available ECG pattern could be useful to improve risk

  8. Brain and plasma levels of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in lead-expose and cadmium-exposed rats following acute or chronic intraperitoneal administration of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Nation, J R; Wellman, P J; Livermore, C L; Miller, D K; Bratton, G R

    1997-06-16

    Previous investigations of metal/cocaine interactions have shown that chronic oral exposure to inorganic lead or cadmium attenuates the psychoactive effects of acute or repeated administration of cocaine. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the possibility that such interactive effects may derive from metal-induced disturbances in cocaine pharmacokinetics, i.e., delivery of cocaine to critical biologic sites may be disrupted by metal contamination. In this study, adult male rats were exposed to purified diets containing 250 ppm lead acetate (Group Lead), 100 ppm cadmium chloride (Group Cadmium), or unadulterated laboratory chow (Group Control); n = 48/exposure condition. Following ad libitum access to their respective diets in the home cage for 45 days, half the animals from each exposure regimen received single daily IP injections of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine HCl for a period of 7 days (n = 8/group). The remaining half the animals received repeated daily injections of saline during this pretreatment phase. On the day following pretreatment, animals previously receiving cocaine injections were administered a single cocaine test challenge at a dose equal to that received in pretreatment. Similarly, saline pretreatment animals received either 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine. The results of this investigation did not reveal reliable evidence of metal-related differences in brain levels of cocaine. Plasma cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) levels also were essentially the same for control and metal-exposed animals. The failure to show that lead or cadmium alters the disposition of cocaine in brain or plasma underscores the need to pursue alternative accounts of metal/cocaine interactions.

  9. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  10. 2,4-D toxicosis.III: An attempt to produce 2,4-D toxicosis in dogs on treated grass plots.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E K; Lovell, R A; Beasley, V R; Parker, A J; Stedelin, J R

    1991-10-01

    Eighteen English pointer dogs were randomly assigned to 3 outdoor grass-plot enclosures (6/enclosure) uniformly sprayed once with either the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) dimethylamine formulation (DMA-4) at the maximum recommended application rate, DMA-4 at 4 times the maximum recommended application rate, or the DMA-4 vehicle alone at 4 times the maximum recommended application rate. A heavy rain shower occurred 24 h after application. The dogs were observed for clinical signs and evaluated using an electroencephalograph, electrocardiograph (lead I), and electromyograph prior to exposure, and either 1 or 7 d after continuous exposure. Clinical examination, hematologic and serum biochemical data were obtained, and serum, urine and kidney 2,4-D were quantified. Half of the dogs from each group were killed after 1 d of continuous exposure, while the other half were killed after 7 d. Gross postmortem and histologic examinations were conducted on each dog. No obvious 2,4-D effects were detected in any of the dogs.

  11. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis identifies proteins associated with neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Neely, Benjamin A; Soper, Jennifer L; Gulland, Frances M D; Bell, P Darwin; Kindy, Mark; Arthur, John M; Janech, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic studies including marine mammals are rare, largely due to the lack of fully sequenced genomes. This has hampered the application of these techniques toward biomarker discovery efforts for monitoring of health and disease in these animals. We conducted a pilot label-free LC-MS/MS study to profile and compare the cerebrospinal fluid from California sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) and without DAT. Across 11 samples, a total of 206 proteins were identified (FDR<0.1) using a composite mammalian database. Several peptide identifications were validated using stable isotope labeled peptides. Comparison of spectral counts revealed seven proteins that were elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid from sea lions with DAT: complement C3, complement factor B, dickkopf-3, malate dehydrogenase 1, neuron cell adhesion molecule 1, gelsolin, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule. Immunoblot analysis found reelin to be depressed in the cerebrospinal fluid from California sea lions with DAT. Mice administered domoic acid also had lower hippocampal reelin protein levels suggesting that domoic acid depresses reelin similar to kainic acid. In summary, proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in marine mammals is a useful tool to characterize the underlying molecular pathology of neurodegenerative disease. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002105 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002105).

  12. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis identifies proteins associated with neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Neely, Benjamin A; Soper, Jennifer L; Gulland, Frances M D; Bell, P Darwin; Kindy, Mark; Arthur, John M; Janech, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    Proteomic studies including marine mammals are rare, largely due to the lack of fully sequenced genomes. This has hampered the application of these techniques toward biomarker discovery efforts for monitoring of health and disease in these animals. We conducted a pilot label-free LC-MS/MS study to profile and compare the cerebrospinal fluid from California sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) and without DAT. Across 11 samples, a total of 206 proteins were identified (FDR<0.1) using a composite mammalian database. Several peptide identifications were validated using stable isotope labeled peptides. Comparison of spectral counts revealed seven proteins that were elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid from sea lions with DAT: complement C3, complement factor B, dickkopf-3, malate dehydrogenase 1, neuron cell adhesion molecule 1, gelsolin, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule. Immunoblot analysis found reelin to be depressed in the cerebrospinal fluid from California sea lions with DAT. Mice administered domoic acid also had lower hippocampal reelin protein levels suggesting that domoic acid depresses reelin similar to kainic acid. In summary, proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in marine mammals is a useful tool to characterize the underlying molecular pathology of neurodegenerative disease. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002105 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002105). PMID:26364553

  13. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  14. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  15. Copper toxicosis in non-COMMD1 Bedlington terriers is associated with metal transport gene ABCA12.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Susan; Boursnell, Mike; Loughran, Michael J; Trafford, James; Isherwood, Diana; Liu, Xuan; Olohan, Lisa; Carter, Stuart D

    2016-05-01

    Wilson's disease, caused by a mutation in the ATP-ase 7B gene, is the only genetically characterised human disease with inhibition of biliary copper excretion and toxic copper accumulation in liver and occasionally brain. A similar copper toxicosis occurs in Bedlington terriers (CT) with liver damage only. Although CT has been associated with a defect in the COMMD1 gene (COMMD1 (del/del)), Bedlington terriers with CT and lacking this mutation are also recognised (non-COMMD1 (del/del)). A study was designed to identify any other gene polymorphisms associated with copper toxicity in Bedlington terriers employing genome wide association studies (GWAS) followed by deep sequencing of the candidate region. Blood for DNA analysis and liver for confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained from 30 non-COMMD1 (del/del) Bedlington terriers comprising equal numbers of CT-affected dogs and controls. DNA was initially subjected to GWAS screening and then further sequencing to target the putative mutant gene. The study has identified a significant disease association with a region on chromosome 37 containing identified SNP's which are highly significantly associated with non-COMMD1 (del/del) Bedlington terrier CT. This region contains the ABCA12 gene which bears a close functional relationship to ATP-ase 7B responsible for Wilson's disease in man. PMID:27049130

  16. Acute effect of mercury toxicity on some enzymes in liver of teleost Sarotherodon mossambicus

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, K.A.; Naidu, K.A.; Ramamurthi, R.

    1984-06-01

    The effects of 1.5 ppm of mercuric chloride (LC50/48 hr) on some enzymes and organic substances of liver tissue of Sarotherodon mossambicus were studied. Significant decreases in the activities of succinate dehydrogenases, lactate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase and in the levels of organic substances like total anthrone-positive substances, glycogen, and total ninhydrin-positive substances were observed. The results indicate impaired oxidative and transphosphorylative activities and utilization of carbohydrates during acute mercury toxicosis in fish.

  17. LEAD STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Aub, Joseph C.; Reznikoff, Paul; Smith, Dorothea E.

    1924-01-01

    It appears, from the investigations in other laboratories, that the anemia observed in cases of lead poisoning is due to destruction of blood rather than to diminished production of blood. The method of poisoning cells in vitro with lead was adopted in order to study this phenomenon, and distinct effects were thereby obtained, even when only 0.001 mg. of lead is added to approximately 5 billion washed red corpuscles. In order to obtain optimum results the usual dosage employed was ten times this or 0.01 mg. per 5 billion cells. The following changes were observed in cells so treated. 1. Such a marked increase in the resistance to hypotonic salt solution develops that complete hemolysis does not occur until the cells are exposed to a saline solution of 0.05 per cent. Untreated cells are completely hemolyzed in 0.25 or 0.225 per cent saline. 2. This reaction is quantitative and varies with the concentration of lead used. Under the conditions of our experiments this phenomenon seems to be unique. The effects of arsenic are very slight in comparison. 3. While from this reaction it may be concluded that lead increases cellular resistance, it also appears that it shortens the life of blood cells. This may be demonstrated by the much more rapid appearance of hemolysis than normal when the cells are merely allowed to stand in Ringer solution of any dilution. 4. In rabbits with acute lead poisoning these same phenomena may be noted in vivo. 5. Both phenomena may be changed in vitro by varying the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of lead, as Fici has already pointed out. 6. If normal cells stand in Ringer solution for 6 hours something diffuses into the solution which largely reduces the action of lead. After repeated washing these cells react with lead in the usual manner. 7. Small amounts of serum react with lead and eliminate its effects. Red blood cells, treated with a mixture of lead and blood serum, show normal hemolysis in hypotonic salt

  18. Lack of variant specific CD8+ T-cell response against mutant and pre-existing variants leads to outgrowth of particular clones in acute hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background CTL escape mutations have been described during acute hepatitis C in patients who developed chronic disease later on. Our aim was to investigate the mutual relationship between HCV specific CD8+ T cells and evolution of the viral sequence during early acute HCV infection. Results We sequenced multiple clones of NS3 1406 epitope in 4 HLA-A*02 patients with acute hepatitis C genotype 1b infection. Pentamers specific for the variants were used to monitor the corresponding CD8+ T cell response. We observed outgrowth of mutations, which induced only a weak and thus potentially insufficient CD8+ T cell response. In one patient we observed outgrowth of variant epitopes with similarities to a different genotype rather than de novo mutations most probably due to a lack of responsiveness to these likely pre-existing variants. We could show that in acute hepatitis C CTL escape mutations occur much earlier than demonstrated in previous studies. Conclusions The adaption of the virus to a new host is characterized by a high and rapid variability in epitopes under CD8+ T cell immune pressure. This adaption takes place during the very early phase of acute infection and strikingly some sequences were reduced below the limit of detection at some time points but were detected at high frequency again at later time points. Independent of the observed variability, HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses decline and no adaption to different or new antigens during the course of infection could be detected. PMID:24073713

  19. Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Andrews, G.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    2004-01-01

    A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near it mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma. USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies ics in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes..

  20. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  1. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Chan, Herman H. M.; Lau, Rainbow W. H.; Capili, Freddie G.; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  2. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter S Y; Chan, Herman H M; Lau, Rainbow W H; Capili, Freddie G; Underwood, Malcolm J; Wan, Innes Y P

    2016-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  3. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter S Y; Chan, Herman H M; Lau, Rainbow W H; Capili, Freddie G; Underwood, Malcolm J; Wan, Innes Y P

    2016-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies.

  4. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Chan, Herman H. M.; Lau, Rainbow W. H.; Capili, Freddie G.; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies.

  5. ST-segment deviation in lead aVR on admission is not associated with left ventricular function at predischarge in first anterior wall ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yukie; Tamura, Akira; Kotoku, Munenori; Kadota, Junichi

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that the analysis of ST-segment deviation in lead aVR on admission provides useful information on angiographic coronary anatomy and risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes. However, the association between ST-segment deviation in lead aVR on admission and left ventricular (LV) function has not been fully investigated in anterior wall acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. In this study, 237 patients with first anterior wall acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were examined. The patients were divided into the following 3 groups according to ST-segment deviation in lead aVR on admission: 85 with ST-segment elevation ≥0.5 mm (group A), 106 without ST-segment deviation (group B), and 46 with ST-segment depression ≥0.5 mm (group C). LV ejection fractions at predischarge were compared among the 3 groups. Among the 3 groups, there were significant differences in the prevalences of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion (group A 75.3%, group B 56.6%, group C 45.7%, p = 0.002), long LAD (group A 27.1%, group B 31.1%, group C 56.5%, p = 0.002), and good collaterals to the LAD (group A 40.0%, group B 25.4%, group C 17.4%, p = 0.01). LV ejection fractions at predischarge did not differ among the 3 groups (group A 56.4 ± 12.5%, group B 56.9 ± 12.7%, group C 53.3 ± 12.2%, p = 0.26). On a multiple regression analysis, establishment of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow, proximal LAD occlusion, and long LAD were associated with the LV ejection fraction at predischarge. In conclusion, ST-segment deviation in lead aVR on admission is not associated with LV function at predischarge in first anterior wall acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  6. Integrating the Forensic Sciences in Wildlife Case Investigations: A Case Report of Pentobarbital and Phenytoin Toxicosis in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C

    2016-09-01

    The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case.

  7. Integrating the Forensic Sciences in Wildlife Case Investigations: A Case Report of Pentobarbital and Phenytoin Toxicosis in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C

    2016-09-01

    The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case. PMID:27030371

  8. Repeated Applications of Thoracic Spine Thrust Manipulation do not Lead to Tolerance in Patients Presenting with Acute Mechanical Neck Pain: A Secondary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Cleland, Joshua A; Huijbregts, Peter; Palomeque-Del-Cerro, Luis; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients receiving mobilization techniques do not exhibit tolerance to repeated applications. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated for thoracic manipulation. Our aim was to determine if patients receiving thoracic thrust manipulation exhibit tolerance to repeated applications in acute mechanical neck pain. Forty-five patients were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group received electro- and thermotherapy for 5 sessions, and the experimental group received the same program and also received a thoracic thrust manipulation once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. Outcome measures included neck pain and cervical mobility. Within-session change scores for pain and mobility during treatment sessions #1, 3, and 5 were examined with a one-way repeated measured ANOVA. A 2-way ANOVA with session as within-subject variable and group as between-subject variable was used to compare change scores for each visit between groups to ascertain if there were significant between-group differences in within-session changes for the experimental versus the control group. The ANOVA showed that for either group the 3 within-session change scores were not significantly different (P > 0.1). The 2-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups for both pain and neck mobility in within-session change scores (all, P < 0.001). Change scores in each session were superior in the experimental group as compared to those in the control group. The results suggest that patients receiving thoracic manipulation do not exhibit tolerance to repeated applications with regard to pain and mobility measures in acute mechanical neck pain. Further studies should investigate the dose-response relationship of thoracic thrust manipulation in this population. PMID:20046622

  9. Acute and longer term effects of meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the behavior of lead-exposed and control mice.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P W; Blaine, C; Cohen, M; Burright, R G; Donovick, P J

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of chelating agent meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on spatial learning and forced-swim immobility in Binghamton Heterogeneous Stock (HET) mice. Forced-swim immobility (characterized by increasingly frequent bouts of complete motionlessness in a forced-swim test, i.e., behavioral despair) is reduced by exposure to lead. In Experiment 1, male and female HETs (n = 81) were assigned to lead-exposed (0.5% lead acetate ad lib in drinking fluid), pair-fed (PF), or water control groups. Six weeks after the termination of lead exposure, half of each group was injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 50 mg/kg DMSA or vehicle once per day for 5 days. Following treatment, all animals were tested for acquisition and extinction in the Morris Water maze, followed by immobility testing in an inescapable forced-swim task. Neither Pb nor DMSA affected Morris maze performance. However, consistent with previously published work, Pb reduced immobility in the forced-water swim relative to both PF and water controls. Additionally, lead-exposed males, but not females, showed sustained improvement following DMSA treatment on immobility measures. Experiment 2 was designed to demonstrate the effect of the above DMSA protocol on blood-Pb, and also examined the immediate effects of DMSA on immobility during treatment. Thus, in Experiment 2, animals were exposed to an identical Pb and DMSA treatment protocol, but the effects of DMSA on immobility during the course of DMSA treatment were measured, and animals were sacrificed immediately after treatment so that blood-Pb measures could be taken. Under these circumstances, DMSA markedly reversed the lead-induced reduction in immobility immediately during the treatment phase. Although DMSA clearly reduced blood-lead in males, its influence on female blood levels was far less. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that DMSA ameliorates lead-induced immobility changes in mice, but that gender may

  10. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  11. Lead in ammunition: a persistent threat to health and conservation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C K; Kelly, T R; Rideout, B A

    2013-12-01

    Many scavenging bird populations have experienced abrupt declines across the globe, and intensive recovery activities have been necessary to sustain several species, including the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Exposure to lead from lead-based ammunition is widespread in condors and lead toxicosis presents an immediate threat to condor recovery, accounting for the highest proportion of adult mortality. Lead contamination of carcasses across the landscape remains a serious threat to the health and sustainability of scavenging birds, and here we summarize recent evidence for exposure to lead-based ammunition and health implications across many species. California condors and other scavenging species are sensitive indicators of the occurrence of lead contaminated carcasses in the environment. Transdisciplinary science-based approaches have been critical to managing lead exposure in California condors and paving the way for use of non-lead ammunition in California. Similar transdisciplinary approaches are now needed to translate the science informing on this issue and establish education and outreach efforts that focus on concerns brought forth by key stakeholders.

