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Sample records for acute left hemisphere

  1. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed patients within 48 hours of left hemisphere stroke to determine the frequency and distribution of types of right USN using cognitive testing and MRI imaging. The distribution of USN types was different from the previously reported distribution following acute right hemisphere stroke. In this left hemisphere stroke population, allocentric neglect was more frequent than egocentric neglect. PMID:17174459

  2. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed…

  3. Left Hemisphere Dysfunction and Left Hemisphere Overactivation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Raquel E.

    1978-01-01

    Reports two studies relating schizophrenia to functional brain asymmetry. The first study found support for the hypothesis of left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, occurring at a rather early stage of information processing; the second study, using eye directionality as a measure of hemispheric activation, found that schizophrenics…

  4. Mutism following left hemisphere infarction.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S; Bone, I

    1984-01-01

    A case of mutism due to left hemisphere infarction is described. Recovery revealed mild motor dysphasia. Review of the literature showed that the case resembles aphemia but is unique by virtue of its duration, and the absence of associated apraxia and paresis. Images PMID:6210346

  5. Civilisations of the Left Cerebral Hemisphere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel L.

    Research conducted by Tadanobu Tsunoda on auditory and visual sensation, designed to test and understand the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, is discussed. Tsunoda discovered that the Japanese responses to sounds by the left and the right sides of the brain are very different from the responses obtained from people from other countries. His…

  6. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  7. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  8. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2015-10-31

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  9. Associations and Dissociations of Transitive and Intransitive Gestures in Left and Right Hemisphere Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamenova, Vessela; Roy, Eric A.; Black, Sandra E.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated performance on pantomime and imitation of transitive and intransitive gestures in 80 stroke patients, 42 with left (LHD) and 38 with right (RHD) hemisphere damage. Patients were also categorized in two groups based on the time that has elapsed between their stroke and the apraxia assessment: acute-subacute (n = 42) and…

  10. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime.

  11. Do temporal processes underlie left hemisphere dominance in speech perception?

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2013-10-01

    It is not unusual to find it stated as a fact that the left hemisphere is specialized for the processing of rapid, or temporal aspects of sound, and that the dominance of the left hemisphere in the perception of speech can be a consequence of this specialization. In this review we explore the history of this claim and assess the weight of this assumption. We will demonstrate that instead of a supposed sensitivity of the left temporal lobe for the acoustic properties of speech, it is the right temporal lobe which shows a marked preference for certain properties of sounds, for example longer durations, or variations in pitch. We finish by outlining some alternative factors that contribute to the left lateralization of speech perception.

  12. Left face matching bias: right hemisphere dominance or scanning habits?

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Havard, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    A large body of work report a leftward bias in face processing. However, it is not clear whether this leftward bias purely reflects the dominance of the right hemisphere or is influenced by scanning habits developed by reading directions. Here, we report two experiments examining how well native readers of right to left Arabic scripts (Egyptians) could match (for identity) a target face that appeared with a companion to a line-up of 10 faces. There was a significant advantage for matching faces that appeared on the left. However, Experiment 2 found that the magnitude of this left face matching bias was almost three times weaker than the magnitude of the leftward bias shown by native readers of left to right English scripts (British). Accordingly, we suggest that the right hemisphere dominance for face processing underlies the leftward face perception bias, but with the interaction of scanning habits.

  13. Do temporal processes underlie left hemisphere dominance in speech perception?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    It is not unusual to find it stated as a fact that the left hemisphere is specialized for the processing of rapid, or temporal aspects of sound, and that the dominance of the left hemisphere in the perception of speech can be a consequence of this specialisation. In this review we explore the history of this claim and assess the weight of this assumption. We will demonstrate that instead of a supposed sensitivity of the left temporal lobe for the acoustic properties of speech, it is the right temporal lobe which shows a marked preference for certain properties of sounds, for example longer durations, or variations in pitch. We finish by outlining some alternative factors that contribute to the left lateralization of speech perception. PMID:24125574

  14. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  15. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval.

    PubMed

    Riès, Stéphanie K; Dronkers, Nina F; Knight, Robert T

    2016-04-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its subprocesses-lexical activation and lexical selection-and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation.

  16. Does Categorical Perception in the Left Hemisphere Depend on Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kevin J.; Wolff, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) refers to the influence of category knowledge on perception and is revealed by a superior ability to discriminate items across categories relative to items within a category. In recent years, the finding that CP is lateralized to the left hemisphere in adults has been interpreted as evidence for a kind of CP driven by…

  17. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  18. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  19. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R; Levine, Susan C; Small, Steven L

    2010-06-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left hemisphere stroke (n = 25) and in neurologically normal siblings (n = 27). In typically developing children, performance of a category fluency task elicits strong involvement of left frontal and lateral temporal regions and a lesser involvement of right hemisphere structures. In our cohort of atypically developing participants with early stroke, expressive and receptive language skills correlated with activity in the same left inferior frontal regions that support language processing in neurologically normal children. This was true independent of either the amount of brain injury or the extent that the injury was located in classical cortical language processing areas. Participants with bilateral activation in left and right superior temporal-inferior parietal regions had better language function than those with either predominantly left- or right-sided unilateral activation. The advantage conferred by left inferior frontal and bilateral temporal involvement demonstrated in our study supports a strong predisposition for typical neural language organization, despite an intervening injury, and argues against models suggesting that the right hemisphere fully accommodates language function following early injury.

  20. Left hemisphere specialization for the control of voluntary movement rate.

    PubMed

    Agnew, John A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Eden, Guinevere F

    2004-05-01

    Although persuasive behavioral evidence demonstrates the superior dexterity of the right hand in most people under a variety of conditions, little is known about the neural mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. As this lateralized superiority is most evident during the performance of repetitive, speeded movement, we used parametric rate variations to compare visually paced movement of the right and left hands. Twelve strongly right-handed subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment involving variable rate thumb movements. For movements of the right hand, contralateral rate-related activity changes were identified in the precentral gyrus, thalamus, and posterior putamen. For left-hand movements, activity was seen only in the contralateral precentral gyrus, consistent with the existence of a rate-sensitive motor control subsystem involving the left, but not the right, medial premotor corticostriatal loop in right-handed individuals. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere system is less skilled at controlling variable-rate movements and becomes maximally engaged at a lower movement rate without further modulation. These findings demonstrate that right- and left-hand movements engage different neural systems to control movement, even during a relatively simple thumb flexion task. Specialization of the left hemisphere corticostriatal system for dexterity is reflected in asymmetric mechanisms for movement rate control.

  1. Agents with left and right dominant hemispheres and quantum statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhov, Alexandr A.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiagent model illustrating the emergence of two different quantum statistics, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac, in a friendly population of individuals with the right-brain dominance and in a competitive population of individuals with the left-brain hemisphere dominance, correspondingly. Doing so, we adduce the arguments that Lefebvre’s “algebra of conscience” can be used in a natural way to describe decision-making strategies of agents simulating people with different brain dominance. One can suggest that the emergence of the two principal statistical distributions is able to illustrate different types of society organization and also to be used in order to simulate market phenomena and psychic disorders, when a switching of hemisphere dominance is involved.

  2. Left hemispheric advantage for numerical abilities in the bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Annette; von Fersen, Lorenzo; Güntürkün, Onur

    2005-02-28

    In a two-choice discrimination paradigm, a bottlenose dolphin discriminated relational dimensions between visual numerosity stimuli under monocular viewing conditions. After prior binocular acquisition of the task, two monocular test series with different number stimuli were conducted. In accordance with recent studies on visual lateralization in the bottlenose dolphin, our results revealed an overall advantage of the right visual field. Due to the complete decussation of the optic nerve fibers, this suggests a specialization of the left hemisphere for analysing relational features between stimuli as required in tests for numerical abilities. These processes are typically right hemisphere-based in other mammals (including humans) and birds. The present data provide further evidence for a general right visual field advantage in bottlenose dolphins for visual information processing. It is thus assumed that dolphins possess a unique functional architecture of their cerebral asymmetries.

  3. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  4. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  5. Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2011-02-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left hemisphere damage and healthy participants to ask whether the left inferior frontal gyrus is essential for syntactic processing. In a functional neuroimaging study, participants listened to spoken sentences that either contained a syntactically ambiguous or matched unambiguous phrase. Behavioural data on three tests of syntactic processing were subsequently collected. In controls, syntactic processing co-activated left hemisphere Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Activity in a left parietal cluster was sensitive to working memory demands in both patients and controls. Exploiting the variability in lesion location and performance in the patients, voxel-based correlational analyses showed that tissue integrity and neural activity-primarily in left Brodmann area 45 and posterior middle temporal gyrus-were correlated with preserved syntactic performance, but unlike the controls, patients were insensitive to syntactic preferences, reflecting their syntactic deficit. These results argue for the essential contribution of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic analysis and highlight the functional relationship between left Brodmann area 45 and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, suggesting that when this relationship breaks down, through damage to either region or to the connections between them, syntactic processing is impaired. On this view, the left inferior frontal gyrus may not itself be specialized for syntactic processing, but plays an essential role in the neural network that carries out syntactic computations.

  6. Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage

    PubMed Central

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J.; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left hemisphere damage and healthy participants to ask whether the left inferior frontal gyrus is essential for syntactic processing. In a functional neuroimaging study, participants listened to spoken sentences that either contained a syntactically ambiguous or matched unambiguous phrase. Behavioural data on three tests of syntactic processing were subsequently collected. In controls, syntactic processing co-activated left hemisphere Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Activity in a left parietal cluster was sensitive to working memory demands in both patients and controls. Exploiting the variability in lesion location and performance in the patients, voxel-based correlational analyses showed that tissue integrity and neural activity—primarily in left Brodmann area 45 and posterior middle temporal gyrus—were correlated with preserved syntactic performance, but unlike the controls, patients were insensitive to syntactic preferences, reflecting their syntactic deficit. These results argue for the essential contribution of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic analysis and highlight the functional relationship between left Brodmann area 45 and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, suggesting that when this relationship breaks down, through damage to either region or to the connections between them, syntactic processing is impaired. On this view, the left inferior frontal gyrus may not itself be specialized for syntactic processing, but plays an essential role in the neural network that carries out syntactic computations. PMID:21278407

  7. Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

  8. Selective atrophy of left hemisphere and frontal lobe of the brain in old men.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zu Y; Liu, Jing Z; Sahgal, Vinod; Wang, Bin; Yue, Guang H

    2005-02-01

    In this study, volumes of the whole brain, hemispheres, and frontal lobes of young and elderly adults were quantified by an automated method. Effects of age, sex, and side on absolute and relative volumes of the brain structures were evaluated. Compared with the young group, elderly participants showed a 15% volume loss in the whole brain and hemispheres, and a 22% volume loss in the frontal lobes. The relative volume of the left hemisphere in the elderly group decreased more than that of the right hemisphere. Elderly men showed significantly greater left hemisphere and left frontal lobe volume losses than did elderly women, indicating that the larger left hemisphere relative volume reduction is largely contributed to by selective atrophy of the left frontal lobe volume in elderly men. These results may reflect age- and sex-related functional deterioration in the left brain.

  9. Network dysfunction predicts speech production after left hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of multiple distributed brain networks, including the default mode, fronto-temporo-parietal, and cingulo-opercular networks, which mediate domain-general and task-specific processes during speech production after aphasic stroke. Methods: We conducted an observational functional MRI study to investigate the effects of a previous left hemisphere stroke on functional connectivity within and between distributed networks as patients described pictures. Study design included various baseline tasks, and we compared results to those of age-matched healthy participants performing the same tasks. We used independent component and psychophysiological interaction analyses. Results: Although activity within individual networks was not predictive of speech production, relative activity between networks was a predictor of both within-scanner and out-of-scanner language performance, over and above that predicted from lesion volume, age, sex, and years of education. Specifically, robust functional imaging predictors were the differential activity between the default mode network and both the left and right fronto-temporo-parietal networks, respectively activated and deactivated during speech. We also observed altered between-network functional connectivity of these networks in patients during speech production. Conclusions: Speech production is dependent on complex interactions among widely distributed brain networks, indicating that residual speech production after stroke depends on more than the restoration of local domain-specific functions. Our understanding of the recovery of function following focal lesions is not adequately captured by consideration of ipsilesional or contralesional brain regions taking over lost domain-specific functions, but is perhaps best considered as the interaction between what remains of domain-specific networks and domain-general systems that regulate behavior. PMID:26962070

  10. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  11. Semantic processing in the left versus right cerebral hemispheres following unilateral hand contractions.

    PubMed

    Turner, Casey E; Hahn, Michael E; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral hand contractions increase activation in the motor cortex of the contralateral hemisphere, providing a means to alter the relative degree of activation in the right hemisphere versus the left hemisphere through spreading activation. Prior research reported enhanced verbal creativity as measured by performance on remote associate problems in Hebrew from left-hand contractions (right-hemisphere activation). We sought to extend the previous findings to English problems and to homograph interpretation. In Experiment 1, unilateral hand contractions in fact altered performance on the English remote associates, but in the direction of improved performance following right-hand contractions and left-hemisphere activation. In Experiment 2, the probability of retrieving atypical interpretations of homographs with multiple meanings was least likely for left-hemisphere dominant strong right handers, but the hand contraction manipulation had no effect.

  12. Integration of Perceptual and Mnemonic Dysfunction: Sensory Auras Are Associated with Left Hemispheric Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Weinand, Martin E.; Labiner, David M.; Ahern, Geoffrey L.

    2001-10-01

    Memory function during the intracarotid amobarbital test was studied to test the hypothesis that left hemisphere memory impairment is associated with sensory auras. In a series of 37 patients undergoing preoperative evaluation for epilepsy surgery, the quantitative memory scores during amobarbital inactivation of right and left hemisphere were analyzed for correlation with habitual epileptic auras classified as either (a) experiential, forced emotion, or whole-body dysphoria or (b) sensory hallucinations and/or illusions or localized dysesthesias. The left hemispheric memory score impairment was significantly worse in association with auras classified as sensory hallucinations and/or illusions or localized dysesthesias compared with auras classified as experiential, forced emotion, or whole-body dysphoria (P < 0.05). This finding may assist in predicting left-sided hemispheric memory dysfunction in patients with seizures beginning as auras involving sensory material. The results suggest an integration of perceptual and mnemonic dysfunction in which sensory auras are associated with left hemispheric memory impairment.

  13. The left hemisphere learns what is right: Hemispatial reward learning depends on reinforcement learning processes in the contralateral hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly Crystal; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Orienting biases refer to consistent, trait-like direction of attention or locomotion toward one side of space. Recent studies suggest that such hemispatial biases may determine how well people memorize information presented in the left or right hemifield. Moreover, lesion studies indicate that learning rewarded stimuli in one hemispace depends on the integrity of the contralateral striatum. However, the exact neural and computational mechanisms underlying the influence of individual orienting biases on reward learning remain unclear. Because reward-based behavioural adaptation depends on the dopaminergic system and prediction error (PE) encoding in the ventral striatum, we hypothesized that hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine (DA) function may determine individual spatial biases in reward learning. To test this prediction, we acquired fMRI in 33 healthy human participants while they performed a lateralized reward task. Learning differences between hemispaces were assessed by presenting stimuli, assigned to different reward probabilities, to the left or right of central fixation, i.e. presented in the left or right visual hemifield. Hemispheric differences in DA function were estimated through differential fMRI responses to positive vs. negative feedback in the left vs. right ventral striatum, and a computational approach was used to identify the neural correlates of PEs. Our results show that spatial biases favoring reward learning in the right (vs. left) hemifield were associated with increased reward responses in the left hemisphere and relatively better neural encoding of PEs for stimuli presented in the right (vs. left) hemifield. These findings demonstrate that trait-like spatial biases implicate hemisphere-specific learning mechanisms, with individual differences between hemispheres contributing to reinforcing spatial biases.

  14. Qualitatively different organizational structures of lexical knowledge in the left and right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Drews, E

    1987-01-01

    The present study investigates and discusses the organization of lexical knowledge in the intact left and right hemisphere within the framework of hemisphere-specific cognitive modes of processing. Using a divided visual field technique, word pairs of concrete nouns had to be judged. Semantic relation was either intraconceptual (coordinates) or interconceptual (locative). The results suggest that the left hemisphere, lexical structures are predominantly based on intraconceptual relationships corresponding to its analytic sequential processing mechanism, whereas in the right hemisphere, lexical entries are exclusively associated by means of interconceptual relationships in accordance with its "gestalthaft" holistic processor.

  15. Hydrallazine alone in acute left ventricular failure

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. J. L.; McMichael, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    A patient presented with severe acute left ventricular failure and was treated with hydrallazine and oxygen alone. He made a rapid and full recovery as judged by clinical, radiological and blood gas evidence. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7329902

  16. Selective feeding in birds depends on combined processing in the left and right brain hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Prior, Helmut; Wilzeck, Christiane

    2008-01-15

    During visually guided foraging birds tend to select certain types of food from a mixed diet. This selectivity is ecologically relevant. During scanning for food birds spot the surroundings mainly with the monocular lateral visual field of the one or other eye and then control pecking with their small binocular frontal visual field. As the visual systems of the avian left and right brain hemisphere are supposed to work largely independently in the short term, the problem arises of how the avian brain handles a task that requires coordinated activity of the left and right brain hemisphere for efficient processing. Here we report that chicks exhibit strong selective feeding when both of the brain hemispheres are involved. With the left or right hemisphere alone selectivity is reduced or completely absent. Our findings reveal a marked qualitative difference between unilateral and bilateral processing. They highlight an important but so far unexplored selection pressure for the evolution of hemispheric cooperation.

  17. Lack of hemispheric dominance for consciousness in acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cucchiara, B; Kasner, S; Wolk, D; Lyden, P; Knappertz, V; Ashwood, T; Odergren, T; Nordlund, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous reports have suggested left hemispheric dominance for maintaining consciousness, although there is controversy over this claim. Objective: To compare early impairment of level of consciousness between patients with right and left hemispheric stroke. Methods: Data from 564 patients with ischaemic stroke enrolled in the placebo arm of a trial of a putative neuroprotectant were analysed. All patients had major hemispheric stroke with cortical dysfunction, visual field deficit, and limb weakness, with symptom onset within 12 hours of enrolment. Patients were prospectively evaluated on a predefined scale (1–6; 1 = fully awake, higher scores representing greater impairment) to measure level of consciousness at multiple time points over the initial 24 hours after presentation. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) stroke scale score at presentation and infarct volume at 30 days were determined. Results: Some degree of impairment in level of consciousness was observed in 409 of the 564 patients (73%). Median maximum sedation score was 2 for both right and left hemispheric stroke (p = 0.91). Mean sedation score over 24 hours was 1.5 for both right and left stroke (p = 0.75). There was no difference between level of consciousness scores in right and left stroke at any individual time point during the 24 hour monitoring period. No association between side and impairment in level of consciousness was seen after adjustment for stroke severity and infarct volume. Conclusions: In contrast to previous reports, there was no evidence for hemispheric dominance for consciousness in the setting of a major hemispheric stroke. PMID:12810773

  18. Remembering 1500 Pictures: The Right Hemisphere Remembers Better than the Left

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Overvoll, Morten; Ole Steinsvik, Oddmar

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the right hemisphere would be superior to the left hemisphere in remembering having seen a specific picture before, given its superiority in perceptually encoding specific aspects of visual form. A large set of pictures (N=1500) of animals, human faces, artifacts, landscapes, and art paintings were shown for 2 s in central…

  19. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  20. The Left-Right Hemisphere Model for Information Processing: Possible Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenzer, Ronald L.

    The paper, part of an all-day workshop, reviews research and theory on left-right hemisphere information processing and psychophysiological models on the functional organization of the brain. Hemisphericity is considered in terms of language, cognitive styles, role in education, verbal and non-verbal processing, affective concomitants, and…

  1. Left and Right Memory Revisited: Electrophysiological Investigations of Hemispheric Asymmetries at Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Hemispheric differences in the use of memory retrieval cues were examined in a continuous recognition design, using visual half-field presentation to bias the processing of test words. A speeded recognition task revealed general accuracy and response time advantages for items whose test presentation was biased to the left hemisphere. A second…

  2. Beyond hemispheric dominance: brain regions underlying the joint lateralization of language and arithmetic to the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific cerebral subregions? Or is it merely coincidental? To shed light on this issue, we performed a "colateralization analysis" over 209 healthy subjects: We investigated whether normal variations in the degree of left hemispheric asymmetry in areas involved in sentence listening and reading are mirrored in the asymmetry of areas involved in mental arithmetic. Within the language network, a region-of-interest analysis disclosed partially dissociated patterns of lateralization, inconsistent with an overall "dominance" model. Only two of these areas presented a lateralization during sentence listening and reading which correlated strongly with the lateralization of two regions active during calculation. Specifically, the profile of asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal sulcus during sentence processing covaried with the asymmetry of calculation-induced activation in the intraparietal sulcus, and a similar colateralization linked the middle frontal gyrus with the superior posterior parietal lobule. Given recent neuroimaging results suggesting a late emergence of hemispheric asymmetries for symbolic arithmetic during childhood, we speculate that these colateralizations might constitute developmental traces of how the acquisition of linguistic symbols affects the cerebral organization of the arithmetic network.

  3. Measurements of right / left hemisphere activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy during incongruent Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Fukuhara, Michihiro; Yokouchi, Hisatake; Miki, Mitsunori; Yoshimi, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The human brain automatically processes information at multiple sites when recognizing various types of information at the same time, such as color, shape, etc. Cognitive conflict may occur when conflicting information is recognized at the same time. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is often used to examine the brain activity associated with this phenomenon. To examine activation of the visual system, we measured brain activity in the right / left hemispheres during cognitive conflict in the Stroop test. Consistent with the results reported previously by Ehlis, the brain activity in the near inferior-frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere was increased during the incongruent task. The brain activity also increased in the near inferior-frontal gyrus of the right hemisphere during the incongruent task. These results indicated that fNIRS can be used to detect brain activity in the inferior-frontal gyrus of the right / left hemispheres during the Stroop test.

  4. A Fluent Language Disorder Following Antepartum Left-Hemisphere Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Heidi M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the language development in a left-handed young child with a left middle cerebral artery infarction. Patterns of development observed between 36 and 60 months of age are described as a transient jargon or fluent aphasia possibly resulting from initial reliance on an uninjured right hemisphere. (Author/DB)

  5. The right hemisphere supports but does not replace left hemisphere auditory function in patients with persisting aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Gareth R.; Penny, William D.; Iverson, Paul; Woodhead, Zoe V. J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Leff, Alexander P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm to investigate speech processing in stroke patients with auditory comprehension deficits and age-matched control subjects. We probed connectivity within and between the two temporal lobes in response to phonemic (different word) and acoustic (same word) oddballs using dynamic causal modelling. We found stronger modulation of self-connections as a function of phonemic differences for control subjects versus aphasics in left primary auditory cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus. The patients showed stronger modulation of connections from right primary auditory cortex to right superior temporal gyrus (feed-forward) and from left primary auditory cortex to right primary auditory cortex (interhemispheric). This differential connectivity can be explained on the basis of a predictive coding theory which suggests increased prediction error and decreased sensitivity to phonemic boundaries in the aphasics’ speech network in both hemispheres. Within the aphasics, we also found behavioural correlates with connection strengths: a negative correlation between phonemic perception and an inter-hemispheric connection (left superior temporal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus), and positive correlation between semantic performance and a feedback connection (right superior temporal gyrus to right primary auditory cortex). Our results suggest that aphasics with impaired speech comprehension have less veridical speech representations in both temporal lobes, and rely more on the right hemisphere auditory regions, particularly right superior temporal gyrus, for processing speech. Despite this presumed compensatory shift in network connectivity, the patients remain significantly impaired. PMID:23715097

  6. The right hemisphere supports but does not replace left hemisphere auditory function in patients with persisting aphasia.

    PubMed

    Teki, Sundeep; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Iverson, Paul; Woodhead, Zoe V J; Griffiths, Timothy D; Leff, Alexander P

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we used magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm to investigate speech processing in stroke patients with auditory comprehension deficits and age-matched control subjects. We probed connectivity within and between the two temporal lobes in response to phonemic (different word) and acoustic (same word) oddballs using dynamic causal modelling. We found stronger modulation of self-connections as a function of phonemic differences for control subjects versus aphasics in left primary auditory cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus. The patients showed stronger modulation of connections from right primary auditory cortex to right superior temporal gyrus (feed-forward) and from left primary auditory cortex to right primary auditory cortex (interhemispheric). This differential connectivity can be explained on the basis of a predictive coding theory which suggests increased prediction error and decreased sensitivity to phonemic boundaries in the aphasics' speech network in both hemispheres. Within the aphasics, we also found behavioural correlates with connection strengths: a negative correlation between phonemic perception and an inter-hemispheric connection (left superior temporal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus), and positive correlation between semantic performance and a feedback connection (right superior temporal gyrus to right primary auditory cortex). Our results suggest that aphasics with impaired speech comprehension have less veridical speech representations in both temporal lobes, and rely more on the right hemisphere auditory regions, particularly right superior temporal gyrus, for processing speech. Despite this presumed compensatory shift in network connectivity, the patients remain significantly impaired.

  7. Brain activity underlying tool-related and imitative skills after major left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Martin, Markus; Nitschke, Kai; Beume, Lena; Dressing, Andrea; Bühler, Laura E; Ludwig, Vera M; Mader, Irina; Rijntjes, Michel; Kaller, Christoph P; Weiller, Cornelius

    2016-05-01

    Apraxia is a debilitating cognitive motor disorder that frequently occurs after left hemisphere stroke and affects tool-associated and imitative skills. However, the severity of the apraxic deficits varies even across patients with similar lesions. This variability raises the question whether regions outside the left hemisphere network typically associated with cognitive motor tasks in healthy subjects are of additional functional relevance. To investigate this hypothesis, we explored regions where functional magnetic resonance imaging activity is associated with better cognitive motor performance in patients with left hemisphere ischaemic stroke. Thirty-six patients with chronic (>6 months) large left hemisphere infarcts (age ± standard deviation, 60 ± 12 years, 29 male) and 29 control subjects (age ± standard deviation, 72 ± 7, 15 male) were first assessed behaviourally outside the scanner with tests for actual tool use, pantomime and imitation of tool-use gestures, as well as for meaningless gesture imitation. Second, functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was registered during the passive observation of videos showing tool-associated actions. Voxel-wise linear regression analyses were used to identify areas where behavioural performance was correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging activity. Furthermore, lesions were delineated on the magnetic resonance imaging scans for voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. The analyses revealed two sets of regions where functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was associated with better performance in the clinical tasks. First, activity in left hemisphere areas thought to mediate cognitive motor functions in healthy individuals (i.e. activity within the putative 'healthy' network) was correlated with better scores. Within this network, tool-associated tasks were mainly related to activity in supramarginal gyrus and ventral premotor cortex, while meaningless gesture imitation depended more on the

  8. When Left Means Right: An Explanation of the Left Cradling Bias in Terms of Right Hemisphere Specializations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Victoria J.; Todd, Brenda K.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that 70-85% of women and girls show a bias to hold infants, or dolls, to the left side of their body. This bias is not matched in males (e.g. deChateau, Holmberg & Winberg, 1978; Todd, 1995). This study tests an explanation of cradling preferences in terms of hemispheric specialization for the perception of facial…

  9. LEFT VERSUS RIGHT HEMISPHERE DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN CONNECTIVITY: 4-TESLA HARDI TRACTOGRAPHY IN 569 TWINS.

    PubMed

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Dennis, Emily L; Toga, Arthur W; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Hickie, Ian B; Thompson, Paul M

    2012-05-01

    Diffusion imaging can map anatomical connectivity in the living brain, offering new insights into fundamental questions such as how the left and right brain hemispheres differ. Anatomical brain asymmetries are related to speech and language abilities, but less is known about left/right hemisphere differences in brain wiring. To assess this, we scanned 457 young adults (age 23.4±2.0 SD years) and 112 adolescents (age 12-16) with 4-Tesla 105-gradient high-angular resolution diffusion imaging. We extracted fiber tracts throughout the brain with a Hough transform method. A 70×70 connectivity matrix was created, for each subject, based on the proportion of fibers intersecting 70 cortical regions. We identified significant differences in the proportions of fibers intersecting left and right hemisphere cortical regions. The degree of asymmetry in the connectivity matrices varied with age, as did the asymmetry in network topology measures such as the small-world effect.

  10. Left hemisphere and male sex dominance of cerebral hemiatrophy (Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Unal, Ozkan; Tombul, Temel; Cirak, Bayram; Anlar, Omer; Incesu, Lütfi; Kayan, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Although radiological findings of cerebral hemiatrophy (Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome) are well known, there is no systematic study about the gender and the affected side in this syndrome. Brain images in 26 patients (mean aged 11) with cerebral hemiatrophy were retrospectively reviewed. Nineteen patients (73.5%) were male and seven patients (26.5%) were female. Left hemisphere involvement was seen in 18 patients (69.2%) and right hemisphere involvement was seen in eight patients (30.8%). We conclude that male gender and left side involvement are frequent in cerebral hemiatrophy disease.

  11. Left and right hemispheric contributions to discourse coherence and cohesion.

    PubMed

    Bloom, R L; Borod, J C; Santschi-Haywood, C; Pick, L H; Obler, L K

    1996-11-01

    Linguistic coherence and cohesion were examined in patients with unilateral left brain damage (LBD), unilateral right brain damage (RBD), and normal control (NC) right-handed adults. Groups were matched for age, gender, occupation, and education. Brain-damaged groups did not differ for months post onset or intrahemispheric lesion site. Contrary to previous literature, results indicated that LBDs, all of whom were aphasic, demonstrated impairments in coherence but not cohesion, relative to NCs and RBDs. Surprisingly, among RBDs, overall coherence and cohesion were spared. When the relationship between measures of coherence and cohesion was examined, there were few significant correlations and no systematic patterns. Results support the notion that coherence and cohesion represent coexisting and independent linguistic systems. Further, the findings suggest that descriptions of discourse integrity need to account for the perspective of both the speaker and listener.

  12. The role of the right hemisphere in semantic control: A case-series comparison of right and left hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hannah E.; Henshall, Lauren; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Semantic control processes guide conceptual retrieval so that we are able to focus on non-dominant associations and features when these are required for the task or context, yet the neural basis of semantic control is not fully understood. Neuroimaging studies have emphasised the role of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in controlled retrieval, while neuropsychological investigations of semantic control deficits have almost exclusively focussed on patients with left-sided damage (e.g., patients with semantic aphasia, SA). Nevertheless, activation in fMRI during demanding semantic tasks typically extends to right IFG. To investigate the role of the right hemisphere (RH) in semantic control, we compared nine RH stroke patients with 21 left-hemisphere SA patients, 11 mild SA cases and 12 healthy, aged-matched controls on semantic and executive tasks, plus experimental tasks that manipulated semantic control in paradigms particularly sensitive to RH damage. RH patients had executive deficits to parallel SA patients but they performed well on standard semantic tests. Nevertheless, multimodal semantic control deficits were found in experimental tasks involving facial emotions and the ‘summation’ of meaning across multiple items. On these tasks, RH patients showed effects similar to those in SA cases – multimodal deficits that were sensitive to distractor strength and cues and miscues, plus increasingly poor performance in cyclical matching tasks which repeatedly probed the same set of concepts. Thus, despite striking differences in single-item comprehension, evidence presented here suggests semantic control is bilateral, and disruption of this component of semantic cognition can be seen following damage to either hemisphere. PMID:26945505

  13. Left-side infant holding: a test of the hemispheric arousal-attentional hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Harris, L J; Almerigi, J B; Carbary, T J; Fogel, T G

    2001-01-01

    When asked to hold a young infant in their arms, most adults hold on the left side (Harris, 1997). In a prior study, we found the same bias when we asked adults merely to imagine holding an infant in their arms (Harris, Almerigi, & Kirsch, 1999). It has been hypothesized that the left-side bias is the product of right-hemisphere arousal accompanying certain aspects of the act, causing attention to be driven to the contralateral, or left, side of personal space. Left-side holding, whether actual or imagined, thus would be consistent with the direction to which the holder's attention has been endogenously directed. We tested this hypothesis by giving 250 college students the "imagine-holding" task and then, as an independent measure of lateralized hemispheric arousal, a 34-item Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). On the "imagine" test, a significant majority reported a left-side hold, and, on the CFT, left-side holders had a significantly stronger left-hemispace bias than right-side holders, although both left- and right side holders had left-hemispace CFT biases. The results thus support the attentional-arousal hypothesis but indicate that other factors are contributing as well.

  14. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species.

  15. Reorganization of the cerebro-cerebellar network of language production in patients with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Lidzba, K; Wilke, M; Staudt, M; Krägeloh-Mann, I; Grodd, W

    2008-09-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess if the language network is reorganized completely in these patients, i.e. including also cerebellar language functions. As compared to a group of controls matched for age, sex, and verbal IQ, the patients recruited an area not in the right but in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The extent of laterality of the cerebellar activation correlated significantly with the laterality of the frontal activation. We suggest that the developing brain reacts to early focal lesions in the left hemisphere with a mirror-image organization of the entire cerebro-cerebellar network engaged in speech production.

  16. Research Synthesis on Right and Left Hemispheres: We Think with Both Sides of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre

    1983-01-01

    Simplified interpretations of brain function portraying rationality solely in the left hemisphere and creativity solely in the right are incorrect, but the two sides of the brain do differ in important ways. Conclusive implications of brain research cannot yet be drawn for educational practices, but certain inferences can be made. (Author/JM)

  17. Production of Korean Idiomatic Utterances Following Left- and Right-Hemisphere Damage: Acoustic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Seung-yun; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the effects of left- and right-hemisphere damage (LHD and RHD) on the production of idiomatic or literal expressions utilizing acoustic analyses. Method: Twenty-one native speakers of Korean with LHD or RHD and in a healthy control (HC) group produced 6 ditropically ambiguous (idiomatic or literal) sentences in 2…

  18. Left and Right Hemisphere Brain Functions and Symbolic vs. Spontaneous Communication Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Ross

    Recent findings on the communicative functions of the left versus the right hemisphere of the brain may suggest that there is a distinction between the intentional use of symbols for the sending of specific messages or propositions (language, signing, pantomime) and spontaneous expressive behaviors that signal their meaning through a natural…

  19. Mental Number Line Disruption in a Right-Neglect Patient after a Left-Hemisphere Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pia, Lorenzo; Corazzini, Luca Latini; Folegatti, Alessia; Gindri, Patrizia; Cauda, Franco

    2009-01-01

    A right-neglect patient with focal left-hemisphere damage to the posterior superior parietal lobe was assessed for numerical knowledge and tested on the bisection of numerical intervals and visual lines. The semantic and verbal knowledge of numbers was preserved, whereas the performance in numerical tasks that strongly emphasize the visuo-spatial…

  20. Knowledge and Strategies for Processing Lexical Metaphor after Right or Left Hemisphere Brain Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Connie A.

    1990-01-01

    The study assessed how unilateral right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) affects processing of metaphoric aspects of word meaning. RHD stroke patients (N=25) performed similarly to left-brain-damaged and normal subjects in the automatic condition and when provided with processing strategies. Both brain-damaged groups had difficulty developing…

  1. Hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action stem from a left hemispheric system of conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Helmich, I; Lausberg, H

    2014-10-01

    The present study addresses the previously discussed controversy on the contribution of the right and left cerebral hemispheres to the production and conceptualization of spontaneous hand movements and gestures. Although it has been shown that each hemisphere contains the ability to produce hand movements, results of left hemispherically lateralized motor functions challenge the view of a contralateral hand movement production system. To examine hemispheric specialization in hand movement and gesture production, ten right-handed participants were tachistoscopically presented pictures of everyday life actions. The participants were asked to demonstrate with their hands, but without speaking what they had seen on the drawing. Two independent blind raters evaluated the videotaped hand movements and gestures employing the Neuropsychological Gesture Coding System. The results showed that the overall frequency of right- and left-hand movements is equal independent of stimulus lateralization. When hand movements were analyzed considering their Structure, the presentation of the action stimuli to the left hemisphere resulted in more hand movements with a phase structure than the presentation to the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the presentation to the left hemisphere resulted in more right and left-hand movements with a phase structure, whereas the presentation to the right hemisphere only increased contralateral left-hand movements with a phase structure as compared to hand movements without a phase structure. Gestures that depict action were primarily displayed in response to stimuli presented in the right visual field than in the left one. The present study shows that both hemispheres possess the faculty to produce hand movements in response to action stimuli. However, the left hemisphere dominates the production of hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action. We therefore conclude that hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that

  2. TIMING VARIABILITY OF REACH TRAJECTORIES IN LEFT VERSUS RIGHT HEMISPHERE STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Gera, Geetanjali; Scholz, John Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated trajectory timing variability in right and left stroke survivors and healthy controls when reaching to a centrally located target under a fixed target condition or when the target could suddenly change position after reach onset. Trajectory timing variability was investigated with a novel method based on dynamic programming that identifies the steps required to time warp one trial’s acceleration time series to match that of a reference trial. Greater trajectory timing variability of both hand and joint motions was found for the paretic arm of stroke survivors compared to their non-paretic arm or either arm of controls. Overall, the non-paretic left arm of the LCVA group and the left arm of controls had higher timing variability than the non-paretic right arm of the RCVA group and right arm of controls. The shoulder and elbow joint warping costs were consistent predictors of the hand’s warping cost for both left and right arms only in the LCVA group, whereas the relationship between joint and hand warping costs was relatively weak in control subjects and less consistent across arms in the RCVA group. These results suggest that the left hemisphere may be more involved in trajectory timing, although the results may be confounded by skill differences between the arms in these right hand dominant participants. On the other hand, arm differences did not appear to be related to differences in targeting error. The paretic left arm of the RCVA exhibited greater trajectory timing variability than the paretic right arm of the LCVA group. This difference was highly correlated with the level of impairment of the arms. Generally, the effect of target uncertainty resulted in slightly greater trajectory timing variability for all participants. The results are discussed in light of previous studies of hemispheric differences in the control of reaching, in particular, left hemisphere specialization for temporal control of reaching movements. PMID:21920508

  3. Illness Denial in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Function of Left Hemisphere Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Mamo, David C.; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired illness awareness or anosognosia is a common, but poorly understood feature of schizophrenia that contributes to medication nonadherence and poor treatment outcomes. Here we present a functional imaging study to measure brain activity at the moment of illness denial. To accomplish this, participants with schizophrenia (n = 18) with varying degrees of illness awareness were confronted with their illness beliefs while undergoing functional MRI. To link structure with function, we explored the relationships among impaired illness awareness and brain activity during the illness denial task with cortical thickness (CT). Impaired illness awareness was associated with increased brain activity in the left temporoparietooccipital junction (TPO) and left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) at the moment of illness denial. Brain activity in the left mPFC appeared to be a function of participants’ degree of self-reflectiveness, while the activity in the left TPO was associated with cortical thinning in this region and more specific to illness denial. Participants with impaired illness awareness had slower response times to illness related stimuli than those with good illness awareness. Increased left hemisphere brain activity in association with illness denial is consistent with the literature in other neuropsychiatric conditions attributing anosognosia or impaired illness awareness to left hemisphere dominance. The TPO and mPFC may represent putative targets for non-invasive treatment interventions, such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation. PMID:25209949

  4. Whose side are you on: does serotonin preferentially activate the right hemisphere and norepinephrine the left?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) innervate both the left and right hemispheres of the brain, but whether they affect lateralization of function is unknown. This paper concisely examines evidence that these two neurotransmitters differentially affect the two hemispheres, and puts forth the novel hypothesis 5-HT preferentially activates the right hemisphere (RH) and NE the left hemisphere (LH). The principal lines of evidence comprise studies of: (1) 5-HT and NE level measurement, (2) receptor binding, (3) functional brain imaging, (4) dichotic listening, and (5) electroencephalography and evoked potentials. In assessing these 5 lines, emphasis is placed on studies of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the 5-HT and NE systems. While all of the data do not support the hypothesis, they are generally consistent with it, or a variant of the hypothesis that there is a bias toward 5-HT preferentially activating a majority of brain areas or functions in the RH, and NE a majority of LH areas or functions. If this hypothesis, or a variant of it, is correct, it may be relevant to understanding the physiological basis of neuropsychiatric disorders that could involve dysfunction in brain monoaminergic systems, as well as understanding potential lateralization of the effects of drugs that act on these systems.