  12. Lead in ammunition: a persistent threat to health and conservation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C K; Kelly, T R; Rideout, B A

    2013-12-01

    Many scavenging bird populations have experienced abrupt declines across the globe, and intensive recovery activities have been necessary to sustain several species, including the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Exposure to lead from lead-based ammunition is widespread in condors and lead toxicosis presents an immediate threat to condor recovery, accounting for the highest proportion of adult mortality. Lead contamination of carcasses across the landscape remains a serious threat to the health and sustainability of scavenging birds, and here we summarize recent evidence for exposure to lead-based ammunition and health implications across many species. California condors and other scavenging species are sensitive indicators of the occurrence of lead contaminated carcasses in the environment. Transdisciplinary science-based approaches have been critical to managing lead exposure in California condors and paving the way for use of non-lead ammunition in California. Similar transdisciplinary approaches are now needed to translate the science informing on this issue and establish education and outreach efforts that focus on concerns brought forth by key stakeholders. PMID:24419669

  13. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sokal, Adam; Lenarczyk, Radosław; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Vanderheyden, Marc; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Francis, Darrel; Heynens, Joeri; Stegemann, Berthold; Cornelussen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations. Results Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor. Conclusions In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141 PMID:27124724

  14. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  15. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  16. Loss of αT-catenin alters the hybrid adhering junctions in the heart and leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular arrhythmia following acute ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jifen; Goossens, Steven; van Hengel, Jolanda; Gao, Erhe; Cheng, Lan; Tyberghein, Koen; Shang, Xiying; De Rycke, Riet; van Roy, Frans; Radice, Glenn L

    2012-02-15

    It is generally accepted that the intercalated disc (ICD) required for mechano-electrical coupling in the heart consists of three distinct junctional complexes: adherens junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions. However, recent morphological and molecular data indicate a mixing of adherens junctional and desmosomal components, resulting in a 'hybrid adhering junction' or 'area composita'. The α-catenin family member αT-catenin, part of the N-cadherin-catenin adhesion complex in the heart, is the only α-catenin that interacts with the desmosomal protein plakophilin-2 (PKP2). Thus, it has been postulated that αT-catenin might serve as a molecular integrator of the two adhesion complexes in the area composita. To investigate the role of αT-catenin in the heart, gene targeting technology was used to delete the Ctnna3 gene, encoding αT-catenin, in the mouse. The αT-catenin-null mice are viable and fertile; however, the animals exhibit progressive cardiomyopathy. Adherens junctional and desmosomal proteins were unaffected by loss of αT-catenin, with the exception of the desmosomal protein PKP2. Immunogold labeling at the ICD demonstrated in the αT-catenin-null heart a preferential reduction of PKP2 at the area composita compared with the desmosome. Furthermore, gap junction protein Cx43 was reduced at the ICD, including its colocalization with N-cadherin. Gap junction remodeling in αT-catenin-knockout hearts was associated with an increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmias after acute ischemia. This novel animal model demonstrates for the first time how perturbation in αT-catenin can affect both PKP2 and Cx43 and thereby highlights the importance of understanding the crosstalk between the junctional proteins of the ICD and its implications for arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

  17. Using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference to End Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Leads to Higher Weight Gains in the Most Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Nancy M.; Myatt, Mark; Prudhon, Claudine; Briend, André

    2013-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization recommends discharging children admitted to nutrition programs treating severe acute malnutrition, with a low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <115 mm) when weight gain is >15%. When this recommendation is followed, the most severely malnourished children receive a shorter treatment compared to children that are less severely malnourished. This study assesses whether using MUAC >125 mm as discharge criteria eliminates this effect. Methods and Findings Data from 753 children cured from a Médecins Sans Frontières outpatient nutrition program in Gedaref, North Sudan were analyzed. MUAC >125 mm was used as discharge criteria. Length of stay and percent weight gain of children were compared in relation to nutritional status on admission. Children with low MUAC on admission had a longer duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and also a higher percent weight gain (p = 0.000) than children with higher MUAC. Similar results with weight-for-height z-scores categories were shown with both duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and percent weight gain (p = 0.000). Conclusion This study shows that using MUAC as the discharge criteria eliminates the effect of shorter treatment in most severely malnourished children compared to least severely malnourished, as is observed with percent weight gain. The findings directly address the main concern that has been identified with the current WHO recommendation of using percent weight gain. MUAC could be used as discharge criteria, instead of percent weight gain, as having a longer duration of treatment and a higher percent weight gain for the most malnourished is highly desirable. PMID:23418442

  18. Acute Seizures in Old Age Leads to a Greater Loss of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons, an Increased Propensity for Developing Chronic TLE and a Severe Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shetty, Ashok K

    2011-02-01

    The aged population displays an enhanced risk for developing acute seizure (AS) activity. However, it is unclear whether AS activity in old age would result in a greater magnitude of hippocampal neurodegeneration and inflammation, and an increased predilection for developing chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we addressed these issues in young-adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats after three-hours of AS activity, induced through graded intraperitoneal injections of kainic acid (KA), and terminated through a diazepam injection. During the three-hours of AS activity, both young adult and aged groups exhibited similar numbers of stage-V motor seizures but the numbers of stage-IV motor seizures were greater in the aged group. In both age groups, three-hour AS activity induced degeneration of 50-55% of neurons in the dentate hilus, 22-32% of neurons in the granule cell layer and 49-52% neurons in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer without showing any interaction between the age and AS activity. However, degeneration of neurons in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer showed a clear interaction between the age and AS activity (12% in the young adult group and 56% in the aged group), suggesting that an advanced age makes the CA1 pyramidal neurons more susceptible to die with AS activity. The extent of inflammation measured through the numbers of activated microglial cells was similar between the two age groups. Interestingly, the predisposition for developing chronic TLE at 2-3 months after AS activity was 60% for young adult rats but 100% for aged rats. Moreover, both frequency & intensity of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronic phase after AS activity were 6-12 folds greater in aged rats than in young adult rats. Furthermore, aged rats lost their ability for spatial learning even in a scrupulous eleven-session water maze learning paradigm after AS activity, in divergence from young adult rats which retained the

  19. Cyanide toxicosis in Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinereus) secondary to ingestion of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica).

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Garner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Two Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinereus) died acutely in their exhibit within a 4-day period. Neither animal had significant gross lesions at necropsy. Histologic findings were consistent with acute vascular shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and a toxic etiology was suspected. The animals' exhibit contained opened, uneaten loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruit with the seeds removed and large quantities of undigested loquat seed material in the feces of the remaining animals. Cyanide was detected in the stomach contents collected at necropsy and in fresh loquat seeds from the exhibit. Loquat is related to other cyanide-containing fruit trees, including cherries, peaches, and almonds.

  20. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. PMID:26743178

  1. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  3. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  5. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  6. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  7. Combination therapy with andrographolide and D-penicillamine enhanced therapeutic advantage over monotherapy with D-penicillamine in attenuating fibrogenic response and cell death in the periportal zone of liver in rats during copper toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Sen, Gargi; Chowdhury, Kaustav Dutta; Biswas, Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Long treatment regime with D-penicillamine is needed before it can exert clinically meaningful benefits in the treatment of copper toxicosis. The consequence of long-term D-penicillamine treatment is associated with numerous side effects. The limitations of D-penicillamine monotherapy prompted us to search for more effective treatment strategies that could decrease the duration of D-penicillamine therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of D-penicillamine in combination with another hepatoprotective drug, andrographolide in treatment of copper toxicosis in rats. D-penicillamine treatment led to the excretion of copper through urine. Addition of andrographolide to D-penicillamine regime appeared to increase protection of liver by increasing the biliary excretion of copper and reduction in cholestatic injury. The early removal of the causative agent copper during combination treatment was the most effective therapeutic intervention that contributed to the early rectification of fibrosis in liver. Combination treatment reduced Kupffer cells accumulation and TNF{alpha} production in liver of copper exposed rats. In particular, andrographolide mediated the anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the cytokine production. However, another possible mechanism of cytoprotection of andrographolide was decreasing mitochondrial production of superoxide anions that resulted in better restoration of mitochondrial dysfunction during combination therapy than monotherapy. Furthermore, ROS inhibition by combination regimen resulted in significant decline in activation of caspase cascade. Inhibition of caspases attenuated apoptosis of hepatocytes, induced by chronic copper exposure. In summary, this study suggested that added benefit of combination treatment over use of either agent alone in alleviating the hepatotoxicity and fibrosis associated with copper toxicosis.

  8. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found in all parts of our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  9. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) Reveals Apolipoprotein E as a Candidate Biomarker of Chronic Domoic Acid Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Neely, Benjamin A; Ferrante, Jason A; Chaves, J Mauro; Soper, Jennifer L; Almeida, Jonas S; Arthur, John M; Gulland, Frances M D; Janech, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) is caused by exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid and has been linked to massive stranding events and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs in addition to the presence of domoic acid in body fluids. Chronic DAT further is characterized by reoccurring seizures progressing to status epilepticus. Diagnosis of chronic DAT is often slow and problematic, and minimally invasive tests for DAT have been the focus of numerous recent biomarker studies. The goal of this study was to retrospectively profile plasma proteins in a population of sea lions with chronic DAT and those without DAT using two dimensional gel electrophoresis to discover whether individual, multiple, or combinations of protein and clinical data could be utilized to identify sea lions with DAT. Using a training set of 32 sea lion sera, 20 proteins and their isoforms were identified that were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Interestingly, 11 apolipoprotein E (ApoE) charge forms were decreased in DAT samples, indicating that ApoE charge form distributions may be important in the progression of DAT. In order to develop a classifier of chronic DAT, an independent blinded test set of 20 sea lions, seven with chronic DAT, was used to validate models utilizing ApoE charge forms and eosinophil counts. The resulting support vector machine had high sensitivity (85.7% with 92.3% negative predictive value) and high specificity (92.3% with 85.7% positive predictive value). These results suggest that ApoE and eosinophil counts along with machine learning can perform as a robust and accurate tool to diagnose chronic DAT. Although this analysis is specifically focused on blood biomarkers and routine clinical data, the results demonstrate promise for future studies combining additional variables in multidimensional space to create robust classifiers. PMID:25919366

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) Reveals Apolipoprotein E as a Candidate Biomarker of Chronic Domoic Acid Toxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Benjamin A.; Ferrante, Jason A.; Chaves, J. Mauro; Soper, Jennifer L.; Almeida, Jonas S.; Arthur, John M.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Janech, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) is caused by exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid and has been linked to massive stranding events and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs in addition to the presence of domoic acid in body fluids. Chronic DAT further is characterized by reoccurring seizures progressing to status epilepticus. Diagnosis of chronic DAT is often slow and problematic, and minimally invasive tests for DAT have been the focus of numerous recent biomarker studies. The goal of this study was to retrospectively profile plasma proteins in a population of sea lions with chronic DAT and those without DAT using two dimensional gel electrophoresis to discover whether individual, multiple, or combinations of protein and clinical data could be utilized to identify sea lions with DAT. Using a training set of 32 sea lion sera, 20 proteins and their isoforms were identified that were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Interestingly, 11 apolipoprotein E (ApoE) charge forms were decreased in DAT samples, indicating that ApoE charge form distributions may be important in the progression of DAT. In order to develop a classifier of chronic DAT, an independent blinded test set of 20 sea lions, seven with chronic DAT, was used to validate models utilizing ApoE charge forms and eosinophil counts. The resulting support vector machine had high sensitivity (85.7% with 92.3% negative predictive value) and high specificity (92.3% with 85.7% positive predictive value). These results suggest that ApoE and eosinophil counts along with machine learning can perform as a robust and accurate tool to diagnose chronic DAT. Although this analysis is specifically focused on blood biomarkers and routine clinical data, the results demonstrate promise for future studies combining additional variables in multidimensional space to create robust classifiers. PMID:25919366

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) Reveals Apolipoprotein E as a Candidate Biomarker of Chronic Domoic Acid Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Neely, Benjamin A; Ferrante, Jason A; Chaves, J Mauro; Soper, Jennifer L; Almeida, Jonas S; Arthur, John M; Gulland, Frances M D; Janech, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) is caused by exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid and has been linked to massive stranding events and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs in addition to the presence of domoic acid in body fluids. Chronic DAT further is characterized by reoccurring seizures progressing to status epilepticus. Diagnosis of chronic DAT is often slow and problematic, and minimally invasive tests for DAT have been the focus of numerous recent biomarker studies. The goal of this study was to retrospectively profile plasma proteins in a population of sea lions with chronic DAT and those without DAT using two dimensional gel electrophoresis to discover whether individual, multiple, or combinations of protein and clinical data could be utilized to identify sea lions with DAT. Using a training set of 32 sea lion sera, 20 proteins and their isoforms were identified that were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Interestingly, 11 apolipoprotein E (ApoE) charge forms were decreased in DAT samples, indicating that ApoE charge form distributions may be important in the progression of DAT. In order to develop a classifier of chronic DAT, an independent blinded test set of 20 sea lions, seven with chronic DAT, was used to validate models utilizing ApoE charge forms and eosinophil counts. The resulting support vector machine had high sensitivity (85.7% with 92.3% negative predictive value) and high specificity (92.3% with 85.7% positive predictive value). These results suggest that ApoE and eosinophil counts along with machine learning can perform as a robust and accurate tool to diagnose chronic DAT. Although this analysis is specifically focused on blood biomarkers and routine clinical data, the results demonstrate promise for future studies combining additional variables in multidimensional space to create robust classifiers.

  13. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  14. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  15. Lead effects on body composition and organ size of wintering canvasbacks Aythya valisineria in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pace, R.M.; Hohman, W.L.; Custer, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    We tested whether lead exposure, as evidenced by liver lead concentration, affected body composition and organ sizes of canvasback ducks Aythya valisineria in Louisiana during winter 1987-88. After adjusting for body size, sex, age, and site and month of collection, we found decreases in ingesta-free body mass; breast, leg, and body protein; body fat; intestine length; and liver and gizzard masses associated with increased liver lead concentrations. There were no apparent associations between liver lead concentrations and testes and body ash masses, or caecal length. We used the concentration of 26.7 ppm of liver lead on a dry matter (dm) basis as indicative of lead toxicosis. We predicted that a canvasback with 26.7 ppm dm liver lead would weigh 209 g less and have 105 g less fat than an unexposed individual. Whereas many lead exposed canvasbacks may survive through winter, their subsequent survival, ability to reproduce and perform other annual cycle events may be compromised. We recommend management to make lead unavailable to waterfowl at major concentration areas and periodic monitoring of lead contamination in waterfowl populations.

  16. Comparison of Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay with LC-MS/MS for Diagnosis of Microcystin Toxicosis in Veterinary Cases

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Caroline E.; Juan, Jeanette; Lin, Yanping; Gaskill, Cynthia L.; Puschner, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins are acute hepatotoxins of increasing global concern in drinking and recreational waters and are a major health risk to humans and animals. Produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins inhibit serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). A cost-effective PP1 assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was developed to quickly assess water and rumen content samples. Significant inhibition was determined via a linear model, which compared increasing volumes of sample to the log-transformed ratio of the exposed rate over the control rate of PP1 activity. To test the usefulness of this model in diagnostic case investigations, samples from two veterinary cases were tested. In August 2013 fifteen cattle died around two ponds in Kentucky. While one pond and three tested rumen contents had significant PP1 inhibition and detectable levels of microcystin-LR, the other pond did not. In August 2013, a dog became fatally ill after swimming in Clear Lake, California. Lake water samples collected one and four weeks after the dog presented with clinical signs inhibited PP1 activity. Subsequent analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detected microcystin congeners -LR, -LA, -RR and -LF but not -YR. These diagnostic investigations illustrate the advantages of using functional assays in combination with LC-MS/MS. PMID:27005635

  17. Acute necrotizing dermatitis and septicemia after application of a d-limonene-based insecticidal shampoo in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justine A; Budgin, Jeanne B; Mauldin, Elizabeth A

    2002-07-15

    A 2-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was examined because of lethargy, inappetance, vocalization, and abnormal aggressive behavior of 1 day's duration. The cat had been groomed the previous day with a d-limonene-based insecticidal shampoo. Skin lesions consisted of coalescing erythematous patches. Despite supportive care, the cat's condition deteriorated. Dermatohistopathologic changes included multifocal areas of acute coagulative epidermal necrosis. The dermis was infiltrated by a dense population of bacilli. d-Limonene toxicosis has been rarely described in dogs and cats. Toxic effects such as hypersalivation, ataxia, shivering, hypothermia, scrotal irritation, hypotension, and erythema multiforme major have been reported. Treatment for septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, along with intensive supportive care, may be necessary.

  18. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  19. Effects of selected endophyte and tall fescue cultivar combinations on steer grazing performance, indicators of fescue toxicosis, feedlot performance, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Parish, J A; Parish, J R; Best, T F; Boland, H T; Young, C A

    2013-01-01

    Five tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] pastures [wild-type 'Kentucky-31' with 78.0% of plants infected with ergot alkaloid-producing endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (KY31 E+), 'Jesup' AR542 endophyte-infected contaminated with 30.3% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (Jesup AR542 E+); 'GA-186' AR584 endophyte-infected contaminated with 11.8% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (AGRFA 140); 'PDF' AR584 endophyte-infected contaminated with 5.5% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (AGRFA 144); and 'KYFA 9301' AR584 endophyte-infected contaminated with 10.0% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (AGRFA 150)] were compared for steer growth performance, toxicity, feedlot performance, and carcass traits. Steers (mean initial BW=322 kg) grazed pastures for 84 d in spring and 56 d in autumn for 2 yr. Steers were shipped after grazing in Prairie, MS, to Macedonia, IA, for finishing. Mean herbage mass was not different (P=0.15) among pastures. Posttreatment (d 28+) serum prolactin concentrations were depressed (P=0.013) on KY31 E+. Steers grazing KY31 E+ had greater (P<0.01) posttreatment rectal temperatures during spring. Spring hair coat scores were greatest (P<0.01) on KY31 E+ at d 56 and 84. Steer ADG was least (P<0.01) on KY31 E+ in spring and depressed (P=0.014) on KY31 E+ and Jesup AR542 E+ in autumn. Spring grazing ADG was greater (P=0.049) on AGRFA 150 than Jesup AR542 E+ and AGRFA 140. No BW differences (P=0.09) among pastures were seen at reimplant during feedlot finishing. Pasture had no effect on ADG after reimplant (P=0.68), days on feed (P=0.56), or final BW (P=0.55). Exposure to fescue toxicosis did not affect (P≥0.19) carcass traits. Hair coat price discounts applied for spring-grazed steers on KY-31 E+ affected (P<0.01) initial steer monetary values. There were no pasture differences for finishing costs (P≥0.61) or final carcass value (P=0.59). Elite tall

  20. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  1. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  2. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever Leading to Unnecessary Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Mahendra; Saxena, Ashish; Kolhe, Yuvraj; Karande, Snehal K.; Singh, Narendra; Venkatesh, P.; Meena, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arbovirus illness with an estimated incidence of 50–100 million cases per year. The common symptoms of dengue include fever, rash, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and musculoskeletal pain. Dengue fever may present as acute abdomen leading to diagnostic dilemma. The acute surgical complications of dengue fever include acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, nonspecific peritonitis, and acute appendicitis. We report a case of dengue fever that mimicked acute appendicitis leading to unnecessary appendectomy. A careful history examination for dengue-related signs, and serial hemogram over the first 3-4 days of disease may prevent unnecessary appendectomy. PMID:26167314

  3. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  4. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Obstructive Uropathy Secondary to Missed Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a rare complication of acute appendicitis. We present a case of missed appendicitis in a 52-year-old female which presented as a right-sided hydronephrosis. 2 days after admission to the Department of Urology CT revealed acute appendicitis for what open appendectomy was performed. Acute appendicitis can lead to obstructive uropathy by periappendiceal inflammation due to adjacency. Urologists, surgeons, and emergency physicians should be aware of this rare complication of atypical acute appendicitis.