  5. Right and Left Hemisphere Cooperation for Drawing Predictive and Coherence Inferences during Normal Story Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Beeman, Mark Jung; Bowden, Edward M.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, healthy young participants listened to stories promoting inferences and named inference-related test words presented to the right visual field-Left Hemisphere (rvf-LH) or to the left visual field-Right Hemisphere (lvf-RH). Participants showed priming for predictive inferences only for target words presented to the lvf-RH; in contrast, they showed priming for coherence inferences only for target words presented to the rvf-LH. These results, plus the fact that patients with RH brain damage have difficulty drawing coherence inferences and do not show inference-related priming, suggest that information capable of supporting predictive inferences is more likely to be initially activated in the RH than the LH, but following coherence breaks these concepts (now coherence inferences) are completed in the LH. These results are consistent with the theory that the RH engages in relatively coarse semantic coding, which aids full comprehension of discourse. PMID:10716864

  6. Left Inferior Frontal Cortex and Syntax: Function, Structure and Behaviour in Patients with Left Hemisphere Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J.; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left…

  7. Marc Dax and the discovery of the lateralisation of language in the left cerebral hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Manning, L; Thomas-Antérion, C

    2011-12-01

    In 1836, Marc Dax presented a revolutionary conclusion based on both his clinical observations and reports from the literature: the localisation of language in the left hemisphere. Twenty-seven years later, his son, Gustave Dax, extended and enriched his work. Their involvement in 19th century neuropsychology is impressive and recognition should have been considerable. However, according to the vast majority of historians of neurology, neuropsychology and aphasiology, the priority in establishing the dominance of the left brain hemisphere for speech goes to Paul Broca in an undivided way. Is it possible that Marc Dax's and his son, Gustave Dax's works were entirely unknown? Were they known and utterly forgotten? Were they ignored? How did we get to know that they existed? The aim of the present paper is to try to answer those and other questions and to demonstrate that there is abundance of data pointing out that the priority of the discovery of left hemisphere dominance for speech ought to be, at least, shared by Dax and Broca.

  8. Ipsilesional trajectory control is related to contralesional arm paralysis after left hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Kathleen Y; Schaefer, Sydney Y; Knight, Robert T; Adair, John; Magalhaes, Alvaro; Sadek, Joseph; Sainburg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    We have recently shown ipsilateral dynamic deficits in trajectory control are present in left hemisphere damaged (LHD) patients with paresis, as evidenced by impaired modulation of torque amplitude as response amplitude increases. The purpose of the current study is to determine if these ipsilateral deficits are more common with contralateral hemiparesis and greater damage to the motor system, as evidenced by structural imaging. Three groups of right-handed subjects (healthy controls, LHD stroke patients with and without upper extremity paresis) performed single-joint elbow movements of varying amplitudes with their left arm in the left hemispace. Only the paretic group demonstrated dynamic deficits characterized by decreased modulation of peak torque (reflected by peak acceleration changes) as response amplitude increased. These results could not be attributed to lesion volume or peak velocity as neither variable differed across the groups. However, the paretic group had damage to a larger number of areas within the motor system than the non-paretic group suggesting that such damage increases the probability of ipsilesional deficits in dynamic control for modulating torque amplitude after left hemisphere damage.

  9. Contralateral somatosensory neglect in unrestrained rats after lesion of the parietal cortex of the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Holm, S; Mogensen, J

    1993-01-01

    Three groups of rats were studied: a sham operated control group and two groups in which the parietal "association" cortex had been ablated in the left and right hemispheres respectively. Twenty-four hours and 8 days postoperatively the animals were subjected to a test in which their responsiveness to lateralized somatosensory stimuli was measured while the rats were left unrestrained. Additionally, an activity cage locomotion test followed immediately upon both tests of somatosensory responsiveness. Twenty-four hours postoperatively the animals in which the parietal cortex of the left hemisphere had been ablated demonstrated a significant contralateral neglect of somatosensory stimuli while the group in which the right parietal cortex had been ablated only exhibited a non-significant tendency to a contralateral neglect. While the activity cage test did not reveal an overall difference in the activity level of the three groups the latency to initiate locomotion in the activity cage was found to be significantly decreased in both ablated groups. Eight days postoperatively both ablated groups appeared fully recovered. It is concluded that ablations of the parietal "association" cortex of the rat are associated with a syndrome of contralateral somatosensory neglect that can even be demonstrated if the animals are left unrestrained during testing.

  10. Visconti and Fellini: from left social neorealism to right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Assal, Gil; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2007-01-01

    The acclaimed Italian directors Luchino Visconti and Federico Fellini had very different life trajectories that led them to become major figures in the history of cinema. Similarities, however, can be found in their debuts with the neorealist genre, their personalities, creative styles and politicocultural involvement, and ultimately in the neurological disease that struck them at the end of their careers. Both suffered a right-hemispheric stroke that left them hemiplegic on the left side. We review their life and career to put that event into perspective, and then discuss its aftermath for both artists in the light of our current knowledge of right-hemispheric functions. Visconti showed a tremendous resilience following the accident and managed to direct several films and plays as an infirm, whereas Fellini had to put an end to his career but still was able to display his talents to the neuropsychologists that treated him. A speculative account is given of the links between right-hemispheric symptomatology and the premorbid personality of these highly prolific patients.

  11. To the other side of the neglected brain: the hyperexcitability of the left intact hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Koch, Giacomo; Veniero, Domenica; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The human brain is characterized by the lateralization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest the deployment of visuospatial attention is controlled by a frontoparietal network, with a right hemisphere dominance. Among cortical areas included in the network, the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has been proposed to be a crucial node and has also been implicated on clinical grounds. Here, the authors provide an overview of the existent literature giving evidence to a functional asymmetry of the parietal cortices in directing visuospatial attention, focusing on those studies seeking to characterize the causal role of PPC, applying transcranial magnetic stimulation and its combination with imaging techniques, such as electroencephalography and fMRI. First, the role of PPC and how this region exerts its control over remote areas of both hemispheres is discussed. The second part discusses studies involving neglect patients shedding light on the complex interplay between left and right PPC, strongly supporting the hemispheric rivalry theory. Finally, studies demonstrating changes of neglect disorders following the manipulation of the unaffected hemisphere activation will be discussed.

  12. Hemispheric specificity for proprioception: Postural control of standing following right or left hemisphere damage during ankle tendon vibration.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2015-11-02

    Right brain damage (RBD) following stroke often causes significant postural instability. In standing (without vision), patients with RBD are more unstable than those with left brain damage (LBD). We hypothesised that this postural instability would relate to the cortical integration of proprioceptive afferents. The aim of this study was to use tendon vibration to investigate whether these changes were specific to the paretic or non-paretic limbs. 14 LBD, 12 RBD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included. Displacement of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) was recorded during quiet standing, then during 3 vibration conditions (80 Hz - 20s): paretic limb, non-paretic limb (left and right limbs for control subjects) and bilateral. Vibration was applied separately to the peroneal and Achilles tendons. Mean antero-posterior position of the CoP, variability and velocity were calculated before (4s), during and after (24s) vibration. For all parameters, the strongest perturbation was during Achilles vibrations. The Achilles non-paretic condition induced a larger backward displacement than the Achilles paretic condition. This condition caused specific behaviour on the velocity: the LBD group was perturbed at the onset of the vibrations, but gradually recovered their stability; the RBD group was significantly perturbed thereafter. After bilateral Achilles vibration, RBD patients required the most time to restore initial posture. The reduction in use of information from the paretic limb may be a central strategy to deal with risk-of-fall situations such as during Achilles vibration. The postural behaviour is profoundly altered by lesions of the right hemisphere when proprioception is perturbed.

  13. Differential Impact of Posterior Lesions in the Left and Right Hemisphere on Visual Category Learning and Generalization to Contrast Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langguth, Berthold; Juttner, Martin; Landis, Theodor; Regard, Marianne; Rentschler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Hemispheric differences in the learning and generalization of pattern categories were explored in two experiments involving sixteen patients with unilateral posterior, cerebral lesions in the left (LH) or right (RH) hemisphere. In each experiment participants were first trained to criterion in a supervised learning paradigm to categorize a set of…

  14. Prosodic facilitation in the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in subjects with left and right hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Walker, J P; Fongemie, K; Daigle, T

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if prosody facilitates the comprehension of sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities in control, and left (LHD) and right hemisphere damaged (RHD) subjects. To test for effects of prosodic facilitation, sentences were created where prosodic boundaries coincided with (cooperating), were absent (baseline), or conflicted (conflicting) with syntactic boundaries in three response times (RTs) experiments. Despite differences in overall RTs and response accuracy for each group, all three groups responded faster and more accurately to sentences in the cooperating than in the baseline and conflicting conditions across experiments, indicating that prosody facilitates syntactic parsing in brain-damaged subjects just as it does with normal control subjects. Results are discussed in relation to psycholinguistic theories of syntactic parsing and neurolinguistic theories of hemispheric specialization in processing the acoustic properties of prosodic structures.

  15. The differential effects of acute right- vs. left-sided vestibular failure on brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Becker-Bense, Sandra; Dieterich, Marianne; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bartenstein, Peter; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The human vestibular system is represented in the brain bilaterally, but it has functional asymmetries, i.e., a dominance of ipsilateral pathways and of the right hemisphere in right-handers. To determine if acute right- or left-sided unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN) is associated with differential patterns of brain metabolism in areas representing the vestibular network and the visual-vestibular interaction, patients with acute VN (right n = 9; left n = 13) underwent resting state (18)F-FDG PET once in the acute phase and once 3 months later after central vestibular compensation. The contrast acute vs. chronic phase showed signal differences in contralateral vestibular areas and the inverse contrast in visual cortex areas, both more pronounced in VN right. In VN left additional regions were found in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis bilaterally, accentuated in severe cases. In general, signal changes appeared more pronounced in patients with more severe vestibular deficits. Acute phase PET data of patients compared to that of age-matched healthy controls disclosed similarities to these patterns, thus permitting the interpretation that the signal changes in vestibular temporo-parietal areas reflect signal increases, and in visual areas, signal decreases. These data imply that brain activity in the acute phase of right- and left-sided VN exhibits different compensatory patterns, i.e., the dominant ascending input is shifted from the ipsilateral to the contralateral pathways, presumably due to the missing ipsilateral vestibular input. The visual-vestibular interaction patterns were preserved, but were of different prominence in each hemisphere and more pronounced in patients with right-sided failure and more severe vestibular deficits.

  16. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Oral Reading in Acute Left Hemispheric Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutman, Lauren L.; Newhart, Melisssa; Davis, Cameron L.; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral reading is a complex skill involving the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic processes. Functional imaging studies with nonimpaired adult readers have identified a widely distributed network of frontal, inferior parietal, posterior temporal, and occipital brain regions involved in the task. However, while functional…

  17. Mapping nouns and finite verbs in left hemisphere tumors: a direct electrical stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Adrià; Spena, Giannantonio; Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Miozzo, Antonio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2017-03-27

    Neurosurgical mapping studies with nouns and finite verbs are scarce and subcortical data are nonexistent. We used a new task that uses finite verbs in six Italian-speaking patients with gliomas in the left language-dominant hemisphere. Language-relevant positive areas were detected only with nouns in four patients, with both tasks yet in distinct cortical areas in one patient, and only with finite verbs in another patient. Positive areas and types of errors varied across participants. Finite verbs provide complementary information to nouns, and permit more accurate mapping of language production when nouns are unaffected by electrical stimulation.

  18. A distributed left hemisphere network active during planning of everyday tool use skills.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Frey, Scott H; Newman-Norlund, Roger; Grafton, Scott T

    2005-06-01

    Determining the relationship between mechanisms involved in action planning and/or execution is critical to understanding the neural bases of skilled behaviors, including tool use. Here we report findings from two fMRI studies of healthy, right-handed adults in which an event-related design was used to distinguish regions involved in planning (i.e. identifying, retrieving and preparing actions associated with a familiar tools' uses) versus executing tool use gestures with the dominant right (experiment 1) and non-dominant left (experiment 2) hands. For either limb, planning tool use actions activates a distributed network in the left cerebral hemisphere consisting of: (i) posterior superior temporal sulcus, along with proximal regions of the middle and superior temporal gyri; (ii) inferior frontal and ventral premotor cortices; (iii) two distinct parietal areas, one located in the anterior supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and another in posterior SMG and angular gyrus; and (iv) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC). With the exception of left DLFPC, adjacent and partially overlapping sub-regions of left parietal, frontal and temporal cortex are also engaged during action execution. We suggest that this left lateralized network constitutes a neural substrate for the interaction of semantic and motoric representations upon which meaningful skills depend.

  19. Hemispheric differences between left and right supramarginal gyrus for pitch and rhythm memory

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Nora K.; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Functional brain imaging studies and non-invasive brain stimulation methods have shown the importance of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) for pitch memory. The extent to which this brain region plays a crucial role in memory for other auditory material remains unclear. Here, we sought to investigate the role of the left and right SMG in pitch and rhythm memory in non-musicians. Anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied over the left SMG (Experiment 1) and right SMG (Experiment 2) in two different sessions. In each session participants completed a pitch and rhythm recognition memory task immediately after tDCS. A significant facilitation of pitch memory was revealed when anodal stimulation was applied over the left SMG. No significant effects on pitch memory were found for anodal tDCS over the right SMG or sham condition. For rhythm memory the opposite pattern was found; anodal tDCS over the right SMG led to an improvement in performance, but anodal tDCS over the left SMG had no significant effect. These results highlight a different hemispheric involvement of the SMG in auditory memory processing depending on auditory material that is encoded. PMID:28198386

  20. Damage to white matter bottlenecks contributes to language impairments after left hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Griffis, Joseph C; Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the white matter underlying the left posterior temporal lobe leads to deficits in multiple language functions. The posterior temporal white matter may correspond to a bottleneck where both dorsal and ventral language pathways are vulnerable to simultaneous damage. Damage to a second putative white matter bottleneck in the left deep prefrontal white matter involving projections associated with ventral language pathways and thalamo-cortical projections has recently been proposed as a source of semantic deficits after stroke. Here, we first used white matter atlases to identify the previously described white matter bottlenecks in the posterior temporal and deep prefrontal white matter. We then assessed the effects of damage to each region on measures of verbal fluency, picture naming, and auditory semantic decision-making in 43 chronic left hemispheric stroke patients. Damage to the posterior temporal bottleneck predicted deficits on all tasks, while damage to the anterior bottleneck only significantly predicted deficits in verbal fluency. Importantly, the effects of damage to the bottleneck regions were not attributable to lesion volume, lesion loads on the tracts traversing the bottlenecks, or damage to nearby cortical language areas. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping revealed additional lesion predictors of deficits. Post-hoc fiber tracking of the peak white matter lesion predictors using a publicly available tractography atlas revealed evidence consistent with the results of the bottleneck analyses. Together, our results provide support for the proposal that spatially specific white matter damage affecting bottleneck regions, particularly in the posterior temporal lobe, contributes to chronic language deficits after left hemispheric stroke. This may reflect the simultaneous disruption of signaling in dorsal and ventral language processing streams.

  1. Neuroplasticity of language in left-hemisphere stroke: Evidence linking subsecond electrophysiology and structural connections.

    PubMed

    Piai, Vitória; Meyer, Lars; Dronkers, Nina F; Knight, Robert T

    2017-03-27

    The understanding of neuroplasticity following stroke is predominantly based on neuroimaging measures that cannot address the subsecond neurodynamics of impaired language processing. We combined behavioral and electrophysiological measures and structural-connectivity estimates to characterize neuroplasticity underlying successful compensation of language abilities after left-hemispheric stroke. We recorded the electroencephalogram from patients with stroke lesions to the left temporal lobe and from matched controls during context-driven word retrieval. Participants heard lead-in sentences that either constrained the final word ("He locked the door with the") or not ("She walked in here with the"). The last word was shown as a picture to be named. Individual-participant analyses were conducted, focusing on oscillatory power as a subsecond indicator of a brain region's functional neurophysiological computations. All participants named pictures faster following constrained than unconstrained sentences, except for two patients, who had extensive damage to the left temporal lobe. Left-lateralized alpha-beta oscillatory power decreased in controls pre-picture presentation for constrained relative to unconstrained contexts. In patients, the alpha-beta power decreases were observed with the same time course as in controls but were lateralized to the intact right hemisphere. The right lateralization depended on the probability of white-matter connections between the bilateral temporal lobes. The two patients who performed poorly behaviorally showed no alpha-beta power decreases. Our findings suggest that incorporating direct measures of neural activity into investigations of neuroplasticity can provide important neural markers to help predict language recovery, assess the progress of neurorehabilitation, and delineate targets for therapeutic neuromodulation. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Left hemisphere structural connectivity abnormality in pediatric hydrocephalus patients following surgery.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weihong; Meller, Artur; Shimony, Joshua S; Nash, Tiffany; Jones, Blaise V; Holland, Scott K; Altaye, Mekibib; Barnard, Holly; Phillips, Jannel; Powell, Stephanie; McKinstry, Robert C; Limbrick, David D; Rajagopal, Akila; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves. Three groups of children (34 in the control group, 12 in the 3-month post-surgery group, and 24 in the 12-month post-surgery group, age between 1 and 18 years) were included in the study. The structural connectivity data processing and analysis were performed based on DTI and graph theoretical analysis. Specific procedures were revised to include only left brain imaging data in normalization, parcellation, and fiber counting from DTI tractography. Our results showed that, when compared to controls, children with hydrocephalus in both the 3-month and 12-month post-surgery groups had significantly lower normalized clustering coefficient, lower small-worldness, and higher global efficiency (all p < 0.05, corrected). At a regional level, both patient groups showed significant alteration in one or more regional connectivity measures in a series of brain regions in the left hemisphere (8 and 10 regions in the 3-month post-surgery and the 12-month post-surgery group, respectively, all p < 0.05, corrected). No significant correlation was found between any of the global or regional measures and the contemporaneous neuropsychological outcomes [the General Adaptive Composite (GAC) from the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS

  3. Early Left-Hemispheric Dysfunction of Face Processing in Congenital Prosopagnosia: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Putsche, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Junghöfer, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Background Congenital prosopagnosia is a severe face perception impairment which is not acquired by a brain lesion and is presumably present from birth. It manifests mostly by an inability to recognise familiar persons. Electrophysiological research has demonstrated the relevance to face processing of a negative deflection peaking around 170 ms, labelled accordingly as N170 in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and M170 in magnetoencephalography (MEG). The M170 was shown to be sensitive to the inversion of faces and to familiarity-two factors that are assumed to be crucial for congenital prosopagnosia. In order to locate the cognitive dysfunction and its neural correlates, we investigated the time course of neural activity in response to these manipulations. Methodology Seven individuals with congenital prosopagnosia and seven matched controls participated in the experiment. To explore brain activity with high accuracy in time, we recorded evoked magnetic fields (275 channel whole head MEG) while participants were looking at faces differing in familiarity (famous vs. unknown) and orientation (upright vs. inverted). The underlying neural sources were estimated by means of the least square minimum-norm-estimation (L2-MNE) approach. Principal Findings The behavioural data corroborate earlier findings on impaired configural processing in congenital prosopagnosia. For the M170, the overall results replicated earlier findings, with larger occipito-temporal brain responses to inverted than upright faces, and more right- than left-hemispheric activity. Compared to controls, participants with congenital prosopagnosia displayed a general decrease in brain activity, primarily over left occipitotemporal areas. This attenuation did not interact with familiarity or orientation. Conclusions The study substantiates the finding of an early involvement of the left hemisphere in symptoms of prosopagnosia. This might be related to an efficient and overused featural processing strategy

  4. Auditory agnosia and auditory spatial deficits following left hemispheric lesions: evidence for distinct processing pathways.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S; Bellmann, A; Meuli, R A; Assal, G; Steck, A J

    2000-01-01

    Auditory recognition and auditory spatial functions were studied in four patients with circumscribed left hemispheric lesions. Patient FD was severely deficient in recognition of environmental sounds but normal in auditory localisation and auditory motion perception. The lesion included the left superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and lateral auditory areas (as identified in previous anatomical studies), but spared Heschl's gyrus, the acoustic radiation and the thalamus. Patient SD had the same profile as FD, with deficient recognition of environmental sounds but normal auditory localisation and motion perception. The lesion comprised the postero-inferior part of the frontal convexity and the anterior third of the temporal lobe; data from non-human primates indicate that the latter are interconnected with lateral auditory areas. Patient MA was deficient in recognition of environmental sounds, auditory localisation and auditory motion perception, confirming that auditory spatial functions can be disturbed by left unilateral damage; the lesion involved the supratemporal region as well as the temporal, postero-inferior frontal and antero-inferior parietal convexities. Patient CZ was severely deficient in auditory motion perception and partially deficient in auditory localisation, but normal in recognition of environmental sounds; the lesion involved large parts of the parieto-frontal convexity and the supratemporal region. We propose that auditory information is processed in the human auditory cortex along two distinct pathways, one lateral devoted to auditory recognition and one medial and posterior devoted to auditory spatial functions.

  5. Greater left cerebral hemispheric metabolism in bulimia assessed by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.C.; Hagman, J.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Blinder, B.; Derrfler, M.; Tai, W.Y.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N. )

    1990-03-01

    Eight women with bulimia and eight age- and sex-matched normal control subjects were studied with positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer of brain metabolic rate. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during FDG uptake. In control subjects, the metabolic rate was higher in the right hemisphere than in the left, but patients with bulimia did not have this normal asymmetry. Lower metabolic rates in the basal ganglia, found in studies of depressed subjects, and higher rates in the basal ganglia, reported in a study of anorexia nervosa, were not found. This is consistent with the suggestion that bulimia is a diagnostic grouping distinct from these disorders.

  6. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch

    PubMed Central

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. PMID:24355545

  7. Multi-tasking uncovers right spatial neglect and extinction in chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Blini, Elvio; Romeo, Zaira; Spironelli, Chiara; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Unilateral Spatial Neglect, the most dramatic manifestation of contralesional space unawareness, is a highly heterogeneous syndrome. The presence of neglect is related to core spatially lateralized deficits, but its severity is also modulated by several domain-general factors (such as alertness or sustained attention) and by task demands. We previously showed that a computer-based dual-task paradigm exploiting both lateralized and non-lateralized factors (i.e., attentional load/multitasking) better captures this complex scenario and exacerbates deficits for the contralesional space after right hemisphere damage. Here we asked whether multitasking would reveal contralesional spatial disorders in chronic left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) stroke patients, a population in which impaired spatial processing is thought to be uncommon. Ten consecutive LHD patients with no signs of right-sided neglect at standard neuropsychological testing performed a computerized spatial monitoring task with and without concurrent secondary tasks (i.e., multitasking). Severe contralesional (right) space unawareness emerged in most patients under attentional load in both the visual and auditory modalities. Multitasking affected the detection of contralesional stimuli both when presented concurrently with an ipsilesional one (i.e., extinction for bilateral targets) and when presented in isolation (i.e., left neglect for right-sided targets). No spatial bias emerged in a control group of healthy elderly participants, who performed at ceiling, as well as in a second control group composed of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We conclude that the pathological spatial asymmetry in LHD patients cannot be attributed to a global reduction of cognitive resources but it is the consequence of unilateral brain damage. Clinical and theoretical implications of the load-dependent lack of awareness for contralesional hemispace following LHD are discussed.

  8. Embedded words in visual word recognition: does the left hemisphere see the rain in brain?

    PubMed

    McCormick, Samantha F; Davis, Colin J; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-09-01

    To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in gr*apple, bull*et) or in the middle of an embedded word (grapp*le, bu*llet). Categorization responses to target words were faster and more accurate in a congruent condition (in which the embedded word was associated with the same response; e.g., Does bullet refer to an item of clothing?) than in an incongruent condition (e.g., Does bullet refer to a type of animal?). However, the magnitude of this effect did not vary as a function of position of fixation, relative to the embedded word, as might be expected if information from the 2 visual fields was initially split over the cerebral hemispheres and integrated only late in the word identification process. Equivalent results were observed in Experiment 1 (long stimulus duration) and Experiment 2 (in which stimulus duration was 200 ms; i.e., less than the time required to initiate a refixation).

  9. Dissociations of action means and outcome processing in left hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kalénine, Solène; Shapiro, Allison D.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that distinct fronto-parietal regions may be involved in representing action kinematics (means) and action results (outcome) during action observation. However, the evidence is contradictory with respect to the precise regions that are critical for each type of representation. Additionally unknown is the degree to which ability to detect action means and outcome during observation is related to action production performance. We used a behavioral task to evaluate the ability of healthy and left-hemisphere stroke participants to detect differences between pairs of videos that dissociated object-related action means (e.g., wiping with circular or straight movement) and/or outcome (e.g., applying or removing detergent). We expected that deficits in detecting action means would be associated with spatiomotor gesture production deficits, whereas deficits in detecting action outcome would predict impairments in complex naturalistic action. We also hypothesized a posterior to anterior gradient in the regions critical for each type of representation, disproportionately affecting means and outcome encoding, respectively. Results indicated that outcome – but not means – detection predicted naturalistic action performance in stroke participants. Regression and voxel lesion-symptom mapping analyses of lesion data revealed that means – but not outcome – coding relies on the integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe, whereas no selective critical brain region could be identified for outcome detection. Thus, means and outcome representations are dissociable at both the behavioral and neuroanatomical levels. Furthermore, the data are consistent with a degree of parallelism between action perception and production tasks. Finally, they reinforce the evidence for a critical role of the left inferior parietal lobule in the representation of action means, whereas action outcome may rely on a more distributed neural circuit. PMID:23566892

  10. A Left Cerebral Hemisphere's Superiority in Processing Spatial-Categorical Information in a Non-Verbal Semantic Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suegami, Takashi; Laeng, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We…

  11. Wholetheme Constructivism and Whole-Brain Education: Educational Implications of the Research on Left and Right Brain Hemispheres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Amany; Iran-Nejad, Asghar

    The left side of the brain has been said to process speech along with logical, rational, convergent, objective, and sequential tasks. The right side of the brain is thought to process nonverbal, spatial, musical, and analogical information. This paper discusses the research on brain hemisphericity from the perspectives of traditional and…

  12. Critical brain regions for action recognition: lesion symptom mapping in left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Coslett, Harry Branch

    2010-11-01

    A number of conflicting claims have been advanced regarding the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe and posterior middle temporal gyrus in action recognition, driven in part by an ongoing debate about the capacities of putative mirror systems that match observed and planned actions. We report data from 43 left hemisphere stroke patients in two action recognition tasks in which they heard and saw an action word ('hammering') and selected from two videoclips the one corresponding to the word. In the spatial recognition task, foils contained errors of body posture or movement amplitude/timing. In the semantic recognition task, foils were semantically related (sawing). Participants also performed a comprehension control task requiring matching of the same verbs to objects (hammer). Using regression analyses controlling for both the comprehension control task and lesion volume, we demonstrated that performance in the semantic gesture recognition task was predicted by per cent damage to the posterior temporal lobe, whereas the spatial gesture recognition task was predicted by per cent damage to the inferior parietal lobule. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion symptom-mapping analysis suggested that the semantic and spatial gesture recognition tasks were associated with lesioned voxels in the posterior middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, respectively. The posterior middle temporal gyrus appears to serve as a central node in the association of actions and meanings. The inferior parietal lobule, held to be a homologue of the monkey parietal mirror neuron system, is critical for encoding object-related postures and movements, a relatively circumscribed aspect of gesture recognition. The inferior frontal gyrus, on the other hand, was not predictive of performance in any task, suggesting that previous claims regarding its role in action recognition may require refinement.

  13. Left acute scrotum associated with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, R; Kawano, M; Kawanishi, H; Shindow, K; Hiura, A; Kim, E; Ikehara, T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy, who had a mild inguinal hernia in his left scrotum, was referred to our clinic because of redness of the scrotal skin and tenderness of the left scrotal contents. Scrotal echography showed a hypoechoic lesion around the normal testis and epididymis. Because torsion of either the testis or testicular appendage was suspected, the scrotum was opened and 1.5 mL of purulent fluid was observed in the tunica vaginalis with inflammatory tissue around the testis and epididymis. On the first postoperative day, a low grade fever and abdominal tenderness persisted, however, the abdomen was flat and soft. There was no marked tenderness over McBurney's point, but there was moderate tenderness over Lanz's point on deep palpation. Abdominal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed abscess formation between the bladder and the sacrum. With a diagnosis of perforation of the appendix, a laparotomy was performed. The inguinal hernia sac could not be observed on inspection, and it was not possible to palpate the left side because of severe adhesion due to infection. Also, the neck of the right inguinal sac could not be seen. The appendix specimen was gangrenous. On the second postsurgical day, all symptoms and signs disappeared. We present this rare condition and discuss the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis.

  14. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lawrence J; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation.

  15. Use of the Faces Pain Scale by left and right hemispheric stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Benaim, Charles; Froger, Jerome; Cazottes, Claire; Gueben, Delphine; Porte, Melanie; Desnuelle, Claude; Pelissier, Jacques Yvon

    2007-03-01

    No pain scale is available for stroke patients due to the presence of language or cognitive disorders. However, the Faces Pain Scale (FPS), which was initially developed for children, has been used with success in adults with cognitive impairments. The aim of this study is to test whether the FPS could be used in left or right hemispheric stroke patients (LHSP, RHSP). One hundred twenty-seven stoke patients and 21 controls were recruited in 2 rehabilitation units. Construct validity of FPS was assessed by rating and ranking facial expressions. FPS was correlated to a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and to a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) for the assessment of shoulder pain. Reliability was determined by test-retest procedures. Performances of RHSP in the ranking and rating procedures were very poor compared to LHSP and to controls. However, in the assessment of patients' shoulder pain, FPS scores were highly correlated with VAS and VRS in both stroke groups (r=0.65-0.82, p<10(-3)). FPS was more reliable in LHSP than in RHSP. It was preferred to VAS and VRS in LHSP, while in RHSP VAS was the preferred scale. The present study provides preliminary support for the validity and the reliability of FPS in LHSP. However, we do not recommend its sole use in stroke patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether FPS can be used in stroke patients for assessing changes in severity of pain over time.

  16. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R.; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation. PMID:28261070

  17. Language lateralization in children with pre- and postnatal epileptogenic lesions of the left hemisphere: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hadac, Jan; Brozová, Katerina; Tintera, Jaroslav; Krsek, Pavel

    2007-12-01

    Functional MRI was used to evaluate factors influencing hemispheric dominance for language in 34 children suffering from intractable focal epilepsy due to left hemispheric lesion of pre- (n = 19) or postnatal (n = 15) origin. Nineteen children (56%) exhibited pronounced left-hemispheric language dominance. Significant co-activation of the right hemisphere or a complete language shift to this hemisphere was present in 15 children (44%). Atypical language representation was detected in 6 children (31,6%) with developmental pathology and in 9 patients (60%) with acquired epileptogenic lesion. Younger age at epilepsy onset and longer duration of epilepsy correlated significantly with atypical language presentation (p < 0,017 and p < 0,025). Whereas lesser tendency of prenatal lesions to displace cortical language centers did not reach statistical significance in simple paired tests, multiple logistic regression analysis viewed positive interaction between language shift, etiology and age at epilepsy onset. In conclusion, the language network reorganization was strongly influenced by both, the age at epilepsy onset and duration of epilepsy, and to a lesser degree by the character of the epileptogenic lesion, either developmental or acquired postnatally.

  18. A case of expressive-vocal amusia in a right-handed patient with left hemispheric cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Uetsuki, Shizuka; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Obata, Satoshi; Kakigi, Tatsuya; Wada, Yoshiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    2016-03-01

    A 53-year-old right-handed woman had an extensive lesion in the left hemisphere due to an infarction caused by vasospasm secondary to subarachnoid bleeding. She exhibited persistent expressive-vocal amusia with no symptoms of aphasia. Evaluation of the patient's musical competence using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia, rhythm reproduction tests, acoustic analysis of pitch upon singing familiar music, Japanese standard language tests, and other detailed clinical examinations revealed that her amusia was more dominantly related to pitch production. The intactness of her speech provided strong evidence that the right hemisphere played a major role in her linguistic processing. Data from functional magnetic resonance imaging while she was singing a familiar song, a scale, and reciting lyrics indicated that perilesional residual activation in the left hemisphere was associated with poor pitch production, while right hemispheric activation was involved in linguistic processing. The localization of infarction more anterior to the left Sylvian fissure might be related to the dominant deficits in expressive aspects of the singing of the patient. Compromised motor programming producing a single tone may have made a major contribution to her poor singing. Imperfect auditory feedback due to borderline perceptual ability or improper audio-motor associations might also have played a role.

  19. You may now kiss the bride: Interpretation of social situations by individuals with right or left hemisphere injury.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Juliana V; Kacinik, Natalie A; Moncrief, Amber; Beghin, Francesca; Dronkers, Nina F

    2016-01-08

    While left hemisphere damage (LHD) has been clearly shown to cause a range of language impairments, patients with right hemisphere damage (RHD) also exhibit communication deficits, such as difficulties processing prosody, discourse, and social contexts. In the current study, individuals with RHD and LHD were directly compared on their ability to interpret what a character in a cartoon might be saying or thinking, in order to better understand the relative role of the right and left hemisphere in social communication. The cartoon stimuli were manipulated so as to elicit more or less formulaic responses (e.g., a scene of a couple being married by a priest vs. a scene of two people talking, respectively). Participants' responses were scored by blind raters on how appropriately they captured the gist of the social situation, as well as how formulaic and typical their responses were. Results showed that RHD individuals' responses were rated as significantly less appropriate than controls and were also significantly less typical than controls and individuals with LHD. Individuals with RHD produced a numerically lower proportion of formulaic expressions than controls, but this difference was only a trend. Counter to prediction, the pattern of performance across participant groups was not affected by how constrained/formulaic the social situation was. The current findings expand our understanding of the roles that the right and left hemispheres play in social processing and communication and have implications for the potential treatment of social communication deficits in individuals with RHD.

  20. Damage of left temporal lobe resulting in conversion of speech to Sutra, a Buddhist prayer stored in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Kotoyo; Tsukada, Masanobu; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Koizumi, Tomoyuki; Yagi, Kazuo

    2010-08-01

    The present study describes a case of a right-handed 74-year-old woman with a brain tumor who showed conversion of speech to Sutra, a Buddhist prayer, which was stored in the right hemisphere according to the Wada test. After surgery, relative improvement in the speech disorder was observed, and frequency of speech production of simple normal words with normal phonology increased. These observations indicate that damage to left temporal lobe resulted in conversion of speech to Sutra, and that Sutra was stored in this patient's right hemisphere.

  1. Left Hemispheric Imbalance and Reward Mechanisms Affect Gambling Behavior: The Contribution of the Metacognition and Cortical Brain Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2015-07-01

    The present research used the Iowa Gambling Task to test the effect of the reward-sensitivity Behavioral Activation System-Reward (BAS-Reward) construct on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. To elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making the strategies more or less advantageous, we considered the impact of the BAS motivational system and the frontal left and right cortical activity on subjects' decisions. More specifically, the lateralization effect, which is related to the increased activation of the left (BAS-Reward-related) hemisphere, was explored by using frequency band analysis. Specifically, behavioral responses (gain/loss options), metacognition, and delta, theta, alpha, and beta band modulation (asymmetry index) were considered. Thirty subjects were divided into high-BAS and low-BAS groups. In comparison with low-BAS, the high-BAS group showed an increased tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (losing strategy) instead of the long-term option (winning strategy), and members of this group were more impaired in metacognitive monitoring of their strategies and showed an increased left hemisphere activation when they responded to losing choices. A "reward bias" effect was hypothesized to act for high BAS, based on a left-hemisphere hyperactivation.

  2. Tool-use and the left hemisphere: what is lost in ideomotor apraxia?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Alan; Wilkins, Leigh; Dineen, Rob; Dawson, Sophie E

    2013-03-01

    Impaired tool related action in ideomotor apraxia is normally ascribed to loss of sensorimotor memories for habitual actions (engrams), but this account has not been tested against a hypothesis of a general deficit in representation of hand-object spatial relationships. Rapid reaching for familiar tools was compared with reaching for abstract objects in apraxic patients (N=9) and in a control group with right hemisphere posterior stroke. The apraxic patients alone showed an impairment in rotating the wrist to correctly grasp an inverted tool but not when inverting the hand to avoid a barrier and grasp an abstract object, and the severity of the impairment in tool reaching correlated with pantomime of tool-use. A second experiment with two apraxic patients tested whether barrier avoidance was simply less spatially demanding than reaching for a tool. However, the patient with damage limited to the inferior parietal lobe still showed a selective problem for tools. These results demonstrate that some apraxic patients are selectively impaired in their interaction with familiar tools, and this cannot be explained by the demands of the task on postural or spatial representation. However, traditional engram theory cannot account for associated problems with imitation of novel actions nor the absence of any correlated deficit in recognition of the methods of grasp of common tools. A revised theory is presented which follows the dorsal and ventral streams model (Milner & Goodale, 2008) and proposes preservation of motor control by the dorsal stream but impaired modulating input to it from the conceptual systems of the left temporal lobe.

  3. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.

  4. Is a lone right hemisphere enough? Neurolinguistic architecture in a case with a very early left hemispherectomy.

    PubMed

    Danelli, Laura; Cossu, Giuseppe; Berlingeri, Manuela; Bottini, Gabriella; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2013-01-01

    We studied the linguistic profile and neurolinguistic organization of a 14-year-old adolescent (EB) who underwent a left hemispherectomy at the age of 2.5 years. After initial aphasia, his language skills recovered within 2 years, with the exception of some word finding problems. Over the years, the neuropsychological assessments showed that EB's language was near-to-normal, with the exception of lexical competence, which lagged slightly behind for both auditory and written language. Moreover, EB's accuracy and speed in both reading and writing words and non-words were within the normal range, whereas difficulties emerged in reading loan words and in tasks with homophones. EB's functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns for several linguistic and metalinguistic tasks were similar to those observed in the dominant hemisphere of controls, suggesting that his language network conforms to a left-like linguistic neural blueprint. However, a stronger frontal recruitment suggests that linguistic tasks are more demanding for him. Finally, no specific reading activation was found in EB's occipitotemporal region, a finding consistent with the surface dyslexia-like behavioral pattern of the patient. While a lone right hemisphere may not be sufficient to guarantee full blown linguistic competences after early hemispherectomy, EB's behavioral and fMRI patterns suggest that his lone right hemisphere followed a left-like blueprint of the linguistic network.

  5. Development of a selective left-hemispheric fronto-temporal network for processing syntactic complexity in language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D.; Margulies, Daniel S.; Brauer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The development of language comprehension abilities in childhood is closely related to the maturation of the brain, especially the ability to process syntactically complex sentences. Recent studies proposed that the fronto-temporal connection within left perisylvian regions, supporting the processing of syntactically complex sentences, is still immature at preschool age. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from typically developing 5-year-old children and adults to shed further light on the brain functional development. Children additionally performed a behavioral syntactic comprehension test outside the scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations was analyzed in order to identify the functional correlation networks of language-relevant brain regions. Results showed an intrahemispheric correlation between left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in adults, whereas an interhemispheric correlation between left IFG and its right-hemispheric homolog was predominant in children. Correlation analysis between resting-state functional connectivity and sentence processing performance in 5-year-olds revealed that local connectivity within the left IFG is associated with competence of processing syntactically simple canonical sentences, while long-range connectivity between IFG and pSTS in left hemisphere is associated with competence of processing syntactically relatively more complex non-canonical sentences. The present developmental data suggest that a selective left fronto-temporal connectivity network for processing complex syntax is already in functional connection at the age of 5 years when measured in a non-task situation. The correlational findings provide new insight into the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity and syntactic language abilities in preschool children. PMID:26352468

  6. Development of a selective left-hemispheric fronto-temporal network for processing syntactic complexity in language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    The development of language comprehension abilities in childhood is closely related to the maturation of the brain, especially the ability to process syntactically complex sentences. Recent studies proposed that the fronto-temporal connection within left perisylvian regions, supporting the processing of syntactically complex sentences, is still immature at preschool age. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from typically developing 5-year-old children and adults to shed further light on the brain functional development. Children additionally performed a behavioral syntactic comprehension test outside the scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations was analyzed in order to identify the functional correlation networks of language-relevant brain regions. Results showed an intrahemispheric correlation between left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in adults, whereas an interhemispheric correlation between left IFG and its right-hemispheric homolog was predominant in children. Correlation analysis between resting-state functional connectivity and sentence processing performance in 5-year-olds revealed that local connectivity within the left IFG is associated with competence of processing syntactically simple canonical sentences, while long-range connectivity between IFG and pSTS in left hemisphere is associated with competence of processing syntactically relatively more complex non-canonical sentences. The present developmental data suggest that a selective left fronto-temporal connectivity network for processing complex syntax is already in functional connection at the age of 5 years when measured in a non-task situation. The correlational findings provide new insight into the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity and syntactic language abilities in preschool children.

  7. Co-speech hand movements during narrations: What is the impact of right vs. left hemisphere brain damage?

    PubMed

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Rein, Robert; Skomroch, Harald; Lausberg, Hedda

    2016-10-27

    Persons with brain damage show deviant patterns of co-speech hand movement behaviour in comparison to healthy speakers. It has been claimed by several authors that gesture and speech rely on a single production mechanism that depends on the same neurological substrate while others claim that both modalities are closely related but separate production channels. Thus, findings so far are contradictory and there is a lack of studies that systematically analyse the full range of hand movements that accompany speech in the condition of brain damage. In the present study, we aimed to fill this gap by comparing hand movement behaviour in persons with unilateral brain damage to the left and the right hemisphere and a matched control group of healthy persons. For hand movement coding, we applied Module I of NEUROGES, an objective and reliable analysis system that enables to analyse the full repertoire of hand movements independent of speech, which makes it specifically suited for the examination of persons with aphasia. The main results of our study show a decreased use of communicative conceptual gestures in persons with damage to the right hemisphere and an increased use of these gestures in persons with left brain damage and aphasia. These results not only suggest that the production of gesture and speech do not rely on the same neurological substrate but also underline the important role of right hemisphere functioning for gesture production.

  8. Bilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Language Treatment Enhances Functional Connectivity in the Left Hemisphere: Preliminary Data from Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Sabatini, Umberto; De Pasquale, Giada; Razzano, Carmela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Gili, Tommaso

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, no reports to date have investigated functional connectivity changes on cortical activity because of tDCS language treatment. Here, nine aphasic persons with articulatory disorders underwent an intensive language therapy in two different conditions: bilateral anodic stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area and a sham condition. The language treatment lasted 3 weeks (Monday to Friday, 15 sessions). In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0) and at the end of treatment (T15). Before and after each treatment condition (real vs. sham), each participant underwent a resting-state fMRI study. Results showed that, after real stimulation, patients exhibited the greatest recovery not only in terms of better accuracy in articulating the treated stimuli but also for untreated items on different tasks of the language test. Moreover, although after the sham condition connectivity changes were confined to the right brain hemisphere, real stimulation yielded to stronger functional connectivity increase in the left hemisphere. In conclusion, our data provide converging evidence from behavioral and functional imaging data that bilateral tDCS determines functional connectivity changes within the lesioned hemisphere, enhancing the language recovery process in stroke patients.

  9. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  10. Regional brain blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Aníbal J; Riquelme, Raquel A; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Herrera, Emilio; Cabello, Gertrudis; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T

    2002-01-01

    Unlike fetal animals of lowland species, the llama fetus does not increase its cerebral blood flow during an episode of acute hypoxaemia. This study tested the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral O2 extraction rather than decreasing cerebral oxygen utilisation during acute hypoxaemia. Six llama fetuses were surgically instrumented under general anaesthesia at 217 days of gestation (term ca 350 days) with vascular and amniotic catheters in order to carry out cardiorespiratory studies. Following a control period of 1 h, the llama fetuses underwent 3 × 20 min episodes of progressive hypoxaemia, induced by maternal inhalational hypoxia. During basal conditions and during each of the 20 min of hypoxaemia, fetal cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, cerebral oxygen extraction was calculated, and fetal cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption was determined by the modified Fick principle. During hypoxaemia, fetal arterial O2 tension and fetal pH decreased progressively from 24 ± 1 to 20 ± 1 Torr and from 7.36 ± 0.01 to 7.33 ± 0.01, respectively, during the first 20 min episode, to 16 ± 1 Torr and 7.25 ± 0.05 during the second 20 min episode and to 14 ± 1 Torr and 7.21 ± 0.04 during the final 20 min episode. Fetal arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2, 42 ± 2 Torr) remained unaltered from baseline throughout the experiment. Fetal cerebral hemispheric blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen extraction were unaltered from baseline during progressive hypoxaemia. In contrast, a progressive fall in fetal cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption occurred during the hypoxaemic challenge. In conclusion, these data do not support the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral hemispheric O2 extraction. Rather, the data show that in the llama fetus, a reduction in cerebral hemispheric metabolism occurs during acute

  11. Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

  12. Lexical Competition is Enhanced in the Left Hemisphere: Evidence from Different Types of Orthographic Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Acha, Joana; Fraga, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in orthographic neighborhood effects. In Experiment 1, we employed two types of words: words with many substitution neighbors (high-"N") and words with few substitution neighbors (low-"N"). Results showed a facilitative effect of…

  13. Understanding Actions of Others: The Electrodynamics of the Left and Right Hemispheres. A High-Density EEG Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Grafton, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Background When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping) and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking). Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0) showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1) showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs) were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1). The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1) bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2) a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3) a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4) a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network mediates the

  14. Embedded Words in Visual Word Recognition: Does the Left Hemisphere See the Rain in Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samantha F.; Davis, Colin J.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in "gr*apple", "bull*et") or in the middle…

  15. Acute left main coronary artery thrombosis due to cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Koniari, Ioanna; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-08-19

    It is common knowledge that cocaine has been linked to the development of various acute and chronic cardiovascular complications including acute coronary syndromes. We present a young, male patient, drug abuser who underwent CABG due to anterolateral myocardial infarction. Our presentation is one of the very rare cases reported in literature regarding acute thrombosis of left main coronary artery related to cocaine use, in a patient with normal coronary arteries, successfully operated. Drug-abusers seem to have increased mortality and morbidity after surgery and high possibility for stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions, because of their usually terrible medical compliance and coexistent several problems of general health. There are no specific guidelines about treatment of thrombus formation in coronary arteries, as a consequence of cocaine use. So, any decision making concerning the final treatment of these patient is a unique and individualized approach. We strongly recommend that all these patients should be treated surgically, especially patients with thrombus into the left main artery.

  16. Radiographic and echocardiographic assessment of left atrial size in 100 cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Schober, Karsten E; Wetli, Ellen; Drost, Wm Tod

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate left atrial size in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that left atrial size as determined by thoracic radiography can be normal in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. One hundred cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure in which thoracic radiography and echocardiography were performed within 12 h were identified. Left atrial size was evaluated using right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs. Measurements were compared to two-dimensional echocardiographic variables of left atrial size and left ventricular size. On echocardiography, left atrial enlargement was observed in 96% cats (subjective assessment) whereas maximum left atrial dimension was increased (>15.7 mm) in 93% cats. On radiographs left atrial enlargement (subjective assessment) was found in 48% (lateral view), 53% (ventrodorsal view), and 64% (any view) of cats whereas left atrial enlargement was absent in 36% of cats in both views. Agreement between both methods of left atrial size estimation was poor (Cohen's kappa 0.17). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a maximum echocardiographic left atrial dimension of approximately 20 mm as the best compromise (Youden index) between sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of radiographic left atrial enlargement. Left atrial enlargement as assessed by thoracic radiography may be absent in a clinically relevant number of cats with congestive heart failure. Therefore, normal left atrial size on thoracic radiographs does not rule out presence of left-sided congestive heart failure in cats with clinical signs of respiratory distress.

  17. Left inferior frontal gyrus mediates morphosyntax: ERP evidence from verb processing in left-hemisphere damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Regel, Stefanie; Kotz, Sonja A; Henseler, Ilona; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Neurocognitive models of language comprehension have proposed different mechanisms with different neural substrates mediating human language processing. Whether the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is engaged in morpho-syntactic information processing is currently still controversially debated. The present study addresses this issue by examining the processing of irregular verb inflection in real words (e.g., swim > swum > swam) and pseudowords (e.g., frim > frum > fram) by using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in neurological patients with lesions in the LIFG involving Broca's area as well as healthy controls. Different ERP patterns in response to the grammatical violations were observed in both groups. Controls showed a biphasic negativity-P600 pattern in response to incorrect verb inflections whereas patients with LIFG lesions displayed a N400. For incorrect pseudoword inflections, a late positivity was found in controls, while no ERP effects were obtained in patients. These findings of different ERP patterns in the two groups strongly indicate an involvement of LIFG in morphosyntactic processing, thereby suggesting brain regions' specialization for different language functions.

  18. Speech perception, rapid temporal processing, and the left hemisphere: a case study of unilateral pure word deafness.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Joanisse, Marc F

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. One way to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech perception is by investigating patients with speech perception deficits but with preserved ability in other domains of language. One such case is reported here: patient NL shows highly impaired speech perception despite normal hearing ability and preserved semantic knowledge, speaking, and reading ability, and is thus classified as a case of pure word deafness (PWD). NL has a left temporoparietal lesion without right hemisphere damage and DTI imaging suggests that he has preserved cross-hemispheric connectivity, arguing against an account of PWD as a disconnection of left lateralized language areas from auditory input. Two experiments investigated whether NL's speech perception deficit could instead result from an underlying problem with rapid temporal processing. Experiment 1 showed that NL has particular difficulty discriminating sounds that differ in terms of rapid temporal changes, be they speech or non-speech sounds. Experiment 2 employed an intensive training program designed to improve rapid temporal processing in language impaired children (Fast ForWord; Scientific Learning Corporation, Oakland, CA) and found that NL was able to improve his ability to discriminate rapid temporal differences in non-speech sounds, but not in speech sounds. Overall, these data suggest that patients with unilateral PWD may, in fact, have a deficit in (left lateralized) temporal processing ability, however they also show that a rapid temporal processing deficit is, by itself, unable to account for this patient's speech perception deficit.

  19. Speech perception, rapid temporal processing, and the left hemisphere: A case study of unilateral pure word deafness

    PubMed Central

    Slevc, L. Robert; Martin, Randi C.; Hamilton, A. Cris; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. One way to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech perception is by investigating patients with speech perception deficits but with preserved ability in other domains of language. One such case is reported here: patient NL shows highly impaired speech perception despite normal hearing ability and preserved semantic knowledge, speaking, and reading ability, and is thus classified as a case of pure word deafness (PWD). NL has a left temporoparietal lesion without right hemisphere damage and DTI imaging suggests that he has preserved cross-hemispheric connectivity, arguing against an account of PWD as a disconnection of left lateralized language areas from auditory input. Two experiments investigated whether NL’s speech perception deficit could instead result from an underlying problem with rapid temporal processing. Experiment 1 showed that NL has particular difficulty discriminating sounds that differ in terms of rapid temporal changes, be they speech or non-speech sounds. Experiment 2 employed an intensive training program designed to improve rapid temporal processing in language impaired children (Fast ForWord; Scientific Learning Corporation, Oakland, CA) and found that NL was able to improve his ability to discriminate rapid temporal differences in non-speech sounds, but not in speech sounds. Overall, these data suggest that patients with unilateral PWD may, in fact, have a deficit in (left lateralized) temporal processing ability, however they also show that a rapid temporal processing deficit is, by itself, unable to account for this patient’s speech perception deficit. PMID:21093464

  20. Improved Spatial Ability Correlated with Left Hemisphere Dysfunction in Turner's Syndrome. Implications for Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    This study contrasts the performance of a 17-year-old female subject with Turner's syndrome before and after developing left temporal lobe seizures, as a means of identifying the mechanism responsible for the Turner's syndrome spatial impairment. The results revealed a deficit in spatial processing before onset of the seizure disorder. Results…

  1. When Only the Right Hemisphere Is Left: Studies in Language and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanlancker-Sidtis, D.

    2004-01-01

    An adult of above normal intelligence, BL, underwent left hemispherectomy at age five, and subsequently graduated from college and has been regularly employed. Using standardized neuropsychological instruments, previous extensive testing had revealed optimal performance for a hemispherectomized subject. To probe communicative abilities in greater…

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of chronic dysarthric speech after childhood brain injury: reliance on a left-hemisphere compensatory network.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angela T; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liégeois, Frédérique J

    2013-02-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize after injury. Here, we examine the structural and functional neural correlates associated with chronic dysarthria after childhood-onset traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine participants aged 12 years 3 months to 24 years 11 months were recruited to the study: (i) a group with chronic dysarthria (n = 17); matched for age and sex with two control groups of (ii) healthy control subjects (n = 17); and (iii) individuals without dysarthria after traumatic brain injury (n = 15). A high-resolution 3D T(1)-weighted whole-brain data set was acquired for voxel-based morphometry analyses of group differences in grey matter. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to localize activation associated with speaking single words (baseline: listening to words). Group differences on voxel-based morphometry revealed widespread grey matter reductions in the dysarthric group compared with healthy control subjects, including in numerous speech motor regions bilaterally, such as the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and primary motor cortex representation of the articulators. Relative to the non-dysarthric traumatic brain injury group, individuals with dysarthria showed reduced grey matter bilaterally in the ventral sensorimotor cortex, but this reduction was concomitant with increased functional activation only in the left-hemisphere cluster during speech. Finally, increased recruitment of Broca's area (Brodmann area 45, pars triangularis) but not its right homologue, correlated with better speech outcome, suggesting that this 'higher-level' area may be more critically involved with production when associated motor speech regions are damaged. We

  3. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may

  4. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Yoncheva; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason; McCandliss, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective atten tion to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by ma nipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data- driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater re cruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings support the key role of selective attention to phonology in the development of literacy and motivate future research on the neural bases of the interaction between phonological

  5. Pulsed and continuous wave mobile phone exposure over left versus right hemisphere: effects on human cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Haarala, Christian; Takio, Fiia; Rintee, Taija; Laine, Matti; Koivisto, Mika; Revonsuo, Antti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2007-05-01

    The possible effects of continuous wave (CW) and pulse modulated (PM) electromagnetic field (EMF) on human cognition was studied in 36 healthy male subjects. They performed cognitive tasks while exposed to CW, PM, and sham EMF. The subjects performed the same tasks twice during each session; once with left-sided and once with right-sided exposure. The EMF conditions were spread across three testing sessions, each session separated by 1 week. The exposed hemisphere, EMF condition, and test order were counterbalanced over all subjects. We employed a double-blind design: both the subject and the experimenter were unaware of the EMF condition. The EMF was created with a signal generator connected via amplifier to a dummy phone antenna, creating a power output distribution similar to the original commercial mobile phone. The EMF had either a continuous power output of 0.25 W (CW) or pulsed power output with a mean of 0.25 W. An additional control group of 16 healthy male volunteers performed the same tasks without any exposure equipment to see if mere presence of the equipment could have affected the subjects' performance. No effects were found between the different EMF conditions, separate hemisphere exposures, or between the control and experimental group. In conclusion, the current results indicate that normal mobile phones have no discernible effect on human cognitive function as measured by behavioral tests.

  6. Hemispheric prevalence during chewing in normal right-handed and left-handed subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bracco, Pietro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Piancino, Maria Grazia; Frongia, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the activation of different cortical areas during nondeliberate chewing of soft and hard boluses in five right-handed and five left-handed subjects with normal occlusion, to determine different hemispheric prevalences. The study was conducted with a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1.5 T Magnetom Vision - Siemens Medical, Germany) using a head coil. The results showed that the most frequently activated areas were Brodmann's areas four and six in the primary motor and premotor cortex, the insula and Broca's area and, overall, showed greater activity of the cortical mastication area (CMA) in the right hemisphere for right-handed and in the left hemisphere for left-handed subjects.

  7. Sound lateralisation in patients with left or right cerebral hemispheric lesions: relation with unilateral visuospatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, H.; Hachisuka, K.; Ogata, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To localise the brain lesion that causes disturbances of sound lateralisation and to examine the correlation between such deficit and unilateral visuospatial neglect.
METHOD—There were 29 patients with right brain damage, 15 patients with left brain damage, and 22 healthy controls, who had normal auditory and binaural thresholds. A device was used that delivered sound to the left and right ears with an interaural time difference using headphones. The amplitude (an index of ability to detect sound image shifts from the centre) and midpoint (an index of deviation of the interaural time difference range perceived as the centre) parameters of interaural time difference were analysed in each subject using 10 consecutive stable saw toothed waves.
RESULTS—The amplitude of interaural time difference was significantly higher in patients with right brain damage than in controls. The midpoint of the interaural time difference was significantly more deviated in patients with right brain damage than in those with left brain damage and controls (p<0.05). Patients with right brain damage with lesions affecting both the parietal lobe and auditory pathway showed a significantly higher amplitude and deviated midpoint than the controls, whereas right brain damage with involvement of only the parietal lobe showed a midpoint significantly deviated from the controls (p<0.05). Abnormal sound lateralisation correlated with unilateral visuospatial neglect (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—The right parietal lobe plays an important part in sound lateralisation. Sound lateralisation is also influenced by lesions of the right auditory pathway, although the effect of such lesions is less than that of the right parietal lobe. Disturbances of sound lateralisation correlate with unilateral visuospatial neglect.

 PMID:10486395

  8. Another look at category effects on colour perception and their left hemispheric lateralisation: no evidence from a colour identification task.

    PubMed

    Suegami, Takashi; Aminihajibashi, Samira; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to replicate category effects on colour perception and their lateralisation to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH). Previous evidence for lateralisation of colour category effects has been obtained with tasks where a differently coloured target was searched within a display and participants reported the lateral location of the target. However, a left/right spatial judgment may yield LH-laterality effects per se. Thus, we employed an identification task that does not require a spatial judgment and used the same colour set that previously revealed LH-lateralised category effects. The identification task was better performed with between-category colours than with within-category task both in terms of accuracy and latency, but such category effects were bilateral or RH-lateralised, and no evidence was found for LH-laterality effects. The accuracy scores, moreover, indicated that the category effects derived from low sensitivities for within-blue colours and did not reflect the effects of categorical structures on colour perception. Furthermore, the classic "category effects" were observed in participants' response biases, instead of sensitivities. The present results argue against both the LH-lateralised category effects on colour perception and the existence of colour category effects per se.

  9. The Memory That's Right and the Memory That's Left: Event-Related Potentials Reveal Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Encoding and Retention of Verbal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual…

  10. Use of Prosodic Cues in the Production of Idiomatic and Literal Sentences by Individuals with Right- and Left-Hemisphere Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie; Baum, Shari R.; Titone, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The neural bases of prosody during the production of literal and idiomatic interpretations of literally plausible idioms was investigated. Left- and right-hemisphere-damaged participants and normal controls produced literal and idiomatic versions of idioms ("He hit the books.") All groups modulated duration to distinguish the interpretations. LHD…

  11. The Influence of Visual and Auditory Information on the Perception of Speech and Non-Speech Oral Movements in Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Gabriele; Thielmann, Anke; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    Patients with lesions of the left hemisphere often suffer from oral-facial apraxia, apraxia of speech, and aphasia. In these patients, visual features often play a critical role in speech and language therapy, when pictured lip shapes or the therapist's visible mouth movements are used to facilitate speech production and articulation. This demands…

  12. The Functional Organization of Trial-Related Activity in Lexical Processing after Early Left Hemispheric Brain Lesions: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Damien A.; Choi, Alexander H.; Dosenbach, Yannic B. L.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2010-01-01

    Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon is accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In…

  13. The Role of Left Hemispheric Structures for Emotional Processing as a Monitor of Bodily Reaction and Felt Chill – a Case-Control Functional Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grunkina, Viktoria; Holtz, Katharina; Klepzig, Kai; Neubert, Jörg; Horn, Ulrike; Domin, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O.; Lotze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The particular function of the left anterior human insula on emotional arousal has been illustrated with several case studies. Only after left hemispheric insula lesions, patients lose their pleasure in habits such as listening to joyful music. In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) activation in the left anterior insula has been associated with both processing of emotional valence and arousal. Tight interactions with different areas of the prefrontal cortex are involved in bodily response monitoring and cognitive appraisal of a given stimulus. Therefore, a large left hemispheric lesion including the left insula should impair the bodily response of chill experience (objective chill response) but leave the cognitive aspects of chill processing (subjective chill response) unaffected. Methods: We investigated a patient (MC) with a complete left hemispheric media cerebral artery stroke, testing fMRI representation of pleasant (music) and unpleasant (harsh sounds) chill response. Results: Although chill response to both pleasant and unpleasant rated sounds was confirmed verbally at passages also rated as chilling by healthy participants, skin conductance response was almost absent in MC. For a healthy control (HC) objective and subjective chill response was positively associated. Bilateral prefrontal fMRI-response to chill stimuli was sustained in MC whereas insula activation restricted to the right hemisphere. Diffusion imaging together with lesion maps revealed that left lateral tracts were completely damaged but medial prefrontal structures were intact. Conclusion: With this case study we demonstrate how bodily response and cognitive appraisal are differentially participating in the internal monitor of chill response. PMID:28111546

  14. Spatio-temporal processing of words and nonwords: hemispheric laterality and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rosen, Burke Q.; Cox, Brendan; Hagler, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined neurofunctional correlates of reading by modulating semantic, lexical, and orthographic attributes of letter strings. It compared the spatio-temporal activity patterns elicited by real words (RW), pseudowords, orthographically regular, pronounceable nonwords (PN) that carry no meaning, and orthographically illegal, nonpronounceable nonwords (NN). A double-duty lexical decision paradigm instructed participants to detect RW while ignoring nonwords and to additionally respond to words that refer to animals (AW). Healthy social drinkers (N=22) participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Whole-head MEG signals were analyzed with an anatomically-constrained MEG method. Simultaneously acquired ERPs confirm previous evidence. Spatio-temporal MEG estimates to RW and PN are consistent with the highly replicable left-lateralized ventral visual processing stream. However, the PN elicit weaker activity than other stimuli starting at ~230 ms and extending to the M400 (magnetic equivalent of N400) in the left lateral temporal area, indicating their reduced access to lexicosemantic stores. In contrast, the NN uniquely engage the right hemisphere during the M400. Increased demands on lexicosemantic access imposed by AW result in greater activity in the left temporal cortex starting at ~230 ms and persisting through the M400 and response preparation stages. Alcohol intoxication strongly attenuates early visual responses occipito-temporally overall. Subsequently, alcohol selectively affects the left prefrontal cortex as a function of orthographic and semantic dimensions, suggesting that it modulates the dynamics of the lexicosemantic processing in a top-down manner, by increasing difficulty of semantic retrieval. PMID:24565928

  15. A common network in the left cerebral hemisphere represents planning of tool use pantomimes and familiar intransitive gestures at the hand-independent level.

    PubMed

    Króliczak, Gregory; Frey, Scott H

    2009-10-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology and neuroimaging implicates parietal and frontal areas of the left cerebral hemisphere in the representation of skills involving the use of tools and other artifacts. On the basis of neuropsychological data, it has been claimed that 1) independent mechanisms within the left hemisphere may support the representation of these skills (transitive actions) versus meaningful gestures that do not involve manipulating objects (intransitive actions), and 2) both cerebral hemispheres may participate in the representation of intransitive gestures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test these hypotheses in 12 healthy adults while they planned and executed tool use pantomimes or intransitive gestures with their dominant right (Exp. 1) or nondominant left (Exp. 2) hands. Even when linguistic processing demands were controlled, planning either type of action was associated with asymmetrical increases in the same regions of left parietal (the intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, and caudal superior parietal lobule) and dorsal premotor cortices. Effects were greater for tool use pantomimes, but only when the right hand was involved. Neither group nor individual analyses revealed evidence for greater bilateral activity during intransitive gesture planning. In summary, at the hand-independent level, transitive and intransitive actions are represented in a common, left-lateralized praxis network.

  16. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on left cerebellar hemisphere affects mental rotation tasks during music listening.

    PubMed

    Picazio, Silvia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests an association between spatial and music domains. A cerebellar role in music-related information processing as well as in spatial-temporal tasks has been documented. Here, we investigated the cerebellar role in the association between spatial and musical domains, by testing performances in embodied (EMR) or abstract (AMR) mental rotation tasks of subjects listening Mozart Sonata K.448, which is reported to improve spatial-temporal reasoning, in the presence or in the absence of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the left cerebellar hemisphere. In the absence of cerebellar cTBS, music listening did not influence either MR task, thus not revealing a "Mozart Effect". Cerebellar cTBS applied before musical listening made subjects faster (P = 0.005) and less accurate (P = 0.005) in performing the EMR but not the AMR task. Thus, cerebellar inhibition by TBS unmasked the effect of musical listening on motor imagery. These data support a coupling between music listening and sensory-motor integration in cerebellar networks for embodied representations.

  17. Augmenting melodic intonation therapy with non-invasive brain stimulation to treat impaired left-hemisphere function: two case studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janabi, Shahd; Nickels, Lyndsey A.; Sowman, Paul F.; Burianová, Hana; Merrett, Dawn L.; Thompson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the right hemisphere can be engaged using Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve language function in people with aphasia. The two participants in this study (GOE and AMC) have chronic non-fluent aphasia. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was used to localize the right Broca's homolog area in the inferior frontal gyrus for rTMS coil placement. The treatment protocol included an rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used an excitatory stimulation method known as intermittent theta burst stimulation, and a sham-rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used a sham coil. Each treatment session was followed by 40 min of MIT. A linguistic battery was administered after each session. Our findings show that one participant, GOE, improved in verbal fluency and the repetition of phrases when treated with MIT in combination with TMS. However, AMC showed no evidence of behavioral benefit from this brief treatment trial. Post-treatment neural activity changes were observed for both participants in the left Broca's area and right Broca's homolog. These case studies indicate that a combination of MIT and rTMS applied to the right Broca's homolog has the potential to improve speech and language outcomes for at least some people with post-stroke aphasia. PMID:24550864

  18. Shift-back of right into left hemisphere language dominance after control of epileptic seizures: evidence for epilepsy driven functional cerebral organization.

    PubMed

    Helmstaedter, C; Fritz, N E; González Pérez, P A; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2006-08-01

    Atypical, i.e. right hemisphere language dominance is frequently observed in early onset left hemisphere epilepsies. In left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, where eloquent cortex is not directly involved, it is a matter of debate, to which degree atypical language dominance is driven not only by morphological lesions but also by epileptic dysfunction, and whether atypical dominance is hardwired or not. Taking this as the background this study evaluated the hypothesis that epilepsy driven atypical dominancy might be reversible when seizures are successfully controlled. This was evaluated in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, who were atypically language dominant by means of language fMRI before surgery, and became seizure free after left selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy. Three out of 53 consecutive atypically dominant patients with chronic epilepsy fulfilled these criteria. Postoperative follow-up language fMRI indicated reversal of right into left dominance in one patient going along with unexpected losses in verbal memory performance. The two other patients experienced unchanged or even enhancement of the pre-existing dominance pattern, going along with consistent postoperative performance changes in cognition. The data thus provide supporting evidence that atypical language dominance can indeed be functionally driven and moreover that in at least some patients, right hemispheric language can shift-back to the left hemisphere when the driving factor, i.e. seizures, becomes successfully controlled. The results have clinical implications for outcome prediction after brain surgery in atypically dominant patients with epilepsy. However, further research in larger groups of atypically dominant patients is required to identify the conditions under which atypical dominance becomes hardwired and when not.

  19. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  20. Left ventricular muscle and fluid mechanics in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nucifora, Gaetano; Delgado, Victoria; Bertini, Matteo; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Van de Veire, Nico R; Ng, Arnold C T; Siebelink, Hans-Marc J; Schalij, Martin J; Holman, Eduard R; Sengupta, Partho P; Bax, Jeroen J

    2010-11-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling is characterized by the formation of intraventricular rotational bodies of fluid (termed "vortex rings") that optimize the efficiency of LV ejection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphology and dynamics of LV diastolic vortex ring formation early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in relation to LV diastolic function and infarct size. A total of 94 patients with a first ST-segment elevation AMI (59 ± 11 years; 78% men) were included. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. After 48 hours, the following examinations were performed: 2-dimensional echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis to assess the LV systolic and diastolic function, the vortex formation time (VFT, a dimensionless index for characterizing vortex formation), and the LV untwisting rate; contrast echocardiography to assess LV vortex morphology; and myocardial contrast echocardiography to identify the infarct size. Patients with a large infarct size (≥ 3 LV segments) had a significantly lower VFT (p <0.001) and vortex sphericity index (p <0.001). On univariate analysis, several variables were significantly related to the VFT, including anterior AMI, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, grade of diastolic dysfunction, LV untwisting rate, and infarct size. On multivariate analysis, the LV untwisting rate (β = -0.43, p <0.001) and infarct size (β = -0.33, p = 0.005) were independently associated with VFT. In conclusion, early in AMI, both the LV infarct size and the mechanical sequence of diastolic restoration play key roles in modulating the morphology and dynamics of early diastolic vortex ring formation.

  1. [Correlations of activity of neurons of sensorimotor cortex of the right and left brain hemispheres of rabbits during defensive dominant and "animal hypnosis"].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, A V; Galashina, A G; Karamysheva, N N

    2009-01-01

    A hidden excitation focus of the rhythmic nature (a rhythmic defensive dominant focus) was produced in the rabbit's CNS. The focus was formed by means of threshold electrodermal stimulation of the left forelimb by series of pulses consisting of 15-20 stimuli with 2 s intervals between the pulses. Correlated activity of cells in the sensorimotor cortex of the right and left brain hemispheres was analyzed. In cases when crosscorrelation histograms were constructed by the results of the analysis of discharges of the left-side cortical of neurons regarding high- and middle-amplitude pulses in a right hemisphere, 15 and 23 % of correlated neural pairs, respectively, revealed the prevalence of the rhythm identical or close to the initial rhythm of stimulation that formed the hidden excitation focus. In contrast, in cases when the same analysis was applied to the right-side cortical neurons regarding high- and middle-amplitude discharges in the left hemisphere, prevalence of the dominant 2-second rhythm was revealed in correlated activity of only 3 and 10% of neural pairs, respectively. After the exposure to "animal hypnosis" procedure, the distinctions between the brain in this parameter were eliminated.

  2. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction caused by left atrial myxoma: Role of intracoronary catheter aspiration.

    PubMed

    Al-Fakhouri, Ahmad; Janjua, Muhammad; DeGregori, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by left atrial myxoma is very rare. Catheter-based approaches or thrombolytic therapy are mostly the first step in the management of STEMI with less time delay. We report a case of acute anterior/lateral STEMI caused by a left atrial myxoma. The patient was successfully treated by intracoronary aspiration with an Export aspiration catheter, with excellent distal coronary flow. Intracoronary catheter aspiration in acute myocardial infarction caused by a left atrial myxoma may help to salvage the infarcting myocardium with less time delay.

  4. WSES Guidelines for the management of acute left sided colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Griffiths, Ewen A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ulrych, Jan; Kluger, Yoram; Ben-Ishay, Ofir; Moore, Frederick A; Ivatury, Rao R; Coimbra, Raul; Peitzman, Andrew B; Leppaniemi, Ari; Fraga, Gustavo P; Maier, Ronald V; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kashuk, Jeffry; Sakakushev, Boris; Weber, Dieter G; Latifi, Rifat; Biffl, Walter; Bala, Miklosh; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Inaba, Kenji; Ordonez, Carlos A; Hecker, Andreas; Augustin, Goran; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Melo, Renato Bessa; Marwah, Sanjay; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Shelat, Vishal G; McFarlane, Michael; Rems, Miran; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Faro, Mario Paulo; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Negoi, Ionut; Cui, Yunfeng; Sato, Norio; Vereczkei, Andras; Bellanova, Giovanni; Birindelli, Arianna; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kok, Kenneth Y; Gachabayov, Mahir; Gkiokas, Georgios; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Çolak, Elif; Isik, Arda; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Soto, Rodolfo; Moore, Ernest E

    2016-01-01

    Acute left sided colonic diverticulitis is one of the most common clinical conditions encountered by surgeons in acute setting. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference on acute diverticulitis was held during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES in Jerusalem, Israel, on July 7th, 2015. During this consensus conference the guidelines for the management of acute left sided colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting were presented and discussed. This document represents the executive summary of the final guidelines approved by the consensus conference.

  5. Effects of mental rotation on acalculia: differences in the direction of mental rotation account for the differing characteristics of acalculia induced by right and left hemispheric brain injury.

    PubMed

    Asada, Tomohiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Oita, Jiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2014-04-01

    We observed a 59-year-old right-handed man with an infarction in his right-middle cerebral artery that included the parietal lobe, who abnormally manipulated mental images in the horizontal direction, resulting in calculation disturbances. Three years later, the patient suffered an infarction in the left parietal lobe and displayed abnormalities during the creation of mental images; i.e., he rotated them in the vertical direction, which again resulted in calculation disturbances. These mental imagery disturbances might indicate that a common acalculia mechanism exists between the right and left hemispheres.

  6. The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after early left hemispheric brain lesions: An event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Choi, Alexander H; Dosenbach, Yannic B L; Coalson, Rebecca S; Miezin, Francis M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2010-08-01

    Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon is accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we used an event-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial-related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial-related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with event-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after early childhood brain injuries.

  7. [Acute cerebral ischemia: an unusual clinical presentation of isolated left ventricular noncompaction in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Fiorencis, Andrea; Quadretti, Laura; Bacich, Daniela; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Mele, Donato; Fiorencis, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Isolated left ventricular noncompaction in adults is uncommon. The most frequent clinical manifestations are heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, which may be sustained and associated with sudden death. Thromboembolic complications are also possible. We report the case of an adult patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction who came to our observation because of acute cerebral ischemia, an initial presentation of the disease only rarely described.

  8. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nissan; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years. PMID:28078145

  9. Hemispheric specialization in selective attention and short-term memory: a fine-coarse model of left- and right-ear disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Pilgrim, Lea K.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Serial short-term memory is impaired by irrelevant sound, particularly when the sound changes acoustically. This acoustic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the left compared to the right ear (a left-ear disadvantage). Serial memory appears relatively insensitive to distraction from the semantic properties of a background sound. In contrast, short-term free recall of semantic-category exemplars is impaired by the semantic properties of background speech and is relatively insensitive to the sound's acoustic properties. This semantic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the right compared to the left ear (a right-ear disadvantage). In this paper, we outline a speculative neurocognitive fine-coarse model of these hemispheric differences in relation to short-term memory and selective attention, and explicate empirical directions in which this model can be critically evaluated. PMID:24399988

  10. The effects of left or right hemispheric epilepsy on language networks investigated with semantic decision fMRI task and independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Kim, Kwang Ki; Holland, Scott K; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2011-04-01

    Chronic and progressive brain injury, as seen in epilepsy, may alter brain networks that underlie cognitive functions. To evaluate the effect of epilepsy on language functions we investigated the neuroanatomical basis of semantic processing in patients with left (LHE) or right (RHE) hemispheric onset epilepsy using semantic decision fMRI paradigm and group independent component analysis (ICA); we then compared the results of our investigations with language networks in healthy subjects examined with the same language task (Kim K, Karunanayaka P, Privitera M, Holland S, Szaflarski J. Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis. In press). Group ICA is a data-driven technique capable of revealing the functional organization of the human brain based on fMRI data. In addition to providing functional connectivity information, ICA can also provide information about the temporal dynamics of underlying networks subserving specific cognitive functions. In this study, we implemented two complementary analyses to investigate group differences in underlying network dynamics based on associated independent component (IC) time courses (a priori defined criterion or a posteriori identified maximum likelihood descriptor). We detected several differences between healthy controls and patients with epilepsy not previously observed with standard fMRI analysis methods. Our analyses confirmed the presence of different effects of LHE or RHE on the behavior of the language network. In particular, a major difference was noted in the nodes subserving verbal encoding and retrieval in the bilateral medial temporal regions. These effects were dependent on the side of the epilepsy onset; that is, effects were different with left or right hemispheric epilepsy. These findings may explain the differences in verbal and nonverbal memory abilities between patients with left and those with right hemispheric epilepsy. Further, although the effects on other nodes of

  11. Subclavian steal syndrome presenting as recurrent pulmonary oedema associated with acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ballo, Piercarlo; Michelagnoli, Stefano; Ercolini, Leonardo; Barbanti, Enrico; Passuello, Franco; Abbondanti, Alessandro; Consoli, Lorenzo; Chechi, Tania; Fibbi, Veronica; Nannini, Marco; Chiodi, Leandro; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome typically presents as angina in patients with internal mammary artery grafts. Atypical clinical presentations have been rarely described. We report an unusual case of subclavian steal syndrome presenting as pulmonary oedema with acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction in a patient with internal mammary artery graft and severe stenosis of the proximal left subclavian artery. After successful angioplasty and stenting of subclavian artery, the patient remained asymptomatic for six months, but then experienced acute diastolic dysfunction and recurrent pulmonary oedema associated with critical subclavian in-stent restenosis with stent deformation. This report points out that, in patients with internal mammary-to-LAD grafts, subclavian steal syndrome may present as acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary oedema even in the presence of normal ejection fraction.

  12. Let thy left brain know what thy right brain doeth: Inter-hemispheric compensation of functional deficits after brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, Paolo; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence revealed the importance of inter-hemispheric communication for the compensation of functional deficits after brain damage. This review summarises the biological consequences observed using histology as well as the longitudinal findings measured with magnetic resonance imaging methods in brain damaged animals and patients. In particular, we discuss the impact of post-stroke brain hyperactivity on functional recovery in relation to time. The reviewed evidence also suggests that the proportion of the preserved functional network both in the lesioned and in the intact hemispheres, rather than the simple lesion location, determines the extent of functional recovery. Hence, future research exploring longitudinal changes in patients with brain damage may unveil potential biomarkers underlying functional recovery.

  13. [Acute amnestic syndrome: left thalamo-polar infarct].

    PubMed

    Ghika, Joseph

    2012-04-11

    An 80-year old American patient was found wandering in a mountain village of Switzerland, with an anterograde, prospective, retrograde, dyschronologic amnesic syndrome without confabulation, paramnesia or false recognitions, disoriented, slightly confused, with no focal sensory, motor, ataxic or visual field deficit, with a mild dysexecutive syndrome. The MR imaging showed an acute thalamo-polar artery infarct. A dysconnection of the mamillo-othalamic and thalamo-temporal pathways is felt at the origin of the amnesic syndrome. A brief review of the other presentation of this chamelon syndrome is presented, together the main etiologies at its origin.

  14. [Early left ventricular remodelling following acute coronary accident].

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Roger; Logeart, Damien; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Mercadier, Jean-Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Ventricular remodelling following acute coronary syndromes is both complex and multiform. It is due to the response of the myocardium to the different agressions associated with these syndromes, in particular the ischemia and necrosis downstream of the occluded artery. We must not however neglect the role of the remodelling of the lesions resulting from spontaneous reperfusion or provoked by the cells and tissues associated with coronary microcirculation embolisms and the no-reflow phenomenon. Acute post-infarct remodelling is dominated by early ventricular dilatation which largely affects late prognosis, necrosis elimination and its replacement by a fibrotic scar in parallel with a compensatory hypertrophy of the non-infarcted myocardium. The diverse cellular and molecular components of this remodelling are increasingly well-known, allowing us to better explain the beneficial effects of the currently available medications and providing us with new potential therapeutic targets. A grading of this knowledge associated with the identification of new risk factors and early therapeutic interventions should help us to further limit the deleterious aspects of this remodelling in the goal of preventing, or at least delaying, the devolution towards heart failure.