  6. Mutation analysis of the HOX paralogous 4-13 genes in children with acute lymphoid malignancies: identification of a novel germline mutation of HOXD4 leading to a partial loss-of-function.

    PubMed

    van Scherpenzeel Thim, Virginie; Remacle, Sophie; Picard, Jacques; Cornu, Guy; Gofflot, Françoise; Rezsohazy, René; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    2005-04-01

    The molecular basis of susceptibility to childhood malignant hemopathy remains largely unknown. An excess of skeletal congenital anomalies has been reported among children with hematological malignancy and points towards involvement of developmental genes, like those belonging to the HOX gene family. In addition to their role in embryogenesis, HOX transcription factors are known to be regulators of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. We aimed to explore the possibility that germline alterations of HOX genes might be involved in childhood acute lymphoid malignancies. A cohort of 86 children diagnosed with acute lymphoid malignancy was studied, 20 of them concurrently presenting a congenital anomaly of the skeleton. First, we screened for nucleotide changes throughout the HOX genes of paralogous groups 4 to 13 in the 20 patients with skeletal defects, following a skeletal phenotype-based strategy. Subsequently, we extended the HOX mutation screening to the other 66 children having a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, but without skeletal defects. In total, 16 germline mutations were identified. While 13 changes were also observed in healthy controls, three variants were exclusively found in acute lymphoid malignancy cases. These comprised the germline c.242A>T (p.Glu81Val) missense mutation of HOXD4, detected in two children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Furthermore, this mutation was found in association with other specific HOX variants of cluster D (2q31-q37), defining a unique haplotype. Functional analysis of the murine Hoxd4 homolog revealed that mutant Hoxd4 protein had lower transcriptional activity than wild-type protein in vitro. The p.Glu81Val mutation of HOXD4 thus results in a partial loss-of-function, which might be involved in childhood ALL.

  7. Phenazopyridine toxicosis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J W; Kornick, H P

    1976-08-01

    Severe illness developed after the oral administration of several drugs, including large doses of phenazopyridine (100 mg TID for 4 days) to a cat with dysuria and hematuria. Hemolysis and icterus were evident in blood serum and plasma after day 4 of drug administration, and many hemolyzed red blood cell "ghosts" containing Heinz bodies were observed on a stained blood smear. The cat became anemic and died within 48 hours after the last dose was administered. In an attempt to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between drug administration and disease, 100 mg of phenazopyridine was given TID (65 mg/kg/day) for 3 days to a clinically normal cat. Nearly 50% of the hemoglobin was oxidized to methemoglobin during the course of phenazopyridine administration. Lower dosages of phenazopyridine (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) for longer periods of administration to 2 other clinically normal cats did not result in illness or anemia; however, the number and size of Heinz bodies and blood methemoglobin content were increased. Evidence of hepatic injury was observed in the clinically affected cat and in 2 of the experimental cats. The relationship between hepatic injury and toxic signs was not determined. Combination products recommeneded for treatment of cystitis in man often contain phenazopyridine. Such products should be avoided in cats unless a safe, effective dosage for phenazopyridine can be established.

  8. Blocking of α4β7 Gut-Homing Integrin during Acute Infection Leads to Decreased Plasma and Gastrointestinal Tissue Viral Loads in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Aftab A.; Reimann, Keith A.; Mayne, Ann E.; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Stephenson, Susan T.; Wang, Rijian; Wang, Xinyue; Li, Jichu; Price, Andrew A.; Little, Dawn M.; Zaidi, Mohammad; Lyles, Robert; Villinger, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous administration of a novel recombinant rhesus mAb against the α4β7 gut-homing integrin (mAb) into rhesus macaques just prior to and during acute SIV infection resulted in significant decrease in plasma and gastrointestinal (GI) tissue viral load and a marked reduction in GI tissue proviral DNA load as compared with control SIV-infected rhesus macaques. This mAb administration was associated with increases in peripheral blood naive and central memory CD4+ T cells and maintenance of a high frequency of CCR5+CD4+ T cells. Additionally, such mAb administration inhibited the mobilization of NK cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells characteristically seen in the control animals during acute infection accompanied by the inhibition of the synthesis of MIP-3α by the gut tissues. These data in concert suggest that blocking of GI trafficking CD4+ T cells and inhibiting the mobilization of cell lineages of the innate immune system may be a powerful new tool to protect GI tissues and modulate acute lentiviral infection. PMID:21149598

  9. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  10. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  11. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  12. Lead toxicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vig, E K; Hu, H

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, older adults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among older adults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to

  13. Lead toxicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vig, E K; Hu, H

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, older adults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among older adults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to

  14. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  15. Acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence leads to depletion and redistribution of WC1(+) γδ T cells in lymphoid tissues of beef calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Roberto A; Sakamoto, Kaori; Walz, Heather L; Brock, Kenny V; Hurley, David J

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of γδ T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue during acute infection with high (HV) or low virulence (LV) non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in beef calves. This study was performed using tissue samples from a previous experiment in which thirty beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: LV [n=10; animals inoculated intranasally (IN) with LV BVDV-1a (strain SD-1)], HV [n=10; animals inoculated IN with HV BVDV-2 (strain 1373)], and control (n=10; animals inoculated with cell culture medium). On day 5 post inoculation, animals were euthanized, and samples from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to assess the abundance of WC1(+) γδ T cells. A higher proportion of calves challenged with BVDV showed signs of apoptosis and cytophagy in MLN and spleen samples compared to the control group. A significantly lower number of γδ T cells was observed in spleen and MLN from calves in HV and LV groups than in the control calves (P<0.05). In conclusion, acute infection with HV or LV BVDV resulted in depletion of WC1(+) γδ T cells in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues at five days after challenge in beef calves. This reduction in γδ T cells in the studied lymphoid tissues could be also due to lymphocyte trafficking to other tissues.

  16. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  17. A novel mutation in the miR-128b gene reduces miRNA processing and leads to glucocorticoid resistance of MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-03-15

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia has a poor prognosis, and the mechanisms by which these leukemias develop are not understood despite intensive research based on well-known concepts and methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of target mRNA transcripts. We recently reported that ectopic expression of miR-128b together with miR-221, two of the miRNAs downregulated in MLL-AF4 ALL, restores glucocorticoid resistance through downregulation of the MLL-AF4 chimeric fusion proteins MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL that are generated by chromosomal translocation t(4;11). Here we report the identification of new mutations in miR-128b in RS4;11 cells, derived from MLL-AF4 ALL patient. One novel mutation significantly reduces the processing of miR-128b. Finally, this base change occurs in a primary MLL-AF4 ALL sample as an acquired mutation. These results demonstrate that the novel mutation in miR-128b in MLL-AF4 ALL alters the processing of miR-128b and that the resultant downregulation of mature miR-128b contributes to glucocorticoid resistance through the failure to downregulate the fusion oncogenes.

  18. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; Harti, A; Bouderka, M A; Barrou, H; Matar, N; Benaguida, M

    1993-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a serious condition and diagnosis is often difficult. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old woman in the 32nd week of her fifth pregnancy, in which the outcome was fatal for both mother and child. The cause of pancreatitis during pregnancy has been attributed to many factors, chiefly cholelithiasis. A number of recent studies have shown the relationship existing between the role played by pregnancy in predisposing to gallbladder disease with lithiasis. Many diagnosis errors are made in this condition. Thus modern treatment methods have improved the prognosis in acute pancreatitis but, when it occurs during pregnancy, diagnostic delays often lead to a gloomy outlook. PMID:8248696

  19. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  20. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  1. [Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Veltzke-Schlieker, W; Adler, A; Abou-Rebyeh, H; Wiedenmann, B; Rösch, T

    2005-02-01

    Endoscopic therapy is valuable for both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Early endoscopic papillotomy appears, in the case of a severe course of acute biliary pancreatitis, to be advantageous. Endoscopic drainage can be considered in cases of acute fluid retention and necrosis as well as subacute, non-healing pancreatitis or cyst development. By acute chronic pancreatitis with strictures or bile duct stones, papillotomy, dilation and stent insertion can lead to an improvement in pain symptoms. An improvement in endo- or exocrine function, however, is not expected. Studies on the endoscopic therapy of pancreatitis are still very limited, and recommendations can usually only be made based on retrospective case series. PMID:15657718

  2. Retrospective study of toxic metal analyses requested at a veterinary diagnostic toxicology laboratory in Ontario (1990-1995).

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, B; Boermans, H J; Baird, J D

    1998-01-01

    During the 5-year period from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1995, 887 diagnoses of metal toxicosis in domestic animals and wild birds were documented at the Veterinary Laboratory Services Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Most of these cases involved cattle, sheep, and birds. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed in 399 cases, copper toxicosis in 387, zinc toxicosis in 49, mercury toxicosis in 44, iron toxicosis in 4, and selenium in 4 cases. Trends in species affected and sources of metals are discussed. PMID:9442951

  3. Tc-99m IDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Fordham, E.W.

    1982-10-01

    Recently it has been suggested that cholescintigraphy is unreliable in the detection of acute cholecystitis when acute pancreatitis is present. During a recent 17 month interval, twenty-one patients with a firmly established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis underwent cholescintigraphy in our laboratory. The gallbladder failed to visualize in only five cases, all of whom had acute cholecystitis. These data, and those available in the literature, lead us to conclude that cholescintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis whether or not acute pancreatitis is present.

  4. Endoscopic Treatment of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis and Smoldering Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Das, Rohit; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a challenging condition that can lead to chronic pancreatitis and long-term morbidity. Etiology-based treatment can potentially have an impact on the natural history of RAP and its progression to chronic pancreatitis. In cases of divisum-associated RAP and idiopathic RAP, several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic therapy in alleviation of symptoms and frequency of AP events. This review discusses the literature available on these topic as well as touching on the role of endoscopic therapy in smoldering acute pancreatitis.

  5. [Perioperative acute kidney injury and failure].

    PubMed

    Chhor, Vibol; Journois, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Perioperative period is very likely to lead to acute renal failure because of anesthesia (general or perimedullary) and/or surgery which can cause acute kidney injury. Characterization of acute renal failure is based on serum creatinine level which is imprecise during and following surgery. Studies are based on various definitions of acute renal failure with different thresholds which skewed their comparisons. The RIFLE classification (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage kidney disease) allows clinicians to distinguish in a similar manner between different stages of acute kidney injury rather than using a unique definition of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure during the perioperative period can mainly be explained by iatrogenic, hemodynamic or surgical causes and can result in an increased morbi-mortality. Prevention of this complication requires hemodynamic optimization (venous return, cardiac output, vascular resistance), discontinuation of nephrotoxic drugs but also knowledge of the different steps of the surgery to avoid further degradation of renal perfusion. Diuretics do not prevent acute renal failure and may even push it forward especially during the perioperative period when venous retourn is already reduced. Edema or weight gain following surgery are not correlated with the vascular compartment volume, much less with renal perfusion. Treatment of perioperative acute renal failure is similar to other acute renal failure. Renal replacement therapy must be mastered to prevent any additional risk of hemodynamic instability or hydro-electrolytic imbalance.

  6. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos. PMID:27038476

  7. Acute Systemic Infection with Dengue Virus Leads to Vascular Leakage and Death through Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Tie2/Angiopoietin Signaling in Mice Lacking Type I and II Interferon Receptors.

    PubMed

    Phanthanawiboon, Supranee; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sakai, Yusuke; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Saijo, Masayuki; Kurosu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Severe dengue is caused by host responses to viral infection, but the pathogenesis remains unknown. This is, in part, due to the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report a non-mouse-adapted low-passage DENV-3 clinical isolate, DV3P12/08, derived from recently infected patients. DV3P12/08 caused a lethal systemic infection in type I and II IFN receptor KO mice (IFN-α/β/γR KO mice), which have the C57/BL6 background. Infection with DV3P12/08 induced a cytokine storm, resulting in severe vascular leakage (mainly in the liver, kidney and intestine) and organ damage, leading to extensive hemorrhage and rapid death. DV3P12/08 infection triggered the release of large amounts of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody (Ab) extended survival and reduced liver damage without affecting virus production. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing Ab partly prolonged mouse survival. The anti-TNF-α Ab suppressed IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels, suggesting that the severe response to infection was triggered by TNF-α. High levels of TNF-α mRNA were expressed in the liver and kidneys, but not in the small intestine, of infected mice. Conversely, high levels of IL-6 mRNA were expressed in the intestine. Importantly, treatment with Angiopoietin-1, which is known to stabilize blood vessels, prolonged the survival of DV3P12/08-infected mice. Taken together, the results suggest that an increased level of TNF-α together with concomitant upregulation of Tie2/Angiopoietin signaling have critical roles in severe dengue infection. PMID:26844767

  8. Acute Systemic Infection with Dengue Virus Leads to Vascular Leakage and Death through Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Tie2/Angiopoietin Signaling in Mice Lacking Type I and II Interferon Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sakai, Yusuke; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Saijo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Severe dengue is caused by host responses to viral infection, but the pathogenesis remains unknown. This is, in part, due to the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report a non-mouse-adapted low-passage DENV-3 clinical isolate, DV3P12/08, derived from recently infected patients. DV3P12/08 caused a lethal systemic infection in type I and II IFN receptor KO mice (IFN-α/β/γR KO mice), which have the C57/BL6 background. Infection with DV3P12/08 induced a cytokine storm, resulting in severe vascular leakage (mainly in the liver, kidney and intestine) and organ damage, leading to extensive hemorrhage and rapid death. DV3P12/08 infection triggered the release of large amounts of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody (Ab) extended survival and reduced liver damage without affecting virus production. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing Ab partly prolonged mouse survival. The anti-TNF-α Ab suppressed IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels, suggesting that the severe response to infection was triggered by TNF-α. High levels of TNF-α mRNA were expressed in the liver and kidneys, but not in the small intestine, of infected mice. Conversely, high levels of IL-6 mRNA were expressed in the intestine. Importantly, treatment with Angiopoietin-1, which is known to stabilize blood vessels, prolonged the survival of DV3P12/08-infected mice. Taken together, the results suggest that an increased level of TNF-α together with concomitant upregulation of Tie2/Angiopoietin signaling have critical roles in severe dengue infection. PMID:26844767

  9. Acute Systemic Infection with Dengue Virus Leads to Vascular Leakage and Death through Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Tie2/Angiopoietin Signaling in Mice Lacking Type I and II Interferon Receptors.

    PubMed

    Phanthanawiboon, Supranee; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Sakai, Yusuke; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Saijo, Masayuki; Kurosu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Severe dengue is caused by host responses to viral infection, but the pathogenesis remains unknown. This is, in part, due to the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report a non-mouse-adapted low-passage DENV-3 clinical isolate, DV3P12/08, derived from recently infected patients. DV3P12/08 caused a lethal systemic infection in type I and II IFN receptor KO mice (IFN-α/β/γR KO mice), which have the C57/BL6 background. Infection with DV3P12/08 induced a cytokine storm, resulting in severe vascular leakage (mainly in the liver, kidney and intestine) and organ damage, leading to extensive hemorrhage and rapid death. DV3P12/08 infection triggered the release of large amounts of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody (Ab) extended survival and reduced liver damage without affecting virus production. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing Ab partly prolonged mouse survival. The anti-TNF-α Ab suppressed IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels, suggesting that the severe response to infection was triggered by TNF-α. High levels of TNF-α mRNA were expressed in the liver and kidneys, but not in the small intestine, of infected mice. Conversely, high levels of IL-6 mRNA were expressed in the intestine. Importantly, treatment with Angiopoietin-1, which is known to stabilize blood vessels, prolonged the survival of DV3P12/08-infected mice. Taken together, the results suggest that an increased level of TNF-α together with concomitant upregulation of Tie2/Angiopoietin signaling have critical roles in severe dengue infection.

  10. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  11. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially in young children. Tap water from lead ...

  12. Acute kidney injury in acute liver failure: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joanna K; Love, Eleanor; Craig, Darren G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2013-11-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and often devastating condition consequent on massive liver cell necrosis that frequently affects young, previously healthy individuals resulting in altered cognitive function, coagulopathy and peripheral vasodilation. These patients frequently develop concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). This abrupt and sustained decline in renal function, through a number of pathogenic mechanisms such as renal hypoperfusion, direct drug-induced nephrotoxicity or sepsis/systemic inflammatory response contributes to increased morbidity and is strongly associated with a worse prognosis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology AKI in the context of acute liver failure may be beneficial in a number of areas; the development of new and sensitive biomarkers of renal dysfunction, refining prognosis and organ allocation, and ultimately leading to the development of novel treatment strategies, these issues are discussed in more detail in this expert review.