  15. Deficit in automatic sound-change detection may underlie some music perception deficits after acute hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Kohlmetz, C; Altenmüller, E; Schuppert, M; Wieringa, B M; Münte, T F

    2001-01-01

    Music perception deficits following acute neurological damage are thought to be rare. By a newly devised test battery of music-perception skills, however, we were able to identify among a group of 12 patients with acute hemispheric stroke six patients with music perception deficits (amusia) while six others had no such deficits. In addition we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a passive listening task with frequent standard and infrequent pitch deviants designed to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN in the patients with amusia was grossly reduced, while the non-amusic patients and control subjects had MMNs of equal size. These data show that amusia is quite common in unselected stroke patients. The MMN reduction suggests that amusia is related to unspecific automatic stimulus classification deficits in these patients.

  16. Acute left ventricular failure in a patient with hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, M; Meek, I L; van Houwelingen, G K; Lambregts, H P C M; Toes, G J; van der Wal, A C; von Birgelen, C

    2011-11-01

    We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with a medical history of rheumatoid arthritis treated with hydroxychloroquine, who was admitted with acute left-sided heart failure due to a hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy as supported by endomyocardial biopsy.

  17. Emotion Recognition in Stroke Patients with Left and Right Hemispheric Lesion: Results with a New Instrument-The Feel Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, M.; Traue, H.C.; Frisch, S.; Deighton, R.M.; Kessler, H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a stroke event on people's ability to recognize basic emotions. In particular, the hypothesis that right brain-damaged (RBD) patients would show less of emotion recognition ability compared with left brain-damaged (LBD) patients and healthy controls, was tested. To investigate this the FEEL…

  18. Scuba diving, acute left anterior descending artery occlusion and normal ECG.

    PubMed

    Doll, Sébastien Xavier; Rigamonti, Fabio; Roffi, Marco; Noble, Stéphane

    2013-01-31

    We report the case of an acute proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery following a scuba diving decompression accident and associated with normal ECG. Following uneventful thromboaspiration and coronary stenting, the patient was discharged on day 4 with secondary preventative therapies. A transthoracic echocardiography performed at this point showed a complete recovery compared with an initial localised akinesia involving the anterior and apical portion of the left ventricle upon admission. This case highlights that significant acute coronary lesions involving the LAD can occur without any ECG anomaly. The presence of acute and persistent angina associated with troponin elevation should prompt physicians to consider coronary angiography without delay, independently of the ECG results.

  19. Manifestation of Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in the Acute Phase of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kazuyuki; Okubo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Tsuchida, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a complication in 15-25% of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sometimes leads to catastrophic outcomes, such as cardiogenic shock or cardiac rupture. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Methods and Results We experienced 22 cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during 3 years, and 4 of these 22 cases were complicated with LVOT obstruction in the acute phase (mean age 79±5 years, 1 man, 21 women). The LVOT pressure gradient in the acute phase was 100±17 mmHg. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in one case and sigmoid-shaped septum without LVH in three cases. The complete resolution of the LVOT obstruction was achieved in a few days with normalization of the left ventricular wall motion following administration of beta-blockers. A dobutamine provocation test after normalization of the left ventricular wall motion reproduced the LVOT obstruction in all cases and revealed the presence of latent LVOT obstruction. Conclusion The manifestation of latent LVOT obstruction in the acute phase of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one potential reason for the complication of LVOT obstruction with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27904102

  20. Shared and Distinct Neuroanatomic Regions Critical for Tool-related Action Production and Recognition: Evidence from 131 Left-hemisphere Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leyla Y; Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-12-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe have been characterized as human homologues of the monkey "mirror neuron" system, critical for both action production (AP) and action recognition (AR). However, data from brain lesion patients with selective impairment on only one of these tasks provide evidence of neural and cognitive dissociations. We sought to clarify the relationship between AP and AR, and their critical neural substrates, by directly comparing performance of 131 chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients on both tasks--to our knowledge, the largest lesion-based experimental investigation of action cognition to date. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we found that lesions to primary motor and somatosensory cortices and inferior parietal lobule were associated with disproportionately impaired performance on AP, whereas lesions to lateral temporo-occipital cortex were associated with a relatively rare pattern of disproportionately impaired performance on AR. In contrast, damage to posterior middle temporal gyrus was associated with impairment on both AP and AR. The distinction between lateral temporo-occipital cortex, critical for recognition, and posterior middle temporal gyrus, important for both tasks, suggests a rough gradient from modality-specific to abstract representations in posterior temporal cortex, the first lesion-based evidence for this phenomenon. Overall, the results of this large patient study help to bring closure to a long-standing debate by showing that tool-related AP and AR critically depend on both common and distinct left hemisphere neural substrates, most of which are external to putative human mirror regions.

  1. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-11-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection.

  2. Bilingualism yields language-specific plasticity in left hemisphere's circuitry for learning to read in young children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, K K; Berens, M S; Kovelman, I; Petitto, L A

    2016-11-25

    How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N =26). Spanish offers consistent sound-to-print correspondences ("phonologically transparent" or "shallow"); such correspondences are more opaque in French and even more opaque in English (which has both transparent and "phonologically opaque" or "deep" correspondences). Consistent with our hypothesis, both French- and Spanish-English bilinguals showed hyperactivation in left posterior temporal regions associated with direct sound-to-print phonological analyses and hypoactivation in left frontal regions associated with assembled phonology analyses. Spanish, but not French, bilinguals showed a similar effect when reading Irregular words. The findings inform theories of bilingual and cross-linguistic literacy acquisition by suggesting that structural characteristics of bilinguals' two languages and their orthographies have a significant impact on children's neuro-cognitive architecture for learning to read.

  3. Lateral left ventricular wall rupture following acute myocardial infarction: pathophysiological interpretation by multimodality imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Avegliano, Gustavo; Conde, Diego; González Ruiz, María Isabel; Kuschnir, Paola; Sciancalepore, Agustina; Castro, Florencia; Ronderos, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Lateral left ventricular wall rupture (LVWR) is a rare complication following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) less than 1%. After cardiogenic shock, LVWR constitutes the most common cause of in-hospital death in AMI patients. Around 40% of all LVWR occurred during the first 24 hours and 85% within the first week. In the present case, 76 hours following the intervention, LVWR was observed likely due to a small infarction at the lateral left ventricular wall possibly due to the marginal lesion. Our patient refused surgery and was followed clinically. Eighteen months later, real time three-dimensional echocardiography showed a pseudoaneurysm.

  4. Effects of increasing left ventricular filling pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Richard O.; Rackley, Charles E.; Pombo, Jaoquin; Hunt, David; Potanin, Constantine; Dodge, Harold T.

    1970-01-01

    Left ventricular performance in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction has been evaluated by measuring left ventricular response in terms of cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power to progressive elevation of filling pressure accomplished by progressive expansion of blood volume with rapid infusion of low molecular weight dextran. Such infusion can elevate the cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power and thus delineate the function of the left ventricle by Frank-Starling function curves. Left ventricular filling pressure in the range of 20-24 mm Hg was associated with the peak of the curves and when the filling pressure exceeded this range, the curves became flattened or decreased. An increase in cardiac output could be maintained for 4 or more hr. Patients with a flattened function curve had a high mortality in the ensuing 8 wk. The function curve showed improvement in myocardial function during the early convalescence. When left ventricular filling pressure is monitored directly or as pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure, low molecular weight dextran provides a method for assessment of left ventricular function. Images PMID:5431663

  5. [Incidence and management of acute left main coronary artery dissection as a complication of acute transluminal coronary angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Dittel, M; Prachar, H; Spiel, R; Mlczoch, J

    1996-09-01

    Out of 1730 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of left descending coronary artery (LAD) or circumflex artery (CX) five patients (0.3%) suffered an acute dissection of left main coronary artery. In three patients dissection developed because of manipulation of the guiding catheter. In one patient retrograde dissection of the left main stem occurred because of balloon angioplasty of ostial LAD stenosis and in a second patient because of balloon rupture in the setting of stent deployment in the proximal part of the LAD. Four patients were selected for emergency operation, but one patient died before reacting the operation theatre. Out of the three remaining patients one patient died postoperatively and another patient suffered a transmural myocardial infarction. In the fifth patient three AVE Micro stents were implanted; one just at the origin of the LAD, one at the origin of the CX and the third in the left main stem. This patient was not sent for operation and was discharged without symptoms.

  6. The Marc Dax (1770-1837)/Paul Broca (1824-1880) Controversy over Priority in Science: Left Hemisphere Specificity for Seat of Articulate Language and for Lesions that Cause Aphemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Hugh W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most fascinating and frustrating issues in the priority of discovery in science is over just who, for the first time, went on record in the public forum, either orally at a conference or through a published communication, proclaiming that the faculty of articulate human speech was located in the left, not the right, cortical hemisphere.…

  7. Dissociated functional connectivity profiles for motor and attention deficits in acute right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristi; Siegel, Joshua S; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Strube, Michael J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Strokes often cause multiple behavioural deficits that are correlated at the population level. Here, we show that motor and attention deficits are selectively associated with abnormal patterns of resting state functional connectivity in the dorsal attention and motor networks. We measured attention and motor deficits in 44 right hemisphere-damaged patients with a first-time stroke at 1-2 weeks post-onset. The motor battery included tests that evaluated deficits in both upper and lower extremities. The attention battery assessed both spatial and non-spatial attention deficits. Summary measures for motor and attention deficits were identified through principal component analyses on the raw behavioural scores. Functional connectivity in structurally normal cortex was estimated based on the temporal correlation of blood oxygenation level-dependent signals measured at rest with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Any correlation between motor and attention deficits and between functional connectivity in the dorsal attention network and motor networks that might spuriously affect the relationship between each deficit and functional connectivity was statistically removed. We report a double dissociation between abnormal functional connectivity patterns and attention and motor deficits, respectively. Attention deficits were significantly more correlated with abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity within the dorsal attention network than motor networks, while motor deficits were significantly more correlated with abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity patterns within the motor networks than dorsal attention network. These findings indicate that functional connectivity patterns in structurally normal cortex following a stroke link abnormal physiology in brain networks to the corresponding behavioural deficits.

  8. Automatic segmentation of short association bundles using a new multi-subject atlas of the left hemisphere fronto-parietal brain connections.

    PubMed

    Guevara, M; Seguel, D; Roman, C; Duclap, D; Lebois, A; Le Bihan; Mangin, J-F; Poupon, C; Guevara, P

    2015-08-01

    Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of the pathogenesis associated to it. In this work we developed a method for the automatic creation of a SWM bundle multi-subject atlas. The atlas generation method is based on a cortical parcellation for the extraction of fibers connecting two different gyri. Then, an intra-subject fiber clustering is applied, in order to divide each bundle into sub-bundles with similar shape. After that, a two-step inter-subject fiber clustering is used in order to find the correspondence between the sub-bundles across the subjects, fuse similar clusters and discard the outliers. The method was applied to 40 subjects of a high quality HARDI database, focused on the left hemisphere fronto-parietal and insula brain regions. We obtained an atlas composed of 44 bundles connecting 22 pair of ROIs. Then the atlas was used to automatically segment 39 new subjects from the database.

  9. Expression of Bax Protein and Morphological Changes in the Myocardium in Experimental Acute Pressure Overload of the Left Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Blagonravov, M L; Korshunova, A Yu; Azova, M M; Bryk, A A; Frolov, V A

    2016-06-01

    The expression of Bax protein, marker of intracellular pathway of apoptosis initiation, in viable left ventricular cardiomyocytes and morphological changes in the myocardium in acute pressure overload of the left ventricle were studied in experiment on male rabbits. The content of Bax protein in the cardiomyocyte cytoplasm decreased, this indicating that the mitochondrial pathway was not involved in the realization of the apoptotic program. This decrease was associated with manifest destructive changes in the left ventricular myocardium.

  10. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appearance of the AMI.

  11. Left main stent thrombosis complicated by eptifibatide-induced acute thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eric H; Perez, Edwin; Zhiroff, Katrine A; Burstein, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease and placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator presented at our emergency room with an anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization revealed an acutely occluded left main coronary artery, which was revascularized successfully with a bare-metal stent. Periprocedurally, the patient received aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin, and eptifibatide. The patient was discharged a week later, but he returned to the emergency room the same day with recurrence of severe chest pain. Repeat cardiac catheterization revealed an acutely occluded stent, and the patient underwent repeat bare-metal stent placement and readministration of eptifibatide. On the next day, the patient's platelet count dropped acutely to less than 12,000/mm3. A test for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibody was negative. After discontinuation of eptifibatide, the patient's platelet count gradually returned to normal, and he was later discharged from the hospital with no complications. Eptifibatide-induced acute thrombocytopenia is a known but rare adverse effect. We review the handful of case reports in the medical literature, with emphasis on the prevalence, observed clinical course, and recently proposed physiologic mechanisms that probably are responsible for this phenomenon.

  12. Left ventricular performance in type-II diabetics with first acute myocardial infarction: A radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, E.M.; Karimeddini, M.K.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Dey, H.M.; Antar, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    To assess myocardial performance in diabetics following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), resting gated radionuclide studies with Tc-99m were performed within two weeks of the onset of symptoms in matched groups of 18 type-II diabetics with their first clinical AMI (D-AMI), 20 nondiabetics with their first AMI (ND-AMI), and 20 nondiabetic noncardiac controls. Eighty-three percent of D-AMI and 50% of ND-AMI had left ventricular ejection fractions below 2 SD of normal. Diabetics had a significantly lower resting LVEF than nondiabetics (p<0.05). All patients with LVEF < 35% were diabetics. LV mean ejection and filling rates were similar in diabetics and nondiabetics. While 72% of diabetics showed abnormal wall motion in 5 or more segments (out of 9), only 45% of the nondiabetics were this extensively affected. Seventy-two percent of the diabetics showed one or more of akinesis and 39% had one or more areas of dyskinesis, compared to 30% and 5% of the nondiabetics respectively. The authors conclude that the extent, as well as the severity of the left ventricular impairment is more evident in the diabetics than in the nondiabetics, following the first acute MI.

  13. Acute aortocaval fistula: role of low perfusion pressure and subendocardial remodeling on left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Mazzo, Flávia R R; de Carvalho Frimm, Clovis; Moretti, Ana Iochabel S; Guido, Maria C; Koike, Marcia K

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of aortocaval fistula is a useful model of cardiac hypertrophy in response to volume overload. In the present study it has been used to investigate the pathologic subendocardial remodeling associated with the development of heart failure during the early phases (day 1, 3, and 7) following volume overload. Compared with sham treated rats, aortocaval fistula rats showed lower systemic blood pressure and higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressure This resulted in lower coronary driving pressure and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Signs of myocyte necrosis, leukocyte cell infiltration, fibroplasia and collagen deposition appeared sequentially in the subendocardium where remodeling was more prominent than in the non-subendocardium. Accordingly, increased levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, and enhanced MMP-2 activity were all found in the subendocardium of rats with coronary driving pressure ≤60 mmHg. The coronary driving pressure was inversely correlated with MMP-2 activity in subendocardium in all time-points studied, and blood flow in this region showed positive correlation with systolic and diastolic function at day 7. Thus the predominant subendocardial remodeling that occurs in response to low myocardial perfusion pressure during the acute phases of aortocaval fistula contributes to early left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:23593971

  14. Noninvasive assessment of right and left ventricular function in acute and chronic respiratory failure

    SciTech Connect

    Matthay, R.A.; Berger, H.J.

    1983-05-01

    This review evaluates noninvasive techniques for assessing cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Radiographic, radionuclide, and echocardiographic methods for determining ventricular volumes, right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions, and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) are emphasized. These methods include plain chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial imaging, and M mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography, which have recently been applied in patients to detect pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), right ventricular enlargement, and occult ventricular performance abnormalities at rest or exercise. Moreover, radionuclide angiocardiography has proven useful in combination with hemodynamic measurements, for evaluating the short-and long-term cardiovascular effects of therapeutic agents, such as oxygen, digitalis, theophylline, beta-adrenergic agents, and vasodilators.

  15. Acute Effect of Treatment of Mitral Stenosis on Left Atrium Function

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Atooshe; Kargar, Shahram; Fazlinejad, Afsoon; Ghaderi, Fereshte; Vakili, Vida; Falsoleiman, Homa; Bagheri, Ramin Khamene

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) is used to evaluate left atrium (LA) function in patients with mitral stenosis (MS), before and after percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and mitral valve replacement (MVR). Methods: Patients with severe symptomatic MS, who were referred to our echocardiographic laboratory for a diagnostic examination before cardiac surgery or PTMC from October of 2014 to October of 2015, were included in the study. Result: The peak systolic global LA strain improved post-PTMC (P < 0.001) and post-MVR (P = 0.012). This difference was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: PALS is impaired in patients with severe symptomatic MS and improved acutely after treatment and may be a good indicator of LA function and may predict the right time for intervention on mitral valve. PMID:28074794

  16. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  17. Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Baumert, Jan-H.; Roehl, Anna B.; Funcke, Sandra; Hein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion) was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation) and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work) were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning. PMID:27867480

  18. Enhanced preservation of acutely ischemic myocardium with transseptal left ventricular assist.

    PubMed

    Fonger, J D; Zhou, Y; Matsuura, H; Aldea, G S; Shemin, R J

    1994-03-01

    Mechanical support for acute regional ischemia without hemodynamic collapse may be achieved percutaneously with an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) or with transseptal left ventricular assist (TLVA) while awaiting revascularization. The relative benefits of these two percutaneous transfemoral techniques for the treatment of ischemia were compared in a representative animal model. During 90 minutes of regional coronary occlusion, four groups of 8 pigs were treated with either no support (control), IABP, TLVA, or both IABP and TLVA. Cardioplegic arrest for 30 minutes to simulate coronary grafting was followed by 180 minutes of global reperfusion on bypass. In all groups regional wall motion and interstitial pH in the area at risk were significantly depressed with ischemia, but wall motion fully recovered after reperfusion. However, histochemical staining of the area of necrosis/area at risk was significantly reduced with IABP versus control (20.2% versus 34.1%; p < 0.05) and further significantly reduced with TLVA and IABP + TLVA (10.7% and 6.7% versus IABP alone; p < 0.05). We conclude that in supporting even a modest-sized myocardial region at risk (12% of the left ventricle) the area that went on to infarction was significantly reduced with the use of TLVA over IABP. Regional wall motion and myocardial pH measurements did not reflect this difference in the early reperfusion period. The benefit of TLVA over IABP during more extensive or prolonged ischemia may have real clinical significance.

  19. Mediated priming in the cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Livesay, Kay; Burgess, Curt

    2003-11-01

    The present experiment investigates hemispheric differences in mediated priming. Theories of lexical representation have argued for an asymmetrical coding between the right and left hemispheres ([Beeman, 1998]), claiming that the right hemisphere is more diffusely represented compared to the left hemisphere. Thus, the right hemisphere activates a larger semantic field compared to the left hemisphere. Mediated (two-step) priming is an ideal task to examine this representational claim, because of the distant nature of the prime-target pairs. Results showed no difference in the magnitude of priming (both mediated and direct) between the right and left hemispheres. These results suggest that the lexical representation of the two hemispheres is equivalent, not asymmetrical as Beeman suggests.

  20. Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production.

    PubMed

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J; Ulmer, Stephan; Baumgaertner, Annette; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-10-08

    The role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage remains unclear. Increased activation of the right hemisphere has been observed after left hemisphere damage. This may simply reflect a release from transcallosal inhibition that does not contribute to language functions. Alternatively, the right hemisphere may actively contribute to language functions by supporting disrupted processing in the left hemisphere via interhemispheric connections. To test this hypothesis, we applied off-line continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in healthy volunteers, then used functional MRI to investigate acute changes in effective connectivity between the left and right hemispheres during repetition of auditory and visual words and pseudowords. In separate sessions, we applied cTBS over the left anterior IFG (aIFG) or posterior IFG (pIFG) to test the anatomic specificity of the effects of cTBS on speech processing. Compared with cTBS over the aIFG, cTBS over the pIFG suppressed activity in the left pIFG and increased activity in the right pIFG during pseudoword vs. word repetition in both modalities. This effect was associated with a stronger facilitatory drive from the right pIFG to the left pIFG during pseudoword repetition. Critically, response became faster as the influence of the right pIFG on left pIFG increased, indicating that homologous areas in the right hemisphere actively contribute to language function after a focal left hemisphere lesion. Our findings lend further support to the notion that increased activation of homologous right hemisphere areas supports aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage.

  1. Survival after Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture in an Elderly Woman with Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated Only Medically

    PubMed Central

    Roa-Castro, Víctor Hugo; Molina-Bello, Ervin; Valenzuela-Suárez, Hector; Rotberg-Jagode, Tobías; Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare and may occur as a result of transmural myocardial infarction. The course of rupture after acute myocardial infarction varies from a catastrophic event, with an acute tear leading to immediate death (acute rupture), or slow and incomplete tear leading to a late rupture (subacute rupture). Incomplete rupture may occur when the thrombus and haematoma together with the pericardium seal the rupture of the left ventricle and may develop into a pseudoaneurysm. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in this condition. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is the first-choice method for most patients with suspected left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP) and suggests left ventricular rupture in 85% to 90% of patients. We report the case of an 87-year-old woman presenting with symptoms and findings of myocardial infarction and left ventricular free wall rupture with a pseudoaneurysm formation diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed on CT, MRI, and NM. She received only intense medical treatment, because she refused surgery with a favorable outcome. After 24-month followup, she is in NYHA functional class II. The survival of this patient is due to the contained pseudoaneurysm by dense pericardial adhesions, related to her previous coronary bypass surgery. PMID:22953155

  2. Increased BOLD Signals Elicited by High Gamma Auditory Stimulation of the Left Auditory Cortex in Acute State Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Hironori; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Hirano, Yoji; Nakamura, Itta; Oribe, Naoya; Mizuhara, Hiroaki; Kanai, Ryota; Kanba, Shigenobu; Ueno, Takefumi

    2016-10-01

    Recent MRI studies have shown that schizophrenia is characterized by reductions in brain gray matter, which progress in the acute state of the disease. Cortical circuitry abnormalities in gamma oscillations, such as deficits in the auditory steady state response (ASSR) to gamma frequency (>30-Hz) stimulation, have also been reported in schizophrenia patients. In the current study, we investigated neural responses during click stimulation by BOLD signals. We acquired BOLD responses elicited by click trains of 20, 30, 40 and 80-Hz frequencies from 15 patients with acute episode schizophrenia (AESZ), 14 symptom-severity-matched patients with non-acute episode schizophrenia (NASZ), and 24 healthy controls (HC), assessed via a standard general linear-model-based analysis. The AESZ group showed significantly increased ASSR-BOLD signals to 80-Hz stimuli in the left auditory cortex compared with the HC and NASZ groups. In addition, enhanced 80-Hz ASSR-BOLD signals were associated with more severe auditory hallucination experiences in AESZ participants. The present results indicate that neural over activation occurs during 80-Hz auditory stimulation of the left auditory cortex in individuals with acute state schizophrenia. Given the possible association between abnormal gamma activity and increased glutamate levels, our data may reflect glutamate toxicity in the auditory cortex in the acute state of schizophrenia, which might lead to progressive changes in the left transverse temporal gyrus.

  3. Hemispheric contributions to pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, E; Kasher, A; Soroker, N; Batori, G; Giora, R; Graves, D

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with right-hemisphere damage (RBD) and thirty-one patients with left-hemisphere damage (LBD) received a new pragmatics battery in Hebrew consisting of two parts: (1) comprehension and production of basic speech acts (BSAs), including tests of assertions, questions, requests, and commands, and (2) comprehension of implicatures, including implicatures of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner. Each test had a verbal and a nonverbal version. Patients also received Hebrew versions of the Western Aphasia Battery and of the Right Hemisphere Communication Battery. Both LBD and RBD patients were impaired relative to controls but did not differ from each other in their overall scores on BSAs and on Implicatures when scores were corrected by aphasia and neglect indices. There was a systematic localization of BSAs in the left hemisphere (LH) but not in the right hemisphere (RH). There was poor localization of Implicatures in either hemisphere. In LBD patients, BSAs were associated with language functions measured with the WAB, suggesting the radical possibility that the classic localization of language functions in aphasia is influenced by the localization of the BSAs required by aphasia language tests. Both BSAs and implicatures show greater functional independence from other pragmatic, language and cognitive functions in the RBD than in the LBD patients. Thus, the LH is more likely to contain an unmodular domain-nonspecific set of central cognitive mechanisms for applying means-ends rationality principles to intentional activity.

  4. Left Ventricular Responses to Acute Changes in Late Systolic Pressure Augmentation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Changes in the cardiovascular system with age may predispose older persons to development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Vascular stiffening, aortic pressure augmentation, and ventricular–vascular coupling have been implicated. We explored the potential for acute reductions in late systolic pressure augmentation to impact left ventricular relaxation in older persons without heart failure. METHODS Sixteen older persons free of known cardiovascular disease with the exception of hypertension had noninvasive tonometry and cardiac ultrasound to evaluate central augmentation index (AI) and diastolic function at baseline and after randomized, blinded administration of intravenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and hydralazine in a crossover design. RESULTS AI was significantly reduced after BNP (11.4±8.9 to −0.2±14.7%; P = 0.02) and nonsignificantly reduced after hydralazine (14.7±8.4% to 11.5±8.8%; P = 0.39). With decreased AI during BNP, a trend toward worsened myocardial relaxation by tissue Doppler imaging occurred (E’ velocity pre- and post-BNP: 10.0±2.5 and 8.8±2.0cm/s, respectively; P = 0.06). There was a significant fall in stroke volume with BNP (68.5±18.3 to 60.9±18.1ml; P = 0.02), suggesting that changes in preload overwhelmed effects of afterload reduction on ventricular performance. With hydralazine, neither relaxation nor stroke volume changed. CONCLUSIONS Acute changes in late systolic aortic pressure augmentation do not necessarily lead to improved systolic or diastolic function in older people. Preload may be a more important determinant of cardiac performance than afterload in older people with compensated ventricular function. The potential for changes in preload to impair rather than enhance left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in older people warrants further study. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00204984. PMID:23537892

  5. Acute right ventricular pressure overload compromises left ventricular function by altering septal strain and rotation.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jason; Zhou, Wei; Ho, Jonathan K; Patel, Nikhil A; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Mahajan, Aman

    2013-07-15

    While right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has long been known to affect the performance of left ventricle (LV), the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Recently, speckle-tracking echocardiography has demonstrated that preservation of strain and rotational dynamics is crucial to both LV systolic and diastolic function. We hypothesized that alteration in septal strain and rotational dynamics of the LV occurs during acute RV pressure overload (RVPO) and leads to decreased cardiac performance. Seven anesthetized pigs underwent median sternotomy and placement of intraventricular pressure-volume conductance catheters. Two-dimensional echocardiographic images and LV pressure-volume loops were acquired for offline analysis at baseline and after banding of the pulmonary artery to achieve RVPO (>50 mmHg) induced RV dysfunction. RVPO resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in LV end-systolic elastance (50%), systolic change in pressure over change in time (19%), end-diastolic volume (22%), and cardiac output (37%) that correlated with decrease in LV global circumferential strain (58%), LV apical rotation (28%), peak untwisting (reverse rotation) rate (27%), and prolonged time to peak rotation (17%), while basal rotation was not significantly altered. RVPO reduced septal radial and circumferential strain, while no other segment of the LV midpapillary wall was affected. RVPO decreased septal radial strain on LV side by 27% and induced a negative radial strain from 28 ± 5 to -16 ± 2% on the RV side of the septum. The septal circumferential strain on both LV and RV side decreased by 46 and 50%, respectively, following RVPO (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that acute RVPO impairs LV performance by primarily altering septal strain and apical rotation.

  6. Acute Heart Failure and a Pseudo Cystic Image in the Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    RIMBAS, Roxana C.; VINEREANU, Dragos

    2014-01-01

    The association between acute heart failure (AHF) and cardiac tumor may change the short and long term management of both conditions. A 51-year-old man presented with signs of AHF. ECG showed sinus tachycardia and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Chest x-Ray found dilated heart and pulmonary congestion. There were no significant changes in blood tests. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed chambers dilation, and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 17%. Unexpectedly, we found an apical 2/2 cm cystic image in the LV. This had a myocardium-like membrane, seen better in 3D echocardiography, suggestive for hydatic cyst. Cerebral, thoracic, and abdomino-pelvic CT scan showed no hydatic lesions. Anti-Echinococcus antibodies were negative. Initially the clinical challenge was the management of the tumor in a patient with AHF and dilated cardiomyopathy. He was treated for AHF and followed up for the cystic image. He exhibited significant improvement of the clinical status and LVEF (increased to 42 %), with important cardiac reverse remodeling. Surprisingly, the apical cystic image disappeared. However, we found a hypertrophic aberrant cordae from apex to mid-septum, in the same position as the previous image. Thus, we believe that this cordae, by important remodeling and torsion generated the cystic image. This case highlights the importance of serial 2D and 3D echo examinations in patients with severely remodeled LV, and also with tumoral images. PMID:25705277

  7. The Mechanics of Left Ventricular Contraction in Acute Experimental Cardiac Failure*

    PubMed Central

    Ross, John; Covell, James W.; Sonnenblick, Edmund H.

    1967-01-01

    The effects of acute cardiac failure induced by pentobarbital or pronethalol on the basic mechanical properties of the intact left ventricle were examined in the dog, and the influence on auxotonic and isovolumic contractions of the increase in end-diastolic volume that usually accompanies cardiac failure was assessed. The right heart bypass preparation was employed, and isovolumic beats were induced by sudden balloon occlusion of the aortic root. The ventricular pressure-volume curve was determined directly, and the mechanical responses of the myocardial fibers and contractile elements were calculated. When end-diastolic pressure was held constant, failure reduced the extent of circumferential fiber shortening, and the tension-velocity relation calculated during isovolumic beats was always shifted, with reductions in both maximal velocity (average decrease 30%) and maximal developed tension (average 23%); in addition, during failure achievement of maximal contractile element velocity and maximal tension was delayed, whereas the total duration of contraction was always prolonged. Acetylstrophanthidin tended to reverse all of these changes. When end-diastolic volume was augmented during failure at a constant stroke volume, the extent of circumferential fiber shortening was reduced (3.82 cm to 2.02 cm), and during ejection the fiber and contractile element velocities were diminished at wall tensions comparable to control; maximal velocity and velocity at peak tension were also decreased. The tension-velocity relation during isovolumic beats was shifted by failure with consistent reductions in maximal shortening velocity, but changes in maximal tension were small. Maximal instantaneous power was always reduced by failure, and a striking alteration occurred in the relation between work expended in stretching the series elastic component and the external work; the former, “internal work,” increased by an average of 90%, the latter diminished by 11%, and the total

  8. Acute Left Arm Ischemia Associated with Floating Thrombus in the Proximal Descending Aorta: Combined Endovascular and Surgical Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, F.; Gazzetti, M.; Boatta, E.; Ruggiero, M.; Lucatelli, P.; Speziale, F.

    2011-02-15

    Free floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta is an uncommon and dangerous condition that can be associated with acute peripheral embolization. The few cases described were solved with surgical and/or medical therapy. We report the case of a patient with acute left arm ischemia secondary to the presence of floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta extending into the left subclavian artery, solved with combined endovascular and surgical therapy. Treatment was successfully performed with thrombembolectomy combined with temporary deployment, into the descending aorta, of a Wallstent in a 'basket-fashion' to avoid distal embolization secondary to thrombus fragmentation. At 1 year follow-up the patient remained symptom-free.

  9. Females have greater left ventricular twist mechanics than males during acute reductions to preload.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alexandra M; Shave, Rob E; Stembridge, Mike; Eves, Neil D

    2016-07-01

    Compared to males, females have smaller left ventricular (LV) dimensions and volumes, higher ejection fractions (EF), and higher LV longitudinal and circumferential strain. LV twist mechanics determine ventricular function and are preload-dependent. Therefore, the sex differences in LV structure and myocardial function may result in different mechanics when preload is altered. This study investigated sex differences in LV mechanics during acute challenges to preload. With the use of conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography, LV structure and function were assessed in 20 males (24 ± 6.2 yr) and 20 females (23 ± 3.1 yr) at baseline and during progressive levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Fourteen participants (8 males, 6 females) were also assessed following a rapid infusion of saline. LV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume (SV), and EF were reduced in both groups during LBNP (P < 0.001). While males had greater absolute volumes (P < 0.001), there were no sex differences in allometrically scaled volumes at any stage. Sex differences were not detected at baseline in basal rotation, apical rotation, or twist. Apical rotation and twist increased in both groups (P < 0.001) with LBNP. At -60 mmHg, females had greater apical rotation (P = 0.009), twist (P = 0.008), and torsion (P = 0.002) and faster untwisting velocity (P = 0.02) than males. There were no differences in mechanics following saline infusion. Females have larger LV twist and a faster untwisting velocity than males during large reductions to preload, supporting that females have a greater reliance on LV twist mechanics to maintain SV during severe reductions to preload.

  10. Repaired left ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction by percutaneous intrapericardial fibrin-glue injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Taichi; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Saito, Taro

    2013-09-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture is a rare, but occasionally lethal, complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This case report describes a patient who presented with cardiogenic shock due to oozing-type rupture secondary to AMI and successfully underwent percutaneous intrapericardial fibrin-glue injection therapy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the thin layer of fibrin that covered the ruptured infarct myocardium immediately after fibrin-glue injection and its disappearance without any complications at 6 months.

  11. Emotional Television Scenes and Hemispheric Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines hemispheric differences in cortical arousal as a function of positive and negative emotional television scenes. Finds that (1) the processing of emotional content is hemispherically asymmetric; and (2) negative material produced greater cortical arousal in the right hemisphere and positive material greater arousal in the left. (MS)

  12. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  13. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  14. Effects of acute mechanical stretch on the expression of mechanosensitive potassium channel TREK-1 in rat left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Dong, Lijuan; Cheng, Longxian; Zeng, Qiutang; Su, Fangcheng

    2007-08-01

    To explore the role of mechanosensitive potassium channel TREK-1, Western blot analysis was used to investigate the expression changes of TREK-1 in left ventricle in acute mechanically stretched heart. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=5 in each group), subject to single Langendorff perfusion for 0, 30, 60, 120 min and acute mechanical stretch for 0, 30, 60, 120 min respectively. With Langendorff apparatus, an acute mechanically stretched heart model was established. There was no significant difference in the expression of TREK-1 among single Langendorff perfusion groups (P>0.05). As compared to non-stretched Langendorff-perfused heart, only the expression of TREK-1 in acute mechanically stretched heart (120 min) was greatly increased (P<0.05). This result suggested that some course of mechanical stretch could up-regulate the expression of TREK-1 in left ventricle. TREK-1 might play an important role in mechanoelectric feedback, so it could reduce the occurrence of arrhythmia that was induced by extra mechanical stretch.

  15. Acute Fulminant Myocarditis Successfully Bridged to Recovery with Left Ventricular Assist Device and Complicated by Flail Mitral Valve

    PubMed Central

    Duyuler, Pınar Türker; Duyuler, Serkan; Şahan, Ekrem; Küçüker, Şeref Alp

    2016-01-01

    Acute fulminant myocarditis is a life-threatening inflammatory disease of the myocardium characterized by the rapid deterioration of the hemodynamic status of the affected individual. With prompt recognition and appropriate management, complete recovery of ventricular function is likely within a few weeks. We introduce a 28-year-old man with acute fulminant myocarditis, who experienced circulatory collapse following acute angina and dyspnea. The patient had high troponin levels with low ejection fraction and normal coronary arteries. He was successfully bridged to recovery with a left ventricular assist device but was complicated by flail mitral valve. Perioperative myocardial biopsy was also compatible with myocarditis. At 4 months’ follow-up, the patient was stable with functional capacity I according to the New York Heart Association’s classification. A possible mechanism for this very rare complication is the rupture of the chordal structure secondary to the fragility of an inflamed subvalvular apparatus stretched by a recovered ventricle. PMID:27403189

  16. Emergency Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery after Acute Catheter-Induced Occlusive Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ferit; Batyraliev, Talantbek; Besnili, Fikret; Karben, Zarema

    2006-01-01

    Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion. PMID:17215985

  17. Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Predict Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Ju-Feng; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Shih-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction increases cardiovascular events and mortality. But few study was done in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF > 40%). We investigate whether the strain and strain rate by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography could predict left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in this cohort. Methods The 83 patients (average age 60.7 ± 12.3 y, 75 [90.4%] male) with new-onset acute myocardial infarction receiving echocardiography immediately, and 6 months after admission were grouped by the presence or absence of left ventricular remodeling. Strain and strain rate including longitudinal, circumferential, and radial direction were calculated. The average of strain and strain rate of which segmental longitudinal strains > – 15% were defined as the injury longitudinal strain (InjLS). Results Left ventricular remodeling occurred in 24 of 83 patients (28.9%). In univariate logistic regression analyses, gender, peak CK-MB, log BNP, use of statin before discharge, wall motion score index, and InjLS were significantly associated with left ventricular remodeling (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis using the forward stepwise method, gender, CK-MB, and InjLS were independent predictors. The hazard ratio for InjLS was 1.48 (p = 0.04). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses showed the area under the curve (AUC) of InjLS was largest (AUC = 0.75, cut-off value = –11.7%, sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 71%, p < 0.01). In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, InjLS was the only predictor according to ROC analysis (AUC = 0.79, p < 0.01, cut-off value = –11.4%, sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 77%) and multivariate logistic regression analysis (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22–2.88, p < 0.01). Conclusions InjLS was an excellent predictor for left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in patient with preserved ejection fraction. PMID

  18. Fantasy and the Brain's Right Hemisphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird

    While the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for logical and verbal activity, the right brain is the center of much of human feeling and emotion. Its vision is holistic rather than segmented or compartmentalized. Although schools today are geared almost exclusively to training the brain's left hemisphere, fantasy literature can provide…

  19. Hemispheric Dominance of Native American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellern, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines language and spatial lateralization of 49 elementary American Indian students using a cognitive-manual dual task model and psychoeducational assessment techniques. All students were found to be left-hemisphere dominant for language and some were lateralized to the left hemisphere for spatial function. Contradicts evidence of right-brain…

  20. Silent left ventricular dysfunction during routine activity after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Wackers, F.J.; Zaret, B.L. )

    1990-06-01

    To investigate prospectively the occurrence and significance of postinfarction transient left ventricular dysfunction, 33 ambulatory patients who underwent thrombolytic therapy after myocardial infarction were monitored continuously for 187 +/- 56 min during normal activity with a radionuclide left ventricular function detector at the time of hospital discharge. Twelve patients demonstrated 19 episodes of transient left ventricular dysfunction (greater than 0.05 decrease in ejection fraction, lasting greater than or equal to 1 min), with no change in heart rate. Only two episodes in one patient were associated with chest pain and electrocardiographic changes. The baseline ejection fraction was 0.52 +/- 0.12 in patients with transient left ventricular dysfunction and 0.51 +/- 0.13 in patients without dysfunction (p = NS). At follow-up study (19.2 +/- 5.4 months), cardiac events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death) occurred in 8 of 12 patients with but in only 3 of 21 patients without transient left ventricular dysfunction (p less than 0.01). During submaximal supine bicycle exercise, only two patients demonstrated a decrease in ejection fraction greater than or equal to 0.05 at peak exercise; neither had a subsequent cardiac event. These data suggest that transient episodes of silent left ventricular dysfunction at hospital discharge in patients treated with thrombolysis after myocardial infarction are common and associated with a poor outcome. Continuous left ventricular function monitoring during normal activity may provide prognostic information not available from submaximal exercise test results.