  13. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    PubMed

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  14. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  15. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  16. Where Will LEAD Lead? An Update on My LEAD Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    Issues in the future of a federal collaborative program, Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD), are discussed in this paper. Problems attributed to LEAD are its antagonistic posture to educational administration programs in higher education and political conflicts of interest. Methodology involved analysis of successful LEAD…

  17. Acute abdominal pain in childhood, with special reference to cases not due to acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, P F

    1969-02-01

    Appendicitis is not the only common cause of acute abdominal pain in childhood. Almost equally common is an acute episode which in its early stages resembles acute appendicitis but which subsides without treatment in 24 to 48 hours. The clinical features of this syndrome are contrasted with those of appendicitis. The two conditions cannot always be distinguished on clinical grounds, leading to admission to hospital for observation and the finding of a normal appendix in 14% of operations for suspected appendicitis. Reasons are given for abandoning attempts to diagnose acute mesenteric adenitis at the bedside.

  18. Potential lead exposures from lead crystal decanters.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Kahlon, J K; Ferguson, J; Quattrone, A J; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of lead leached into 4% acetic acid, white port, and a synthetic alcoholic beverage that were stored in lead crystal decanters for 1-, 2-, and 10-day periods at room temperature. In decanters from 14 different manufacturers, measured lead concentrations ranged from 100 to 1800 micrograms/L. The pH of the leaching medium is probably the dominant factor determining the extent of lead leached, with greater leaching occurring at lower pH values. The consumption of alcoholic beverages stored in lead crystal decanters is judged to pose a hazard. PMID:1456345

  19. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  20. Bone lead, hypertension, and lead nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeen, R.P.

    1988-06-01

    There is considerable clinical evidence that excessive lead absorption causes renal failure with hypertension and predisposes individuals to hypertension even in the absence of detectable renal failure. Recent analyses of transiliac bone biopsies indicate that unsuspected elevated bone leads may reflect the cause (or contributing cause) of end-stage renal disease in 5% of the European dialysis population. In these patients, bone lead levels were four times higher than in unexposed cadavers (6 micrograms/g wet weight) and approximated levels found in lead workers (30 micrograms/g). At present, the most reliable index of the body lead burden is the CaNa2 EDTA lead mobilization test. In vivo tibial X-ray-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a more practical noninvasive technique for assessing bone lead, which should find widespread application as a diagnostic tool and for epidemiologic studies.

  1. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  2. Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

    1968-01-01

    may follow in time, accompanied rather frequently by arterial hypertension. A study of some of the cases followed for several years demonstrated this progressive evolution of lead nephropathy. A functional and transitory impairment of renal function is very probably caused by an impairment of intrarenal circulation, resulting from marked vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, forming part of the generalized vasoconstriction of lead poisoning. Prolonged exposure and frequently recurring episodes of acute poisoning may lead to progressive impairment of renal function and to the development of organic lesions. Special attention should be paid to renal function tests in all cases with prolonged exposure to lead in order to prevent the development of severe lead nephropathy. PMID:5663423

  3. Lead poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  4. Persistence of high lead concentrations and associated effects in Tundra Swans captured near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl, particularly tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), has been documented in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho for nearly a century. Over 90% of the lead-poisoned tundra swans in this area that were necropsied have no ingested lead shot. Spent lead shot from hunting activities over the years is therefore a minor source of lead in these swans. The migrating swans accumulated lethal burdens of lead from ingestion of sediments and aquatic vegetation during a short stopover in the spring. The lead originated from mining and smelting activities. Lead concentrations and physiological characteristics of blood were compared in swans captured in swim-in traps, with moribund swans caught by hand in the lead-contaminated area in 1987 and 1994-1995 and with birds captured by night-lighting in reference areas in 1994-1995. Blood lead concentrations in swans were highest in moribund birds (3.3 ?g g-1 in 1987 and 1995), intermediate in those trapped in the contaminated area (0.82 ?g g-1 in 1987 and 1.8 ?g g-1 in 1995), and lowest (0.11 ?g g-1) in those trapped in the reference areas. daminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was significantly inhibited in swans from the contaminated area. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly depressed only in moribund swans. Of the 19 swans found moribund and euthanized, 18 were classified as having lead toxicosis on the basis of lead levels in blood (1.3 to 9.6 ?g g-1) and livers (6 to 40 ?g g-1) and necropsy findings. The 19th swan had aspergillosis. There was no evidence that effects of lead on tundra swans had diminished from 1987 to 1995.

  5. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  6. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  7. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  8. Lead and the Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  9. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  10. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B

    2015-02-01

    Inaugural traumatic patellar dislocation is most often due to trauma sustained during physical or sports activity. Two-thirds of acute patellar dislocations occur in young active patients (less than 20 years old). Non-contact knee sprain in flexion and valgus is the leading mechanism in patellar dislocation, accounting for as many as 93% of all cases. The strong displacement of the patella tears the medial stabilizing structures, and notably the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), which is almost always injured in acute patellar dislocation, most frequently at its femoral attachment. Lateral patellar glide can be assessed with the knee in extension or 20° flexion. Displacement by more than 50% of the patellar width is considered abnormal and may induce apprehension. Plain X-ray and CT are mandatory to diagnose bony risk factors for patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia or increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG), and plan correction. MRI gives information on cartilage and capsulo-ligamentous status for treatment planning: free bodies or osteochondral fracture have to be treated surgically. If patellar dislocation occurs in an anatomically normal knee and osteochondral fracture is ruled out on MRI, non-operative treatment is usually recommended.

  11. An unusual case of acute periorbital swelling.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Sara; Brevi, Alessandra; Pagani, Davide; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Periorbital swelling is frequently encountered in ear, nose, and throat practices and, as it may be secondary to acute sinusitis, delayed diagnosis may lead to significant morbidity. We describe the case of a 24-year-old man with acute ethmoid-maxillary sinusitis and ipsilateral facial swelling particularly involving the periorbital area. We also discuss the workup that led to the formulation of an unusual diagnosis.

  12. The neurologic manifestations of the acute porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Herkes, Geoffrey K

    2011-09-01

    The porphyrias are diseases characterised by accumulation of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors owing to enzymatic deficiencies of the haem synthetic pathway. In the acute hepatic porphyrias accumulation of porphyrin precursors, in particular delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), cause dysfunction of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. This leads to the characteristic clinical findings of abdominal pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. The exact pathogenic mechanism is not clear but evidence to date suggests both direct toxic effects of ALA and intracellular metabolic derangement contribute to the neurologic disorders. This review explores the mechanisms of neural dysfunction in the acute porphyrias and the resultant clinical features of an acute attack.

  13. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  14. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present. PMID:25255730

  15. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present.

  16. Acute scurvy during treatment with interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, D T; Dasanu, C A; Kauffman, C L

    2009-10-01

    The association of vitamin C deficiency with nutritional factors is commonly recognized. However, an acute form of scurvy can occur in patients with an acute systemic inflammatory response, which is produced by sepsis, medications, cancer or acute inflammation. The frequency of acute hypovitaminosis C in hospitalized patients is higher than previously recognized. We report the occurrence of acute signs and symptoms of scurvy (perifollicular petechiae, erythema, gingivitis and bleeding) in a patient hospitalized for treatment of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma with high-dose interleukin-2. Concomitantly, serum vitamin C levels decreased to below normal. Better diets and longer lifespan may result a lower frequency of acute scurvy and a higher frequency of scurvy associated with systemic inflammatory responses. Therefore, increased awareness of this condition can lead to early recognition of the cutaneous signs of acute scurvy in hospitalized patients with acute illnesses or in receipt of biological agents, and prevent subsequent morbidity such as bleeding, anaemia, impaired immune defences, oedema or neurological symptoms.

  17. Acute interstitial pneumonia and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Swigris, Jeffrey J; Brown, Kevin K

    2006-12-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEIPF) are similar respiratory disorders characterized by the rapid development of progressive dyspnea and cough. Both frequently lead to respiratory failure and death. Pathologically, each is characterized by the presence of a diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) pattern; in AIP, DAD is the sole pattern, whereas in AEIPF DAD is superimposed upon a background usual interstitial pneumonia. They differ in that patients with AEIPF have preexisting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, whereas patients with AIP have no predisposing disorders to account for their disease. Because both presentations overlap with multiple other causes of acute lung injury, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary to rule out disorders such as overwhelming infection or congestive heart failure. Although a confident diagnosis can be achieved without it, a surgical lung biopsy is necessary to provide a definitive diagnosis. Despite minimal evidence, glucocorticoids are frequently begun once microbiological evaluation confirms the absence of infection. Despite therapy, the case fatality rate ranges up to 70% for both, with most patients dying in the first 2 weeks. Survivors of the acute event can recover to their previous baseline; however, most AIP survivors will stabilize with some functional impairment, whereas in those with AEIPF, progressive fibrosis with functional deterioration is the rule.

  18. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  19. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  20. Neurotoxic aspects of porphyinopathies: lead and succinylacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K.; Hruska, R.E.; Bradley, D.; Lamon, J.M.; Frykholm, B.C.

    1982-12-01

    Neurotoxic effects of heavy metals and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons frequently occur at low levels of exposure, in some cases below those levels where direct toxic actions of these compounds have been demonstrated. Rats with acute and chronic lead exposure were compared to rats whose heme synthesis was inhibited by succinylacetone, as a semichronic model of the hereditary heme synthesis disorder, acute intermittent porphyria. Both treatments produce significant inhibition in activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase and elevations in the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in tissues and urine. Associated with increased ALA is a significant inhibition of neurotransmission utilizing the amino acid ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA), expressed chemically and behaviorally. The results suggest that in addition to their direct molecular neurotoxicity, porphyrinopathic compounds such as lead may, through altering heme synthesis, adversely affect the brain at low levels of exposure.

  1. Acute intermittent porphyria with SIADH and fluctuating dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Nabin, A; Thapa, L J; Paudel, R; Rana, P V S

    2012-01-01

    Three cases of acute intermittent porphyria are reported. While in first case severe pain in abdomen with intermittent exacerbation was the only presentation, the second patient presented as accelerated hypertension and acute abdominal crises in whom the clinical course was characterized by development of deep coma due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone before she made complete recovery. The third patient, initially manifested as acute encephalitic syndrome. After initial improvement, she developed features of acute intermittent porphyria i.e. acute abdomen, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and rapidly progressing acute motor neuropathy leading to respiratory and bulbar paralysis. In addition, she developed severe and fluctuating dysautonomia leading to cardiac arrest and fatal termination. The importance of early diagnosis, recognition of autonomic disturbances, prompt treatment and counseling for avoidance of precipitating factors is stressed.

  2. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  3. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  4. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  5. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  6. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  7. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  8. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua; David Roelant; Sachin Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste.

  9. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

  10. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  11. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  12. Transplacental transport of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurotoxicity is the major health effect from exposure to lead for infants and young children, and there is current concern regarding possible toxic effects of lead on the child while in utero. there is no placental-fetal barrier to lead transport. Maternal and fetal blood lead levels are nearly identical, so lead passes through the placenta unencumbered. Lead has been measured in the fetal brain as early as the end of the first trimester (13 weeks). There is a similar rate of increase in brain size and lead content throughout pregnancy in the fetus of mothers in the general population, so concentration of lead probably does not differ greatly during gestation unless exposure of the mother changes. Cell-specific sensitivity to the toxic effects of lead, however, may be greater the younger the fetus. Lead toxicity to the nervous system is characterized by edema or swelling of the brain due to altered permeability of capillary endothelial cells. Experimental studies suggest that immature endothelial cells forming the capillaries of the developing brain are less resistant to the effects of lead, permitting fluid and cations including lead to reach newly formed components of the brain, particularly astrocytes and neurons. Also, the ability of astrocytes and neurons to sequester lead in the form of lead protein complexes occurs only in the later stages of fetal development, permitting lead in maturing brain cells to interact with vital subcellular organelles, particularly mitochondria, which are the major cellular energy source. Intracellular lead also affects binding sites for calcium which, in turn, may affect numerous cell functions including neurotransmitter release.

  13. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  14. Lead Poisoning in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyaux, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Overexposure to lead can permanently impair a child's mental and physical development. This article discusses sources of lead paint, survey and testing methods, management and abatement plans, drinking water contamination, and associated federal standards. Although lead is present in soil and in art, theater, and vocational programs, no federal…

  15. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  16. Learn about Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Determine if your family is at risk for lead poisoning with the Lead Poisoning Home Checklist (PDF) . Top of page What do I do if I think my child or I have been exposed to lead? Talk to your pediatrician, general physician, or local ...

  17. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  18. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  19. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  20. Lead and children

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan R.; Sanborn, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to screening for and preventing children’s exposure to lead. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to lead exposure and poisoning. We reviewed English-language articles published in 2003 to 2008. Most cited studies provide level 2 or 3 evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Lead is a developmental neurotoxin. Children are most commonly exposed and they are most vulnerable. Lead exposure has been associated with many cognitive and motor deficits, as well as distractibility and other characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although children’s blood lead levels have declined considerably over the past 3 decades with removal of lead from gasoline and paint, children can still be exposed to lead from lead paint in older homes, toys, and other sources. Because post-exposure treatment cannot reverse the cognitive effects of lead exposure, preventing lead exposure is essential. CONCLUSION Family physicians have an important role in screening for children at high risk of lead exposure, and in educating families to prevent the exposure of children to lead. PMID:20547517

  1. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  2. Lead in Christmas lights.

    PubMed

    Laquatra, Joseph; Coyne, Lelia M; Pierce, Mark R

    2008-12-01

    A recent California proposition led to awareness that lead is a stabilizer in the Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) jacketing that covers conductors in Christmas lights. The objective of this study is to examine the level of accessible lead in Christmas lights. Following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Lead Inspectors' procedures, researchers at Cornell University and in Nebraska conducted wipe samples and total lead content samples of newly purchased and older Christmas light sets. Samples were analyzed for lead content. Lead was present in varying amounts on all samples. The amount of lead from the Nebraska samples, normalized to length of strings, was independent of analyzing laboratory, analysis method, age of string, and repeat sampling, both immediately and after extended storage. A later analysis of these same strings by the Cornell team showed diminished quantities. Amounts of surface lead normalized to crude estimates of the area of light string indicated surface concentrations in excess of U.S. EPA clearance level for lead on window sills. Whether exposure to lead in Christmas lights affects blood lead levels in humans is unknown. No standards exist for lead content in this product, and no protocols exist for conducting tests on it. Therefore, consumers may wish to exercise caution to reduce possible exposure.

  3. The pathophysiology of hypertensive acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Viau, David M; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Spranger, Marty D; O'Leary, Donal S; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-12-01

    While acute heart failure (AHF) is often regarded as a single disorder, an evolving understanding recognises the existence of multiple phenotypes with varied pathophysiological alterations. Herein we discuss hypertensive AHF and provide insight into a mechanism where acute fluid redistribution is caused by a disturbance in the ventricular-vascular coupling relationship. In this relationship, acute alterations in vascular elasticity, vasoconstriction and reflected pulse waves lead to increases in cardiac work and contribute to decompensated LV function with associated subendocardial ischaemia and end-organ damage. Chronic predisposing factors (neurohormonal activity, nitric oxide insensitivity, arterial stiffening) and physiological stressors (sympathetic surge, volume overload, physical exertion) that are causally linked to acute symptom onset are discussed. Lastly, we review treatment options including both nitrovasodilators and promising novel therapeutics, and discuss future directions in the management of this phenotypic variant.

  4. Therapy of acute gastroenteritis: role of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zollner-Schwetz, I; Krause, R

    2015-08-01

    Acute infectious diarrhoea remains a very common health problem, even in the industrialized world. One of the dilemmas in assessing patients with acute diarrhoea is deciding when to test for aetiological agents and when to initiate antimicrobial therapy. The management and therapy of acute gastroenteritis is discussed in two epidemiological settings: community-acquired diarrhoea and travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotic therapy is not required in most patients with acute gastroenteritis, because the illness is usually self-limiting. Antimicrobial therapy can also lead to adverse events, and unnecessary treatments add to resistance development. Nevertheless, empirical antimicrobial therapy can be necessary in certain situations, such as patients with febrile diarrhoeal illness, with fever and bloody diarrhoea, symptoms persisting for >1 week, or immunocompromised status.

  5. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  6. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  7. Law: toxic lead aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the events which began with an EPA proposal to weaken the lead-in-gas regulations. Because of the outcry from environmentalists and expert testimony from the medical community, the EPA reversed its policy and issued new standards which would reduce lead emissions between 1983 and 1990 by 34 percent (128,000 tons). Scientific evidence presented showed a clear reduction in blood lead levels from 1976-1980 which paralleled decreases of lead in gasoline. Results from lead poisoning clinics which linked chronic low lead exposures to decreased classroom performance and other learning disabilities were presented. Lawyers from several environmental groups took the agency to court on the related issue of attaining national ambient air quality standards for lead. (JMT)

  8. Lead in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  9. The uptake and effects of lead in small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range.