  1. [Infarct size and left ventricular function in patients after thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Sochman, J; Málek, I; Ouhrabková, R; Englis, M; Fabián, J

    1989-06-01

    The authors give an account of factors which influence left ventricular function after thrombolytic treatment of an occluded coronary artery. They found that improvement of left ventricular function following a three-week interval after recanalization of the artery the occlusion of which led to myocardial infarction, depends on the size of the necrotic focus. Improvement of global left ventricular function and above all of the regional function of the infarction segment can be expected if the size of the focus is such that less than 40 gram-equivalent of total creatine kinase are liberated from it.

  2. Berberine attenuates adverse left ventricular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction in rats: role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao-Jun; Yang, Shao-Hua; Li, Ming-Hui; Iqbal, Javaid; Bourantas, Christos V; Mi, Qiong-Yu; Yu, Yi-Hui; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Shu-Li; Tian, Nai-Liang; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that berberine, a plant-derived anti-oxidant, attenuates adverse left ventricular remodelling and improves cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, the potential mechanisms that mediated the cardioprotective actions of berberine, in particular the effect on autophagy, were also investigated. Acute MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats. Cardiac function was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The protein activity/levels of autophagy related to signalling pathways (e.g. LC-3B, Beclin-1) were measured in myocardial tissue by immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Four weeks after MI, berberine significantly prevented cardiac dysfunction and adverse cardiac remodelling. MI rats treated with low dose berberine (10 mg/kg per day) showed higher left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening than those treated with high-dose berberine (50 mg/kg per day). Both doses reduced interstitial fibrosis and post-MI adverse cardiac remodelling. The cardioprotective action of berberine was associated with increased LC-3B II and Beclin-1 expressions. Furthermore, cardioprotection with berberine was potentially related to p38 MAPK inhibition and phospho-Akt activation. The present in vivo study showed that berberine is effective in promoting autophagy, and subsequently attenuating left ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction after MI. The potential underlying mechanism is augmentation of autophagy through inhibition of p38 MAPK and activation of phospho-Akt signalling pathways.

  3. [Acute stent thrombosis and reverse transient left ventricular dilatation after performing a single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion].

    PubMed

    Miranda, B; Pizzi, M N; Aguadé-Bruix, S; Domingo, E; Candell-Riera, J

    2015-01-01

    A 63-year-old male patient with a history of stent implantation in the left anterior descending three months before. Due to the presentation of vegetative symptoms, he was referred for gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion. During acquisition of the resting images he presented chest pain and ST segment elevation, so that urgent cardiac catheterization was performed, showing stent thrombosis. Rest perfusion imaging showed a defect in anterior and apical perfusion, more severe and extensive than in the stress images, with striking left ventricular dilatation and a fall in the ejection fraction related to the acute ischemia phenomenon. Intense exercise is associated with a transient activation of the coagulation system and hemodynamic changes that might induce thrombosis, especially in recently implanted coronary stents that probably still have not become completely endothelialized.

  4. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  5. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, H. C. Meyers, P. M.; Yavagal, D. R.; Harel, N. Y.; Elkind, M. S. V.; Mohr, J. P.; Pile-Spellman, J.

    2003-06-15

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents.

  6. Cerebrolysin adjuvant treatment in Broca's aphasics following first acute ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Muresanu, DF; Bajenaru, O; Popescu, BO; Deme, SM; Moessler, H; Meinzingen, SZ; Petrica, L; Serpe, M; Ursoniu, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of Cerebrolysin administration in Broca's aphasics with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We registered 2,212 consecutive Broca's aphasics following an acute ischemic stroke admitted in four departments of neurology in Romania, between September 2005 and September 2009. Language was evaluated with the Romanian version of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). The following inclusion criteria were used for this study: age 20%75 years, admission in the hospital within 12 hours from the onset of the symptoms, diagnosis of first acute left middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke, presence of large artery disease (LAD) stroke, a NIHSS score of 5%22 points, and a therapeutic time window within 72 h. Fifty two patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (Cerebrolysin group) as an adjunctive treatment. A placebo group, which received saline infusions (n=104 patients) were matched to the NIHSS and WAB scores, gender and age of the Cerebrolysin group at baseline. We assessed spontaneous speech (SS), comprehension (C), repetition (R), naming (N), and Aphasia Quotient (AQ) scores of the two groups in an open label design, over 90 days, the mRS scores and mortality. Results: The Cerebrolysin and the placebo groups had similar age (66+/%8 versus 65+/%8 years) and sex ratio (14/38 versus 30/74). The mean AQ scores and the mean subscores for 3 subtests of WAB (SS, R, N) were similar at baseline and improved in the Cerebrolysin group significantly (p<0.05) over placebo group at all study time points. The mRS score at 90 days was also lower in the Cerebrolysin group than in the placebo group. Cerebrolysin and placebo were both tolerated and safe, and no difference in the mortality rate was seen (3.8% in each group). Conclusion: Cerebrolysin is effective for the treatment of Broca's aphasics with a first acute ischemic stroke of the left MCA territory. PMID:20945821

  7. Acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: clinical expressions, therapeutic insights, and role of computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosetti, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic approach of patients with suspected acute diverticulitis remains debated. On the one hand, a scoring system with the best predictive value in diagnosing acute diverticulitis has been developed in order to reduce the use of computed tomography (CT) scan, while, on the other hand, patients with a high probability of acute diverticulitis should benefit from CT scan from a clinical viewpoint, ensuring that they will receive the most appropriate treatment. The place and classification of CT scan for acute diverticulitis need to be reassessed. If the management of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis, abscess, and fecal peritonitis is now well codified, urgent surgical or medical treatment of hemodynamically stable patients presenting with intraperitoneal air or fluid without uncontrolled sepsis is still under discussion. Furthermore, the indications for laparoscopic lavage are not yet well established. It is known for years that episode(s) of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis may induce painful recurrent bowel symptoms, known as symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease and irritable bowel syndrome-like diverticular disease. These two clinical expressions of diverticular disease, that may darken quality of life, are treated medically aimed at symptom relief. The possible place of surgery should be discussed. Clinical and CT scan classifications should be separated entities. PMID:27574459

  8. Neglect severity after left and right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Julia; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-05-01

    While unilateral spatial neglect after left brain damage is undoubtedly less common than spatial neglect after a right hemisphere lesion, it is also assumed to be less severe. Here we directly test this latter hypothesis using a continuous measure of neglect severity: the so-called Center of Cancellation (CoC). Rorden and Karnath (2010) recently validated this index for right brain damaged neglect patients. A first aim of the present study was to evaluate this new measure for spatial neglect after left brain damage. In a group of 48 left-sided stroke patients with and without neglect, a score greater than -0.086 on the Bells Test and greater than -0.024 on the Letter Cancellation Task turned out to indicate neglect behavior for acute left brain damaged patients. A second aim was to directly compare the severity of spatial neglect after left versus right brain injury by using the new CoC measure. While neglect is less frequent following left than right hemisphere injury, we found that when this symptom occurs it is of similar severity in acute left brain injury as in patients after acute right brain injury.

  9. Hemispheric Amphigory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblood, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Reviewing some empirical studies on brain hemisphere functions, the author concludes that though the brain is lateralized for specific tasks, this fact has no necessary bearing on educational methodology. He asserts that we do not yet know enough to label and teach art as a "right brain" activity. (Author/SJL)

  10. Flexible Contrast Gain Control in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether the right hemisphere has more flexible contrast gain control settings for the identification of spatial frequency. Right-handed participants identified 1 and 9 cycles per degree sinusoidal gratings presented either to the left visual field-right hemisphere (LVF-RH) or the right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH).…

  11. Music Appreciation and Hemisphere Orientation: Visual versus Verbal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalanowski, Annette H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes effect of brain hemisphere orientation on music appreciation. Reports results from 36 left-hemisphere and 36 right-hemisphere undergraduates who responded to a musical selection verbally or visually. Finds right-hemisphere students show greater appreciation, measured by attention, understanding, and enjoyment scores. Discusses…

  12. Hemispheric Specialization and Cognitive Development: Implications for Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Grayson, H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the theory that the two brain hemispheres process stimuli differently: the left hemisphere is specialized for logico-analytic tasks and the right hemisphere for visuo-spatial tasks. They contend that cognitive ability is related to the development of hemispheric asymmetry and present implications for mathematics education…

  13. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  14. The influence of acute unloading on left ventricular strain and strain rate by speckle tracking echocardiography in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Geir Olav; Stangeland, Lodve; Moen, Christian Arvei; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil

    2016-05-15

    Noninvasive measurements of myocardial strain and strain rate by speckle tracking echocardiography correlate to cardiac contractile state but also to load, which may weaken their value as indices of inotropy. In a porcine model, we investigated the influence of acute dynamic preload reductions on left ventricular strain and strain rate and their relation to the pressure-conductance catheter-derived preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and peak positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure (LV-dP/dtmax). Speckle tracking strain and strain rate in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial directions were measured during acute dynamic reductions of end-diastolic volume during three different myocardial inotropic states. Both strain and strain rate were sensitive to unloading of the left ventricle (P < 0.001), but the load dependency for strain rate was modest compared with strain. Changes in longitudinal and circumferential strain correlated more strongly to changes in end-diastolic volume (r = -0.86 and r = -0.72) than did radial strain (r = 0.35). Longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain significantly correlated with LV-dP/dtmax (r = -0.53, r = -0.46, and r = 0.86), whereas only radial strain correlated with PRSW (r = 0.55). Strain rate in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial direction significantly correlated with both PRSW (r = -0.64, r = -0.58, and r = 0.74) and LV-dP/dtmax (r = -0.95, r = -0.70, and r = 0.85). In conclusion, the speckle tracking echocardiography-derived strain rate is more robust to dynamic ventricular unloading than strain. Longitudinal and circumferential strain could not predict load-independent contractility. Strain rates, and especially in the radial direction, are good predictors of preload-independent inotropic markers derived from conductance catheter.

  15. Predictive value of indium-111 antimyosin uptake for improvement of left ventricular wall motion after thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    van Vlies, B.; Baas, J.; Visser, C.A.; van Royen, E.; Delemarre, B.J.; Bot, H.; Dunning, A.J.

    1989-07-15

    In 21 patients treated with thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the degree of myocardial uptake of indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin antibodies injected within 24 hours after onset of AMI was compared with the degree and extent of regional asynergy on admission and discharge, as assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. On the first day of AMI, 80 MBq of indium-111 antimyosin was injected and planar images were made 24 hours later. Indium-111 antimyosin uptake was evaluated for count density index (count density of infarct zone/left lung count density) in the left anterior oblique projection, in which the infarction zone was well displayed in all patients. Using 2-dimensional echocardiography, the left ventricle was divided into 13 segments and evaluated for regional asynergy, which was considered severe (akinesia or dyskinesia) or mild (hypokinesia). The extent of regional asynergy was measured by the number of asynergic segments. All 21 patients had severe regional asynergy on admission. Nine of 21 showed only mild regional asynergy on discharge and 12 of 21 had persistent severe regional asynergy in at least 1 segment. The count density index was significantly lower in patients with mild regional asynergy on discharge compared with patients with severe regional asynergy (1.63 +/- 0.27 vs 2.50 +/- 0.42, p less than 0.01).

  16. Hemisphericity and Journalism--How Do Journalists Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Bonnie Ann

    1981-01-01

    Reports on a study finding that journalists preferred a right brain hemisphere or integrated style of information processing. Proposes the further application of right-left brain hemisphere research in the field of journalism. (RL)

  17. Right hand predominant constructional apraxia due to right hemisphere infarction without corpus callosum lesions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Zen; Watanabe, Mayumi; Karibe, Yuri; Nakazawa, Chika; Numasawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomimitsu, Hiroyuki; Shintani, Shuzo

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old right-handed woman without cognitive impairment suddenly developed nonfluent aphasia. Brain MRI showed acute infarction in the right frontal lobe and insula without involvement of the corpus callosum. A neurological examination demonstrated not only transcortical motor aphasia, but also ideomotor apraxia and right hand predominant constructional apraxia (CA). To date, right hand predominant CA has only been reported in patients with corpus callosum lesions. The right hand predominant CA observed in our patient may be associated with the failure to transfer information on the spatial structure from the right hemisphere to the motor cortex of the left hemisphere.

  18. The Marc Dax (1770-1837)/Paul Broca (1824-1880) controversy over priority in science: left hemisphere specificity for seat of articulate language and for lesions that cause aphemia.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Hugh W

    2006-01-01

    One of the most fascinating and frustrating issues in the priority of discovery in science is over just who, for the first time, went on record in the public forum, either orally at a conference or through a published communication, proclaiming that the faculty of articulate human speech was located in the left, not the right, cortical hemisphere. The disputed paper was purportedly written in 1836 by Marc Dax, who died subsequently in 1837. He was a physician in southern France in the city of Montpellier--far from the medical center of Paris. Little note was made of the presumed paper until the early and mid-1860s, when the issue of language localization in the human brain took on increased activity, as the clinico-pathological method of explanation continued to flourish in the "Art of Physick." Marc Dax's son, Gustave, happened to be studying medicine in Paris in the 1860s, and, as most of the neuroscientific and anthropological researchers, came to know of Broca's published work, which in 1861, agreed with phrenological theory that this faculty was, indeed, in the anterior lobes, but further claimed, de novo, that the region in the anterior lobe was more precisely focused at the foot of the 3rd frontal convolution in that lobe, still assuming with phrenological theory and the "Law of Symmetry" that the faculty was bilaterally located. It was not until 1865 that Broca clearly, non-hesitatingly, and unambiguously claimed that the faculty was in the left hemisphere. As it turned out, Gustave, six weeks before Broca's paper appeared, had published the paper he said his father had written in 1836. In 1863, in fact, Gustave had submitted his (Gustave's) long monograph on aphemia, integrating what he claimed to be his father's 1836 pronouncement along with his own data. He sent this communication to the French Academy of Sciences and to the French Academy of Medicine; he heard nothing back from either academy. After waiting two years, he managed to publish his material

  19. Acute arterial embolism of left lower extremity caused by paradoxical embolism in Ebstein's anomaly

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jun-Sheng; Ma, Jie; Yan, Zi-Xing; Cheng, Dong-Ming; Chang, Liang; Zhang, Hai-Chun; Liu, Jiang-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Ebstein's anomaly is a benign and stable congenital heart disease for asymptomatic patients. Despite a low incidence of Ebstein's anomaly (EA), patients’ quality of life can be badly affected by EA without positive surgical intervention. Especially EA is associated with other congenital heart disease, such as the atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and arterial embolism exclude other reasons, it is often considered to be the consequence of paradoxical embolism, and surgical intervention must be conducted. Case report: An 11-year-old girl falling off the bed suffered pain from left lower extremity. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed an EA, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and secundum atrial septal defect. Both left leg amputation and cardiac surgery were conducted after recovery. Under the condition of anesthesia cardiopulmonary bypass extracorporeal circulation, atrial septal defect repair and Cone reconstruction of the tricuspid valve were performed. Patient recovered well and left hospital smoothly. Discussion: EA is a rare and complex congenital cardiac malformation. There are about 80% to 90% of EA patients with combined atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale. Sudden arterial occlusion is very rare especially in childhood. When thoracic roentgenoscopy, arterial blood gas analysis, coagulation test, and echocardiographic of lower extremity deep venous system are all normal, one should consider the possibility of a paradoxical embolism. If patients have the paradoxical embolism or worsening tricuspid regurgitation, the most suitable therapeutic regimen should be chosen according to patients’ condition. With surgical techniques and methods renewed continuously, cone reconstruction of the tricuspid valve has been confirmed in clinical trials, which can use its own tissues to form not only central bloodstream, but also the coaption between leaflet and leaflet. PMID:28151866

  20. Impella™ Left Ventricular Assist Device for Acute Peripartum Cardiomyopathy After Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cesar; Hernandez Conte, Antonio; Ramzy, Danny; Sanchez, Michael; Zhao, Manxu; Park, Donald; Lubin, Lorraine

    2016-07-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare form of heart failure with significant perioperative implications. In this case report, we describe a 34-year-old gravida 5, parity 3, patient who was admitted for an elective cesarean delivery. During the delivery, the patient developed sudden cardiac arrest and was emergently intubated in the operating room. An emergent transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 10% with global biventricular hypokinesis. Urgent multidisciplinary consultations led to the rapid implementation of the Impella™ 2.5 for ventricular support. The patient recovered ventricular function within 4 days and recovered to baseline function.

  1. [Enalapril reduces the degree of left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction and reduces the incidence of arrhythmia in ischemic disease].

    PubMed

    Altieri, P I; González, R; de Mello, W; Escobales, N

    1994-12-01

    The present study shows that enalapril prevents the excessive remodeling of the left ventricle after acute myocardial infarction. This randomized and double blind clinical study analysed 50 patients with an inferior myocardial infarction. The effect of enalapril was evaluated through cardiac volumes, ejection fraction, neurohormonal levels and incidence of the left ventricle disfunction after acute myocardial infarction. The patients treated with enalapril showed a significant reduction on the values of nor-epinefrine, angiotensine II, natriuretic hormone and vasopressine, four weeks after initiation of treatment. The ejection fraction and the level of the wall movement was more favourable, four weeks after infarction, in the group treated with enalapril. The incidence of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias was lower in the group treated with enalapril. So, we conclude that enalapril is a drug that prevents the excessive remodelling of the left ventricle after an acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Primary anastomosis in the treatment of acute disease of the unprepared left colon.

    PubMed

    Trillo, C; Paris, M F; Brennan, J T

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1, 1990 and December 31, 1996, 58 consecutive patients with unprepared colons were urgently explored for nontraumatic disease with intent to proceed with primary left-sided colonic anastomosis. Unprotected anastomoses were not attempted in 15 patients. The causes of exclusion included preoperative and intraoperative shock in three patients, and three patients were on long-term high-dose steroids, four had gross fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity, four had large pelvic abscesses, and one had ischemic colitis. All 43 patients undergoing anastomosis without protective colostomy had stapled anastomoses. Indications included complicated diverticular disease in 32 cases. There were nine cases of obstruction from colorectal carcinoma and one obstruction due to sigmoid volvulus. There was one case of perforation from pseudomembranous enterocolitis. The most common complications were: atelectasis in nine cases, wound infection in two cases, and prolonged ileus in two cases. Pelvic abscess occurred in one case. There was one wound dehiscence. There was one anastomotic dehiscence, and there was no mortality. Operative time averaged 85 minutes and hospital length of stay 9.7 days. Primary anastomosis of the unprepared left colon is safe in most urgent and emergent situations, thus avoiding the significant morbidity and cost of colostomy closure.

  3. The hemodynamic effects of acute aortic regurgitation into a stiffened left ventricle resulting from chronic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ikechukwu; Raghav, Vrishank; Midha, Prem; Kumar, Gautam; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic regurgitation (AR) post-chronic aortic stenosis is a prevalent phenomenon occurring in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) surgery. The objective of this work was to characterize the effects of left ventricular diastolic stiffness (LVDS) and AR severity on LV performance. Three LVDS models were inserted into a physiological left heart simulator. AR severity was parametrically varied through four levels (ranging from trace to moderate) and compared with a competent aortic valve. Hemodynamic metrics such as average diastolic pressures (DP) and reduction in transmitral flow were measured. AR index was calculated as a function of AR severity and LVDS, and the work required to make up for lost volume due to AR was estimated. In the presence of trace AR, higher LVDS had up to a threefold reduction in transmitral flow (13% compared with 3.5%) and a significant increase in DP (2-fold). The AR index ranged from ∼42 to 16 (no AR to moderate AR), with stiffer LVs having lower values. To compensate for lost volume due to AR, the low, medium, and high LVDS models were found to require 5.1, 5.5, and 6.6 times more work, respectively. This work shows that the LVDS has a significant effect on the LV performance in the presence of AR. Therefore, the LVDS of potential TAVR patients should be assessed to gain an initial indication of their ability to tolerate post-procedural AR.

  4. Patient-specific assessment of left ventricular thrombogenesis risk after acute myocardial infarction: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, L.; Khan, A.; Del Alamo, J. C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Pérez Del Villar, C.; Benito, Y.; Yotti, R.; Barrio, A.; Delgado-Montero, A.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Bermejo, J.

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) is a major complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In these patients, the benefits of chronic anticoagulation therapy need to be balanced with its pro-hemorrhagic effects. Blood stasis in the cardiac chambers, a risk factor for LVT, is not addressed in current clinical practice. We recently developed a method to quantitatively assess the blood residence time (RT) inside the left ventricle (LV) based on 2D color-Doppler velocimetry (echo-CDV). Using time-resolved blood velocity fields acquired non-invasively, we integrate a modified advection equation to map intraventricular stasis regions. Here, we present how this tool can be used to estimate the risk of LVT in patients with AMI. 73 patients with a first anterior-AMI were studied by echo-CDV and RT analysis within 72h from admission and at a 5-month follow-up. Patients who eventually develop LVT showed early abnormalities of intraventricular RT: the apical region with RT>2s was significantly larger, had a higher RT and a longer wall contact length. Thus, quantitative analysis of intraventricular flow based on echocardiography may provide subclinical markers of LV thrombosis risk to guide clinical decision making.

  5. 3D Echo Pilot Study of Geometric Left Ventricular Changes after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Oliveira, Wercules Antonio; Cordovil, Adriana; Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Mônaco, Cláudia Gianini; Afonso, Tânia; Lira Filho, Edgar Bezerra; Perin, Marco; Fischer, Cláudio Henrique; Morhy, Samira Saady

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular remodeling (LVR) after AMI characterizes a factor of poor prognosis. There is little information in the literature on the LVR analyzed with three-dimensional echocardiography (3D ECHO). Objective To analyze, with 3D ECHO, the geometric and volumetric modifications of the left ventricle (VE) six months after AMI in patients subjected to percutaneous primary treatment. Methods Prospective study with 3D ECHO of 21 subjects (16 men, 56 ± 12 years-old), affected by AMI with ST segment elevation. The morphological and functional analysis (LV) with 3D ECHO (volumes, LVEF, 3D sphericity index) was carried out up to seven days and six months after the AMI. The LVR was considered for increase > 15% of the end diastolic volume of the LV (LVEDV) six months after the AMI, compared to the LVEDV up to seven days from the event. Results Eight (38%) patients have presented LVR. Echocardiographic measurements (n = 21 patients): I- up to seven days after the AMI: 1- LVEDV: 92.3 ± 22.3 mL; 2- LVEF: 0.51 ± 0.01; 3- sphericity index: 0.38 ± 0.05; II- after six months: 1- LVEDV: 107.3 ± 26.8 mL; 2- LVEF: 0.59 ± 0.01; 3- sphericity index: 0.31 ± 0.05. Correlation coefficient (r) between the sphericity index up to seven days after the AMI and the LVEDV at six months (n = 8) after the AMI: r: 0.74, p = 0.0007; (r) between the sphericity index six months after the AMI and the LVEDV at six months after the AMI: r: 0.85, p < 0.0001. Conclusion In this series, LVR has been observed in 38% of the patients six months after the AMI. The three-dimensional sphericity index has been associated to the occurrence of LVR. PMID:23740401

  6. Cognitive correlates of hemispheric performance on dichotic tasks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Green, P; Ahern, F M; Cole, R E

    Older (age 50+) adults were tested twice on three measures of dichotic memory and once on three measures of cognition. Internal consistencies of all three measures generally were adequate. However, test-retest reliabilities, by ear of presentation, were comparatively low for the three dichotic measures. A measure of vocabulary (a left hemisphere dominant cognitive ability) was related to performance on most dichotic tasks. Years of education (an index of left hemisphere mediated crystallized intelligence) was related to performance on left but not right hemisphere function on two of three dichotic tasks. Performance on tests of spatial ability was related to performance on left ear/right hemisphere but not right ear/left hemisphere function on two of three dichotic memory tasks. Individual differences in accuracy of recall and recognition of stimuli presented via dichotic tasks to the right ear/left hemisphere and the left ear/right hemisphere appear to have different cognitive correlates. Right hemisphere performance on dichotic tasks generally shows a significant negative association with age, as did performance on right hemisphere dominant cognitive tasks. On the other hand, most measures of left hemisphere performance showed no decline associated with age.

  7. Interaction of cerebral hemispheres and artistic thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaenko, Nikolay N.

    1998-07-01

    Study of drawings by patients with local lesions of the right or left hemisphere allows to understand how artistic thinking is supported by brain structures. The role of the right hemisphere is significant at the early stage of creative process. The right hemisphere is a generator of nonverbal visuo-spatial thinking. It operates with blurred nonverbal images and arrange them in a visual space. With the help of iconic signs the right hemisphere reflects the world and creates perceptive visual standards which are stored in the long-term right hemisphere memory. The image, which appeared in the `inner' space, should be transferred into a principally different language, i.e. a left hemispheric sign language. This language operates with a number of discrete units, logical succession and learned grammar rules. This process can be explained by activation (information) transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one. Thus, natural and spontaneous creative process, which is finished by a conscious effort, can be understood as an activation impulse transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one and back.

  8. Acute myocardial infarction due to left main coronary artery disease in men and women: does ST-segment elevation matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowski, Wojciech; Raczyński, Grzegorz; Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Gierlotka, Marek; Poloński, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gender-specific issues regarding ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease were not sufficiently studied. We assessed the value of STEMI/NSTEMI initial classification on the management of men and women with acute MI due to critical stenosis or occlusion of the ULMCA. Material and methods The study group consisted of 643 consecutive patients with acute MI with the ULMCA as the infarct-related artery. Data derive from an ongoing, nationwide, multicenter, prospective, observational registry. Results Isolated ULMCA disease was more frequent in women and multivessel disease was more frequent in men in the NSTEMI group. The incidence of cardiogenic shock or pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest was higher in the STEMI group. Totally occluded ULMCA was more frequent in the STEMI group. Although the majority of patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it was less frequently used in NSTEMI women and NSTEMI men. Although in-hospital and long-term mortality rates were higher in the STEMI group, there were no gender-related differences within groups. The initial ST-segment elevation was an independent predictor of in-hospital (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.14–4.91, p = 0.02) and 12-month (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01–2.27, p = 0.045) mortality. Conclusions There were no gender-related differences in the management within the STEMI or NSTEMI group. Although acute myocardial infarction due to ULMCA disease is associated with high mortality in both genders, STEMI was a negative prognostic factor of in-hospital and 12-month mortality. Despite poor baseline characteristics and clinical presentation in women, female gender itself did not influence mortality. PMID:26788080

  9. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and size of infarct, left ventricular function, and survival in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Werf, F.; Arnold, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess effect of intravenous recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator on size of infarct, left ventricular function, and survival in acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled prospective trial of patients with acute myocardial infarction within five hours after onset of symptoms. SETTING--Twenty six referral centres participating in European cooperative study for recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator. PATIENTS--Treatment group of 355 patients with acute myocardial infarction allocated to receive intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator. Controls comprised 366 similar patients allocated to receive placebo. INTERVENTION--All patients were given aspirin 250 mg and bolus injection of 5000 IU heparin immediately before start of trial. Patients in treatment group were given 100 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator over three hours (10 mg intravenous bolus, 50 mg during one hour, and 40 mg during next two hours) by infusion. Controls were given placebo by same method. Full anticoagulation treatment and aspirin were given to both groups until angiography (10-22 days after admission). beta Blockers were given at discharge. END POINT--Left ventricular function at 10-22 days, enzymatic infarct size, clinical course, and survival to three month follow up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Mortality was reduced by 51% (95% confidence interval -76 to 1) in treated patients at 14 days after start of treatment and by 36% (-63 to 13) at three months. For treatment within three hours after myocardial infarction mortality was reduced by 82% (-95 to -31) at 14 days and by 59% (-83 to -2) at three months. During 14 days in hospital incidence of cardiac complications was lower in treated patients than controls (cardiogenic shock, 2.5% v 6.0%; ventricular fibrillation, 3.4% v 6.3%; and pericarditis, 6.2% v 11.0% respectively), but that of angioplasty or artery bypass, or both was higher (15.8% v 9

  10. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  11. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Cai, X.; Klein, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation. PMID:24817791

  12. Integrated microRNA and mRNA responses to acute human left ventricular ischemia.

    PubMed

    Saddic, Louis A; Chang, Tzuu-Wang; Sigurdsson, Martin I; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Raby, Benjamin A; Shernan, Stanton K; Aranki, Sary F; Body, Simon C; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a significant role in ischemic heart disease. Animal models of left ventricular (LV) ischemia demonstrate a unique miRNA profile; however, these models have limitations in describing human disease. In this study, we performed next-generation miRNA and mRNA sequencing on LV tissue from nine patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Samples were obtained immediately after aortic cross clamping (baseline) and before aortic cross clamp removal (postischemic). Of 1,237 identified miRNAs, 21 were differentially expressed between baseline and postischemic LV samples including the upregulated miRNAs miR-339-5p and miR-483-3p and the downregulated miRNA miR-139-5p. Target prediction analysis of these miRNAs was integrated with mRNA expression from the same LV samples to identify anticorrelated miRNA-mRNA pairs. Gene enrichment studies of candidate mRNA targets demonstrated an association with cardiovascular disease, cell death, and metabolism. Therapeutics that intervene on these miRNAs and their downstream targets may lead to novel mechanisms of mitigating the damage caused by ischemic insults on the human heart.

  13. Catestatin-A Novel Predictor of Left Ventricular Remodeling After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Xie, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Liang, Ying; Yu, Haiyi; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Catestatin was discovered as a potent inhibitor of catecholamine secretion and plays important roles in the cardiovascular system. Our previous study demonstrates a close relationship between catestatin levels and prognosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Using the same population, the goal of this study is to investigate the ability of catestatin to predict left ventricular (LV) remodeling in STEMI patients. 72 patients and 30 controls were included. Catestatin was sampled after admission to the emergency room (ER), at day3 (D3), and day7 (D7) after STEMI. Echocardiography was performed at D3 and after 65 months for evaluation of LVEDD, EF, IVS, LVPW, E, A, E’, E/A, and E/E’. The changes of these parameters from D3 to 65 months were used to reflect the changes of ventricular structure and function. We found that plasma catestatin levels at D3 were highly correlated with the changes of LVEDD, EF, E, A, E’, E/A, as well as E/E’. Patients with higher catestatin levels developed worse ventricular function during the follow-up period. Single-point catestatin was effective to predict LVEDD change. And concurrently increasing catestatin and NT-proBNP levels predicted the highest risk of LV remodeling. This study suggests an important prognostic information of catestatin on LV remodeling.

  14. [A case of rupture of the left ventricle free wall with papillary muscle dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction, operated on successfully].

    PubMed

    de Lima, R; Perdigão, C; Neves, L; Cravino, J; Dantas, M; Bordalo, A; Pais, F; Diogo, A N; Ferreira, R; Ribeiro, C

    1990-09-01

    The authors present a case of left ventricular free wall rupture post acute myocardial infarction, associated with mitral papillary posterior muscle necrosis, operated by infartectomy and mitral valvular protesis replacement. They refer the various complications occurred during the hospital staying, and discuss its medical and surgical approach. The patient was discharged alive and six months after the infarction keeps a moderate activity.

  15. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Joshua A.; Markova, Svetlana; Ueda, Yu; Kim, Jae B.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Evanchik, Marc J.; Green, Eric M.; Harris, Samantha P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline

  16. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua A; Markova, Svetlana; Ueda, Yu; Kim, Jae B; Pascoe, Peter J; Evanchik, Marc J; Green, Eric M; Harris, Samantha P

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline

  17. Hemispheric lateralization of semantic feature distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Reilly, M; Machado, N; Blumstein, S E

    2015-08-01

    Recent models of semantic memory propose that the semantic representation of concepts is based, in part, on a network of features. In this view, a feature that is distinctive for an object (a zebra has stripes) is processed differently from a feature that is shared across many objects (a zebra has four legs). The goal of this paper is to determine whether there are hemispheric differences in such processing. In a feature verification task, participants responded 'yes' or 'no' following concepts which were presented to a single visual field (left or right) paired with a shared or distinctive feature. Both hemispheres showed faster reaction times to shared features than to distinctive features, although right hemisphere responses were significantly slower overall and particularly in the processing of distinctive features. These findings support models of semantic processing in which the dominant left hemisphere more efficiently performs highly discriminating 'fine' encoding, in contrast to the right hemisphere which performs less discriminating 'coarse' encoding.

  18. Echocardiographic Predictors for Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction with Low Risk Group: Speckle Tracking Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyun-Min; Lee, Joo Myung; Cha, Myung-Jin; Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to assess echocardiographic predictors of left ventricular (LV) adverse remodeling after successfully reperfused acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). LV remodeling is commonly found in STEMI patients and it may suggest adverse outcome in acute myocardial infarction. We sought to identify whether 2D strain and torsion be independent parameters for prediction of LV adverse remodeling. Methods We investigated 208 patients with low-risk STEMI patients who had follow up echocardiography at 6 or more months. After clinical assessments, all patients received revascularization according to current guideline. LV remodeling was defined as > 20% increase in end-diastolic volume (EDV) at follow up. Results During the follow-up (11.9 ± 5.3 months), 53 patients (25.5%) showed LV remodeling. In univariate analysis, EDV, end-systolic volume, deceleration time (DT), CK-MB, and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were associated with LV remodeling. In multivariate analysis, EDV [hazard ratio (HR): 0.922, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.897–0.948, p< 0.001], GLS (HR: 0.842, 95% CI: 0.728–0.974, p = 0.020), DT (HR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980–0.998, p = 0.023) and CK-MB (HR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.000–1.005, p = 0.033) independently predicted LV remodeling. However, global circumferential strain, net twist, and twist or untwist rate were not associated with remodeling. Conclusion Of various parameters of speckle strain, only GLS predicted adverse remodeling in STEMI patients. PMID:27358705

  19. Protective effect of Xuebijing injection against acute lung injury induced by left ventricular ischemia/reperfusion in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    JI, MINGLI; WANG, YUXIA; WANG, LEI; CHEN, LIPING; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) is a Chinese herbal preparation. Previous studies have demonstrated that XBJ injection is able to inhibit the uncontrolled release of endogenous inflammatory mediators, attenuate inflammation, and alleviate organ damage. However, there are no relevant reports on the protective effect of XBJ against left ventricular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of XBJ on ALI induced by left ventricular I/R, and provide evidence for the clinical application of XBJ. In the present study, 120 healthy rabbits of mixed gender were randomly assigned to a normal control group, ischemia group, I/R group (I/RG) and XBJ-injection treatment group (TG). In addition, each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=10/subgroup), namely, 30 min pre-ischemia, 30 min post-ischemia and 30 min post-reperfusion subgroups. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from the jugularis externa and carotis communis of the rabbits at the three time points, and a blood gas analyzer was used to measure the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Following sacrifice, the lungs of the rabbits were removed and a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was immediately performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the BAL fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood. In addition, the lower lobe of the right lung was removed in order to measure the protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and TNF-α. The results demonstrated that in the rabbits of the TG PaO2 was increased, PaCO2 was decreased, the lung tissue congestion edema was attenuated, the expression levels of TNF-α in the peripheral blood and BALF were reduced and the protein expression levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α in the lung tissue samples were decreased, as compared with those in the I/RG rabbits. These

  20. Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doo Hwan; Rhee, Jung Ae; Choi, Jin Su; Lee, Ki Hong; Lee, Min Goo; Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Nam Sik; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Predictive factors of mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with left ventricular dysfunction were analyzed during 5-year clinical follow-up after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Subjects and Methods A total of 329 ACS consecutive patients (64.6±11.3 years, 227 males) who underwent PCI from January 2001 to March 2006 were followed for 5 years. All patients had lower than 40% of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients were divided into Group I (survived longer than 5-years: n=130, 101 males) and Group II (survived shorter than 5 years: n=199, 126 males). Results The cumulative survival rate was 88.0% at 1 month, 78.0% at 6 months, 75.0% at 1 year, 67.0% at 2 years, 62.0% at 3 years, 57.0% at 4 years and 40% at 5-years. Group II was older (61.6±11.2 years vs. 66.4±11.4 years, p<0.001), and showed higher prevalence of female gender (28.4% vs. 36.7%, p=0.006) and lower LVEF (35.3±5.2 vs. 33.6±5.6) than Group I. The independent predictors for mortality were LVEF <30% {odds ratio (OR)=1.793, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.234-2.452, p=0.002}, serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dL (OR=2.455, 95% CI: 1.306-4.614, p=0.005), older than 65 years (OR=1.594, 95% CI: 1.152-2.206, p=0.005), and female gender (OR=1.524, 95% CI: 1.090-2.130, p=0.014). Conclusion Five-year survival rate was 40% in ACS patients with left ventricular dysfunction, and the predictors for mortality were low LVEF, high serum creatinine, old age, and female gender. PMID:23170097

  1. Relation between early mitral regurgitation and left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-3 echo substudy

    PubMed Central

    Ascione, L; Antonini-Canterin, F; Macor, F; Cervesato, E; Chiarella, F; Giannuzzi, P; Temporelli, P L; Gentile, F; Lucci, D; Maggioni, A P; Tavazzi, L; Badano, L; Stoian, I; Piazza, R; Bosimini, E; Pavan, D; Nicolosi, G L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of left ventricular thrombosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and whether the occurrence of early mitral regurgitation has a protective effect against the formation of left ventricular thrombus. Design and setting: Multicentre clinical trial carried out in 47 Italian coronary care units. Patients and methods: 757 patients from the GISSI-3 echo substudy population with their first acute myocardial infarct were studied by echocardiography at 24–48 hours from symptom onset (S1), at discharge (S2), at six weeks (S3), and at six months (S4). The diagnosis of left ventricular thrombosis was based on the detection of an echo dense mass with defined margins visible throughout the cardiac cycle in at least two orthogonal views. Results: In 64 patients (8%), left ventricular thrombosis was detected in one or more examinations. Compared with the remaining 693 patients, subjects with left ventricular thrombosis were older (mean (SD) age: 64.6 (13.0) v 59.8 (11.7) years, p < 0.005), and had larger infarcts (extent of wall motion asynergy: 40.9 (11.5)% v 24.9 (14)%, p < 0.001), greater depression of left ventricular ejection fraction at S1 (43.3 (6.9)% v 48.1 (6.8)%, p < 0.001), and greater left ventricular volumes at S1 (end diastolic volume: 87 (22) v 78 (18) ml/m2, p < 0.001; end systolic volume: 50 (17) v 41 (14) ml/m2, p < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation on colour Doppler at S1 was greater in patients who had left ventricular thrombosis at any time (10.2% v 4.2%, p < 0.05). On stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis the only independent variables related to the presence of left ventricular thrombosis were the extent of wall motion asynergy and anterior site of infarction. Conclusions: Left ventricular thrombosis is not reduced, and may even be increased, by early moderate to severe mitral regurgitation after acute myocardial infarction. The only independent

  2. Teaching ESL from the Right Hemisphere of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Based on the idea that the brain consists of hemispheres which control different types of behavior, this paper argues that the Puerto Rican school system is deteriorating because its emphasis on left hemisphere (quantitative) activities does not synchronize with Puerto Rico's cultural orientation toward the right hemisphere (qualitative…

  3. Hemisphericity Research: An Overview with Some Implications for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Research on cerebral hemisphericity and lateral dominance is reviewed, and relationships between right and left hemispheric modes of information processing as well as problem solving techniques are discussed. Conclusions focus mainly on need for educators to know information processing differences of the two hemispheres to teach children problem…

  4. Hemispheric Specialization and Implications for Education of the Hearing Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shari

    The paper reviews research on cerebral hemispheric functioning and considers the implications for instruction of the deaf. The nature of right and left hemisphere function and communication is addressed, as are findings on cerebral asymmetry for aspects of language processing. Studies on hemispheric specialization of hearing impaired persons…

  5. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  7. Clinical aspects of left ventricular diastolic function assessed by Doppler echocardiography following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, S H

    2001-11-01

    abnormal myocardial relaxation which can be reversed to normal by restoring normal myocardial blood flow. The diastolic abnormality is present within seconds and a characteristic impaired relaxation filling pattern are identified by mitral and pulmonary venous flow analysis. Diastolic dysfunction has been recognized during the early as well during the post-MI phase with or without LV systolic dysfunction. In the acute phase both an abnormal relaxation pattern and restrictive LV filling pattern are present which has been related to in-hospital heart failure. The identification of a pseudonormal or restrictive LV filling pattern are associated with later readmission to hospital with heart failure and cardiac death. Abnormal relaxation filling is the most pronounced filling pattern after one year which might be related to the remodeling process including compensatory hypertrophy, scarring of the infarct zone leading to a non-uniform relaxation of the LV. Remodeling of the LV following a MI is subject to several factors which might involve diastolic function. This is supported by the presence of an impaired relaxation and restrictive filling pattern are associated with progressive LV dilatation following Ml. Furthermore, the LV remodeling process following the very early phase includes the scarring process with collagen deposition in the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. The extent and quality of the repair process involving collagen deposition are believed to influence the remodeling process. Increased collagen deposition in the subacute phase of Ml indicated by elevated values of the collagen marker PIIINP is found to be related to LV dilation, depressed systolic function and restrictive LV filling. Development of a restrictive filling in patients with increased collagen deposition might be due to increasing LV volume but also to increased myocardial stiffness. Regarding prognosis diastolic dysfunction seems to be an important marker of outcome as abnormal diastolic

  8. Complementary hemispheric specialization for word and accent detection.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven M; Mandelkern, Mark A; Phan, Hao; Zaidel, Eran

    2003-06-01

    When we hear a familiar word pronounced in a foreign accent, which parts of the brain identify the word and which identify the accent? Here we present converging evidence from PET blood flow, event-related scalp potentials, and behavioral responses during dichotic listening, showing homologous and complementary hemispheric specialization for word and accent detection. Accuracy of detecting target words was greater when stimuli were presented to the right ear, indicating left hemisphere specialization, with no ear advantage for detecting target accents. Detection of words also produced increased blood flow in a left frontal area associated with motor and phonetic processing, and a left temporal area associated with semantic memory. Homologous areas of the right hemisphere, together with right prefrontal and precuneus regions, showed increased blood flow during detection of accents. Separate analyses for each detection task indicated that voxels whose activity maximally correlated with accuracy were in the left hemisphere for word detection, but in the right hemisphere for accent detection. Voxels whose activity maximally correlated with inaccuracy were in the opposite hemisphere for both tasks, strengthening the interpretation that between-task differences in brain activation are related to lateralized specializations for task performance. ERP waveforms and reaction times suggested that greater left hemisphere activation during word detection preceded greater right hemisphere activation during accent detection. The results are interpreted as supporting left hemisphere specialization for extraction of the linguistic, phonetic, and semantic information contained in speech, and right hemisphere specialization for pragmatics, the social context of linguistic communication.