    PubMed

    Stansley, W; Roscoe, D E

    1996-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 micrograms/g dry weight. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and depressed ALAD activities in small mammals and frogs indicate that some of the lead deposited at the site is bioavailable. Mean tissue lead concentrations (micrograms/g dry wt.) in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at the range liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5- to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only shorttail shrew (Blarina brevicauda) captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35- to 1038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs (Rana clamitans) at the range (1,728 micrograms/g) were elevated nearly 1000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 micrograms/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P < 0.001). Hematological and histopathological lesions associated with lead toxicosis were observed in some animals. Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material

  10. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  11. Lead and growth.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Masayuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Lead is highly toxic to the human body and children are much more vulnerable to lead toxicity than adults. Many studies have revealed that relatively low levels of blood lead can adversely affect human health, especially childhood growth and development. Blood lead levels (BLL) of children and adults have been decreasing recently almost all over the world, but a safety level for blood lead does not exist, and lead exposure is still a serious health problem especially for fetuses and children. Maternal lead burden causes fetal lead exposure and increases the risk of abortions, prematurity, low birth weight, and some minor anomalies. Infant BLL are inversely associated with weight gain. A negative relationship between somatic growth and BLL in children has been revealed. It has been suggested that lead exposure causes decrease of gonadotropin secretion of adolescents and delay of pubertal development. Several studies have revealed that children who are exposed to cigarette smoke have higher BLL than children who are not. Children should be protected from cigarette smoke for the purpose of avoiding the risk of increased BLL which might adversely affect their intellectual development and physical growth.

  12. Toxicological properties of lead.

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, T

    1977-01-01

    The pathological effects of lead on the renal, nervous, reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems have been reviewed. Emphasis is placed on reported subclinical effects due to chronic, low-level lead exposure. The crucial issue of whether subtle behavioral, intellectual, and developmental impairment occurs in young children, as a result of lead-induced CNS damage is discussed in detail. This issue remains unresolved. Further studies are needed in order to determine the long-term health effects of continuous, low-level lead exposure. PMID:198205

  13. Lead poisoning: case studies

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J N; Taylor, A; Bennett, P N

    2002-01-01

    Early clinical features of lead toxicity are non-specific and an occupational history is particularly valuable. Lead in the body comprises 2% in the blood (t1/2 35 days) and 95% in bone and dentine (t1/2 20–30 years). Blood lead may remain elevated for years after cessation from long exposure, due to redistribution from bone. Blood lead concentration is the most widely used marker for inorganic lead exposure. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration in blood usefully reflects lead exposure over the prior 3 months. Symptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 µmol l−1 (50 µg dl−1) or in any event >3.8 µmol l−1 (80 µg dl−1) should receive sodium calciumedetate i.v., followed by succimer by mouth for 19 days. Asymptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 µmol l−1 (50 µg dl−1) may be treated with succimer alone. Sodium calciumedetate should be given with dimercaprol to treat lead encephalopathy. PMID:11994050

  14. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  15. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  16. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  17. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  18. Novel endophyte provides fescue toxicosis relief

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is extremely persistent and productive in the climatic and soil conditions in the fescue belt, which makes it extremely challenging to replace toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue with non-toxic grass alternatives. There is another option, which is to replace toxic endophyte-infected ta...

  19. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  20. Monensin toxicosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Rozza, Daniela Bernadete; Vervuert, Ingrid; Kamphues, Josef; da Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias; Driemeier, David

    2006-09-01

    The consumption of monensin-containing feed resulted in deaths of water buffaloes from a feedlot in which cattle and buffaloes were kept together. The monensin formulation was recommended only for use in cattle. Anorexia, muscular weakness, dyspnea, and recumbency were the major clinical findings. The most significant gross lesions were focal pale areas in semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles, in which segmental necrosis of myofibers was seen microscopically. To compare susceptibilities of species to monensin, 3 bovine calves and 3 buffalo calves were orally dosed. At 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg of monensin, only the buffaloes became ill and died. Clinical signs initiated 18-20 h postdosing and were comparable to those from field cases. Gross changes consisted of ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, hepatomegaly, and focal pale areas in the myocardium and to a lesser degree in semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles. Histopathological changes also resembled those from the field cases, but were especially pronounced in the myocardial cells. The hypothesis that buffaloes could have a lower tolerance to monensin than cattle has been supported by experimental cases.

  1. Lead toxicity, locomotion and feeding in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Pyatt, A J; Pyatt, F B; Pentreath, V W

    2002-04-01

    The effects of lead (5 or 10 ppm) on the survival of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) collected from lead contaminated or uncontaminated environments were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The animals from the contaminated environment had significantly greater survivability than those from the unpolluted environment to subsequent acute (up to 24 days) exposure to lead. Acute (72 h) exposure to lead inhibited several behavioural activities including locomotion, feeding, tentacle extension and emergence from the shell. Lead bioaccumulated in the snail tissues, especially the buccal mass and stomach. The freshwater snail provides a valuable system for studying the bioaccumulation and development of tolerance to environmental lead.

  2. Accumulation and effects of lead and cadmium on wood ducks near a mining and smelting complex in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was conducted along the Coeur d'Alene River system in northern Idaho in 1986 and 1987. Most of this area has been subjected to severe contamination from lead and other metals from mining and smelting since the 1880s. In 1986, a preliminary study of wood duck nesting was conducted in the contaminated area; incubating hens captured in nest boxes were bled and weighed. Blood samples were used to determine lead and cadmium concentrations and physiological characteristics. In 1987, an intensive study of wood ducks involved trapping and monitoring nest boxes in the contaminated area. Blood and tissue samples were also taken from wood ducks from a reference area without known contamination from metals. Lead levels in blood and tissues of most wood ducks from the contaminated area frequently exceeded those considered hazardous to birds; maximum levels (wet weight) of lead were 8 :g g?1 in blood and 14 :g g?1 in liver. Changes in physiological characteristics constituted the only evidence of potentially adverse effects from lead. In the contaminated area, nesting success (55% unadjusted, 35% Mayfield estimate) was less than in other areas where predation was low and nest boxes were used; but lead concentrations and physiological characteristics of blood were similar in successful and unsuccessful hens. Values of ALAD, hemoglobin, and body mass were negatively correlated with blood concentrations of lead, whereas protoporphyrin was positively correlated with lead levels in the blood. Some of the protoporphyrin values (1,091 :g dl?1 in a male and 756 :g dl?1 in a female) equalled those associated with lead toxicosis in experimental birds. ALAD activity was low in most birds from the contaminated area; values of 0 were obtained from 11 birds. Lead levels in blood, ALAD, protoporphyrin, and hemoglobin were significantly different between birds from the contaminated and reference areas. Concentrations of lead in ingesta of wood ducks ranged

  3. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV. PMID:26459091

  4. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  5. Leadership, Leaders, and Leading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Arguably, the most important need in society today is to create individuals who will take action positively and progressively to lead in the private organization, in the the public institution, or in the governmental agency. Leadership action should not be held hostage by the notion that only those in formal positions of leadership can lead.…

  6. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treated earlier before the damaging effects of lead poisoning occur. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... exceed 10μg/dL, the threshold used to indicate lead poisoning. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) estimates one ...

  7. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  8. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  9. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  10. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  11. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  12. Lead polluters get punished

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice last week cracked down on 36 US companies for polluting the environment with lead. EPA slapped fines totaling more than $10 million on 12 of the offending companies, and Justice filed 24 civil complaints. Hank Habicht, deputy administrator of the EPA, said that his agency's initiative comes after 8 months of intense - and presumably successful - efforts at locating and documenting lead pollution in the soil, air, and water supply. Most feared has been lead's ability to damage the intellectual development of children. This caused the agency, Habicht said, to look beyond the usual suspect - lead in the water supply - to lead-laced dirt in residential areas. Meanwhile, the Department of Justice is using the EPA contamination data as well. Twenty US attorneys have been assigned to pore over the federal environmental statutes, including the Clean Water Act and the Superfund Law, in order to file civil complaints.

  13. Synthetic cannabinoid hyperemesis resulting in rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Argamany, Jacqueline R; Reveles, Kelly R; Duhon, Bryson

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid usage has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, emergency management of associated adverse effects due to synthetic cannabinoid usage has also risen. Reported toxicities include psychosis, seizures, cardiotoxicity, acute kidney injury, and death. While cannabis was first described as a cause of acute hyperemesis in 2004, a more recent case series also describes the association between cannabinoid hyperemesis and risk of acute renal failure. Synthetic cannabinoids have also been reported to cause acute hyperemesis and acute renal failure; however, the risk of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure has yet to be elucidated. In this article, we report the first known case of synthetic cannabinoid hyperemesis leading to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

  14. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  15. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  16. Acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yewen; Yin, Xing; Wijaya, Cori; Huang, Ming-He; McConnell, Bradley K

    2011-01-01

    With heart failure leading the cause of death in the USA (Hunt), biomedical research is fundamental to advance medical treatments for cardiovascular diseases. Animal models that mimic human cardiac disease, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that induces heart failure as well as pressure-overload (transverse aortic constriction) that induces cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (Goldman and Tarnavski), are useful models to study cardiovascular disease. In particular, myocardial ischemia (MI) is a leading cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality despite controlling certain risk factors such as arteriosclerosis and treatments via surgical intervention (Thygesen). Furthermore, an acute loss of the myocardium following myocardial ischemia (MI) results in increased loading conditions that induces ventricular remodeling of the infarcted border zone and the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Myocyte apoptosis, necrosis and the resultant increased hemodynamic load activate multiple biochemical intracellular signaling that initiates LV dilatation, hypertrophy, ventricular shape distortion, and collagen scar formation. This pathological remodeling and failure to normalize the increased wall stresses results in progressive dilatation, recruitment of the border zone myocardium into the scar, and eventually deterioration in myocardial contractile function (i.e. heart failure). The progression of LV dysfunction and heart failure in rats is similar to that observed in patients who sustain a large myocardial infarction, survive and subsequently develops heart failure (Goldman). The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats has been used to mimic human cardiovascular disease; specifically used to study cardiac signaling mechanisms associated with heart failure as well as to assess the contribution of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure. The method described in this report is the rat model of acute myocardial

  17. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  18. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  19. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  20. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  1. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-01-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis. PMID:26674303

  2. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Polepalle, Tejaswin; Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-11-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis.

  3. Lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-01

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300picocoulombs per newton (pCN-1), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416pCN-1. The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  4. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  5. Human lead absorption -- Texas.

    PubMed

    1997-09-19

    In December 1971, the City-County Health Department in El Paso, Texas, discovered that an ore smelter in El Paso was discharging large quantities of lead and other metallic wastes into the air. Between 1969 and 1971, this smelter had released 1,116 tons of lead, 560 tons of zinc, 12 tons of cadmium, and 1.2 tons of arsenic into the atmosphere through its stacks.

  6. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  7. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  8. Environmental lead in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, L.A.; Badillo, F. )

    1991-01-01

    From the data presented here, it can be concluded that environmental exposure to lead is a particularly severe problem in Mexico. As has been shown, there are very important sources of exposure to this metal: (a) for rural populations who manufacture and/or utilize lead-glazed pottery, (b) for urban populations who are exposed to high air lead concentrations due to the continued use of lead fuel additives, (c) for workers of several industries, mainly those of batteries and pigments, (d) for consumers who routinely eat canned foods such as hot peppers and fruit products, and (e) for the general population living in the vicinity of smelters, refineries and other industries that emit lead. Therefore, in Mexico only those native populations living in very primitive communities, far away from all civilized life, could be expected to be free from this exposure. At the same time, and despite the relatively few data available, it can be stated that the exposure to lead of populations in Mexico could be approaching levels that might be highly hazardous, in particular for the neuropsychological health of children. Regarding the presence of lead in the environment, despite the fact that the available studies are not enough, it is evident that pollution by this metal is widespread and that there is a serious lack of studies for most regions of the country, including several that might be expected to be highly polluted. At the same time, it is evident that the official attention paid to the problem, either in regulations, support of further studies, or implementation of effective control measures has been far from the level needed according to the available data.

  9. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.E. Jr.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

  10. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization. PMID:25815410

  11. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  12. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  13. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  14. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  16. Change, Lead, Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Linda; von Frank, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Redefine leadership in your school, and create capacity through school leadership teams that successfully coordinate professional learning. "Change, Lead, Succeed" shows school leaders and teachers in leadership roles what they need to know to effectively create a culture for change. Find out what distinguishes a school leadership team from other…

  17. Leading through Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  18. Leading for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie-Mintz, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    As the dropout problem has grown--and as increasing numbers of students have started to see dropping out as a viable option for expressing their disaffection with school--practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have looked more closely at the factors that lead students to disengage from school and have attempted to find ways to create…

  19. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  20. ALL AGES LEAD MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model for Lead in Children (version 0.99d) was released in March 1994, and has been widely accepted in the risk assessment community as a tool for implementing the site specific risk assessment process when the issue is childhood...

  1. Leading by Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    A lot has changed in the principalship since the principal was the head teacher in a school. Current principals are building administrators and that is likely to continue, the authors posit. Nonetheless, they report their study focusing on leadership's role in formative assessment concluded that in order to lead learning the principal must…

  2. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  3. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Coker, Timothy J; Dierfeldt, Daniel M

    2016-01-15

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible bacteria and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Additional laboratory studies can be obtained based on risk factors and severity of illness. Radiography is typically unnecessary. Most patients can be treated as outpatients with oral antibiotics and supportive measures. Hospitalization and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics should be considered in patients who are systemically ill, unable to voluntarily urinate, unable to tolerate oral intake, or have risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Typical antibiotic regimens include ceftriaxone and doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. The risk of nosocomial bacterial prostatitis can be reduced by using antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, before transrectal prostate biopsy. PMID:26926407

  4. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  5. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Milena M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-03-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switzerland in comparison to eagle owls from the same area and to their respective prey. These two raptor species differ in their food as eagle owls feed on live-caught prey. Lead levels in soft tissues were significantly higher in golden eagles (median 1.14 μg g-1 dry weight in liver, 0.99 μg g-1 in kidney) than in eagle owls (0.14 and 0.23 μg g-1). Bones of golden eagles contained 10 times more lead (median of 12.45 μg g-1 dry weight) than owl bones (1.28 μg g-1), which represent substantially higher levels than previously reported for golden eagles. Bones of prey of both golden eagles and eagle owls had low lead concentrations. In order to investigate whether the sublethal lead of golden eagles originates from ammunition or from generic environmental contamination, we examined lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope signatures of golden eagle bones were very similar to those of ammunition, but differed from the signatures of bones of their prey, eagle owls and soil. Isotope signatures did not change with increasing bone lead concentration in golden eagles or any other group examined. These findings indicate that in the Alps, most golden eagles take up lead from spent ammunition in carcasses or their offal in sublethal quantities throughout their life and a few in lethal quantities leading to acute lead poisoning.

  6. Therapy of Acute Hypertension in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Tennille N.; Shatat, Ibrahim F.

    2014-01-01

    Acute hypertension (HTN) in hospitalized children and adolescents occurs relatively frequently and in some cases, if not recognized and treated promptly, it can lead to hypertensive crisis with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, where acute HTN is most likely due to uncontrolled primary HTN, children and adolescents with acute HTN are more likely to have secondary HTN. This review will briefly cover evaluation of acute HTN and various age specific etiologies of secondary HTN and provide more in-depth discussion on treatment target, potential risks of acute HTN therapy, available pediatric data on intravenous and oral antihypertensive agents, and propose treatment schema including unique therapy of specific secondary HTN scenarios. PMID:24522943

  7. Copeptin Testing in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ready for Routine Use?

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard; Mair, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Suspected acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency departments. In the last decade, biomarkers revolutionized the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Besides their pivotal assistance in timely diagnosis, biomarkers provide additional information for risk stratification. Cardiac troponins I and T are the most sensitive and specific markers of acute myocardial injury. Nonetheless, in order to overcome the remaining limitations of these markers, novel candidate biomarkers sensitive to early stage of disease are being extensively investigated. Among them, copeptin, a stable peptide derived from the precursor of vasopressin, emerged as a promising biomarker for the evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence for the usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in comparison with routine biomarkers. PMID:25960596

  8. Acute kidney injury: A rare cause.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Satish; Barki, Satish; Mishra, Mayank; Kumar, R S V; Gupta, Devika; Gupta, Pooja

    2015-09-01

    We present a young lady who consumed hair dye, which contained paraphenylene diamine (PPD), as a means of deliberate self-harm. This resulted in severe angio-neurotic edema for which she had to be ventilated, and thereafter developed rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). The unusual aspect was that the patient continued to have flaccid quadriparesis and inability to regain kidney function. Renal biopsy performed 10 weeks after the dye consumption revealed severe acute tubular necrosis with myoglobin pigment casts. This suggests that PPD has a long-term effect leading to ongoing myoglobinuria, causing flaccid paralysis to persist and preventing the recovery of AKI. In such instances, timely treatment to prevent AKI in the form alkalinization of urine should be initiated promptly. Secondly, because PPD is a nondialyzable toxin, and its long-term effect necessitates its speedy removal, hemoperfusion might be helpful and is worth considering. PMID:26354573

  9. Calm Before the Storm: An Uncomplicated Epicardial Lead Extraction Resulting in DIC and Patient Demise.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Wendy K

    2016-08-15

    A previously stable 77-year-old man with significant cardiac history underwent an uneventful extraction of a Citrobacter-infected and eroded pacemaker lead. His postoperative course was acutely complicated by respiratory failure and quickly progressed into disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, shock liver, and ventricular tachycardic arrest. I believe that this is the first case report of such a drastic turn of events after a routine pacemaker lead extraction. PMID:27525495

  10. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  11. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  12. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  13. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  14. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  15. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  16. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  17. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  19. LEAD SEVERING CONTRIVANCE

    DOEpatents

    Widmaier, W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for breaking an electrical circuit within an electronic tube during the process of manufacture is described. Frequently such circuits must be employed for gettering or vapor coating purposes, however, since an external pair of corector pins having no use after manufacture, is undesirable, this invention permits the use of existing leads to form a temporary circuit during manufacture, and severing it thereafter. One portion of the temporary circuit, made from a springy material such as tungsten, is spot welded to a fusable member. To cut the circuit an external radiant heat source melts the fusable member, allowing the tensed tungsten spring to contract and break the circuit. This inexpensive arrangement is particularly useful when the tube has a great many external leads crowded into the tube base.

  20. Toxicity of Lead and Proposed Substitute Shot to Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Andrews, R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Young, L.T.

    1974-01-01

    Poisoning of North American waterfowl resulting from the ingestion of lead shot by ducks, geese, and swans causes an estimated annual mortality of 2 to 3% of the population (Bellrose 1959). To alleviate this problem the search for a suitable substitute for lead has been underway since the early 1950's. Proposed substitutes for lead shot were evaluated in a series of acute toxicity tests with pen-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Most candidate materials were as toxic to ducks as commercial lead shot. Coating or alloying lead with other metals only delayed mortality among dosed ducks. The reputedly 'disintegrable' lead shot with the water-soluble binder and the lead containing biochemical additives were also as toxic to mallards as the commercial lead shot. Mortality was not significantly different among lead-dosed adult or first-year hen and drake pen-reared mallards; lead-dosed adult, wild mallards of both sexes; and lead-dosed adult, male black ducks (Anas rubripes). The ingestion of one lead shot, size 4, by each of 80 pen-reared mallards caused an average 19% mortality. The presence and type of grit in the gizzard had a measurable effect on erosion of ingested shot and on shot retention among dosed mallards. Significantly fewer lead-dosed ducks died when fed crushed oystershell grit than when fed either quartz grit or no grit.

  1. Lead induces increased water permeability in astrocytes expressing aquaporin 4.

    PubMed

    Gunnarson, E; Axehult, G; Baturina, G; Zelenin, S; Zelenina, M; Aperia, A

    2005-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is abundantly expressed in astrocytes. There is now compelling evidence that AQP4 may contribute to an unfavorable course in brain edema. Acute lead intoxication is a condition that causes brain damage preceded by brain edema. Here we report that lead increases AQP4 water permeability (P(f)) in astrocytes. A rat astrocyte cell line that does not express aquaporin 4 was transiently transfected with aquaporin 4 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we measured water permeability in these cells and in AQP4-negative cells located on the same plate. AQP4-expressing astrocytes had a three-fold higher water permeability than astrocytes not expressing AQP4. Lead exposure induced a significant, 40%, increase in water permeability in astrocytes expressing AQP4, but had no effect on P(f) in astrocytes not expressing AQP4. The increase in water permeability persisted after lead washout, while treatment with a lead chelator, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, abolished the lead-induced increase in P(f). The effect of lead was attenuated in the presence of a calcium (Ca(2+))/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor, but not in the presence of a protein kinase C inhibitor. In cells expressing AQP4 where the consensus site for CaMKII phosphorylation was mutated, lead failed to increase water permeability. Lead exposure also increased P(f) in rat astroglial cells in primary culture, which express endogenous AQP4. Lead had no effect on P(f) in astrocytes transfected with aquaporin 3. In situ hybridization studies on rat brain after oral lead intake for three days showed no change in distribution of AQP4 mRNA. It is suggested that lead-triggered stimulation of water transport in AQP4-expressing astrocytes may contribute to the pathology of acute lead intoxication.

  2. Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood.

    PubMed Central

    White, R F; Diamond, R; Proctor, S; Morey, C; Hu, H

    1993-01-01

    The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on almost all of the cognitive tasks. This pattern of widespread deficits resembles that found in children evaluated at the time of acute exposure to lead rather than the more circumscribed pattern typically seen in adults exposed to lead. Despite having completed as many years of schooling as controls, the subjects exposed to lead were lower in lifetime occupational status. Within the exposed group, performance on the neuropsychological battery and occupational status were related, consistent with the presumed impact of limitations in neuropsychological functioning on everyday life. The results suggest that many subjects exposed to lead suffered acute encephalopathy in childhood which resolved into a chronic subclinical encephalopathy with associated cognitive dysfunction still evident in adulthood. These findings lend support to efforts to limit exposure to lead in childhood. PMID:8343422

  3. Cardiovascular actions of lead and relationship to hypertension: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, S.J.; Barron, J.T.; Tow, J.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chronic and acute lead poisoning cause overt, clinical symptoms of cardiac and vascular damage with potentially lethal consequences. Morphological, biochemical, and functional derangements of the heart have all been described in patients following exposure to excessive lead levels. Disturbances in cardiac electrical and mechanical activity and postmortem evidence of morphological and biochemical derangements of the myocardium have all been reported following excessive exposure to lead in humans. In addition, signs of vascular degeneration, abnormal vascular smooth muscle function, and altered vessel compliance have been described in humans chronically and acutely exposed to toxic lead levels. Similar cardiovascular complications have been detected following excessive lead exposure in experimental animals. Myocarditis, electrocardiographic disturbances, heightened catecholamine arrhythmogenicity, altered myocardial contractile responsiveness to inotropic stimulation, degenerative structural biochemical changes affecting the musculature of the heart and vasculature, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and increased vascular reactivity to ..cap alpha..-adrenergic agonists have been among the reported cardiovascular disturbances linked to lead poisoning. Although controversial, chronic low-level lead exposure has been linked to hypertension and other cardiovascular disturbances in both clinical and experimental studies. In general, it can be concluded that lead over a wide range of exposure intensities can induce significant changes in the function of the cardiovascular system.

  4. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. PMID:25500531

  5. Coronary slow flow and acute coronary syndrome in a patient with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Aktoz, Meryem; Tatli, Ersan; Barutcu, Ahmet; Ozkalayci, Flora; Umit, Elif; Altun, Armagan

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to coronary slow flow after spinal cord injury. Data regarding the causes and clinical manifestations of coronary slow flow are inconclusive, but the autonomic nervous system is believed to be at least a contributing factor. The predominant vagal activity causes vasodilation and hemostasis, which can lead to acute coronary syndrome. We hereby call attention to hyperactive parasympathetic tonicity, which can lead to coronary slow flow and acute coronary syndrome in acute spinal cord injury patients. PMID:21841878

  6. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sari Dogan, Fatma; Ozaydin, Vehbi; Incealtin, Onur; Guneysel, Ozlem; Demireller, Merve

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto. In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. PMID:27239626

  7. Epigenetics in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinhua; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent advances in epigenetics indicate the involvement of several epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). The purpose of this review is to summarize our understanding of recent advances in epigenetic regulation of AKI and provide mechanistic insight into the role of acetylation, methylation, and microRNA expression in the pathological processes of AKI. Recent findings Enhancement of protein acetylation by pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) leads to more severe tubular injury and impairment of renal structural and functional recovery. The changes in promoter DNA methylation occur in the kidney with ischemia/reperfusion. microRNA expression is associated with regulation of both renal injury and regeneration after AKI. Summary Recent studies on epigenetic regulation indicate that acetylation, methylation, and microRNA expression are critically implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI. Strategies targeting epigenetic processes may hold a therapeutic potential for patients with AKI. PMID:26050122

  8. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  9. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  10. Microbiology of acute mastoiditis and complicated or refractory acute otitis media among hospitalized children in the postvaccination era.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Polyvios; Chrysovergis, Aristeidis; Xirogianni, Athanasia; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P; Radiotis, Alexandros; Lebessi, Evangelia; Tsakanikos, Michail; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Tsolia, Maria N

    2014-01-01

    In the post-heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading cause of acute mastoiditis and other complicated or refractory acute otitis media among hospitalized children in our settings. Serotype 19A is predominant, invasive and multidrug resistant causing more than half of all mastoiditis cases, two-thirds of cases with subperiosteal abscess and all those requiring mastoidectomy. Continuous surveillance is required.

  11. Leading change: 2--planning.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance. PMID:22439509

  12. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  13. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Loghman-Adham, M

    1997-01-01

    Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9300927

  14. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  15. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  17. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  18. Acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: a clinical nightmare with forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Villani, Angelo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2006-09-10

    Authors present the case of the sudden death of a 30-year-old man, 3 h since his hospitalization by the onset of aspecific chest pain. ECG findings revealed the presence of localized ST segment elevation in precordial leads (V1-V4) and DII-DII, and aVF mimicking acute antero-inferior myocardial infarction. A diagnosis of acute antero-inferior myocardial infarction was advanced and the patient introduced to thrombolytic therapy. Suddenly, on ECG monitor, conduction abnormalities were early recorded (ventricular extrasystole) followed by ventricular tachycardia degenerating in fatal ventricular fibrillation. An alleged medical malpractice was sued against the cardiologist. A complete immunohistochemical study was performed. Histologically, the heart presented massive interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate and focal myocytes necrosis. The diagnosis of acute lymphocytic myocarditis was established as the cause of death.

  19. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  20. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and when based on a child's risk for lead poisoning. Those who are considered at risk — such as ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? Lead Poisoning Pica Getting a Blood Test (Video) ...

  1. Lead (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have lead in them The good news about lead poisoning is that it’s 100% preventable. That means we ... damage the brain, and may even cause death. Lead poisoning can also cause: Anemia (when your blood doesn’ ...

  2. Leading from the boardroom.

    PubMed

    Lorsch, Jay W; Clark, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    These days, boards are working overtime to comply with Sarbanes-Oxley and other governance requirements meant to protect shareholders from executive wrongdoing. But as directors have become more hands-on with compliance, they've become more hands-off with long-range planning. That exposes corporations and their shareholders to another--perhaps even greater--risk, say professors Lorsch, of Harvard Business School, and Clark, of Harvard Law School. Boards are giving the long term short shrift for a number of reasons. Despite much heavier workloads, directors haven't rethought their patterns of operating - their meetings, committees, and other interactions. Compliance has changed their relationship with executives, however, turning directors into micromanagers who closely probe executives' actions instead of providing high-level guidance. Meanwhile, the pressure to meet quarterly expectations intensifies. Directors need to do a better job of balancing compliance with forward thinking. Boardroom effectiveness hinges most on the quality of directors and their interactions, the authors' research shows. Directors must apply their wisdom broadly, handling compliance work more efficiently and staying out of the weeds on strategic issues. Using their power with management to evangelize for long-term planning, they must take the lead on discussions about financial infrastructure, talent development, and strategy. Reserving sacrosanct time for such discussions, as Philips Electronics' board does at annual retreats, is an effective practice: After one recent retreat, Philips decided to exit the semiconductor business, where it was losing ground. Individual directors also must not shy away from asking tough questions and acting as catalysts on critical issues, such as grooming a successor to the CEO. In short, directors must learn to lead from the boardroom.

  3. LEAD STUDIES : III. THE EFFECTS OF LEAD ON RED BLOOD CELLS. PART 1. CHANGES IN HEMOLYSIS.

    PubMed

    Aub, J C; Reznikoff, P; Smith, D E

    1924-07-31

    It appears, from the investigations in other laboratories, that the anemia observed in cases of lead poisoning is due to destruction of blood rather than to diminished production of blood. The method of poisoning cells in vitro with lead was adopted in order to study this phenomenon, and distinct effects were thereby obtained, even when only 0.001 mg. of lead is added to approximately 5 billion washed red corpuscles. In order to obtain optimum results the usual dosage employed was ten times this or 0.01 mg. per 5 billion cells. The following changes were observed in cells so treated. 1. Such a marked increase in the resistance to hypotonic salt solution develops that complete hemolysis does not occur until the cells are exposed to a saline solution of 0.05 per cent. Untreated cells are completely hemolyzed in 0.25 or 0.225 per cent saline. 2. This reaction is quantitative and varies with the concentration of lead used. Under the conditions of our experiments this phenomenon seems to be unique. The effects of arsenic are very slight in comparison. 3. While from this reaction it may be concluded that lead increases cellular resistance, it also appears that it shortens the life of blood cells. This may be demonstrated by the much more rapid appearance of hemolysis than normal when the cells are merely allowed to stand in Ringer solution of any dilution. 4. In rabbits with acute lead poisoning these same phenomena may be noted in vivo. 5. Both phenomena may be changed in vitro by varying the time and temperature of the reaction and the concentration of lead, as Fici has already pointed out. 6. If normal cells stand in Ringer solution for 6 hours something diffuses into the solution which largely reduces the action of lead. After repeated washing these cells react with lead in the usual manner. 7. Small amounts of serum react with lead and eliminate its effects. Red blood cells, treated with a mixture of lead and blood serum, show normal hemolysis in hypotonic salt

  4. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  6. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  7. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  8. Relationship between lead mining and blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Murgueytio, A M; Evans, R G; Sterling, D A; Clardy, S A; Shadel, B N; Clements, B W

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied blood lead levels of 226 randomly selected children, aged 6-92 mo, who lived in either a lead-mining area or a nonmining area, and 69 controls. The authors sought to determine to what extent mining activities contributed to blood lead levels in the children. The mean blood lead levels in the study and control groups were 6.52 microg/dl and 3.43 microg/dl, respectively. The corresponding proportions of children with elevated blood lead levels were 17% and 3%. Soil and dust lead levels were up to 10 times higher in the study than the control group. Elevated blood lead levels appeared to result from exposure to both lead-mining waste and lead-based paint. Mining waste was the cause of the higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in these children. PMID:9886161

  9. A family with acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Billoo, Abdul Gaffar; Lone, Saira Waqar

    2008-05-01

    Porphyrias are inherited defects in heme metabolism that result in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. Porphyrias can be classified into acute, (neuropsychiatric), cutaneous and mixed forms. There are seven main types of porphyrias; acute intermittent porphyria and plumboporphyria are predominantly neuropsychiatric; congenital erythropoietic porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda and erythropoietic protoporphyria have predominantly cutaneous manifestations and hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria are classified as mixed as they both have neuropsychiatric and cutaneous features. They cause life-threatening attacks of neurovisceral symptoms that mimic many other acute medical and psychiatric conditions. Lack of clinical recognition often delays effective treatment, and inappropriate diagnostic tests may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Although the specific enzyme and gene defect have been identified, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders present formidable challenges because their signs and symptoms mimic other common conditions. We present a case report of a 13 years old girl who suffers from acute intermittent porphyria and the family tree showing all members who suffer from it.

  10. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  11. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  12. Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    While rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon except where there are poor and crowded living conditions, sporadic acute attacks continue to occur in a family or pediatric medical practice. The physician's role in management of the sore throat in the diagnosis of suspected cases of rheumatic fever and in follow-up for continued prophylaxis is discussed. The frequency of admissions and presenting features of 159 patients with acute rheumatic fever is reviewed. Continued surveillance is required if we are to achieve a further reduction in attack rate and complications. PMID:4419123

  13. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  14. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  15. Nurses: advocating, leading, caring!

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2013-01-01

    This speech was delivered on 27 October at the 2012 Conference and general meeting of the Italian Nurses Association CNAI (Consociazione nazionale delle Associazioni infermiere/i) held in Rome from 25 to 27 October 2012. The theme of the conference was "No Nurses No Future". The "No Nurses No Future" is a national campaign developed by the nurses of the Italian Nurses Association to fight for the rights of the profession to sustain not only the practice of the nurse, strong nursing education, research and regulation, but more importantly to ensure that in the future there will be enough nurses in the healthcare workforce to advocate, lead and care for the citizens of Italy.Italian nurses took advantage of the presence of prof. Ferguson and, before travelling to Rome, the Region Lombardy IPASVI Colleges (Coordinamento dei Collegi IPASVI della regione Lombardia) invited her to talk on the same topic during a jointed Conference with CNAI at Circolo della Stampa of Milan on 23rd October.

  16. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  17. Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Basile, David P.; Anderson, Melissa D.; Sutton, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the leading cause of nephrology consultation and is associated with high mortality rates. The primary causes of AKI include ischemia, hypoxia or nephrotoxicity. An underlying feature is a rapid decline in GFR usually associated with decreases in renal blood flow. Inflammation represents an important additional component of AKI leading to the extension phase of injury, which may be associated with insensitivity to vasodilator therapy. It is suggested that targeting the extension phase represents an area potential of treatment with the greatest possible impact. The underlying basis of renal injury appears to be impaired energetics of the highly metabolically active nephron segments (i.e., proximal tubules and thick ascending limb) in the renal outer medulla, which can trigger conversion from transient hypoxia to intrinsic renal failure. Injury to kidney cells can be lethal or sublethal. Sublethal injury represents an important component in AKI, as it may profoundly influence GFR and renal blood flow. The nature of the recovery response is mediated by the degree to which sublethal cells can restore normal function and promote regeneration. The successful recovery from AKI depends on the degree to which these repair processes ensue and these may be compromised in elderly or CKD patients. Recent data suggest that AKI represents a potential link to CKD in surviving patients. Finally, earlier diagnosis of AKI represents an important area in treating patients with AKI that has spawned increased awareness of the potential that biomarkers of AKI may play in the future. PMID:23798302

  18. Pacemaker lead endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus hominis.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Mustafa; Demirag, Mustafa Kemal; Yilmaz, Ozcan; Yilmaz, Hava; Ozturk, Recep; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2006-05-01

    Infective endocarditis related to pacemaker is a rare but serious condition in permanent venous tracing. A 65-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with high fever and chills. A DDD pacemaker had been implanted via the right subclavian vein because of sick sinus syndrome 6 years earlier. Transesophageal echocardiogram identified an oscillating round hyperechoic mass with a stalk near the tricuspid valve. Blood cultures grew Staphylococcus hominis. The patient was treated with antibiotics and operated on after the acute phase of the illness had subsided. We hereby report a case of lead endocarditis caused by S. hominis in a patient with pacemaker, which has been rarely reported in the English literature.

  19. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  20. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the accompanying decrease in lead emissions, resulted in a dramatic decline in mean blood lead levels from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. Nonetheless, lead exposures remain a public health concern. Long-term exposures to even low...

  1. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  2. Leading Your Leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  3. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  4. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  5. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  6. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  7. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  8. Acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Vlodov, J; Tenner, S M

    2001-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis has multiple causes, an unpredictable course, and myriad complications. The diagnosis relies on a combination of history, physical examination, serologic markers, and radiologic findings. The mainstay of therapy includes aggressive hydration, maintenance of NPO, and adequate analgesia with narcotics. Antibiotic and nutritional support with total parenteral nutrition should be used when appropriate.