  9. Discourse functions and hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Osiejuk, E

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the main results of an application of discourse analysis in aphasics with the left hemisphere damages and in the right hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients. Research findings indicate that aphasics have marked deficits on the level of microstructure, especially cohesion of discourse, whereas the coherence and superstructure of their texts are relatively well preserved. RHD patients show difficulties at the microstructure of discourse but not so marked as that of aphasic subjects. The main impairments of RHD patients' discourse can be observed at the level of text coherence. The both populations have also preserved cognitive representation concerned with script knowledge. Discourse processing at macrostructural level of discourse is affected in aphasics as well as in RHD patients. These results suggest that both hemispheres are necessary for normal discourse processes.

  10. BET 1: IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME, DOES WELLENS' SIGN ON THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH IDENTIFY CRITICAL LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING ARTERY STENOSIS?

    PubMed

    Morris, Niall; Howard, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Wellens' syndrome consists of a history suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome and biphasic or deeply inverted T waves in ECG leads V2-V3. A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether this ECG pattern identifies patients with a critical left anterior descending artery stenosis. Six relevant papers were found. The clinical bottom line is that biphasic T-wave inversion in lead V2-V3 should alert the clinician to a probable critical stenosis of the left anterior descending artery.

  11. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  12. Structural integrity of the contralesional hemisphere predicts cognitive impairment in ischemic stroke at three months.

    PubMed

    Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalia; Graña, Manuel; Fernández-Andújar, Marina; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Clemente, Immaculada; Monserrat, Pere Toran; Sas, Maite Alzamora; Dávalos, Antoni; Auer, Tibor; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    After stroke, white matter integrity can be affected both locally and distally to the primary lesion location. It has been shown that tract disruption in mirror's regions of the contralateral hemisphere is associated with degree of functional impairment. Fourteen patients suffering right hemispheric focal stroke (S) and eighteen healthy controls (HC) underwent Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and neuropsychological assessment. The stroke patient group was divided into poor (SP; n = 8) and good (SG; n = 6) cognitive recovery groups according to their cognitive improvement from the acute phase (72 hours after stroke) to the subacute phase (3 months post-stroke). Whole-brain DWI data analysis was performed by computing Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) followed by Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Assessment of effects was obtained computing the correlation of the projections on TBSS skeleton of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Radial Diffusivity (RD) with cognitive test results. Significant decrease of FA was found only in right brain anatomical areas for the S group when compared to the HC group. Analyzed separately, stroke patients with poor cognitive recovery showed additional significant FA decrease in several left hemisphere regions; whereas SG patients showed significant decrease only in the left genu of corpus callosum when compared to the HC. For the SG group, whole brain analysis revealed significant correlation between the performance in the Semantic Fluency test and the FA in the right hemisphere as well as between the performance in the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) and the Trail Making Test-part A and the FA in the left hemisphere. For the SP group, correlation analysis revealed significant correlation between the performance in the GPT and the FA in the right hemisphere.

  13. Structural Integrity of the Contralesional Hemisphere Predicts Cognitive Impairment in Ischemic Stroke at Three Months

    PubMed Central

    Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalia; Graña, Manuel; Fernández-Andújar, Marina; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Clemente, Immaculada; Monserrat, Pere Toran; Sas, Maite Alzamora; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    After stroke, white matter integrity can be affected both locally and distally to the primary lesion location. It has been shown that tract disruption in mirror’s regions of the contralateral hemisphere is associated with degree of functional impairment. Fourteen patients suffering right hemispheric focal stroke (S) and eighteen healthy controls (HC) underwent Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and neuropsychological assessment. The stroke patient group was divided into poor (SP; n = 8) and good (SG; n = 6) cognitive recovery groups according to their cognitive improvement from the acute phase (72 hours after stroke) to the subacute phase (3 months post-stroke). Whole-brain DWI data analysis was performed by computing Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) followed by Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Assessment of effects was obtained computing the correlation of the projections on TBSS skeleton of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Radial Diffusivity (RD) with cognitive test results. Significant decrease of FA was found only in right brain anatomical areas for the S group when compared to the HC group. Analyzed separately, stroke patients with poor cognitive recovery showed additional significant FA decrease in several left hemisphere regions; whereas SG patients showed significant decrease only in the left genu of corpus callosum when compared to the HC. For the SG group, whole brain analysis revealed significant correlation between the performance in the Semantic Fluency test and the FA in the right hemisphere as well as between the performance in the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) and theTrail Making Test-part A and the FA in the left hemisphere. For the SP group, correlation analysis revealed significant correlation between the performance in the GPT and the FA in the right hemisphere. PMID:24475078

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmee; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Jeong Euy

    2003-01-01

    Coronary MR angiography can be useful for noninvasive diagnosis of potentially life-threatening coronary artery anomalies. However, there has been no report to date on MR demonstration of acute myocardial infarction associated with right coronary artery anomaly. A 55-year-old man was admitted with chest pain. Catheter coronary angiography revealed an anomalous origin with compression in the proximal segment of right coronary artery. Breath-hold MR angiography using spiral acquisition technique showed that the right coronary artery originated from the left coronary sinus with a separate os. The proximal segment of the artery was compressed by right ventricle outflow tract during the diastolic phase of cine MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging 5 minutes after Gd-DTPA injection showed hyperenhancement suggestive of acute myocardial infarction in the posteroinferior wall of the left ventricle.

  15. Imaging network level language recovery after left PCA stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Long, Charltien; Purcell, Jeremy J.; Faria, Andreia V.; Lindquist, Martin; Jarso, Samson; Race, David; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. Our goal was to evaluate longitudinal changes in naming recovery in participants with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke using a case-by-case analysis. Methods: Using task based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and detailed language testing, we longitudinally studied the recovery of the naming network in four participants with PCA stroke with naming deficits at the acute (0 week), sub acute (3–5 weeks), and chronic time point (5–7 months) post stroke. Behavioral and imaging analyses (task related and resting state functional connectivity) were carried out to elucidate longitudinal changes in naming recovery. Results: Behavioral and imaging analysis revealed that an improvement in naming accuracy from the acute to the chronic stage was reflected by increased connectivity within and between left and right hemisphere “language” regions. One participant who had persistent moderate naming deficit showed weak and decreasing connectivity longitudinally within and between left and right hemisphere language regions. Conclusions: These findings emphasize a network view of aphasia recovery, and show that the degree of inter- and intra- hemispheric balance between the language-specific regions is necessary for optimal recovery of naming, at least in participants with PCA stroke. PMID:27176918

  16. Management of a subclavian artery thrombosis causing acute anterior wall infarction and concurrent left arm ischemia in a patient with prior coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Akgüllü, Çağdaş; Eryılmaz, Ufuk; Zencir, Cemil; Güngör, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    We report a 57-year-old patient with acute anterior wall infarction with a history of a coronary baypass graft operation in 2007. He also had concurrent left arm cyanosis and severe pain. He had received diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma one month previously and had had his first chemotherapy in the previous week with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. After the angiography, a giant thrombus was detected in the proximal left subclavian artery, deteriorating the flows of both left internal mammarian artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery graft, as well as the left brachial artery. The proximal subclavian artery was stented and good flow was achieved. Through the LIMA, the distal part of LAD, which was totally obstructed with probable distal thrombus embolization, was reached and a percutaneous balloon angioplasty performed. However, the no-reflow phenomenon was observed in distal LAD. A Fogarty traction of thrombus was performed successfully for the revascularization of the left arm. Approximately 30 minutes after the procedure, both angina and ST segment elevation in ECG were resolved under unfractioned heparin and nitroglycerin infusion. However, the patient died due to sepsis seven days after admission to hospital. In the literature, there are only a few previous reports on this rare clinical entity. The eitology, presentation, and the possible management strategies of this clinical entity is presented in this report.

  17. IgG4-related pleural disease diagnosed by a re-evaluation of chronic bilateral pleuritis in a patient who experienced occasional acute left bacterial pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Yasuo, Masanori; Kobayashi, Orie; Tsushima, Kenji; Ito, Michiko; Urushihata, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Uehara, Takeshi; Kawakami, Satoshi; Hamano, Hideaki; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Kubo, Keishi

    2011-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with cryptogenic chronic bilateral lymphoplasmacytic pleuritis, diagnosed based on left parietal pleural biopsy specimens obtained by pleuroscopy, developed acute left bacterial pleuritis. The left pleural effusion was neutrophil dominant, however, the right pleural effusion showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Laboratory examinations revealed that his serum IgG4 concentration was increased, with a higher level of IgG4 in the right pleural effusion. Re-evaluation of the previous biopsy specimens using an immunostaining method revealed numerous IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltrations with IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells at 85.4%. Accordingly, the new diagnosis of this patient was considered to be chronic bilateral IgG4-related pleuritis.

  18. Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Quaranta, Angelo; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-01-01

    Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such lateralization has been studied mainly for visual responses, there is evidence in primates that auditory perception is lateralized and that vocal communication depends on differential processing by the hemispheres. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether dogs use different hemispheres to process different acoustic stimuli by presenting them with playbacks of a thunderstorm and their species-typical vocalizations. The results revealed that dogs usually process their species-typical vocalizations using the left hemisphere and the thunderstorm sounds using the right hemisphere. Nevertheless, conspecific vocalizations are not always processed by the left hemisphere, since the right hemisphere is used for processing vocalizations when they elicit intense emotion, including fear. These findings suggest that the specialisation of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication is more ancient that previously thought, and so is specialisation of the right hemisphere for intense emotions.

  19. The calculating hemispheres: studies of a split-brain patient.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Margaret G; Colvin, Mary K; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2007-06-11

    The purpose of the study was to investigate simple calculation in the two cerebral hemispheres of a split-brain patient. In a series of four experiments, the left hemisphere was superior to the right in simple calculation, confirming the previously reported left hemisphere specialization for calculation. In two different recognition paradigms, right hemisphere performance was at chance for all arithmetic operations, with the exception of subtraction in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm (performance was at chance when the lure differed from the correct answer by a magnitude of 1 but above chance when the magnitude difference was 4). In a recall paradigm, the right hemisphere performed above chance for both addition and subtraction, but performed at chance levels for multiplication and division. The error patterns in that experiment suggested that for subtraction and addition, the right hemisphere does have some capacity for approximating the solution even when it is unable to generate the exact solution. Furthermore, right hemisphere accuracy in addition and subtraction was higher for problems with small operands than with large operands. An additional experiment assessed approximate and exact addition in the two hemispheres for problems with small and large operands. The left hemisphere was equally accurate in both tasks but the right hemisphere was more accurate in approximate addition than in exact addition. In exact addition, right hemisphere accuracy was higher for problems with small operands than large, but the opposite pattern was found for approximate addition.

  20. Knowledge-Based Inferences across the Hemispheres: Domain Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Connie; Hawkins, Amanda; Varner, Andria; Lewis, Lindsey; Heatley, Jennifer; Twachtmann, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Language comprehension occurs when the left-hemisphere (LH) and the right-hemisphere (RH) share information derived from discourse [Beeman, M. J., Bowden, E. M., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2000). Right and left hemisphere cooperation for drawing predictive and coherence inferences during normal story comprehension. "Brain and Language, 71", 310-336].…

  1. Differential hemispheric modulation of preparatory attention.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Laura Gabriela; Siéroff, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Preparatory attention (PA) is the ability to allocate attention to a stimulus prior to its occurrence and is a crucial component of attentional control. We investigated the role of brain hemispheres in PA using an experimental test in which normal participants responded to a target that could appear in the right or the left visual fields, thus projecting to the left or the right hemispheres, while ignoring a central distractor that could appear in the preparatory phase preceding the target. This experimental test measures the ability of participants to modulate PA directed to a target location when the probability of a distractor occurrence varies across three blocks of trials (0%, 33%, 67%). The competition between distractors and target for PA should produce slower response times when the probability of distractors is high. Three experiments were conducted varying the temporal predictability of the target occurrence within a trial (high predictability in Experiments 1 and 3, and low predictability in Experiment 2), and the task used (location in Experiments 1 and 2, and detection in Experiment 3). We found that the modulation of PA by the expected probability of events was different in each visual field/hemisphere. Whereas the left hemisphere PA was influenced by the mere probability of events in each block of trials, the right hemisphere PA was mainly influenced by events with high temporal predictability. These results suggest that each hemisphere uses a different strategy to modulate PA when directed to a target location at the perceptual level of visual processing.

  2. Trastuzumab (Herceptin)-associated cardiomyopathy presented as new onset of complete left bundle-branch block mimicking acute coronary syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Yang, Shin-Ping; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Wang, Wen-Been

    2009-09-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is well documented in reducing suffering and mortality from breast cancer. The clinically most important side effect of Herceptin is cardiotoxicity, which is reported in 2.6% to 4.5% of patients receiving trastuzumab alone and in as many as 27% of patients when trastuzumab is combined with an anthracycline in metastatic disease. We reported the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department (ED) because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical examination, holosystolic murmur over apex could be heard. Pulmonary and abdominal examinations were unremarkable. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus tachycardia and new onset of complete left bundle-branch block. Emergent transthoracic echocardiography revealed generalized hypokinesia of left ventricle and akinesia over interventricular septum and apex. She subsequently underwent immediate coronary angiography that revealed normal coronary angiography, and left ventriculogram revealed generalized hypokinesia with severe left ventricle dysfunction with ejection fraction of 33%. During right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy, cardiac tamponade developed and was successfully relieved by pericardial window. She was discharged event-free 3 weeks later with conservative treatment. Although new onset of complete left bundle-branch block in a patient with chest pain may be acute coronary syndrome, careful review of medicine history is mandatory to avoid unnecessary procedure and complications.

  3. Sirolimus-Versus Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in Acute Coronary Syndromes With C Type Left Anterior Descending Artery Lesions: A Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Seher; Cicek, Davran; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents have improved the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention and made it the preferred therapy in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases including acute coronary syndromes. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stent with that of zotarolimus-eluting stent following percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome patients with C-type left anterior descending stenosis. Methods A total of 154 acute coronary syndrome patients with C-type lesions in the left anterior descending artery, requiring a stent > 28 mm in length, were randomized into two groups to receive either sirolimus- (n = 74) or zotarolimus-eluting stent (n = 80). The follow-up period after stent implantation was approximately 36 months. The primary endpoint was a major cardiac event (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-related target vessel revascularization), and the secondary endpoint included these individual end points plus stent thrombosis. Results After 3 years follow-up, the rate of the primary end point (major cardiac event: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-related target vessel revascularization) was 16% in the sirolimus group (n = 12) versus 11.2% in the zotarolimus group (n = 9) (P = 0.2). Although there were four cases of stent thrombosis with sirolimus-eluting stent and one with zotarolimus-eluting stent (4.0% sirolimus vs. 1.25% zotarolimus; P = 0.2), neither non-Q myocardial infarction (4.0%sirolimus vs. 1.25% zotarolimus; P = 0.2) nor stent thrombosis, differed significantly. Conclusions Although zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation showed more favorable results with respect to stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac event rates compared to sirolimus-eluting stent implantation, statistically, both stent groups have nearly similar clinical safety and efficacy in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes with C-type lesions in the left

  4. Embolization for Acute Small-Bowel Bleeding from the Collateral Artery of the Superior Mesenteric Left Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery Associated with Narrowing of the Bilateral Common External Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohira, Masashi Ogino, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2009-03-15

    We present a case of acute small-bowel bleeding from the collateral artery of the superior mesenteric-left deep circumflex iliac artery that was successfully managed by transarterial coil embolization.

  5. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sokal, Adam; Lenarczyk, Radosław; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Vanderheyden, Marc; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Francis, Darrel; Heynens, Joeri; Stegemann, Berthold; Cornelussen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations. Results Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor. Conclusions In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141 PMID:27124724

  6. Awake right hemisphere brain surgery.

    PubMed

    Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved.

  7. Assessment of the Utility of the Septal E/(E′ × S′) Ratio and Tissue Doppler Index in Predicting Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kenar Tiryakioglu, Selma; Yalin, Kıvanc; Coskun, Senol

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to show whether the septal E/(E′ × S′) ratio assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography can predict left ventricular remodeling after first ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated successfully with primary percutaneous intervention. Methods. Consecutive patients (n = 111) presenting with acute anterior myocardial infarction for the first time in their life were enrolled. All patients underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Standard and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed in the first 24-36 hours of admission. Echocardiographic examination was repeated after 6 months to reassess left ventricular volumes. Septal E/(E′ × S′) ratio was assessed by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Results. Group 1 consisted of 33 patients with left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and Group 2 had 78 patients without LV remodeling. E/(E′ × S′) was significantly higher in Group 1 (4.1 ± 1.9 versus 1.65 ± 1.32, p = 0.001). The optimal cutoff value for E/(E′ × S′) ratio was 2.34 with 87.0% sensitivity and 82.1% specificity. Conclusion. Septal E/(E′ × S′) values measured after the acute anterior myocardial infarction can strongly predict LV remodeling in the 6-month follow-up. In the risk assessment, the septal E/(E′ × S′) can be evaluated together with the conventional echocardiographic techniques. PMID:27703973

  8. A Case of Acute Myocardial Infarction due to Left Main Trunk Occlusion Complicated With Aortic Dissection as Diagnosed by Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Masashi; Amano, Tomonori; Matsuoka, Shunzo; Hirai, Hideki; Masuda, Kazunori; Nakajima, Kanta; Sueyoshi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with a sudden onset of severe chest pains. His electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography showed subtotal occlusion of left main trunk (LMT) with delayed coronary flow. Because intravascular ultrasound revealed a large intimal flap, we diagnosed aortic dissection involving the LMT. After stenting of the LMT, the patient underwent surgical repair of the aortic dissection. Although it is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis of aortic dissection complicated with myocardial ischemia, we succeeded in diagnosing this rare condition by use of a intravascular ultrasound.

  9. Novel Faces of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23): Iron Deficiency, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Proteinuria and Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Vervloet, Marc; Cozzolino, Mario; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Solak, Yalcin

    2017-03-01

    FGF23 is a hormone that appears as the core regulator of phosphate metabolism. Great deal of data has accumulated to demonstrate increased FGF23 secretion from the bone to compensate for even subtle increases in serum phosphorus long before intact PTH. However, recent evidence points to the fact that actions and interactions of FGF23 are not limited solely to phosphate metabolism. FGF23 may be implicated in iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, inflammation, insulin resistance, proteinuria, acute kidney injury and left ventricular hypertrophy. In this review, we will summarize latest experimental and clinical data examining impact of FGF23 on aforementioned pathophysiologic pathways/disorders.

  10. A Case of Acute Traumatic Aortic Injury of a Right-sided Aortic Arch with Rupture of an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Taif, Sawsan; Al Kalbani, Jokha

    2013-01-01

    Acute traumatic aortic injury is a potentially lethal condition with most patients die at the scene of the accidents. Rapid deceleration due to motor vehicle accidents is the commonest mechanism of injury. These injuries can be successfully repaired in the few patients who survive the initial trauma if proper diagnosis and rapid treatment are provided. The occurrence of acute traumatic aortic injury in patients with congenital abnormality of the aortic arch has been rarely reported; however, it renders the diagnosis and treatment more difficult. In this paper, we describe an extremely rare case of aortic injury in a young patient who had a right sided aortic arch with rupture of an aberrant left subclavian artery. The patient was suspected to have a Kommerell’s diverticulum in the aberrant subclavian artery origin. This injury resulted in an unusually huge pseudoaneurysm involving part of the mediastinum and extending into the neck. Unfortunately; patient succumbed in spite of surgical intervention. PMID:24421931

  11. Europa's Leading Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa's leading hemisphere was obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on board NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit of Jupiter. In the upper left part of the image is Tyre, a multi-ringed structure that may have formed as a result of an ancient impact. Also visible are numerous lineaments that extend for over 1000 kilometers. The limb, or edge, of Europa in this image can be used by scientists to constrain the radius and shape of the satellite. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the right. The image, centered at -40 latitude and 180 longitude, covers an area approximately 2000 by 1300 kilometers. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 6.6 kilometers across. The images were taken on April 3, 1997 at 17 hours, 42 minutes, 19 seconds Universal Time when the spacecraft was at a range of 31,8628 kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Urokinase Lysis for Acute Left Subclavian Artery Thrombosis after Placement of Infusion Catheter: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hiroshi; Kimura, Motomasa; Yoshimura, Norihiko; Takano, Tooru; Takaki, Satoshi; Awaji, Masanori; Sakai, Kunio

    2002-03-15

    We present two cases of acute subclavian and/or axillary arterial occlusion after transaxillary catheterization with an implantable port for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. They were successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy using intraarterial administration of urokinase without removal of the infusion catheter system. We consider that this treatment is suitable for managing acute thrombosis of the conduit artery after catheterization for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy.

  13. Auditory Word Comprehension Impairment in Acute Stroke: Relative Contribution of Phonemic versus Semantic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Pitz, Eleanor; Hillis, Argye E.; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Auditory word comprehension was assessed in a series of 289 acute left hemisphere stroke patients. Participants decided whether an auditorily presented word matched a picture. On different trials, words were presented with a matching picture, a semantic foil, or a phonemic foil. Participants had significantly more trouble with semantic foils…

  14. Hemispheric processing of memory is affected by sleep.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shaw, John J; Ashworth-Lord, Anneliese; Newbury, Chloe R

    2017-04-01

    Sleep is known to affect learning and memory, but the extent to which it influences behavioural processing in the left and right hemispheres of the brain is as yet unknown. We tested two hypotheses about lateralised effects of sleep on recognition memory for words: whether sleep reactivated recent experiences of words promoting access to the long-term store in the left hemisphere (LH), and whether sleep enhanced spreading activation differentially in semantic networks in the hemispheres. In Experiment 1, participants viewed lists of semantically related words, then slept or stayed awake for 12h before being tested on seen, unseen but related, or unrelated words presented to the left or the right hemisphere. Sleep was found to promote word recognition in the LH, and to spread activation equally within semantic networks in both hemispheres. Experiment 2 ensured that the results were not due to time of day effects influencing cognitive performance.

  15. Hemispheric specialization in quantification processes.

    PubMed

    Pasini, M; Tessari, A

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to study hemispheric specialization for subitizing (the rapid enumeration of small patterns) and counting (the serial quantification process based on some formal principles). The experiments consist of numerosity identification of dot patterns presented in one visual field, with a tachistoscopic technique, or eye movements monitored through glasses, and comparison between centrally presented dot patterns and lateralized tachistoscopically presented digits. Our experiments show left visual field advantage in the identification and comparison tasks in the subitizing range, whereas right visual field advantage has been found in the comparison task for the counting range.

  16. Neuroanatomical correlates of severe cardiac arrhythmias in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Frank; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Gutjahr, Isabell; Breuer, Lorenz; Winder, Klemens; Kaschka, Iris; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd; Hilz, Max-Josef; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Neurocardiological interactions can cause severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The relationship between the lesion location in the brain and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardiac arrhythmias were systematically assessed in patients with acute ischemic stroke during the first 72 h after admission to a monitored stroke unit. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of clinically relevant severe arrhythmias. Overall 150 patients, 56 with right-hemispheric and 94 patients with a left-hemispheric lesion, were eligible to be included in the VLSM study. Severe cardiac arrhythmias were present in 49 of these 150 patients (32.7%). We found a significant association (FDR correction, q < 0.05) between lesions in the right insular, right frontal and right parietal cortex as well as the right amygdala, basal ganglia and thalamus and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. Because left- and right-hemispheric lesions were analyzed separately, the significant findings rely on the 56 patients with right-hemispheric lesions. The data indicate that these areas are involved in central autonomic processing and that right-hemispheric lesions located to these areas are associated with an elevated risk for severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  17. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-08-25

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation.

  18. An Evaluative Review of Hemispheric Learning Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    patients with left-sided damage on certain items of the Seashore test of musical abilities...1978) Problem-solving strategies and manifest brain asymmetry. Cortex, 14, 474-484. Wechsler, A.F. (1973) The effect of organic brain disease on ...mologous locales In the two hemispheres. The effects of unilateral brain dam- age were thus interpreted as disorders consequent on

  19. [The clinico-neurophysiological study of the effect of cerebrolysin on brain function in the acute and early recovery periods of hemispheric ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Burd, G S; Gekht, A B; Skvortsova, V I; Bogomolova, M A; Selikhova, M V; Fidler, S M

    1994-01-01

    Thirty patients with acute ischemic stroke and at early terms of postapoplectic recovery received cerebrolysin in daily doses 10, 20 and 30 ml for 5 days or 10 ml, i. v. for 10 days, respectively. The patients were examined for neurological status and cerebral function. In acute stroke the highest effect occurred in the affection of moderate severity. In severe stroke the drug stimulated recovery of impaired functions which tended to restore more quickly than in control subjects. In early convalescents cerebrolysin improved motor functions. Details of the results of the combined neurophysiological examination in the course of the treatment are discussed.

  20. Europa Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from coverage supplied by the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) camera and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values. A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 200 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear/blue for Voyager 1 and 2, and clear, near-IR (757 nm), and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 500 m/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same Sinusoidal projection.

    The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Europa is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice.

    Names shown on the globe are approved by the International Astronomical Union. The number, size, and placement of text were chosen for a 9-inch globe. A complete list of Europa nomenclature can be found at the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature at http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is shown on the right.

  1. Callisto Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo SSI and Voyager 1 and 2 (Batson, 1987; Becker and others, 1998; Becker and others, 1999; Becker and others, 2001). The digital map was produced using Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) (Eliason, 1997; Gaddis and others, 1997; Torson and Becker, 1997). The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values (McEwen, 1991; Kirk and others, 2000). A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 150 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear for Voyager 1 and 2; clear and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 1.0 kilometer/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same projection. The final mosaic was enhanced using commercial software. The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Callisto is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is

  2. ERP Evidence of Hemispheric Independence in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemrodov, Dan; Harpaz, Yuval; Javitt, Daniel C.; Lavidor, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the capability of the left hemisphere (LH) and the right hemisphere (RH) to perform a visual recognition task independently as formulated by the Direct Access Model (Fernandino, Iacoboni, & Zaidel, 2007). Healthy native Hebrew speakers were asked to categorize nouns and non-words (created from nouns by transposing two middle…

  3. Specialization of the Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1987-01-01

    Among conclusions of this review of findings regarding contemporary neuropsychology and cerebral hemisphere specialization as related to learning disabilities are: (1) differential specialization occurs very early; (2) anomalous hemispheric specialization is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficit; and (3) left- and right-hemisphere…

  4. Divergent hemispheric reasoning strategies: reducing uncertainty versus resolving inconsistency.

    PubMed

    Marinsek, Nicole; Turner, Benjamin O; Gazzaniga, Michael; Miller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence from diverse research domains suggest that the left and right hemispheres play distinct, yet complementary, roles in inferential reasoning. Here, we review research on split-brain patients, brain-damaged patients, delusional patients, and healthy individuals that suggests that the left hemisphere tends to create explanations, make inferences, and bridge gaps in information, while the right hemisphere tends to detect conflict, update beliefs, support mental set-shifts, and monitor and inhibit behavior. Based on this evidence, we propose that the left hemisphere specializes in creating hypotheses and representing causality, while the right hemisphere specializes in evaluating hypotheses, and rejecting those that are implausible or inconsistent with other evidence. In sum, we suggest that, in the domain of inferential reasoning, the left hemisphere strives to reduce uncertainty while the right hemisphere strives to resolve inconsistency. The hemispheres' divergent inferential reasoning strategies may contribute to flexible, complex reasoning in the healthy brain, and disruption in these systems may explain reasoning deficits in the unhealthy brain.

  5. Combined baseline strain dyssynchrony index and its acute reduction predicts mid-term left ventricular reverse remodeling and long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Hiraishi, Mana; Tsuji, Takayuki; Kaneko, Akihiro; Ryo, Keiko; Fukuda, Yuko; Norisada, Kazuko; Onishi, Tetsuari; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that combining assessment of baseline radial strain dyssynchrony index (SDI), that expressed both left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility, and of acute changes in this index can yield more accurate prediction of mid-term responders and long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Radial SDI for 75 CRT patients was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic speckle tracking strain from 6 segments of the mid-LV short-axis view before and 8 ± 2 days after CRT. Mid-term responder was defined as ≥ 15% decrease in LV end-systolic volume 6 ± 2 months after CRT. Long-term outcome was tracked over 5 years. Baseline radial SDI ≥ 6.5% is considered predictive of responder and favorable outcome, as previously reported. Acute reduction in radial SDI ≥ 1.5% was found to be the best predictor of mid-term responders with CRT. Furthermore, patients with acute reductions in radial SDI ≥1.5% were associated with a significantly more favorable long-term outcome after CRT than those with radial SDI <1.5% (log rank P < 0.001). An important findings were that baseline radial SDI ≥6.5% and acute reductions in radial SDI ≥ 1.5% in 42 patients were associated with the highest event-free survival rate of 92%, whereas, 21 patients corresponding values of <6.5% and <1.5% were associated with low event-free survival rate of 46% (log rank P < 0.001). Combined assessment of baseline radial SDI and its acute reduction after CRT may have clinical implications for predicting responders and thus patients' care.

  6. The effect of left ventricular function and drive pressures on the filling and ejection of a pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device in an acute animal model.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Branka; Zapanta, Conrad M; Khalapyan, Tigran; Connell, John; Pae, Walter E; Myers, John L; Wilson, Ronald P; Undar, Akif; Rosenberg, Gerson; Weiss, William J

    2007-01-01

    Penn State is currently developing a 12-mL, pulsatile, pneumatically driven pediatric ventricular assist device intended to be used in infants. After extensive in vitro testing of the pump in a passive-filling, mock circulatory loop, an acute animal study was performed to obtain data with a contracting ventricle. The objectives were to determine the range of pneumatic pressures and time required to completely fill and empty the pediatric ventricular assist device under various physiologic conditions, simulate reductions in ventricular contractility and blood volume, and provide data for validation of the mock circulatory loop. A 15-kg goat was used. The cannulation was achieved via left thoracotomy from the left ventricle to the descending aorta. The pump rate and systolic duration were controlled manually to maintain complete filling and ejection. The mean ejection time ranged from 280 ms to 382 ms when the systolic pressure ranged from 350 mm Hg to 200 mm Hg. The mean filling time ranged from 352 ms to 490 ms, for the diastolic pressure range of -60 mm Hg to 0 mm Hg. Esmolol produced a decrease in left ventricular pressure, required longer pump filling time, and reduced LVAD flow.

  7. Fractal correlation properties of R-R interval dynamics and mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huikuri, H. V.; Makikallio, T. H.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Hintze, U.; Moller, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that the analysis of R-R interval variability by fractal analysis methods may provide clinically useful information on patients with heart failure. The purpose of this study was to compare the prognostic power of new fractal and traditional measures of R-R interval variability as predictors of death after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Time and frequency domain heart rate (HR) variability measures, along with short- and long-term correlation (fractal) properties of R-R intervals (exponents alpha(1) and alpha(2)) and power-law scaling of the power spectra (exponent beta), were assessed from 24-hour Holter recordings in 446 survivors of acute myocardial infarction with a depressed left ventricular function (ejection fraction left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarction.

  8. Effects of resting ischemia assessed by thallium scintigraphy on QRS scoring system for estimating left ventricular function quantified by radionuclide angiography in acute myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Hakki, A H; Iskandrian, A S

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting ischemia limits the usefulness of the QRS scoring system in predicting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute infarction. We studied 48 patients after acute infarction by means of 12-lead ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy, and radionuclide angiography. The thallium-201 scintigrams showed fixed defects in 25 patients, perfusion defects with partial or complete redistribution in the delayed images in 19 patients, and normal images in the remaining four patients. In the 48 patients there was a significant correlation between the QRS score and LVEF (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). Patients with fixed defects showed a better correlation than patients with resting ischemia (r = -0.77 vs r = -0.60). A QRS score of 3 or less was used to separate patients with LVEF of 40% or greater from those with lower LVEF in patients with fixed defects (p = 0.0005), but this cutoff did not categorize patients with resting ischemia as to LVEF. Thus the presence of rest ischemia in patients with acute infarction may affect the correlation between QRS score and LVEF.

  9. Hemispheric lateralization of semantic feature distinctiveness

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, M.; Machado, N.; Blumstein, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models of semantic memory propose that the semantic representation of concepts is based, in part, on a network of features. In this view, a feature that is distinctive for an object (a zebra has stripes) is processed differently from a feature that is shared across many objects (a zebra has four legs). The goal of this paper is to determine whether there are hemispheric differences in such processing. In a feature verification task, participants responded ‘yes’ or ‘no’ following concepts which were presented to a single visual field (left or right) paired with a shared or distinctive feature. Both hemispheres showed faster reaction times to shared features than to distinctive features, although right hemisphere responses were significantly slower overall and particularly in the processing of distinctive features. These findings support models of semantic processing in which the dominant left hemisphere more efficiently performs highly discriminating ‘fine’ encoding, in contrast to the right hemisphere which performs less discriminating ‘coarse’ encoding. PMID:26022059

  10. Hemispherical map for the human brain cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Duygu; Prince, Jerry L.

    2001-07-01

    Understanding the function of the human brain cortex is a primary goal in human brain mapping. Methods to unfold and flatten the cortical surface for visualization and measurement have been described in previous literature; but comparison across multiple subjects is still difficult because of the lack of a standard mapping technique. We describe a new approach that maps each hemisphere of the cortex to a portion of a sphere in a standard way, making comparison of anatomy and function across different subjects possible. Starting with a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image of the brain, the cortex is segmented and represented as a triangle mesh. Defining a cut around the corpus collosum identifies the left and right hemispheres. Together, the two hemispheres are mapped to the complex plane using a conformal mapping technique. A Mobius transformation, which is conformal, is used to transform the points on the complex plane so that a projective transformation maps each brain hemisphere onto a spherical segment comprising a sphere with a cap removed. We determined the best size of the spherical cap by minimizing the relative area distortion between hemispherical maps and original cortical surfaces. The relative area distortion between the hemispherical maps and the original cortical surfaces for fifteen human brains is analyzed.

  11. Divergent hemispheric reasoning strategies: reducing uncertainty versus resolving inconsistency

    PubMed Central

    Marinsek, Nicole; Turner, Benjamin O.; Gazzaniga, Michael; Miller, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence from diverse research domains suggest that the left and right hemispheres play distinct, yet complementary, roles in inferential reasoning. Here, we review research on split-brain patients, brain-damaged patients, delusional patients, and healthy individuals that suggests that the left hemisphere tends to create explanations, make inferences, and bridge gaps in information, while the right hemisphere tends to detect conflict, update beliefs, support mental set-shifts, and monitor and inhibit behavior. Based on this evidence, we propose that the left hemisphere specializes in creating hypotheses and representing causality, while the right hemisphere specializes in evaluating hypotheses, and rejecting those that are implausible or inconsistent with other evidence. In sum, we suggest that, in the domain of inferential reasoning, the left hemisphere strives to reduce uncertainty while the right hemisphere strives to resolve inconsistency. The hemispheres’ divergent inferential reasoning strategies may contribute to flexible, complex reasoning in the healthy brain, and disruption in these systems may explain reasoning deficits in the unhealthy brain. PMID:25374526

  12. The prisoners of despair: right hemisphere deficiency and suicide.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, I

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents an integrative approach to understanding of the inner experience of suicidal persons in terms of hemispheric asymmetry. The right hemisphere is involved in formation of polysemantic context. Polysemantic context is determined by multiple interconnections among its elements, while each concrete element bears the stamp of the whole context. Left hemisphere functioning leads to formation of monosemantic context. It is suggested that due to functional insufficiency of the right hemisphere the suicidal person demonstrates a compensatory shift to left hemisphere functioning. This shift manifests itself in reversed asymmetry of neurotransmitters, tendency to dissociation, alienated and negative perception of the body, lower sensitivity to pain, disintegration of self-representation, cognitive constriction, overly general nature of personal memories, difficulties in affect regulation as well as such personality traits as low openness to experience and personal constriction. This hypothesis raises a number of suggestions for future research.

  13. Endovascular treatment of an acute left middle cerebral artery >6 h post stroke in a patient presenting with dysphasia and dense right hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenny; Cordato, Dennis J; Kehdi, Elias E; Schlaphoff, Glen; McDougall, Alan

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the case of a 32-year-old man presenting with dense right hemiplegia and global aphasia caused by an acute left middle cerebral artery infarct that underwent successful endovascular therapy after being determined ineligible for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Clot transversion and balloon disruption followed by intra-arterial Alteplase resulted in successful re-canalization of his middle cerebral artery at 7 h 30 min. At 3 months post stroke, the patient had moderately severe expressive dysphasia but was mobilizing independently with normal right upper and lower limb strength. In conclusion, the 3 month outcome suggests that the therapeutic time window for endovascular therapy might exceed 6 h post stroke.