  9. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  10. [Management of acute tendinitis].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Heisse, K; Becker, M; Stechele, M

    1992-12-01

    Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.

  11. Acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Frankish, P D; Mason, G H; Allen, P R; Milsom, F P; Christmas, T I

    1988-10-12

    Two cases of acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis are reported. Both patients were taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs when they developed this infection. Urgent surgical debridement was undertaken and resulted in a successful outcome in both patients. The clinical and histopathological features of this condition are reviewed.

  12. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  13. Agraphia caused by acute right parietal infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Manyong; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Myung Hyun; Lee, Jin Soo; Moon, So Young

    2015-04-01

    Injury in the dominant language hemisphere typically leads to agraphia, however we report a patient with agraphia after injury to the right angular gyrus. A 71-year-old Korean woman presented with the complaint of an inability to write for the last 7 days. The patient had been illiterate for most of her life, but had started learning to write Hangul, the Korean alphabet, at a welfare center 3 years ago. On language screening she was unable to write although she could read, and other language functions showed no abnormalities. Brain MRI showed acute infarction in the right angular gyrus. Her writing patterns displayed features of surface agraphia, indicative of phoneme-to-grapheme conversion with phonetic writing of targets. Additionally, she manifested visual errors. A functional MRI indicated that her left hemisphere was language dominant. This patient experienced agraphia resulting from pure impairment of visuo-constructive function after acute infarction in the right angular gyrus. PMID:25564267

  14. Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Riley, Alyssa; Gebhard, Daniel J; Akcan-Arikan, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common in pediatric medical and surgical cardiac patients. Not only is it an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the short run, but repeated episodes of AKI lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) especially in the most vulnerable hosts with multiple risk factors, such as heart transplant recipients. The cardiorenal syndrome, a term coined to emphasize the bidirectional nature of simultaneous or sequential cardiac-renal dysfunction both in acute and chronic settings, has been recently described in adults but scarcely reported in children. Despite the common occurrence and clinical and financial impact, AKI in pediatric heart failure outside of cardiac surgery populations remains poorly studied and there are no large-scale pediatric specific preventive or therapeutic studies to date. This article will review pediatric aspects of the cardiorenal syndrome in terms of pathophysiology, clinical impact and treatment options.

  15. Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Ouellette, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a fibro-osseous space increases to a level that results in a decreased perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds. Compartment syndromes of the hand, forearm, and upper arm can result in tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating loss of function. The etiology of acute compartment syndrome in the upper extremity is diverse, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Pain out of proportion to injury is the most reliable early symptom of impending compartment syndrome. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in obtunded patients and in young children. Early recognition and expeditious surgical treatment are essential to obtain a good clinical outcome and prevent permanent disability.

  16. Leading change during an inpatient critical care unit expansion.

    PubMed

    Braungardt, Theresa; Fought, Sharon Gavin

    2008-11-01

    Acute care hospitals are changing rapidly to address economic and technologic advancements and meet community needs. The authors describe 1 medical center's use of Kotter's work on leading change to expand the neuroscience intensive care unit from 10 to 30 beds to meet community needs, improve hospital efficiencies, and increase bed capacity. Nurse satisfaction, retention, and other human resource quality data that showed positive results are compared before and after the change.

  17. Molecular mediators of favism-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    García-Camín, Rosa María; Goma, Montserrat; Osuna, Rosa García; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Buendía, Irene; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Chevarria, Julio Leonel; Gluksmann, María Constanza; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Intolerance to fava beans in subjects with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency (favism) may lead to severe hemolytic crises and decreased renal function. Renal biopsy findings exploring the molecular mechanisms of renal damage in favism have not been previously reported. We report a case of favism-associated acute kidney injury in which renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis and massive iron deposits in tubular cells. Interestingly, iron deposit areas were characterized by the presence of oxidative stress markers (NADPH-p22 phox and heme-oxigenase-1) and macrophages expressing the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163. In addition, iron deposits, NADPH-p22 phox, hemeoxigenase- 1 and CD163 positive cells were observed in some glomeruli. These results identify both glomerular and tubular involvement in favism-associated acute kidney injury and suggest novel therapeutic targets to prevent or accelerate recovery from acute kidney injury.

  18. What a Nephrologist Needs to Know About Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Thomas M; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-09-01

    Although relatively rare in the United States, acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with very high rates of morbidity and mortality. A leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension. Hypothermia, osmotic diuretics, and hyperosmolar therapy are commonly used to manage these complications; however, when these are ineffective, renal replacement therapy may be needed for volume management. Acute kidney injury is a common complication of ALF and may arise from a number of etiologies, including hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Acute kidney injury is most common in patients who develop ALF because of acetaminophen toxicity or ischemia. With regard to renal replacement therapy, we will review specific considerations relevant to the management of the patient with ALF. PMID:26311599

  19. Molecular mediators of favism-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    García-Camín, Rosa María; Goma, Montserrat; Osuna, Rosa García; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Buendía, Irene; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Chevarria, Julio Leonel; Gluksmann, María Constanza; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Intolerance to fava beans in subjects with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency (favism) may lead to severe hemolytic crises and decreased renal function. Renal biopsy findings exploring the molecular mechanisms of renal damage in favism have not been previously reported. We report a case of favism-associated acute kidney injury in which renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis and massive iron deposits in tubular cells. Interestingly, iron deposit areas were characterized by the presence of oxidative stress markers (NADPH-p22 phox and heme-oxigenase-1) and macrophages expressing the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163. In addition, iron deposits, NADPH-p22 phox, hemeoxigenase- 1 and CD163 positive cells were observed in some glomeruli. These results identify both glomerular and tubular involvement in favism-associated acute kidney injury and suggest novel therapeutic targets to prevent or accelerate recovery from acute kidney injury. PMID:23006341

  20. What a Nephrologist Needs to Know About Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Thomas M; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-09-01

    Although relatively rare in the United States, acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with very high rates of morbidity and mortality. A leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension. Hypothermia, osmotic diuretics, and hyperosmolar therapy are commonly used to manage these complications; however, when these are ineffective, renal replacement therapy may be needed for volume management. Acute kidney injury is a common complication of ALF and may arise from a number of etiologies, including hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Acute kidney injury is most common in patients who develop ALF because of acetaminophen toxicity or ischemia. With regard to renal replacement therapy, we will review specific considerations relevant to the management of the patient with ALF.

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  2. A data-driven acute inflammation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute inflammation is a severe medical condition defined as an inflammatory response of the body to an infection. Its rapid progression requires quick and accurate decisions from clinicians. Inadequate and delayed decisions makes acute inflammation the 10th leading cause of death overall in United States with the estimated cost of treatment about $17 billion annually. However, despite the need, there are limited number of methods that could assist clinicians to determine optimal therapies for acute inflammation. We developed a data-driven method for suggesting optimal therapy by using machine learning model that is learned on historical patients' behaviors. To reduce both the risk of failure and the expense for clinical trials, our method is evaluated on a virtual patients generated by a mathematical model that emulates inflammatory response. In conducted experiments, acute inflammation was handled with two complimentary pro- and anti-inflammatory medications which adequate timing and doses are crucial for the successful outcome. Our experiments show that the dosage regimen assigned with our data-driven method significantly improves the percentage of healthy patients when compared to results by other methods used in clinical practice and found in literature. Our method saved 88% of patients that would otherwise die within a week, while the best method found in literature saved only 73% of patients. At the same time, our method used lower doses of medications than alternatives. In addition, our method achieved better results than alternatives when only incomplete or noisy measurements were available over time as well as it was less affected by therapy delay. The presented results provide strong evidence that models from the artificial intelligence community have a potential for development of personalized treatment strategies for acute inflammation. PMID:24565439

  3. The lead industry and lead water pipes "A Modest Campaign".

    PubMed

    Rabin, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Lead pipes for carrying drinking water were well recognized as a cause of lead poisoning by the late 1800s in the United States. By the 1920s, many cities and towns were prohibiting or restricting their use. To combat this trend, the lead industry carried out a prolonged and effective campaign to promote the use of lead pipes. Led by the Lead Industries Association (LIA), representatives were sent to speak with plumbers' organizations, local water authorities, architects, and federal officials. The LIA also published numerous articles and books that extolled the advantages of lead over other materials and gave practical advice on the installation and repair of lead pipes. The LIA's activities over several decades therefore contributed to the present-day public health and economic cost of lead water pipes.

  4. The management of acute pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Wells, T A; Curzen, N P

    2005-01-01

    Acute pericarditis is usually a benign self-limiting condition, often of unexplained or viral aetiology, involving inflammation of the pericardial layers. It is often part of the differential diagnosis in patients admitted with acute chest pain and can be confused with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and pleurisy. Occasionally it can result in cardiac tamponade and, if associated with myocarditis, in heart failure. This article sets out how to diagnose acute pericarditis, the common underlying causes, the possible treatment options and outcomes. PMID:21655516

  5. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  6. Get the lead out: The many faces of lead law

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, L.S.

    1996-10-01

    There are numerous laws and regulations which apply to lead and its compounds because lead is used in many different ways. There is some confusion regarding which laws apply and how they affect the corrosion field. This paper provides a brief overview of the various lead laws found at the federal level, their applicability, and requirements.

  7. Lead--the toxic metal to stay with human.

    PubMed

    Srianujata, S

    1998-07-01

    Lead has been known to be toxic to most living things at high dose. It is found naturally in earth and present in almost all parts of the environment, such as foods, air, water, dust, soil, paint, and tissues of living organisms including human. This metal is being used in various aspects including the manufacturing of storage batteries, production of chemicals, paints and gasoline additives. It is also used to make various metal products, e.g. sheet lead, solder, and pipes. Human exposure to lead is mainly from foods and other environments. However, it is expected that exposure to environmental lead is normally excessive and produces toxic effects. The well-known and excessive environmental exposures are air of industrial and heavy traffic areas. Use of leaded gasoline has caused the main lead pollution for years in almost every big city. Therefore, city inhabitants normally exposed to lead much more than those who live in the rural area. The most vulnerable groups at risk to lead exposure are fetuses and preschool age children. Young children in the 2-3 year-old age may be the most at risk for exposure to contaminated soil. Adults are affected when exposure is excessive in the working place and causing lead poisoning. Toxicities are mainly on heme biosynthesis, neurological effects including encepharopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and most importantly on I.Q. deficits. It also affects renal tissues to produce acute and chronic nephropathy and elevated blood pressure. There are studies of lead exposure of various means and the effects on human health, both in children and adults. Lead in environment and human exposure are expected to stay with us for long to come, due the still required lead use in many fields, particularly the use of lead in storage batteries and others. The magnitude of exposure will depend solely on the control of use by not allowing the contamination of lead in our environment to be excessive.

  8. Soil lead-blood lead relationship among Boston children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Bellinger, D.C.

    1988-12-01

    Lead contaminated soil has been consistently been found to contribute significantly to children's risk of blood lead elevation. An association between soil lead and blood lead has been reported for children in Holland, Rochester, New York, Omaha, Nebraska, Christchurch, New Zealand, and Kellogg, Idaho. The authors report on the connection between soil and blood lead levels among a group of Boston children in order to document this pattern of association in a specific setting which may be analogous to other situations of interest. The base population consisted of 11,837 consecutive births at the Boston Hospital for Women between April 1979 and April 1981.

  9. Lead testing wipes contain measurable background levels of lead.

    PubMed

    Keenan, James J; Le, Matthew H; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Gaffney, Shannon H

    2010-03-01

    Lead is registered under the California Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65) as both a carcinogen and a reproductive hazard. As part of the process to determine if consumer products satisfy Proposition 65 with respect to lead, various wipe sampling strategies have been utilized. Four commonly used wipe materials (cotton gauze, cotton balls, ashless filter paper, and Ghost Wipes) were tested for background lead levels. Ghost Wipe material was found to have 0.43 +/- 0.11 microg lead/sample (0.14 microg/wipe). Wipe testing for lead using Ghost Wipes may therefore result in measurable concentrations of lead, regardless of whether or not the consumer product actually contains leachable lead. PMID:20087726

  10. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-01-15

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, varied from 0.6 to 80 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Linear regression of whole tooth lead ({mu}g g{sup -1}) on the cumulative lead dose received by the animal (g) yielded a slope of 1.2, with r{sup 2}=0.647 (p<0.0001). Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to determine lead content at micrometer scale spatial resolution in the teeth of seven goats representing the dosing range. Highly localized concentrations of lead, ranging from about 10 to 2000 {mu}g g{sup -1}, were found in circumpulpal dentine. Linear regression of circumpulpal lead ({mu}g g{sup -1}) on cumulative lead dose (g) yielded a slope of 23 with r{sup 2}=0.961 (p=0.0001). The data indicated that whole tooth lead, and especially circumpulpal lead, of dosed goats increased linearly with cumulative lead exposure. These data suggest that circumpulpal dentine is a better biomarker of cumulative lead exposure than is whole tooth lead, at least for lead-dosed goats.

  11. International perspectives of lead exposure and lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1993-01-01

    Three approaches have been used to examine how human body burdens of lead depend on different environments: (1) In paleopathologic studies, lead concentrations have been determined in well-preserved human bones or teeth, and pre-pollution samples generally show lead concentrations of about 1% of current levels in industrialized countries. (2) Geographic comparisons of blood-lead concentrations show low levels in, Nepal, Faroe Islands, and Sweden, while high levels occur in Mexico and Malta; average blood-lead levels may vary by a factor of 10 or more. (3) In analytical epidemiology, major exposure sources have been related to lead levels in blood, by either prospective or cross-sectional design. Increased blood-lead concentrations are related to smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, eating vegetables for dinner, urban residence, and exposure from lead-using industries; average blood-lead values of subgroups within well-defined populations may vary by a factor of 3 or more. The dose-relationships for lead-induced neurotoxicity will depend on the sensitivity of the parameters chosen as indicators of lead exposure and of neurotoxicity. The temporal relationship between lead exposures and the development of deficits must be ascertained. Individual susceptibility and interacting factors must also be taken into account. Differences in addressing these issues impede the comparison between studies. Recently neonatal jaundice has been found to be a risk factor for subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with a birth weight above 2500 g, but only in children with increased lead exposure. Lead exposure may act in combination with several other factors and result in additive, or synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8247415

  12. The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, A M; Norris, S L

    1996-10-01

    : Lead shot ingestion is the primary source of elevated lead exposure and poisoning in waterfowl and most other bird species. For some species (e.g. Common Loons, Gavia immer), lead sinker ingestion is a more frequent cause of lead poisoning. In freshwater environments where recreational angling activity and loon populations co-occur, lead poisoning from ingestion of small (<50 gram) lead sinkers or jigs accounts for 10-50% of recorded adult loon mortality, depending on the locations studied. Lead shot ingestion occurs in waterfowl, and in a wide variety of non-waterfowl species, including upland game birds, shorebirds, raptors, and scavengers. Where it has been explicitly studied in Canada and the US, lead poisoning mortality of bald (Haliacetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysactos) from eating prey animals with lead shot embedded in their tissues accounts for an estimated 10-15% of the recorded post-fledging mortality in these raptorial species. In addition to environments that experience hunting with lead shot, clay target shooting ranges, especially those in which the shotfall zones include ponds, marshes, lakes, rivers, beaches, or other aquatic-type environments, create a significant risk of shot ingestion and poisoning for waterbirds. Metallic lead pellets deposited onto soils and aquatic sediments are not chemically or environmentally inert, although tens or hundreds of years may be required for total breakdown and dissolution of pellets. Functional, affordable non-toxic alternatives to lead shot and sinkers are being currently produced, and additional such products are being developed. Several countries have successfully banned the use of small lead sinkers, and of lead shot for waterfowl and other hunting, also for clay target shooting, using a phasing-out process that gives manufactures, sellers, and users adequate time to adjust to the regulations. PMID:24193869

  13. Acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B

    2000-07-01

    We encounter patients with acute pain many times each day, and few aspects of veterinary practice offer such an opportunity to help so many in such a profoundly rewarding way. As emphasized here and elsewhere, we now have excellent tools with which to help these animals, and the biggest impediment to optimal treatment of their pain is often our own difficulty in recognizing its presence. Perhaps the single most important aspect of treating acute pain is to cultivate an ability to see past our personal biases and expectations which may limit treatment and to rediscover the common sense we had about pain before we entered the profession. By rededicating ourselves to seeking out, preventing, and relieving pain, we not only perform a vital service for our patients but also elevate our profession even as we reap financial and spiritual rewards for our efforts. What could be better? PMID:10932832

  14. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.

  15. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  16. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  17. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  18. Cytokines and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Christmas, S; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

    1999-07-01

    Cytokines have been shown to play a pivotal role in multiple organ dysfunction, a major cause of death in severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, the two-hit hypothesis of the cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome explains the variable individual response to severe acute pancreatitis and the impact of secondary events such as sepsis or therapeutic intervention. Many experimental anti-cytokine therapies have been administered following induction of experimental pancreatitis, and have proved to be therapeutic. Patients with severe pancreatitis present early because of pain. Clearly then a window for therapeutic intervention is available between onset of symptoms and peak pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. It is this fundamental observation that convinces many in the field that the treatment of AP will be one of the first clinical successes for novel drugs or therapy that seek to modulate the inflammatory response.