  14. Acute therapeutic modalities for experimental vasogenic edema.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, R D; James, H E; Marshall, L F; Shapiro, H M; Laurin, R

    1979-12-01

    Experimental vasogenic cerebral edema was created in rabbits with a cold-induced left occipital cortical lesions. Intracranial pressure (ICP), intracranial elastance (Em), water content, hemispheric brain tissue volume, electrolytes, electroencephalograms, behavior, and gross pathology were studied. Various therapeutic modalities were employed alone or in combination to reduce ICP acutely: acetazolamide, furosemide, mannitol, pentobarbital, lorazepam, and dexamethasone. All therapies except dexamethasone were effective in reducing ICP. Peak ICP reduction occurred at 27 +/- 9.8 (SD) minutes with mannitol and at 71.4 +/- 15.5 minutes with acetazolamide, with the remaining agents and combinations falling between these two extreme values. Em improved by 31.7 +/- 17.02% in all therapuetic trials except those employing acetazolamide and lorazepam. With therapy, there was a reduction in the water content of the hemispheres, but the difference from that in the untreated, lesioned animals was not statistically significant. In the lesioned left hemisphere, sodium content was increased by acetazolamide (p less than 0.005), furosemide (p less than 0.025), pentobarbital (p less than 0.05), and the combination of dexamethasone, pentobarbital, and mannitol (p less than 0.005). Significant reduction was noted in the lesioned group for the potassium content of the left hemisphere in the dexamethasone (p less than 0.05), pentobarbital (p less than 0.025), and combination groups containing these agents (p less than 0.005 to 0.025). (Neurosurgery, 5: 656--665, 1979).

  15. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR. PMID:26130953

  16. The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Maen Won; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Gyung-Min; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jae Yeong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jong Chun; Seung, Ki Bae; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Han, Kyoo Rok; Kim, Hyo Soo

    2015-07-01

    The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR.

  17. How do our brain hemispheres cooperate to avoid false memories?

    PubMed

    Bergert, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    Memories are not always as reliable as they may appear. The occurrence of false memories can be reduced, however, by enhancing the cooperation between the two brain hemispheres. Yet is the communication from left to right hemisphere as helpful as the information transfer from right to left? To address this question, 72 participants were asked to learn 16 word lists. Applying the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the words in each list were associated with an unpresented prototype word. In the test condition, learned words and corresponding prototypes were presented along with non-associated new words, and participants were asked to indicate which of the words they recognized. Crucially, both study and test words were projected to only one hemisphere in order to stimulate each hemisphere separately. It was found that false recognitions occurred significantly less often when the right hemisphere studied and the left hemisphere recognized the stimuli. Moreover, only the right-to-left direction of interhemispheric communication reduced false memories significantly, whereas left-to-right exchange did not. Further analyses revealed that the observed reduction of false memories was not due to an enhanced discrimination sensitivity, but to a stricter response bias. Hence, the data suggest that interhemispheric cooperation does not improve the ability to tell old and new apart, but rather evokes a conservative response tendency. Future studies may narrow down in which cognitive processing steps interhemispheric interaction can change the response criterion.

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Meaning Selection: Evidence from the Disambiguation of Homophonic vs. Heterophonic Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Orna; Markus, Andrey; Eviatar, Zohar

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating hemispheric asymmetries in meaning selection using homophonic homographs (e.g., "bank"), suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) quickly selects contextually relevant meanings, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) maintains a broader spectrum of meanings including those that are contextually irrelevant (e.g., Faust & Chiarello,…

  19. The Representation of Discourse in the Two Hemispheres: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Long, Debra L.; Baynes, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate discourse representation in the two cerebral hemispheres as a function of reading skill. We used a lateralized visual-field procedure to compare left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) sensitivity to different discourse relations in readers with varying skill levels. In Experiment 1, we…

  20. Hemispheric Division of Function Is the Result of Independent Probabilistic Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial abilities are typically subserved by different cerebral hemispheres: the left hemisphere for the former and the right hemisphere for the latter. However little is known of the origin of this division of function. Causal theories propose that functional asymmetry is an obligatory pattern of organisation, while statistical…

  1. Association between Therapy Outcome and Right-Hemispheric Activation in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Maria; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere for language processing and successful therapeutic interventions in aphasic patients is a matter of debate. This study explored brain activation in right-hemispheric areas and left-hemispheric perilesional areas in response to language tasks in chronic non-fluent aphasic patients before and after constraint-induced…

  2. Hemisphere Lateralization Is Influenced by Bilingual Status and Composition of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Gang; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the left hemisphere is more functionally specialized for language than the right hemisphere for right-handed monolinguals. But more and more studies have also demonstrated right hemisphere advantage for some language tasks with certain participants. A recent comprehensive survey has shown that hemisphere…

  3. Hemispheric Specialization for Emotional Word Processing Is a Function of SSRI Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Amy; McDowall, John; Grimshaw, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to depression and non-response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with specific neurophysiological characteristics including greater right hemisphere (RH) relative to left hemisphere (LH) activity. The present study investigated the relationship between hemispheric specialization and processing of…

  4. Effect of intraaortic balloon pumping on left ventricular function in patients with persistent ST segment elevation after revascularization for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Ishihara, Masaharu; Shimatani, Yuji; Nishioka, Kenji; Umemura, Takashi; Nakamura, Suji; Yoshida, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in patients with persistent ST elevation who underwent revascularization within 6 h of their first acute anterior myocardial infarction (AMI). Persistent ST elevation after revascularization was defined as being > or =50% of the initial value on return to the coronary care unit. Twenty-four patients were treated without IABP (control group) and 27 patients were treated with IABP (IABP group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in pretreatment left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume index or end-systolic volume index. After 137+/-46 days, the change in the LVEF was significantly higher in the IABP group than in the control group (5+/-13% vs 13+/-15%, p=0.04). However, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was similar between the 2 groups during follow-up (pretreatment: 77+/-19 ml/m(2) vs 74+/-13 ml/m(2), p=0.54; follow-up: 86+/-22 ml/m(2) vs 83+/-18 ml/m(2), p=0.60). These data suggest that IABP enhances the improvement in LVEF independent of remodeling in AMI patients with persistent ST elevation after revascularization.

  5. Early Administration of Therapeutic Anticoagulation Following Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Cardiogenic Embolic Stroke Caused by Left Ventricular Thrombus: Case Report and Topic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Rick; Donahey, Elisabeth; Ruland, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic cerebral embolism represents 20% of all acute ischemic strokes (AISs) with one-third of these being caused by left ventricular thrombus (LVT). LVT is not a contraindication for treatment with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) for AIS. However, the subsequent treatment of a potentially unstable LVT is contraindicated for 24 h following the use of IV rtPA according to current guidelines. We present a 66-year-old man with AIS treated with IV rtPA. Echocardiogram shortly after treatment demonstrated both a large apical and septal thrombus in the left ventricle and at 12 h post IV rtPA infusion, therapeutic anticoagulation with heparin was started without complication. In practice, the action of IV rtPA outlasts its apparent half-life because of thrombin-binding and the prolonged effects and longer half-life of its product, plasmin; however, the pharmacokinetics do not warrant prolonged avoidance of therapeutic anticoagulation when clinically indicated. Our case demonstrates that anticoagulation for potentially unstable LVT can be safely initiated at 12 h following IV rtPA treatment for AIS. PMID:25699011

  6. Multi-modal brain imaging showing brain damage to the orbitofrontal cortex and left hemisphere, in a case of prolonged hypoglycemia-induced transient hemiplegia followed by persistent encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Koike, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    A 21-year-old left-handed male patient was admitted with a 19-h history of coma after substantial insulin injection for suicide attempt. Although the patient recovered from coma 3 days after injury, he experienced transient hemiplegia followed by permanent brain damage. Electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) identified the localization of this dysfunction, but consistency between clinical symptoms and brain images changed depending on the course of treatment. Transient hemiplegia corresponded to abnormal waveforms on EEG and decreased cerebral blood flow on SPECT, whereas persistent dysfunctions corresponded to abnormal brain regions on MRI and SPECT.

  7. Education of the Left and the Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Maharaj

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in split-brain research and summarizes the qualities characterizing the two cerebral hemispheres. Traditional patterns of education, it is argued, are inadequate since they concentrate almost exclusively on the left hemisphere. Teaching strategies and school experiences are suggested to accelerate right…

  8. Inter-Hemispherical Currents for Realistic Model of Ionospheric Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatsky, S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of modeling of the global 3-D ionosphere-magnetosphere current system including in addition to the R1 and R2 field-aligned currents also inter-hemispherical currents. The inter-hemispherical currents flow between Northern and Southern conjugate ionospheres in case of a North-South asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres. These currents link together the ionospheric currents in two hemispheres, so the currents observed in one hemisphere can provide us with information about currents in the opposite hemisphere, which is especially important when their magnitude can not be obtained from direct observation (e.g., in Antarctica). In this study, we investigate the generation of the inter-hemispherical currents for several distributions of ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres including a simplified model of ionospheric conductivity, which is important for better understanding of the expected distribution and magnitude of these currents, and a more realistic model of ionospheric conductivity, which is observed during magnetospheric substorms, when the geometry of the inter-hemispherical currents is more complicated. Simulation results show that the inter-hemispherical currents during substorms could play a very significant role, and neglecting these currents does not allow obtaining the correct picture of 3-D magnetosphere-ionosphere current system. These currents are an important part of 3-D field-aligned current system, and they are especially strong during summer-winter months, when they are comparable in magnitude with the R2 currents (about ~0.5 MA). Inter-hemispherical currents map. Left panel is related to Northern hemisphere, right panel to Southern. R1 and R2 currents are not shown; their locations are indicated by the red and blue dashed circles, respectively. The inter-hemispherical currents appear inside the auroral zone in the region of conductivity gradient. The currents in both hemispheres are equal in magnitude and

  9. EEG patterns in persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the chernobyl accident. Part 2: quantitative EEG analysis in patients who had acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Yuryev, Konstantin L

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) study (1996-2001) among Chernobyl accident survivors, who had confirmed acute radiation sickness and were irradiated in dose of 1-5 Gy, revealed the neurophysiological markers of ionizing radiation. Neuropsychological markers were: left fronto-temporal dominant frequency reduction; absolute delta-power lateralization to the left (dominant) hemisphere; relative delta-power increase in the fronto-temporal areas; absolute theta-power decrease in the left temporal region; absolute and relative alpha-power diffusive decrease, which may reflect cortico-limbic dysfunction lateralized to the left, dominant hemisphere, with the fronto-temporal cortical and hippocampal damage. Quantitative electroencephalogram proposed for differentiation of radiation and nonradiation brain damages and as a new biological dosymetry method. High radiosensitivity of the brain, neocortex, and dominant hemisphere higher radiosensitivity are discussed.

  10. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  11. Balancing the 2 Hemispheres in Simple Calculation: Evidence From Direct Cortical Electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Semenza, C; Salillas, E; De Pallegrin, S; Della Puppa, A

    2016-09-24

    How do the parietal lobes contribute to simple calculation? Clinical and neuroimaging methods, which are based mainly on correlational evidence, have provided contrasting results so far. Here we used direct cortical electrostimulation during brain surgery to causally infer the role of the left and right parietal lobes in simple calculation. Stimulation provoked errors for addition and multiplication in different parietal areas on both hemispheres. Crucially, an innovative qualitative error analysis unveiled the functional contrast of the 2 parietal lobes. Right or left stimulation led to different types of substitution errors in multiplication, unveiling the function of the more active hemisphere. While inhibition of the left hemisphere led mainly to approximation errors, right hemisphere inhibition enhanced retrieval within a stored repertory. These results highlight the respective roles of each hemisphere in the network: rote retrieval of possible solutions by the left parietal areas and approximation to the correct solution by the right hemisphere. The bilateral orchestration between these functions guarantees precise calculation.

  12. Laparoscopic colostomy for acute left colon obstruction caused by diverticular disease in high risk patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Elisa; Cappiello, Antonio; Guarino, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Nicola; Loffredo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The colostomy is often necessary in complicated divertcular disease. The laparoscopic colostomy is not widely used for the treatment of complicated diverticular disease. Its use in patients with high operative risk is still on debate. The aim of this case report was to present the benefits of laparoscopic colostomy in patients with high peri-and postoperative risk factors. Presentation of case We present a case of 76-year-old female admitted to emergency unit for left colonic obstruction. The patient had a past history of liver cirrhosis HCV-related with a severe malnutrition, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diverticular disease, hiatal ernia, previous appendectomy. Patient was classified according to their preoperative risk ASA 3 (classification of the American society of Anestesia-ASA score). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed a marked thickening in the sigmoid colon and a marked circumferential stenosis in the sigmoid colon in absence of neoplasm, and/or abscess. The laparoscopic procedure is proposed as first intention. Discussion The operation time was 50 min, and the hospital stay was 4 days. Post operative complications grade I according to the Clavien Dindo Classification. Conclusions Laparoscopic colostomy is safe and feasible procedure in experienced hands. It is associated with low morbidity and short stay in hospital and should be considered a good alternative to a laparotomy. PMID:26036456

  13. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of global and regional left ventricular remodeling during 1 year after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A P; Houlind, K; Pedersen, E M; Nielsen, T T; Egeblad, H

    2001-01-01

    Biplane long-axis cine MRI was performed in 51 patients 1, 13, 26, and 52 weeks after their first AMI. LV mass index (LVMI) was significantly increased 1 week after AMI (84.3 +/- 16.9 vs. 68.1 +/- 11.4 g/m(2) controls, n = 48, p < 0.001), presumably owing to edema of the infarcted myocardium. Six months after AMI, LVMI decreased to 76.5 +/- 16.4 g/m(2), but had again augmented after 1 year (81.8 +/- 17.3 g/m(2), p < 0.05), suggesting late, compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy. In patients treated with primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, LVMI decreased 5% over 1 year, while LVMI increased 10% in patients receiving thrombolysis (p < 0.05). In the entire population, the global increase in LVMI 1 year after AMI seemed to reflect global cavity dilatation with unchanged thickness of the vital myocardium. In conclusion, in patients receiving contemporary treatment, LV remodeling only partially complied with the classical patho-anatomical concept.

  14. Effects of Acute Intravenous Infusion of Apelin on Left Ventricular Function in Dogs with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengjun; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Rastogi, Sharad; Kohli, Smita; Sabbah, Michael S.; Zhang, Kefei; Mohyi, Paula; Hogie, Manuela; Fischer, Yvan; Sabbah, Hani N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Apelin-13 (APLN) through apelin receptor (APJ) exerts peripheral vasodilatory and potent positive inotropic effects. We examined the effects of exogenous intravenous infusion of APLN on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in dogs with heart failure (HF, LV ejection fraction, EF~30%). Methods and Results Studies were performed in 7 dogs with microembolization-induced HF. Each dog received an intravenous infusion of low dose and high dose APLN followed by washout period. LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and LV EF were measured at specified time points. APLN protein level was determined in plasma at all time points. mRNA and protein levels of APLN and APJ in LV tissue were also measured in 7 normal (NL) and 7 heart failure (HF) dogs. APLN reduced EDV only at the high dose, significantly reduced ESV and increased EF with both doses. In plasma of HF dogs, APLN levels were reduced significantly compared to NL dogs. APLN treatment in HF dogs significantly increased the plasma APLN levels at both low and high doses. Expression of APLN, but not of APJ, was reduced in LV tissue of HF dogs compared to NL. Conclusion Exogenous administration of APLN improved LV systolic function in dogs with advanced HF. PMID:23834927

  15. Hemispherical Laue camera

    DOEpatents

    Li, James C. M.; Chu, Sungnee G.

    1980-01-01

    A hemispherical Laue camera comprises a crystal sample mount for positioning a sample to be analyzed at the center of sphere of a hemispherical, X-radiation sensitive film cassette, a collimator, a stationary or rotating sample mount and a set of standard spherical projection spheres. X-radiation generated from an external source is directed through the collimator to impinge onto the single crystal sample on the stationary mount. The diffracted beam is recorded on the hemispherical X-radiation sensitive film mounted inside the hemispherical film cassette in either transmission or back-reflection geometry. The distances travelled by X-radiation diffracted from the crystal to the hemispherical film are the same for all crystal planes which satisfy Bragg's Law. The recorded diffraction spots or Laue spots on the film thereby preserve both the symmetry information of the crystal structure and the relative intensities which are directly related to the relative structure factors of the crystal orientations. The diffraction pattern on the exposed film is compared with the known diffraction pattern on one of the standard spherical projection spheres for a specific crystal structure to determine the orientation of the crystal sample. By replacing the stationary sample support with a rotating sample mount, the hemispherical Laue camera can be used for crystal structure determination in a manner previously provided in conventional Debye-Scherrer cameras.

  16. Agraphia caused by acute right parietal infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Manyong; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Myung Hyun; Lee, Jin Soo; Moon, So Young

    2015-04-01

    Injury in the dominant language hemisphere typically leads to agraphia, however we report a patient with agraphia after injury to the right angular gyrus. A 71-year-old Korean woman presented with the complaint of an inability to write for the last 7 days. The patient had been illiterate for most of her life, but had started learning to write Hangul, the Korean alphabet, at a welfare center 3 years ago. On language screening she was unable to write although she could read, and other language functions showed no abnormalities. Brain MRI showed acute infarction in the right angular gyrus. Her writing patterns displayed features of surface agraphia, indicative of phoneme-to-grapheme conversion with phonetic writing of targets. Additionally, she manifested visual errors. A functional MRI indicated that her left hemisphere was language dominant. This patient experienced agraphia resulting from pure impairment of visuo-constructive function after acute infarction in the right angular gyrus.

  17. The Right Hemisphere Advantage in Visual Change Detection Depends on Temporal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spotorno, Sara; Faure, Sylvane

    2011-01-01

    What accounts for the Right Hemisphere (RH) functional superiority in visual change detection? An original task which combines one-shot and divided visual field paradigms allowed us to direct change information initially to the RH or the Left Hemisphere (LH) by deleting, respectively, an object included in the left or right half of a scene…

  18. Hemispheric Differences in Strong versus Weak Semantic Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.

    2007-01-01

    Goals: Research with lateralized word presentation has suggested that strong ("close") and weak ("remote") semantic associates are processed differently in the left and right cerebral hemispheres [e.g., Beeman, M. j., & Chiarello, C. (1998). Complementary right- and left-hemisphere language comprehension. "Current Directions in Psychological…

  19. Right-hemisphere specialization for contour grouping.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies often revealed a right-hemisphere specialization for processing the global level of compound visual stimuli. Here we explore whether a similar specialization exists for the detection of intersected contours defined by a chain of local elements. Subjects were presented with arrays of randomly oriented Gabor patches that could contain a global path of collinearly arranged elements in the left or in the right visual hemifield. As expected, the detection accuracy was higher for contours presented to the left visual field/right hemisphere. This difference was absent in two control conditions where the smoothness of the contour was decreased. The results demonstrate that the contour detection, often considered to be driven by lateral coactivation in primary visual cortex, relies on higher-level visual representations that differ between the hemispheres. Furthermore, because contour and non-contour stimuli had the same spatial frequency spectra, the results challenge the view that the right-hemisphere advantage in global processing depends on a specialization for processing low spatial frequencies.

  20. The effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia on arterial stiffness and endothelial function and its relationship to changes in pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Boos, C J; Hodkinson, P; Mellor, A; Green, N P; Woods, D R

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated, for the first time, the effects of simulated high altitude, following acute hypobaric hypoxia (HH), on simultaneous assessment of large artery stiffness and endothelial function and its inter-relationship to left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and estimated PA vascular resistance (PVR). Ten healthy subjects were studied at baseline pre and following acute HH to 4800 m for a total of 180 minutes. Assessments of LV diastolic function, mitral inflow, estimated LV filling pressure (E/e'), PVR, and PASP were undertaken using transthoracic echocardiography. Simultaneous assessments of arterial stiffness index (SI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), vascular tone, and endothelial function (reflective index [RI]) were performed using pulse contour analysis of the digital arterial waveform. Acute hypoxia led to a fall in SpO₂ (98.1±0.7 vs. 71.8±7.1%; p=0.0002), SVR (1589.1±191.2 vs. 1187.8±248.7; p=0.004), and RI (50.8±10.3 vs. 33.0±6.5%; p=0.0008) with an increase in PASP (24.3±2.2 to 35.0±5.3 mmHg; p=0.0001) and estimated PVR (116.40±19.0 vs. 144.6±21.5; p<0.001). There was no rise in either SI (p=0.13), mitral early annular early e' filling velocity or E/e'. There was a significant inverse correlation between SpO₂ and PASP (r=-0.77; p<0.0001), PVR (r=-0.57; p=0.008) and between the fall in SpO₂ and change (Δ) in RI (baseline vs. 150 min, r=-0.52; p<0.001). There was a modest inverse correlation between ΔRI (lower ΔRI=worsening endothelial function) and ΔPAP (r=-0.55; p=0.10) and a strong inverse correlation between ΔRI and ΔPVR (r=-0.89; p=0.0007). Acute hypobaric hypoxia does not significantly alter large artery stiffness or cause overt LV diastolic function. However, the degree of hypoxia influences both the systemic endothelial and pulmonary vascular responses. This noted association is intriguing and requires further investigation.

  1. Comparison of regional and global left ventricular function by serial echocardiograms after reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Broderick, T M; Bourdillon, P D; Ryan, T; Feigenbaum, H; Dillon, J C; Armstrong, W F

    1989-01-01

    Fifty patients undergoing successful reperfusion therapy (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty 20, thrombolysis 10, combined 20) for acute myocardial infarction were evaluated with serial two-dimensional echocardiograms performed early (less than 24 hours, mean 8 hours) and late (greater than 3 days, mean 6 days) after presentation. Treatment occurred within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms with most patients achieving reperfusion in less than 6 hours (mean 4.7 hours) from the onset of pain. Reperfusion was demonstrated short-term by angiography in 42 of 50 patients (84%). Four patients had clinical signs of reperfusion and subsequent angiographic confirmation. An additional four patients with "stuttering" infarct courses were treated late by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Echocardiograms were analyzed for global performance by calculation of fractional area change at the papillary muscle level and ejection fraction (biplane Simpson's rule) in 18 patients in whom this analysis could be performed. Measurements of regional function included fractional shortening at the base (n = 37), regional wall motion index (n = 50) and percent of normal functioning myocardium (n = 50). Overall there was a significant improvement in regional wall scores and percent of functioning myocardium (regional wall motion index 1.73 to 1.43, p less than 0.001 and percent of functioning myocardium 0.61 to 0.70, p less than 0.001) but only a trend toward improvement when global function was assessed by ejection fraction (0.42 to 0.48, p less than 0.14).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Hemispheric asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojian; Herron, Timothy J; Ettlinger, Marc; Woods, David L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies have reported many hemispherical asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy, but only a subset of findings is consistent across studies. Here, we used improved Freesurfer-based automated methods to analyse the properties of the cortex and seven subcortical structures in 138 young adult subjects. Male and female subjects showed similar hemispheric asymmetries in gyral and sulcal structures, with many areas associated with language processing enlarged in the left hemisphere (LH) and a number of areas associated with visuospatial processing enlarged in the right hemisphere (RH). In addition, we found greater (non-directional) cortical asymmetries in subjects with larger brains. Asymmetries in subcortical structures included larger LH volumes of thalamus, putamen and globus pallidus and larger RH volumes of the cerebellum and the amygdala. We also found significant correlations between the subcortical structural volumes, particularly of the thalamus and cerebellum, with cortical area. These results help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in previous studies of hemispheric asymmetries in brain anatomy.

  3. Impact of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy on Troponin Release During Acute Myocardial Infarction: New Insights From a Comprehensive Translational Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández‐Jiménez, Rodrigo; Silva, Jacobo; Martínez‐Martínez, Sara; López‐Maderuelo, Mª Dolores; Nuno‐Ayala, Mario; García‐Ruiz, José Manuel; García‐Álvarez, Ana; Fernández‐Friera, Leticia; Pizarro, Tech Gonzalo; García‐Prieto, Jaime; Sanz‐Rosa, David; López‐Martin, Gonzalo; Fernández‐Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Fuster, Valentin; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Ibanez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers are frequently used to estimate infarct size (IS) as an endpoint in experimental and clinical studies. Here, we prospectively studied the impact of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) on biomarker release in clinical and experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (n=140) were monitored for total creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) over 72 hours postinfarction and were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1 week and 6 months postinfarction. MI was generated in pigs with induced LVH (n=10) and in sham‐operated pigs (n=8), and serial total CK and cTnI measurements were performed and CMR scans conducted at 7 days postinfarction. Regression analysis was used to study the influence of LVH on total CK and cTnI release and IS estimated by CMR (gold standard). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to study the discriminatory capacity of the area under the curve (AUC) of cTnI and total CK in predicting LV dysfunction. Cardiomyocyte cTnI expression was quantified in myocardial sections from LVH and sham‐operated pigs. In both the clinical and experimental studies, LVH was associated with significantly higher peak and AUC of cTnI, but not with differences in total CK. ROC curves showed that the discriminatory capacity of AUC of cTnI to predict LV dysfunction was significantly worse for patients with LVH. LVH did not affect the capacity of total CK to estimate IS or LV dysfunction. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed significantly higher cTnI content in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Conclusions Peak and AUC of cTnI both significantly overestimate IS in the presence of LVH, owing to the higher troponin content per cardiomyocyte. In the setting of LVH, cTnI release during STEMI poorly predicts postinfarction LV dysfunction. LV mass should be taken into consideration when IS or LV function are estimated by troponin

  4. Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Waldie, Karen E.; Haigh, Charlotte E.; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Buckley, Jude; Kirk, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions. PMID:24961521

  5. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells embedded in platelet-rich fibrin scaffolds promote angiogenesis, preserve heart function, and reduce left ventricular remodeling in rat acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chang, Li-Teh; Leu, Steve; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chua, Sarah; Yeh, Kuo-Ho; Lu, Hung-I; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Fan-Yen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) embedded in platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) can significant promote myocardial regeneration and repair after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Summary background: With avoiding the needle-related complications, PRF-embedded autologous ADMSCs graft provides a new effective stem cell-based therapeutic strategy for myocardial repair. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided (n = 8 per group) into group 1 (sham-operated), group 2 (AMI by ligating left coronary artery), group 3 (AMI+ PRF), and group 4 (AMI+PRF-embedded autologous ADMSCs). RPF with or without ADMSCs was patched on infarct area 1h after AMI induction. All animals were sacrificed on day 42 after echocardiography. Results: Left ventricular (LV) dimension and infarct/fibrotic areas were lowest in group 1, highest in group 2, in group 3 higher than in group 4, whereas LV performance and wall thickness exhibited a reversed pattern in all groups (all p < 0.001). Protein expressions of inflammatory (MMP-9, IL-1β), oxidative, apoptotic (Bax, cleaved PARP), fibrotic (Smad 3, TFG-β), hypertrophic (β-MHC), and heart failure (BNP) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern in infarct/fibrotic areas, whereas the protein expressions of anti-inflammatory (IL-10), anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers and α-MHC showed an opposite pattern (all p < 0.01). Angiogenic activities (c-Kit+, Sca-1+, CD31+, SDF-1α+, CXCR4+ cells; protein expressions of SDF-1α, CXCR4, VEGF) were highest in group 4 and lowest in group 1 (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: ADMSCs embedded in PRF offered significant benefit in preserving LV function and limiting LV remodeling after AMI. PMID:26175843

  6. Relation of Left Ventricular Mass and Infarct Size in Anterior Wall ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the EMBRACE STEMI Clinical Trial).

    PubMed

    Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Weaver, W Douglas; Kloner, Robert A; Giugliano, Robert P; Carr, Jim; Neal, Brandon J; Chi, Gerald; Cochet, Madeleine; Goodell, Laura; Michalak, Nathan; Rusowicz-Orazem, Luke; Alkathery, Turky; Allaham, Haytham; Routray, Sujit; Szlosek, Donald; Jain, Purva; Gibson, C Michael

    2016-09-01

    Biomarker measures of infarct size and myocardial salvage index (MSI) are important surrogate measures of clinical outcomes after a myocardial infarction. However, there is variability in infarct size unaccounted for by conventional adjustment factors. This post hoc analysis of Evaluation of Myocardial Effects of Bendavia for Reducing Reperfusion Injury in Patients With Acute Coronary Events (EMBRACE) ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) trial evaluates the association between left ventricular (LV) mass and infarct size as assessed by areas under the curve for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I release over the first 72 hours (CK-MB area under the curve [AUC] and troponin I [TnI] AUC) and the MSI. Patients with first anterior STEMI, occluded left anterior descending artery, and available LV mass measurement in EMBRACE STEMI trial were included (n = 100) (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01572909). MSI, end-diastolic LV mass on day 4 cardiac magnetic resonance, and CK-MB and troponin I concentrations were evaluated by a core laboratory. After saturated multivariate analysis, dominance analysis was performed to estimate the contribution of each independent variable to the predicted variance of each outcome. In multivariate models that included age, gender, body surface area, lesion location, smoking, and ischemia time, LV mass remained independently associated with biomarker measures of infarct size (CK-MB AUC p = 0.02, TnI AUC p = 0.03) and MSI (p = 0.003). Dominance analysis demonstrated that LV mass accounted for 58%, 47%, and 60% of the predicted variances for CK-MB AUC, TnI AUC, and MSI, respectively. In conclusion, LV mass accounts for approximately half of the predicted variance in biomarker measures of infarct size. It should be considered as an adjustment variable in studies evaluating infarct size.

  7. Low MMP-8/TIMP-1 reflects left ventricle impairment in takotsubo cardiomyopathy and high TIMP-1 may help to differentiate it from acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Parkkonen, Olavi; Nieminen, Mikko T.; Vesterinen, Paula; Tervahartiala, Taina; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Sorsa, Timo; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Sinisalo, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is the most potent type-I collagen protease. Such collagen mainly constitutes the transient fibrosis in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) endomyocardial biopsies. High MMP-8 and tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels are implicated in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We compared MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in consecutive TTC and ACS patients, and their association to TTC severity. Methods and results In 45 acute serum samples of TTC, 2072 ACS and 1000 controls, TIMP-1 differed between ACS 146.7ng/mL (115.0–186.3) (median (interquartile range)), TTC 115.7 (94.3–137.7) and controls 80.9 (73.2–90.4), (p<0.0001). MMP-8 levels were similar between ACS and TTC. In receiver-operating characteristics analysis, TIMP-1 differentiated TTC from ACS with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.679 (p<0.0001) surpassing troponin T (TnT) at 0.522 (p = 0.66). Compared to other differing factors (age, sex, smoking), TIMP-1 improved diagnostic specificity and sensitivity from AUC of 0.821 to 0.844 (p = 0.007). The MMP8/TIMP-1 molar ratio differentiated normal ejection fraction (EF) at 0.27 (0.13–0.51) from decreased EF<50% at 0.08 (0.05–0.20), (p = 0.04) in TTC, but not in ACS. Conclusions Even with other differing factors considered, TIMP-1 differentiated TTC from ACS better than TnT. In TTC, the low MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar ratio may reflect decreased proteolysis and increased transient fibrosis, perhaps in part explaining the left-ventricle impairment. PMID:28278213

  8. Hemisphericity style, sex, and performance on a mirror-tracing task.

    PubMed

    Roig, M; Placakis, N

    1992-06-01

    60 right-handed college students classified as preferring either a style of left or right hemisphericity mirror-traced a star pattern once with each hand. Speed of tracing and number of deviations outside the star pattern were the dependent measures. Analysis showed no statistically significant differences in performance between right- and left-style groups or between men and women. However, subjects classified as showing a right-hemisphericity style mirror-traced the star pattern significantly faster and more accurately with the left hand than with the right. The left-hemisphericity-scoring group displayed a nonsignificant tendency to perform better on the reverse pattern.

  9. The Impact of Left and Right Intracranial Tumors on Picture and Word Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Bram; Armstrong, Carol L.; Modestino, Edward; Ledakis, George; John, Cameron; Hunter, Jill V.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of left and right intracranial tumors on picture and word recognition memory. We hypothesized that left hemispheric (LH) patients would exhibit greater word recognition memory impairment than right hemispheric (RH) patients, with no significant hemispheric group picture recognition memory differences. The LH…

  10. From the Left to the Right: How the Brain Compensates Progressive Loss of Language Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function of the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the…

  11. Hemispheric asymmetry: contributions from brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A series of studies using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging measures also, to elucidate the aspects of hemispheric asymmetry are reviewed. It is suggested that laterality evolved as a response to the demands of language and the need for air-based communication which may have necessitated a division of labor between the hemispheres in order to avoid having duplicate copies in both the hemispheres that would increase processing redundancy. This would have put pressure on brain structures related to the evolution of language and speech, such as the left peri-Sylvian region. MRI data are provided showing structural and functional asymmetry in this region of the brain and how fibers connecting the right and left peri-Sylvian regions pass through the corpus callosum. It is further suggested that the so-called Yakelovian-torque, i.e., the twisting of the brain along the longitudinal axis, with the right frontal and left occipital poles protruding beyond the corresponding left and right sides, was necessary for the expansion of the left peri-Sylvian region and the right occipito-parietal regions subserving the processing of spatial relations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data related to sex differences for visuo-spatial processing are presented showing enhanced right-sided activation in posterior parts of the brain in both sexes, and frontal activation including Broca's area in the female group only, suggesting that males and females use different strategies when solving a cognitive task. The paper ends with a discussion of the role of the corpus callosum in laterality and the role played by structural asymmetry in understanding corresponding functional asymmetry. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 461-478 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.122 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases

    PubMed Central

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest—but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight

  13. Acute tamponade of the left paracorporeal pump house due to membrane defect in a patient with a Berlin Heart EXCOR biventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Völz, Sebastian; Holmberg, Michael; Redfors, Bengt; Dellgren, Göran

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of acute tamponade of the left paracorporeal pump house in a patient supported by a Berlin Heart EXCOR biventricular assist device (BiVAD) caused by mechanical defect in the membrane of the arterial chamber. A 36-year old male was admitted for composite graft surgery due to a large aortic regurgitation and consecutive heart failure, decompensated postoperatively and was rescued by with an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) device. He was accepted for heart transplantation, and a BiVAD (Berlin Heart EXCOR) was implanted as bridge-to-transplantation. Two months after discharge, he experienced dyspnoea and received error signals from his BiVAD. Relatives released him from his BiVAD companion driver, connected him to the hand pump and transported him to our institution. On arrival, he was in cardiogenic shock and was stabilized by ECMO. Inspection of the arterial chamber revealed a wear hole and delamination of the diaphragm, which had led to a tamponade by air insufflation into the three-layer membrane. New BiVAD paracorporeal pumps were connected, and the patient was subsequently successfully transplanted. The case depicts the difficulty of diagnosis in this specific patient setting. Despite transparent design of the BiVAD chambers, the development of a chamber tamponade remained undetected until explantation of the system.

  14. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for unstable angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Snow, F R; Gorcsan, J; Lewis, S A; Cowley, M J; Vetrovec, G W; Nixon, J V

    1990-04-01

    The effect of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function has not been systematically investigated in patients treated for unstable angina or ischemia after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To assess the relation between reduction of stenosis severity and improvement in diastolic function in this setting, 42 patients with either unstable angina (n = 22) or post-AMI ischemia (n = 20) were serially monitored by Doppler echocardiography 8 +/- 5 hours before and 2 +/- 1 days after PTCA. Doppler LV filling indexes included isovolumic relaxation time, mitral deceleration time, E/A peak velocity ratio and atrial filling fraction. Eighteen aged-matched control subjects served to establish normal values for comparison. Before PTCA, both groups exhibited abnormal diastolic function demonstrated by prolonged isovolumic relaxation time and mitral deceleration time, decreased E/A ratio and increased atrial filling fraction. After PTCA isovolumic relaxation time and deceleration time decreased 18 +/- 28 (p less than 0.005) and 33 +/- 43 ms (p less than 0.002) in the unstable angina group and 18 +/- 23 (p less than 0.003) and 14 +/- 34 ms (difference not significant), respectively, in the post-AMI ischemia group. An increase in E/A ratio and a decrease in atrial filling fraction occurred in both groups; however, these changes were significant only in patients with post-AMI ischemia (+21%, p less than 0.03 and -11.4%, p less than 0.005, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Changes in rest and exercise myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function 3 to 26 weeks after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction: effects of exercise training

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Gordon, E.P.; Houston, N.; Haskell, W.L.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1984-11-01

    The effects of exercise training on exercise myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function in the first 6 months after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were assessed in 53 consecutive men aged 55 +/- 9 years. Symptom-limited treadmill exercise with thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and symptom-limited upright bicycle ergometry with equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography were performed 3, 11 and 26 weeks after AMI by 23 men randomized to training and 30 randomized to no training. Peak cycle capacity increased in both groups between 3 and 26 weeks (p less than 0.01), but reached higher levels in trained than in untrained patients (803 +/- 149 vs 648 +/- 182 kg-m/min, p less than 0.01). Reversible thallium perfusion defects were significantly more frequent at 3 than at 26 weeks: 59% and 36% of patients, respectively (p less than 0.05), without significant inter-group differences. Values of LV ejection fraction at rest, submaximal and peak exercise did not change significantly in either group. The increase in functional capacity, i.e., peak treadmill or bicycle workload, that occurred 3 to 26 weeks after infarction was significantly correlated with the increase in peak exercise heart rate (p less than 0.001), but not with changes in myocardial perfusion or LV function determined by radionuclide techniques. Changes in myocardial perfusion or LV function do not appear to account for the improvement in peak functional capacity that occurs within the first 6 months after clinically uncomplicated AMI.

  16. Effect of low dose acetylsalicylic acid on the frequency and hematologic activity of left ventricular thrombus in anterior wall acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kuepper, A.J.V.; Verheugt, F.W.; Peels, C.H.; Galema, T.W.; den Hollander, W.; Roos, J.P.

    1989-04-15

    In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial the effect of 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) once daily on the incidence, hematologic activity and embolic potential of left ventricular (LV) thrombosis was studied in 100 consecutive patients with a first anterior wall acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients were randomized to ASA or placebo less than 12 hours after onset of symptoms. Heparin, 5,000 IU subcutaneously twice daily, was given to all patients during immobilization. Echocardiography was performed less than 24 hours, 48 to 72 hours and 1, 2, and 12 weeks after AMI. LV thrombosis was detected by echocardiography in 30 (33%) of the 92 evaluable patients (15 patients given ASA and 15 given placebo). Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy was done in 17 of the 22 patients with an LV thrombus at the second week echocardiogram. Among 7 ASA-treated patients, 4 had positive images; among 10 placebo patients, 5 had positive images. LV thrombus resolution was noted in 3 of 9 patients with a positive scan and in 5 of 8 patients with a negative platelet scan. In 7 of 10 ASA-treated patients and 5 of 12 placebo-treated patients thrombus resolution was observed (difference not significant). Systemic embolism occurred in 2 patients, both given ASA, during the first week after AMI. Thus, low dose ASA has no effect on the incidence, hematologic activity and embolic potential of LV thrombosis in anterior wall AMI.