  19. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  20. Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Iver

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

  1. Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

  2. The Changing Way of Leading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sytsma, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This conceptual article explores the changing way of leading. It proposes that in contrast to the primarily outer actions that characterize educational change, the inner and outer dimensions of leaders are necessary to change what constitutes leading, thereby making it more appropriate to our times. The unfolding of leading actions and the…

  3. Environmental Lead and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marie

    This paper discusses the threat to children's health posed by environmental exposure to lead, focusing on public policy issues surrounding lead exposure in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia, the current blood lead level at which there is a health concern is at or above 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl) of blood for infants and…

  4. Acute arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Alvarez, J A

    1989-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute arsenic poisoning should be considered in any patient presenting with severe gastrointestinal complaints. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and profuse, watery diarrhea. Hypotension, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, mental status changes, electrocardiographic abnormalities, respiratory failure and death can result. Quantitative measurement of 24-hour urinary arsenic excretion is the only reliable laboratory test to confirm arsenic poisoning. Treatment includes gastric emesis or lavage, chelation therapy, electrolyte and fluid replacement, and cardiorespiratory support.

  5. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  6. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  7. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  8. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  9. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  10. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814

  11. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Tenconi, Rossana; Tagliaferri, Laura; Albertario, Giada; Patria, Maria Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2012-08-01

    Rhinosinusitis is almost always a complication of a viral infection involving the upper respiratory tract. A common cold is the first symptom of rhinosinusitis, but infectious processes involving the nose inevitably affect the paranasal sinuses because of their anatomical contiguity. The symptoms remain those of a common cold as long as nasal phlogosis is moderate and the ostia between the nose and sinuses are patent. If the inflammation is intense, edema may obliterate the ostia and isolate the sinuses, thus stopping the removal of the exudates. The duration of symptoms makes it possible to distinguish acute (10-30 days) from subacute (30-90 days) and chronic rhinosinusitis (>90 days). The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis should only be based on anamnestic and clinical criteria in children with serious or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, or which appear within a short time of an apparent recovery. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of the paranasal sinuses should be reserved for children reasonably considered to be candidates for surgery. Antibiotics are recommended in cases of mild acute bacterial rhinosinusitis as a means of accelerating the resolution of symptoms. The use of antibiotics is mandatory in severe acute bacterial rhinosinusitis to cure the disease and avoid the possible onset of severe complications.

  12. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS.

  13. Prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in a lead mining area

    SciTech Connect

    Murgueytio, A.M.; Evans, R.G.; Roberts, D.; Moehr, T.

    1996-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of lead poisoning among children six to seventy-one months of age who live in a lead mining area, compared to children not living in an area exposed to lead mining waste. Children were selected from a sampling frame based on a census of the study and control areas. Participants were interviewed and blood and urine were collected for lead and cadmium analysis. Environmental measurements of soil, dust, and paint were also made. Mean blood lead levels were significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group, 6.25 {mu}g/dl and 3.59 {micro}g/dl, respectively. Also, 14% of the study group compared to 0% of the control group had blood lead levels greater than 10 {micro}g/dl, the level of concern established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Soil, dust, and paint lead levels were significantly higher in the study area. There were no significant differences between groups in urine cadmium levels although environmental dust and soil cadmium levels were significantly higher in the study group. This study suggested that the increased prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in the study group is highly correlated to a combination of exposure to soil contaminated with lead mining and smelting waste and exposure to household lead paint.

  14. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  15. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  16. Contribution of lead in dust to children's blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, M J

    1983-01-01

    The importance of urban dust as a source of lead for young children is still disputed. Although blood-lead data from various population surveys usually show a peak concentration in early childhood, there is evidence that such a peak is small or absent altogether in children without much access to the general environment. An examination of those studies where groups of people in regions of low and high lead contamination have been compared shows that the child/adult blood-lead ratio is almost always enhanced in the more exposed groups. This implies a route of lead uptake which is important for children but less so for adults, and it is likely that this route is the dust-hand-mouth one. There are sufficient data to suggest a quantitative relationship between raised levels of blood lead and lead in dust. There is a strong case for a lead-in-dust standard but some will probably remain unpersuaded unless or until there are reliable data for blood lead and environmental lead involving matched groups of young people from urban and rural areas. PMID:6873030

  17. EPA lead program (Pb) update

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, D.

    1994-12-31

    Lead is a cumulative poison that is especially hazardous to children. It affects the nervous and reproductive systems by causing neurological and physical development delays, as well as cognitive and behavioral changes. It can also cause hypertension in adults. Lead can be absorbed into the blood by ingestion or inhalation. The author discusses legislative efforts to control lead exposure to humans. They are: Title 10, which amends TSCA; and Title 4 -- Lead Exposure Reduction. The major tasks being performed by EPA to control the exposure of lead to man are included. Professional training is of major importance in this effort.

  18. Presence of lead in opium.

    PubMed

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  19. [Evaluation and management of acute radiation dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Modesto, A; Faivre, J-C; Granel-Brocard, F; Tao, Y-G; Pointreau, Y

    2012-09-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis remains one of the most commonly observed side effect during radiation therapy leading to complication such as superinfection or treatment disruption. Its management is characterized by a great heterogeneity. Few strategies have demonstrated a benefit in preventing radiation dermatitis, which relies mostly on decreasing dose delivered to the skin and skin care practices. Simple emollients and use of topical steroids can be useful in early stages. The singularity of the skin toxicity seen with cetuximab and radiotherapy warrants a specific grading system and distinctive clinical treatment with use of antibiotics.

  20. Prevention of Childhood Lead Toxicity.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Blood lead concentrations have decreased dramatically in US children over the past 4 decades, but too many children still live in housing with deteriorated lead-based paint and are at risk for lead exposure with resulting lead-associated cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. Evidence continues to accrue that commonly encountered blood lead concentrations, even those below 5 µg/dL (50 ppb), impair cognition; there is no identified threshold or safe level of lead in blood. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 2.6% of preschool children in the United States had a blood lead concentration ≥5 µg/dL (≥50 ppb), which represents about 535 000 US children 1 to 5 years of age. Evidence-based guidance is available for managing increased lead exposure in children, and reducing sources of lead in the environment, including lead in housing, soil, water, and consumer products, has been shown to be cost-beneficial. Primary prevention should be the focus of policy on childhood lead toxicity. PMID:27325637

  1. Lead-based paint assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lorie, C.; Cowdery, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1977, The US consumer product safety commission banned the use of lead-based paint (LBP) in all industries, except the maritime industry which still has certain privileged uses. Unfortunately for property and building owners, the ban did not come soon enough. In response to this heightened awareness, several environmental market sectors addressing the issues have emerged. These include: residential; soil; commercial; water; and structures. The first and most important step in addressing the concerns posed by the existence of lead based contamination is to quantify the amount of lead-based product, to determine the location of the lead based product and the extent, if any, of lead based contamination, and to make recommendations for the remediation or abatement of the lead product and resultant contamination. In narrowing the focus of these issues, this paper discusses lead-based paint assessment; preparing and organizing the assessment, the regulatory considerations, assessment methodology, and presentation of results.

  2. Lead Poisoning From a Ceramic Jug Presenting as Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Groshaus, Horacio; Rioux, Kevin; Yarema, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning may present with non-specific symptoms that may result in unnecessary investigations. We report a case of acute lead poisoning in a previously healthy 28-year-old man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice, constipation, and weight loss. An extensive diagnostic work-up was completed with inconclusive results. A detailed history revealed an unusual source of lead exposure. Chelation therapy resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:26958573

  3. Acute urinary retention among astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Although acute urinary retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed urinary retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to urinary retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case.

  4. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  5. MDCT evaluation of acute aortic syndrome (AAS).

    PubMed

    Valente, Tullio; Rossi, Giovanni; Lassandro, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Marino, Maurizio; Muto, Maurizio; Molino, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic acute thoracic aortic syndromes (AAS) describe a spectrum of life-threatening aortic pathologies with significant implications on diagnosis, therapy and management. There is a common pathway for the various manifestations of AAS that eventually leads to a breakdown of the aortic intima and media. Improvements in biology and health policy and diffusion of technology into the community resulted in an associated decrease in mortality and morbidity related to aortic therapeutic interventions. Hybrid procedures, branched and fenestrated endografts, and percutaneous aortic valves have emerged as potent and viable alternatives to traditional surgeries. In this context, current state-of-the art multidetector CT (MDCT) is actually the gold standard in the emergency setting because of its intrinsic diagnostic value. Management of acute aortic disease has changed with the increasing realization that endovascular therapies may offer distinct advantages in these situations. This article provides a summary of AAS, focusing especially on the MDCT technique, typical and atypical findings and common pitfalls of AAS, as well as recent concepts regarding the subtypes of AAS, consisting of aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable aortic aneurysm or contained aortic rupture. MDCT findings will be related to pathophysiology, timing and management options to achieve a definite and timely diagnostic and therapeutic definition. In the present article, we review the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, outcomes and therapeutic approaches to acute aortic syndromes. PMID:27033344

  6. Acute liver failure and self-medication

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, André Vitorio Câmara; ROCHA, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; ABREU, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. Aim To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Method Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Conclusions Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them. PMID:25626943

  7. Lead exposure, lead poisoning, and lead regulatory standards in China, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Wong, Otto

    2006-11-01

    This article presents a summary of lead exposure levels and lead poisoning at workplaces in China reported in the Chinese medical literature between 1990 and 2005. A comprehensive literature search identified 618 papers reporting lead exposure and lead poisoning data. The data were analyzed in terms of time period, type of industry, size of factory, and task or process. In 2002 the new Occupational Diseases Prevention and Control Act was passed in China, with new provisions specifically for regulatory enforcement. Therefore, a comparison of lead exposure levels and lead poisoning rates before and after the 2002 Act will shed some light on the effectiveness of the new regulation. The reported lead exposure levels covered a wide range; some measurements were in excess of 250 mg/m(3), which was orders-of-magnitude higher than the occupational exposure levels (OELs) for lead in China. The overall arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean were 0.92, 0.25, and 0.24 mg/m(3), respectively. Approximately 53.7% of the averages reported in the papers were above the national OELs. The data demonstrated that many facilities in the lead industries reported in the literature were not in compliance with the OELs. Similarly, there appeared to be only a minor impact of the 2002 Act on the reduction of occupational lead poisoning in China. The lead poisoning rates reported in the literature were well above 30%. Judging by the lead exposure levels and the lead poisoning rates, the current overall occupational health monitoring system appears inadequate, lacking the necessary enforcement. The 2002 Act, without the necessary enforcement, did not appear to have a major impact on either lead exposures or lead poisoning in China. Much work in enforcing the 2002 Act remains to be done.

  8. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M

    2004-12-01

    Eighty percent of all cases of acute pancreatitis are linked etiologically to gallstone disease or caused by immoderate alcohol consumption. No specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis exists. Early prognostic factors that indicate severe disease are three or more signs on organ failure scores according to Ranson, Imrie, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) 11, extrapancreatic complications of the disease, or the detection of pancreatic necrosis on CT scans. Elevated CRP levels above 130 mg/L can also predict a severe course of acute pancreatitis. The essential medical treatment for acute pancreatitis is the correction of hypovolemia. Moreover, relief of often severe visceral pain is a high priority. Prophylactic antibiotics should be restricted to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, infected necrosis, or other infectious complications. Enteral nutrition has no adverse effect compared with parenteral nutrition during the course of acute pancreatitis, and is probably beneficial in regard to outcome.

  9. Chemical speciation of lead dust associated with primary lead smelting.

    PubMed Central

    Spear, T M; Svee, W; Vincent, J H; Stanisich, N

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this article assessed geochemical factors relating to dust produced during primary lead smelting. Bulk dust samples and size-selective airborne dust samples were collected from four areas of a primary lead smelter and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and sequential chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction showed that the smelter dusts were composed primarily of sulfides, oxides, sulfates, and silicates of metal ores, with galena being the primary dust component. Sequential extraction revealed the solubility of lead compounds at less than 7% in the exchangeable and mildly acidic steps for the bulk dusts collected from four smelter areas. The later steps of the extraction procedure were more effective in dissolving the lead compounds associated with the bulk dust samples, with 43%, 26%, and 8% of the total lead, in the ore storage, sinter, and blast/dross smelter areas, respectively, being extracted in the residual step. Sequential extraction of coarse airborne dust samples from the ore storage and sinter plant showed that 1.2% and 4.1% of the total lead, respectively, was exchangeable. The finer particle size fractions from these areas of the smelter showed higher percentages of exchangeable lead. Of the course airborne dust from the blast/dross furnace processes, 65% of the total lead was exchangeable. However, the largest percentage of lead from these areas was associated with the finer particle-size fractions. If lead bioavailability is related to its solubility as determined through sequential extraction, the health hazards associated with lead exposure may be appreciably enhanced in the blast and dross furnace processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721256

  10. Increasing importance of viruses in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, T; Chonmaitree, T

    2000-04-01

    Acute otitis media is generally considered a simple bacterial infection that can be effectively treated with antibiotics. However, despite the extensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, poor clinical response to treatment of acute otitis media is common in children. Numerous studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical studies have clearly demonstrated that respiratory viruses play a crucial role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory tract initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. Respiratory viruses induce a release of inflammatory mediators in the nasopharynx, increase bacterial colonization and adherence, and have a suppressive effect on the host's immune defense. Recent data indicate that at least some types of viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses also seem to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear and impair the outcome of the disease. Vaccines against the major viruses predisposing to acute otitis media hold a great promise for the prevention of this disease. Major advances in the management of acute otitis media will require further research into the mechanisms of viral infection, viral-bacterial interaction and the host inflammatory response during viral infection.

  11. Importance of respiratory viruses in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2003-04-01

    Acute otitis media is usually considered a simple bacterial infection that is treated with antibiotics. However, ample evidence derived from studies ranging from animal experiments to extensive clinical trials supports a crucial role for respiratory viruses in the etiology and pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Viral infection of the upper respiratory mucosa initiates the whole cascade of events that finally leads to the development of acute otitis media as a complication. The pathogenesis of acute otitis media involves a complex interplay between viruses, bacteria, and the host's inflammatory response. In a substantial number of children, viruses can be found in the middle-ear fluid either alone or together with bacteria, and recent studies indicate that at least some viruses actively invade the middle ear. Viruses appear to enhance the inflammatory process in the middle ear, and they may significantly impair the resolution of otitis media. Prevention of the predisposing viral infection by vaccination against the major viruses would probably be the most effective way to prevent acute otitis media. Alternatively, early treatment of the viral infection with specific antiviral agents would also be effective in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  12. Outpatient diagnosis of acute chest pain in adults.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, John R; Oza, Rupal S

    2013-02-01

    Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further testing to rule in or out acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. The physician should consider patient characteristics and risk factors to help determine initial risk. Twelve-lead electrocardiography is typically the test of choice when looking for ST segment changes, new-onset left bundle branch block, presence of Q waves, and new-onset T wave inversions. For persons in whom the suspicion for ischemia is lower, other diagnoses to consider include chest wall pain/costochondritis (localized pain reproducible by palpation), gastroesophageal reflux disease (burning retrosternal pain, acid regurgitation, and a sour or bitter taste in the mouth), and panic disorder/anxiety state. Other less common but important diagnostic considerations include pneumonia (fever, egophony, and dullness to percussion), heart failure, pulmonary embolism (consider using the Wells criteria), acute pericarditis, and acute thoracic aortic dissection (acute chest or back pain with a pulse differential in the upper extremities). Persons with a higher likelihood of acute coronary syndrome should be referred to the emergency department or hospital.

  13. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  14. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  15. Lead toxicity in battery workers.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Saeeda Fouzia; Baloch, Malka

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Routes of exposure include contaminated air, water, soil, food and consumer products. Occupational exposure is the main cause of lead poisoning in the adults. Two cases of occupational lead poisoning in adult battery workers are hereby presented. Both male patients had initial non-specific symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain, fatigue and headache for 6 - 8 years. Later on, they developed psychosis, slurred speech, tremors of hands and initially underwent treatment for Parkinsonism and Wilson's disease because of clinical misdiagnosis. They were diagnosed with lead poisoning later and were treated successfully with lead chelator (CaNa2 EDTA).

  16. Lead toxicity in battery workers.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Saeeda Fouzia; Baloch, Malka

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Routes of exposure include contaminated air, water, soil, food and consumer products. Occupational exposure is the main cause of lead poisoning in the adults. Two cases of occupational lead poisoning in adult battery workers are hereby presented. Both male patients had initial non-specific symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain, fatigue and headache for 6 - 8 years. Later on, they developed psychosis, slurred speech, tremors of hands and initially underwent treatment for Parkinsonism and Wilson's disease because of clinical misdiagnosis. They were diagnosed with lead poisoning later and were treated successfully with lead chelator (CaNa2 EDTA). PMID:25518804

  17. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.S.S.; Lim, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    In the absence of a lead producers' association in Malaysia and the continued presence of illegal operators whose activities are confined to remelting of cable scraps and/or smelting of battery scraps using a shaft furnace, this paper relies heavily on the information obtained from Metal Reclamation Industries, Sdn. Bhd. -the only modern integrated lead smelter in the country. Consequently, the authors can only present a semiquantitative and general paper on secondary lead production in Malaysia covering the following areas: history; secondary lead smelting; raw material; products; quality control; pollution controls; and future of secondary lead production in Malaysia. They conclude that if Malaysia is to become a major secondary lead producer in the Asian region, the industry must: (1) import raw materials in the form of scrapped batteries; (2) develop or acquire new technology; (3) cope with changing pollution regulations, and (4) develop technical skills and efficient quality controls to meet new challenges. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  19. Undue Lead Absorption and Lead Poisoning in Children: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, J. S.

    The toxic effects of lead, a useful metal ubiquitous in the human environment, have long been known. The occupational hazards of lead poisoning were well established by the early 19th century, but plumbism in children caused by paint ingestion was not reported until the turn of the century. Even in 1924, the child was said to live in a "lead…

  20. Primary lead/secondary lead same genus -- different species

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, G.

    1993-05-01

    An attempt is made to offer a basic primer on the refining of lead metal and some of the attendant economics in achieving specification compliance. The construction of metal requirements with this knowledge in hand should result in economic rewards for both the consumer and producer. The unit differences between lead smelting from ore and recycled sources are explained.