  17. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), ubiquinone (free radical scavenger), and dolichol (regulator of glycoconjugate metabolism). The pathway was assessed in peptic ulcer and acid peptic disease and its relation to hemispheric dominance studied. The activity of HMG CoA reductase, serum levels of EDLF, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in acid peptic disease, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. All the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The pathway was upregulated with increased EDLF synthesis in peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There was increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in these patients. The ubiquinone levels were low and free radical production increased. Dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were increased and lysosomal stability reduced in patients with acid peptic disease (APD). There was increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio with decreased glyco conjugate levels in membranes of patients with PUD. Acid peptic disease represents an elevated EDLF state which can modulate gastric acid secretion and the structure of the gastric mucous barrier. It can also lead to persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The biochemical pattern obtained in peptic ulcer disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listen ing test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Peptic ulcer disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  18. An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that, although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

  19. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    Hemispheric specialization tasks were given to different-aged boys. Asymmetries were demonstrated on manual, visual, and auditory tasks; however, the degree of asymmetries did not change across age groups. There appears to be a dissociation between visual and auditory perceptual asymmetries. (Author/RD)

  20. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and the tridosha theory.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-05-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian System of Medicine, deals with the theory of the three tridosha states (both physical and psychological): Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are the three major human constitutional types that both depend on psychological and physical characteristics. The Pitta state is described as a critical, discriminative, and rational psychological state of mind, while the Kapha state is described as being dominant for emotional stimuli. The Vata state is an intermediate unstable shifting state. The Pitta types are of average height and built with well developed musculature. The Vata types are thin individuals with low body mass index. The Kapha types are short stocky individuals that tend toward obesity, and who are sedentary. The study assessed the biochemical differences between right hemispheric dominant, bihemispheric dominant, and left hemispheric dominant individuals, and then compared this with the patterns obtained in the Vata, Pitta, and Kapha states. The isoprenoid metabolites (digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone), glycoconjugate metabolism, free radical metabolism, and the RBC membrane composition were studied. The hemispheric chemical dominance in various systemic diseases and psychological states was also investigated. The results showed that right hemispheric chemically dominant/Kapha state had elevated digoxin levels, increased free radical production and reduced scavenging, increased tryptophan catabolites and reduced tyrosine catabolites, increased glycoconjugate levels and increased cholesterol: phospholipid ratio of RBC membranes. Left hemispheric chemically dominant/Pitta states had the opposite biochemical patterns. The patterns were normal or intermediate in the bihemispheric chemically dominant/Vata state. This pattern could be correlated with various systemic and neuropsychiatric diseases and personality traits. Right hemispheric chemical dominance/Kapha state represents a hyperdigoxinemic state with membrane sodium

  1. Hemispheric lateralization of singing after intracarotid sodium amylobarbitone1

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, H. W.; Bogen, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization of singing was investigated in patients who had transient hemiplegia after intracarotid injection of sodium amylobarbitone. It was found that after right carotid injection singing was markedly deficient, whereas speech remained relatively intact. Songs were sung in a monotone, devoid of correct pitch rendering; rhythm was much less affected. By contrast, singing was less disturbed than speech after left carotid injection. The observations indicated a double dissociation; the right hemisphere contributed more for singing, whereas the left demonstrated its usual dominance for speech. A model is proposed that encompasses audible stimuli as well as tactual or visual into a scheme of functional lateralization wherein the right hemisphere specializes in processing a complete, time-independent stimulus configuration and the left in a series of successive, time-dependent units. PMID:4844140

  2. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  3. Tracking reorganization of large-scale effective connectivity in aphasia following right hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Gow, David W; Ahlfors, Seppo P

    2017-03-29

    In this paper we demonstrate the application of new effective connectivity analyses to characterize changing patterns of task-related directed interaction in large (25-55 node) cortical networks following the onset of aphasia. The subject was a left-handed woman who became aphasic following a right-hemisphere stroke. She was tested on an auditory word-picture verification task administered one and seven months after the onset of aphasia. MEG/EEG and anatomical MRI data were used to create high spatiotemporal resolution estimates of task-related cortical activity. Effective connectivity analyses of those data showed a reduction of bilateral network influences on preserved right-hemisphere structures, and an increase in intra-hemispheric left-hemisphere influences. She developed a connectivity pattern that was more left lateralized than that of right-handed control subjects. Her emergent left hemisphere network showed a combination of increased functional subdivision of perisylvian language areas and recruitment of medial structures.

  4. Impaired hemispheric communication in schizophrenia: a study using the consonant-vowel-consonant task.

    PubMed

    Lohr, James B; Hellige, Joseph B; Cherry, Barbara J; Lulow, Len; Kwok, Winnie; Caligiuri, Michael P

    2006-10-01

    The ability of the left and right hemispheres to interact and cooperate in the processing of information is important for normal brain functioning. Some investigators have suggested that this cooperation in functioning occurs through a process called "metacontrol." Because studies have suggested that patients with schizophrenia may have problems with interhemispheric interaction, we considered that it could be informative to study such patients from the viewpoint of interhemispheric cooperation, and more specifically that of metacontrol. To do this we utilized an assessment procedure called the consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) task, in which nonsense three-letter combinations (trigrams) are presented vertically to the left, right and both visual fields. The pattern of errors can be used to determine the type of processing the hemispheres use under the different conditions of presentation. Previous studies have shown that when trigram information is presented to both hemispheres, the left hemisphere appears to switch into a mode that more resembles right hemisphere processing, and we wished to determine if evidence for this switch in the mode of processing also occurred in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. To determine the specificity of any findings to schizophrenia, we also studied a group of patients with bipolar disorder. For the control and bipolar groups, our results showed the typical finding of superior processing in the right visual field (left hemisphere) over the left visual field, with presentation to both visual fields demonstrating a qualitative error pattern resembling that of the left visual field (right hemisphere). Patients with schizophrenia, however, did not demonstrate this switching into a right hemisphere mode upon bilateral presentation of the trigrams and instead seemed to show no switching, or actually switching into more of a left hemisphere mode. Our results suggest that patients with schizophrenia (but not bipolar disorder) may

  5. Usefulness of the QRS-T angle to improve long-term risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Virgós-Lamela, Alejandro; Bouzas-Cruz, Noelia; López-López, Andrea; Castiñeira-Busto, María; Fernández-Garda, Rita; García-Castelo, Alberto; Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; García-Acuña, José María; Abu-Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-04-15

    In light of the low cost, the widespread availability of the electrocardiogram, and the increasing economic burden of the health-related problems, we aimed to analyze the prognostic value of automatic frontal QRS-T angle to predict mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). About 467 consecutive patients discharged with diagnosis of AMI and with LV ejection fraction ≤40% were followed during 3.9 years (2.1 to 5.9). From them, 217 patients (47.5%) died. The frontal QRS-T angle was higher in patients who died (116.6±52.8 vs 77.9±55.1, respectively, p<0.001). The QRS-T angle value of 90° was the most accurate to predict all-cause cardiac death. After multivariate analysis, frontal QRS-T angle remained as an excellent predictor of all-cause and cardiac deaths, increasing the mortality 6% per each 10°. For the global mortality, the hazard ratio for a QRS-T angle>90° was 2.180 (1.558 to 3.050), and for the combined end point of cardiac death and appropriate implantable cardioverter defribrillator therapy, it was 2.385 (1.570 to 3.623). This independent predictive value was maintained even after adjusting by bundle brunch block, ST-elevation AMI, and its localization. In conclusion, a wide automatic frontal QRS-T angle (>90°) is a good discriminator of long-term mortality in patients with LV systolic dysfunction after an AMI. The ability to easily measure it from a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram together with its prognostic value makes the frontal QRS-T angle an attractive tool to help clinicians to improve risk stratification of those patients.

  6. Increased Symmetric Dimethylarginine Level Is Associated with Worse Hospital Outcomes through Altered Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lorin, Julie; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Stamboul, Karim; Guenancia, Charles; Cottin, Yves; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine; Zeller, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate whether SDMA- symmetric dimethylarginine -the symmetrical stereoisomer of ADMA- might be a marker of left ventricular function in AMI. Background Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been implicated in the prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). Methods Cross sectional prospective study from 487 consecutive patients hospitalized <24 hours after AMI. Patients with HF on admission were excluded. Serum levels of ADMA, SDMA and L-arginine were determined using HPLC. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated based on creatinine levels. Outcomes were in-hospital severe HF, as defined by Killip class >2, and death. Results Patients were analysed based on SDMA tertiles. Sex, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and prior MI were similar for all tertiles. In contrast, age and hypertension increased across the tertiles (p<0.001). From the first to the last tertile, GRACE risk score was elevated while LVEF and eGFR was reduced. The rate of severe HF and death were gradually increased across the SDMA tertiles (from 0.6% to 7.4%, p = 0.006 and from 0.6% to 5.0%, p = 0.034, respectively). Backward logistic multivariate analysis showed that SDMA was an independent estimate of developing severe HF, even when adjusted for confounding (OR(95%CI): 8.2(3.0–22.5), p<0.001). Further, SDMA was associated with mortality, even after adjustment for GRACE risk score (OR(95%CI): 4.56(1.34–15.52), p = 0.015). Conclusions Our study showed for the first time that SDMA is associated with hospital outcomes, through altered LVEF and may have biological activity beyond renal function. PMID:28125604

  7. Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Investigators. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makikallio, T. H.; Hoiber, S.; Kober, L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Huikuri, H. V.

    1999-01-01

    A number of new methods have been recently developed to quantify complex heart rate (HR) dynamics based on nonlinear and fractal analysis, but their value in risk stratification has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine whether selected new dynamic analysis methods of HR variability predict mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Traditional time- and frequency-domain HR variability indexes along with short-term fractal-like correlation properties of RR intervals (exponent alpha) and power-law scaling (exponent beta) were studied in 159 patients with depressed LV function (ejection fraction <35%) after an AMI. By the end of 4-year follow-up, 72 patients (45%) had died and 87 (55%) were still alive. Short-term scaling exponent alpha (1.07 +/- 0.26 vs 0.90 +/- 0.26, p <0.001) and power-law slope beta (-1.35 +/- 0.23 vs -1.44 +/- 0.25, p <0.05) differed between survivors and those who died, but none of the traditional HR variability measures differed between these groups. Among all analyzed variables, reduced scaling exponent alpha (<0.85) was the best univariable predictor of mortality (relative risk 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.96 to 5.15, p <0.0001), with positive and negative predictive accuracies of 65% and 86%, respectively. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, mortality was independently predicted by the reduced exponent alpha (p <0.001) after adjustment for several clinical variables and LV function. A short-term fractal-like scaling exponent was the most powerful HR variability index in predicting mortality in patients with depressed LV function. Reduction in fractal correlation properties implies more random short-term HR dynamics in patients with increased risk of death after AMI.

  8. Utility of Global Longitudinal Strain by Echocardiography to Detect Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Long-Term Adult Survivors of Childhood Lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jon R; Massey, Richard; Dalen, Håvard; Kanellopoulos, Adriani; Hamre, Hanne; Fosså, Sophie D; Ruud, Ellen; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Aakhus, Svend

    2016-08-01

    Measuring left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) is recommended in screening of long-term cancer survivors for cardiotoxicity. However, there are limited data on GLS in this setting, in particular in survivors with apparently normal LV function without risk factors of impaired GLS. In the present study, we measured GLS in 191 adult survivors of childhood lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with normal LV ejection fraction and fractional shortening (FS) and without known hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, or stroke. We compared GLS in the survivors with 180 controls. Mean GLS was -19.0 ± 2.2% in the survivor group and -21.4 ± 2.0% in the controls (p <0.001). Impaired GLS, defined as mean - 1.96 SDs in the control group, occurred in 53 of 191 survivors (28%). We included survivors with impaired LV ejection fraction and/or FS or traditional risk factors (n = 231 in all) in multiple regression analyses to explore associations with previous cancer treatment. Survivors treated with mediastinal radiotherapy had an odds ratio of impaired GLS of 5.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 12) compared with other survivors. Survivors treated with cumulative anthracycline doses >300 mg/m(2) had an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 14) of impaired GLS. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a high proportion of LV dysfunction assessed by GLS in apparently healthy adult survivors of childhood cancer. Impaired GLS was associated with previous exposure to mediastinal radiotherapy and high doses of anthracyclines. The prognostic role of measuring GLS in this specific patient population should be examined in prospective studies.

  9. Two-year clinical outcomes in stable angina and acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention of left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dae Young; Jeong, Myung Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Yun Ah; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Jeong, Hae Chang; Park, Keun Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Jun Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study appraised the long term clinical outcomes of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. There are limited data regarding long-term clinical outcomes after PCI for ULMCA disease. Methods From 2001 to 2011, a total of 448 patients who underwent PCI for ULMCA disease and had 2-year clinical follow-up, were analyzed. The study patients were divided into two groups: group I (stable angina pectoris [SAP], n = 60, 48 men, 62 ± 10 years) and group II (acute coronary syndrome [ACS], n = 388, 291 men, 64 ± 10 years). We evaluated clinical and angiographic characteristics and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 2-year clinical follow-up. Results Mean age of studied patients was 64 ± 10 years with 339 male patients. Average stent diameter was 3.6 ± 0.4 mm and stent length was 19.7 ± 6.3 mm. Stent implantation techniques and use of intravascular ultrasound guidance were not different between two groups. In-hospital mortality was 0% in group I and 7% in group II (p = 0.035). One-month mortality was 0% in group I and 7.7% in group II (p = 0.968). Two-year survival rate was 93% in the group I and 88.4% in the group II (p = 0.921). Predictive factors for 2-year MACE were hypertension, Killip class ≥ 3, and use of intra-aortic balloon pump by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Although in-hospital mortality rate was higher in ACS than in SAP, clinical outcomes during 2-year clinical follow-up were similar between SAP and ACS after PCI of ULMCA. PMID:27756119

  10. Neural Dissociation in the Production of Lexical versus Classifier Signs in ASL: Distinct Patterns of Hemispheric Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickok, Gregory; Pickell, Herbert; Klima, Edward; Bellugi, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    We examine the hemispheric organization for the production of two classes of ASL signs, lexical signs and classifier signs. Previous work has found strong left hemisphere dominance for the production of lexical signs, but several authors have speculated that classifier signs may involve the right hemisphere to a greater degree because they can…

  11. Hemisphere Asymmetry of Response to Pharmacologic Treatment in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Saito, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yumi; Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Ihara, Masafumi; Carare, Roxana O.; Garbis, Spiros D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hemisphere asymmetry of response to pharmacologic treatment in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model using cilostazol as a chemical stimulus. Eight-month-old mice were assigned to vehicle or cilostazol treatment for three months and hemispheres were analyzed using quantitative proteomics. Bioinformatics interpretation showed that following treatment, aggregation of blood platelets significantly decreased in the right hemisphere whereas neurodegeneration significantly decreased and synaptic transmission increased in the left hemisphere only. Our study provides novel evidence on cerebral laterality of pharmacologic activity, with important implications in deciphering regional pharmacodynamic effects of existing drugs thus uncovering novel hemisphere-specific therapeutic targets. PMID:26836196

  12. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  13. Vocal reaction times to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract words: towards a theory of differential right hemispheric semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Rastatter, M; Dell, C W; McGuire, R A; Loren, C

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies investigating hemispheric organization for processing concrete and abstract nouns have provided conflicting results. Using manual reaction time tasks some studies have shown that the right hemisphere is capable of analyzing concrete words but not abstract. Others, however, have inferred that the left hemisphere is the sole analyzer of both types of lexicon. The present study tested these issues further by measuring vocal reaction times of normal subjects to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract items. Results were consistent with a model of functional localization which suggests that the minor hemisphere is capable of differentially processing both types of lexicon in the presence of a dominant left hemisphere.

  14. Brain hemispheric structural efficiency and interconnectivity rightward asymmetry in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Pérez Fernández, Alejandro; Morris, David M; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Haroon, Hamied A; García Pentón, Lorna; Augath, Mark; Galán García, Lídice; Logothetis, Nikos; Parker, Geoffrey J M; Melie-García, Lester

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for interregional structural asymmetries has been previously reported for brain anatomic regions supporting well-described functional lateralization. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the two brain hemispheres demonstrate dissimilar general structural attributes implying different principles on information flow management. Common left hemisphere/right hemisphere structural network properties are estimated and compared for right-handed healthy human subjects and a nonhuman primate, by means of 3 different diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging fiber tractography algorithms and a graph theory framework. In both the human and the nonhuman primate, the data support the conclusion that, in terms of the graph framework, the right hemisphere is significantly more efficient and interconnected than the left hemisphere, whereas the left hemisphere presents more central or indispensable regions for the whole-brain structural network than the right hemisphere. From our point of view, in terms of functional principles, this pattern could be related with the fact that the left hemisphere has a leading role for highly demanding specific process, such as language and motor actions, which may require dedicated specialized networks, whereas the right hemisphere has a leading role for more general process, such as integration tasks, which may require a more general level of interconnection.

  15. Contralesional motor deficits after unilateral stroke reflect hemisphere-specific control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mani, Saandeep; Mutha, Pratik K; Przybyla, Andrzej; Haaland, Kathleen Y; Good, David C; Sainburg, Robert L

    2013-04-01

    We have proposed a model of motor lateralization, in which the left and right hemispheres are specialized for different aspects of motor control: the left hemisphere for predicting and accounting for limb dynamics and the right hemisphere for stabilizing limb position through impedance control mechanisms. Our previous studies, demonstrating different motor deficits in the ipsilesional arm of stroke patients with left or right hemisphere damage, provided a critical test of our model. However, motor deficits after stroke are most prominent on the contralesional side. Post-stroke rehabilitation has also, naturally, focused on improving contralesional arm impairment and function. Understanding whether contralesional motor deficits differ depending on the hemisphere of damage is, therefore, of vital importance for assessing the impact of brain damage on function and also for designing rehabilitation interventions specific to laterality of damage. We, therefore, asked whether motor deficits in the contralesional arm of unilateral stroke patients reflect hemisphere-dependent control mechanisms. Because our model of lateralization predicts that contralesional deficits will differ depending on the hemisphere of damage, this study also served as an essential assessment of our model. Stroke patients with mild to moderate hemiparesis in either the left or right arm because of contralateral stroke and healthy control subjects performed targeted multi-joint reaching movements in different directions. As predicted, our results indicated a double dissociation; although left hemisphere damage was associated with greater errors in trajectory curvature and movement direction, errors in movement extent were greatest after right hemisphere damage. Thus, our results provide the first demonstration of hemisphere specific motor control deficits in the contralesional arm of stroke patients. Our results also suggest that it is critical to consider the differential deficits induced by right

  16. Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2011-07-01

    The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains.

  17. Regional and hemispheric determinants of language laterality: implications for preoperative fMRI.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Kherif, Ferath; Josse, Goulven; Price, Cathy J

    2011-10-01

    Language is typically a function of the left hemisphere but the right hemisphere is also essential in some healthy individuals and patients. This inter-subject variability necessitates the localization of language function, at the individual level, prior to neurosurgical intervention. Such assessments are typically made by comparing left and right hemisphere language function to determine "language lateralization" using clinical tests or fMRI. Here, we show that language function needs to be assessed at the region and hemisphere specific level, because laterality measures can be misleading. Using fMRI data from 82 healthy participants, we investigated the degree to which activation for a semantic word matching task was lateralized in 50 different brain regions and across the entire cortex. This revealed two novel findings. First, the degree to which language is lateralized across brain regions and between subjects was primarily driven by differences in right hemisphere activation rather than differences in left hemisphere activation. Second, we found that healthy subjects who have relatively high left lateralization in the angular gyrus also have relatively low left lateralization in the ventral precentral gyrus. These findings illustrate spatial heterogeneity in language lateralization that is lost when global laterality measures are considered. It is likely that the complex spatial variability we observed in healthy controls is more exaggerated in patients with brain damage. We therefore highlight the importance of investigating within hemisphere regional variations in fMRI activation, prior to neuro-surgical intervention, to determine how each hemisphere and each region contributes to language processing.

  18. Lateralised motor control: hemispheric damage and the loss of deftness

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, B; Mendoza, J; Apostolos, G; Heilman, K

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To learn if the left compared with the right hemisphere of right handed subjects exerts bilateral compared with contralateral motor control when performing precise and coordinated finger movements. Methods: The study investigated intertask differences of manual motor asymmetries such as speed, precision, and independent finger movements, in patients with unilateral lesions of the left (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) and normal controls (C). Results: Normal subjects showed the greatest right hand preference on a task that required rapid coordinated and precise independent finger movements (coin rotation). Both hemisphere damaged groups revealed contralateral motor deficits, but the magnitudes of asymmetries were found to be significantly different (RHD>C>LHD) with contralateral and ipsilateral deficits for LHD subjects. The greatest ipsilateral deficits for the LHD subjects were on those tasks that require precision (grooved pegboard and coin rotation). Conclusions: The degree of hemispheric specialisation is, in part, dependent upon the nature of the motor task, with left hemisphere motor control necessary for tasks that require precision and coordinated independent finger movements. PMID:12397154

  19. Hemispheric specialization and creative thinking: a meta-analytic review of lateralization of creativity.

    PubMed

    Mihov, Konstantin M; Denzler, Markus; Förster, Jens

    2010-04-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking relates to relative hemispheric dominance. The analysis was performed on the basis of a non-parametric vote-counting approach and effect-size calculations of Cramer's phi suggest relative dominance of the right hemisphere during creative thinking. Moderator analyses revealed no difference in predominant right-hemispheric activation for verbal vs. figural tasks, holistic vs. analytical tasks, and context-dependent vs. context-independent tasks. Suggestions for further investigations with the meta-analytic and neuroscience methodologies to answer the questions of left hemispheric activation and further moderation of the effects are discussed.

  20. The brain's hemispheres and controlled search of the lexicon: evidence from fixated words and pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Barbara J; Mathesius, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    Difference between the brain's hemispheres in efficiency of intentional search of the mental lexicon with phonological, orthographic, and semantic strategies was investigated. Letter strings for lexical decision were presented at fixation, with a lateralized distractor to the LVF or RVF. Word results revealed that both hemispheres were capable of using each of the three strategies, but the right hemisphere had better baseline processing of orthography and was better at processing semantics. Pseudoword results supported the right hemisphere advantage for orthography and showed a left hemisphere advantage for phonology and assessment of possible semantic relationships. Taken together, the data support the idea that the right hemisphere uses orthography to make efficient decisions about novelty of an item, while the left engages in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion to test hypotheses about unfamiliar items. The convergence of data with previous research reveals that the procedure, as well as analyses of pseudowords, inform laterality research.

  1. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  2. Hemispherical latching apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for securing payloads in a space vehicle such as the space shuttle is described. The apparatus includes many latching assemblies carried by a platform on the vehicle and a like number of latching elements carried by the payload and adapted to mate with the latching assemblies. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the use of complementary hemispherical elements which automatically align and engage with one another. This enables a simple but effective mode of operation and avoids the need for hinged linkages and similar moving parts.

  3. [Hemispheric functional specialization and anxiety. Focus on an evaluation procedure].

    PubMed

    Perier, N; Boulenger, J P; Eustache, F; Bisserbe, J C; Lebreuilly, J; Zarifian, E

    1992-01-01

    Observations of brain-lesioned patients and experimental psychology studies have shown that the influence of the specific functioning of the two hemispheres of the brain on the regulation of emotional behaviour appears to be unequal and suggests a functional specialization of the right hemisphere for the expression and comprehension of the affective components of behaviour. However, the extension of this hypothesis to include all emotional experiences remains controversial. The observed superiority of the left hemisphere in the perception of positive emotions and the predominance of the right hemisphere in the treatment of negative emotions would appear to favour a joint and complementary participation of both cerebral hemispheres in emotional experiences. In the case of affective disorders, and particularly in anxiety symptoms, the hypothesis of a dysfunctioning of the right hemisphere is similarly questioned: while all metabolic studies corroborate this hypothesis, experimental psychological studies suggest the existence of a preferential involvement of one or the other hemisphere in relation to individual differences such as the "trait" anxiety score. Moreover, the few studies which have been undertaken with healthy volunteers raise the problem of their extrapolation to pathological situations. In view of the potential interest in the neuropsychological evaluations of subjects with different forms of pathological anxiety, we have developed an experimented with two tests aimed at evaluating the differential activity of the two hemispheres of the brain. These two tests, constructed on a "mirror-image" model from the specifications of a functional hemispheric specialization, are supposed to involve cognitive strategies pinpointing preferentially one hemisphere or the other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Brain hemisphere dominance and vocational preference: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Pearson, L Carolyn; Burgin, John S; Murray, Gerald C; Elrod, Lisa Marie

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in split-brain theory add support to the concept of specialization within brain hemispheres. Holland's vocational personality theory may overlap with Human Information Processing (HIP) characteristics. Holland's six RIASEC codes were developed to identify vocational personality characteristics, and HIP scales were designed to measure hemispheric laterality. Relationships between the two scales were evaluated through canonical correlation with some significant results, however not all Holland scale scores correlated with left, right, or integrated hemispheric preference. Additional findings related to participants self-perception of music and math ability were also correlated. Findings on this added analysis revealed a high correlation between perception of musical ability and right brain function but not between mathematical concept and left brain alone. Implications regarding vocational choice and work are discussed.

  5. A Right Brain/Left Brain Model of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlen, Clark

    Using current right brain/left brain research, this paper develops a model that explains acting's underlying quality--the actor is both himself and the character. Part 1 presents (1) the background of the right brain/left brain theory, (2) studies showing that propositional communication is a left hemisphere function while affective communication…

  6. Hemisphere-Dependent Holistic Processing of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon, Meike; Rossion, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    In two behavioral experiments involving lateralized stimulus presentation, we tested whether one of the most commonly used measures of holistic face processing--the composite face effect--would be more pronounced for stimuli presented to the right as compared to the left hemisphere. In experiment 1, we investigated the composite face effect in a…

  7. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  8. Hemispheric lateralization of motor thresholds in relation to stuttering.

    PubMed

    Alm, Per A; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.

  9. Hemispheric Asymmetry and Pun Comprehension: When Cowboys Have Sore Calves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Seana; Severens, Els

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as healthy participants listened to puns such as ''During branding, cowboys have sore calves.'' To assess hemispheric differences in pun comprehension, visually presented probes that were either highly related (COW), moderately related (LEG), or unrelated, were presented in either the left or right…

  10. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  11. Right Hemisphere Dominance for Emotion Processing in Baboons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…

  12. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  13. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  14. Hemispheric asymmetry of electroencephalography-based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-11-12

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based functional brain networks have been investigated frequently in health and disease. It has been shown that a number of graph theory metrics are disrupted in brain disorders. EEG-based brain networks are often studied in the whole-brain framework, where all the nodes are grouped into a single network. In this study, we studied the brain networks in two hemispheres and assessed whether there are any hemispheric-specific patterns in the properties of the networks. To this end, resting state closed-eyes EEGs from 44 healthy individuals were processed and the network structures were extracted separately for each hemisphere. We examined neurophysiologically meaningful graph theory metrics: global and local efficiency measures. The global efficiency did not show any hemispheric asymmetry, whereas the local connectivity showed rightward asymmetry for a range of intermediate density values for the constructed networks. Furthermore, the age of the participants showed significant direct correlations with the global efficiency of the left hemisphere, but only in the right hemisphere, with local connectivity. These results suggest that only local connectivity of EEG-based functional networks is associated with brain hemispheres.

  15. Limb apraxia in acute ischemic stroke: a neglected clinical challenge?

    PubMed

    Schell, Caroline; Suchan, Julia; Himmelbach, Marc; Haarmeier, Thomas; Borchers, Svenja

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of limb apraxia and executive dysfunctions are currently not explicitly considered by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and, thus, not routinely tested by clinicians in the acute care of patients with suspected stroke. Neuropsychological testing, clinical examination, MRI, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were performed in a right-handed patient with acute onset of left-sided sensorimotor hemiparesis due to a right hemisphere ischemic stroke. Deficits in the execution of meaningless and meaningful gestures were not detected properly on initial clinical examination but were revealed later on through neuropsychological testing. Instead, the patient's inability to respond to specific instructions in the acute care setting was mistaken to reflect severe deficits in auditory comprehension. fMRI revealed right-hemispheric localization of language in the right-handed patient. We suggest including a bedside test for limb apraxia symptoms in acute clinical care of stroke patients. The distinction between deficits in limb praxis and impairments of language can be complicated owing to the common hemispheric co-localization of the two functions.

  16. Finding the Right Word: Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Use of Sentence Context Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlotko, Edward W.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres have been shown to be differentially sensitive to sentence-level information; in particular, it has been suggested that only the left hemisphere (LH) makes predictions about upcoming items, whereas the right (RH) processes words in a more integrative fashion. The current study used event-related potentials to jointly…

  17. Investigating Hemispheric Specialization in a Novel Face--Word Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anes, Michael D.; Kruer, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined hemispheric specialization in a lateralized Stroop facial identification task. A 2 (presentation side: left or right visual field [LVF or RVF])x2 (picture emotion: happy or angry)x3 (emotion of distractor word: happy, angry, or blank) factorial design placed the right hemispheric specialization for emotional expression processing and…

  18. The Role Played by the Right Hemisphere in the Organization of Complex Textual Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, A.; Carlomagno, S.; Caltagirone, C.; Nocentini, U.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven patients with right hemisphere damage (RHD), 11 left hemisphere damaged (LHD) nonaphasic subjects, and 11 neurologically intact controls were given three story description tasks. The two brain-damaged groups had no language, visuospatial, memory, or conceptual deficits on standardized neuropsychological testing. In the first experiment, the…

  19. The Integration of the Cerebral Hemispheres in Poetry and Mystic Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashford, Jules

    1979-01-01

    The author explores some of the implications of E. Rossi's hypothesis that "fine literature and poetry is essentially a form by which the words of the left hemisphere give voice to symbols and archetypal patterns of the right" (hemisphere). (Author/PHR)

  20. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: (1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and (2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients…

  1. Anomaly Detection in the Right Hemisphere: The Influence of Visuospatial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen D.; Dixon, Michael J.; Tays, William J.; Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Previous research with both brain-damaged and neurologically intact populations has demonstrated that the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is superior to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH) at detecting anomalies (or incongruities) in objects (Ramachandran, 1995; Smith, Tays, Dixon, & Bulman-Fleming, 2002). The current research assesses whether the RH…

  2. Can Semantic Information Be Transferred between Hemispheres in the Split-Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowecky, Marcia; Kingstone, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Data from experiments with split-brain patients, who have had their left and right hemispheres disconnected, suggests a remarkable specialization of function within each hemisphere. At the same time, these patients conduct their daily lives with great proficiency. This ability suggests that some information integral to coordinated function between…

  3. Hemispheric Specialization and Creative Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Review of Lateralization of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…

  4. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  5. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  6. An Investigation of the Dual Task Performance Relationship to Hemispheric Specialization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    to perform the necessary transfer of information across the corpus collosum connecting the two hemispheres. This concept, therefore, favors...for information to cross the corpus collosum , which connects the right and left hemispheres. The extra time concept is consistent with the results of...visual processes may draw upon functionally separate resources (Treisman & Davies, 1973; Isreal, 1980; Rollins & Hendricks, 1980). A similar assertion

  7. Does a Causal Relation Exist between the Functional Hemispheric Asymmetries of Visual Processing Subsystems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, David R.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2005-01-01

    Past research indicates that specific shape recognition and spatial-relations encoding rely on subsystems that exhibit right-hemisphere advantages, whereas abstract shape recognition and spatial-relations encoding rely on subsystems that exhibit left-hemisphere advantages. Given these apparent regularities, we tested whether asymmetries in shape…

  8. Hemispheric specialization and independence for word recognition: a comparison of three computational models.

    PubMed

    Weems, Scott A; Reggia, James A

    2004-06-01

    Two findings serve as the hallmark for hemispheric specialization during lateralized lexical decision. First is an overall word advantage, with words being recognized more quickly and accurately than non-words (the effect being stronger in response latency). Second, a right visual field advantage is observed for words, with little or no hemispheric differences in the ability to identify non-words. Several theories have been proposed to account for this difference in word and non-word recognition, some by suggesting dual routes of lexical access and others by incorporating separate, and potentially independent, word and non-word detection mechanisms. We compare three previously proposed cognitive theories of hemispheric interactions (callosal relay, direct access, and cooperative hemispheres) through neural network modeling, with each network incorporating different means of interhemispheric communication. When parameters were varied to simulate left hemisphere specialization for lexical decision, only the cooperative hemispheres model showed both a consistent left hemisphere advantage for word recognition but not non-word recognition, as well as an overall word advantage. These results support the theory that neural representations of words are more strongly established in the left hemisphere through prior learning, despite open communication between the hemispheres during both learning and recall.

  9. Hemispheric Differences in Relational Reasoning: Novel Insights Based on an Old Technique

    PubMed Central

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Lemos, Connor J.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Relational reasoning, or the ability to integrate multiple mental relations to arrive at a logical conclusion, is a critical component of higher cognition. A bilateral brain network involving lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices has been consistently implicated in relational reasoning. Some data suggest a preferential role for the left hemisphere in this form of reasoning, whereas others suggest that the two hemispheres make important contributions. To test for a hemispheric asymmetry in relational reasoning, we made use of an old technique known as visual half-field stimulus presentation to manipulate whether stimuli were presented briefly to one hemisphere or the other. Across two experiments, 54 neurologically healthy young adults performed a visuospatial transitive inference task. Pairs of colored shapes were presented rapidly in either the left or right visual hemifield as participants maintained central fixation, thereby isolating initial encoding to the contralateral hemisphere. We observed a left-hemisphere advantage for encoding a series of ordered visuospatial relations, but both hemispheres contributed equally to task performance when the relations were presented out of order. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal hemispheric differences in relational encoding in the intact brain. We discuss these findings in the context of a rich literature on hemispheric asymmetries in cognition. PMID:25709577

  10. Hemispheric differences in relational reasoning: novel insights based on an old technique.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Michael S; Johnson, Elizabeth L; Lemos, Connor J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    Relational reasoning, or the ability to integrate multiple mental relations to arrive at a logical conclusion, is a critical component of higher cognition. A bilateral brain network involving lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices has been consistently implicated in relational reasoning. Some data suggest a preferential role for the left hemisphere in this form of reasoning, whereas others suggest that the two hemispheres make important contributions. To test for a hemispheric asymmetry in relational reasoning, we made use of an old technique known as visual half-field stimulus presentation to manipulate whether stimuli were presented briefly to one hemisphere or the other. Across two experiments, 54 neurologically healthy young adults performed a visuospatial transitive inference task. Pairs of colored shapes were presented rapidly in either the left or right visual hemifield as participants maintained central fixation, thereby isolating initial encoding to the contralateral hemisphere. We observed a left-hemisphere advantage for encoding a series of ordered visuospatial relations, but both hemispheres contributed equally to task performance when the relations were presented out of order. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal hemispheric differences in relational encoding in the intact brain. We discuss these findings in the context of a rich literature on hemispheric asymmetries in cognition.

  11. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children.

  12. Hemispheric modulations of the attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Alfredo; Martella, Diana; Fuentes, Luis J; Marotta, Andrea; Casagrande, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Although several recent studies investigated the hemispheric contributions to the attentional networks using the Attention Network Test (ANT), the role of the cerebral hemispheres in modulating the interaction among them remains unclear. In this study, two lateralized versions of this test (LANT) were used to investigate theal effects on the attentional networks under different conflict conditions. One version, the LANTI-A, presented arrows as target and flankers, while the other version, the LANTI-F, had fruits as target and flankers. Data collected from forty-seven participants confirmed well-known results on the efficiency and interactions among the attentional networks. Further, a left visual field advantage was found when a target occurred in an unattended location (e.g. invalid trials), only with the LANTI-F, but not with LANTI-A. The present study adds more evidence to the hemispheric asymmetry of the orienting of attention, and further reveals patterns of interactions between the attentional networks and the visual fields across different conflicting conditions, underlying the dynamic control of attention in complex environments.

  13. Pre- and afterload reduction in chronic mitral regurgitation: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of the acute and 2 weeks' effect of nifedipine or isosorbide dinitrate treatment on left ventricular function and the severity of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kelbaek, H; Aldershvile, J; Skagen, K; Hildebrandt, P; Nielsen, S L

    1996-06-01

    1. The acute effect and effect of 14 days' treatment with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and nifedipine (NIF) was evaluated by radionuclide cardiography in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation and sinus rhythm. 2. In 23 patients with clinically stable disease blood pressure was lowered by 15% and left ventricular volume was reduced by 16-20% after 20 mg sublingual ISDN causing combined pre- and afterload reduction. Afterload reduction alone induced by 10 mg NIF resulted in an acute 9% decrease in left ventricular endsystolic volume, whereas forward stroke volume increased by 30%, and regurgitation fraction tended to decrease. No haemodynamic effects could be detected after 14 days' treatment with 20 mg ISDN orally twice daily (preload reduction), whereas 20 mg NIF twice daily (afterload reduction) caused an increase in forward stroke volume (18%) and a decrease in both regurgitant volume (20%) and regurgitation fraction (22%) without affecting blood pressure or heart rate. 3. ISDN and NIF have beneficial acute haemodynamic effects in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation probably due to their pre- and afterload reducing properties. The reduction in regurgitation induced by NIF appears to be sustained after 14 days therapy.

  14. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    PubMed

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  15. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perceptual representations of words.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Amy E; Long, Debra L; Swick, Diane; Larsen, Jary; Baynes, Kathleen

    2008-01-10

    The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context-readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading, "There is an apple in the bag," than after reading, "There is an apple in the salad." The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect -- faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition -- controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere-damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere-damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information.

  16. Glioblastoma multiforme following prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate in a child with acute lymphocytic leukemia. [. gamma. rays; infants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.K.; Stryker, J.A.; Cruse, R.; Vannuci, R.; Towfighi, J.

    1981-06-01

    Cases of radiation-induced glioma in humans are extremely rare. A 2-year-old boy with acute lymphocytic leukemia had received prophylactic cranial irradiation (2400 rad/2 1/2 weeks) and intrathecal methotrexate. Five years later he developed a glioblastoma multiforme on the left cerebral hemisphere while the leukemia was in remission. This is the first reported association of these disorders. It is possible that the glioma may have been induced by radiation and/or chemotherapy.

  17. Complementary hemispheric specialization for language production and visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-22

    Language production and spatial attention are the most salient lateralized cerebral functions, and their complementary specialization has been observed in the majority of the population. To investigate whether the complementary specialization has a causal origin (the lateralization of one function causes the opposite lateralization of the other) or rather is a statistical phenomenon (different functions lateralize independently), we determined the lateralization for spatial attention in a group of individuals with known atypical right hemispheric (RH) lateralization for speech production, based on a previous large-scale screening of left-handers. We show that all 13 participants with RH language dominance have left-hemispheric dominance for spatial attention, and all but one of 16 participants with left-hemispheric language dominance are RH dominant for spatial attention. Activity was observed in the dorsal fronto-parietal pathway of attention, including the inferior parietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule, the frontal eye-movement field, and the inferior frontal sulcus/gyrus, and these regions functionally colateralized in the hemisphere dominant for attention, independently of the side of lateralization. Our results clearly support the Causal hypothesis about the complementary specialization, and we speculate that it derives from a longstanding evolutionary origin. We also suggest that the conclusions about lateralization based on an unselected sample of the population and laterality assessment using coarse functional transcranial Doppler sonography should be interpreted with more caution.

  18. The nature of hemispheric specialization for prosody perception.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina S; Martens, Sander; Aleman, André; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Schiller, Niels O

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests a relative right-hemispheric specialization for emotional prosody perception, whereas linguistic prosody perception is under bilateral control. It is still unknown, however, how the hemispheric specialization for prosody perception might arise. Two main hypotheses have been put forward. Cue-dependent hypotheses, on the one hand, propose that hemispheric specialization is driven by specialization for the non-prosody-specific processing of acoustic cues. The functional lateralization hypothesis, on the other hand, proposes that hemispheric specialization is dependent on the communicative function of prosody, with emotional and linguistic prosody processing being lateralized to the right and left hemispheres, respectively. In the present study, the functional lateralization hypothesis of prosody perception was systematically tested by instructing one group of participants to evaluate the emotional prosody, and another group the linguistic prosody dimension of bidimensional prosodic stimuli in a dichotic-listening paradigm, while event-related potentials were recorded. The results showed that the right-ear advantage was associated with decreased latencies for an early negativity in the contralateral hemisphere. No evidence was found for functional lateralization. These findings suggest that functional lateralization effects for prosody perception are small and support the structural model of dichotic listening.

  19. From the left to the right: How the brain compensates progressive loss of language function.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-07-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function oft the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the left hemisphere in normal subjects are successfully employed for compensation but this integration process may need time to develop. We investigated right-handed patients with left hemisphere brain tumors as a model of continuously progressive brain damage to left hemisphere language areas using functional neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to identify factors which determine successful compensation of lost language function. Only patients with slowly progressing brain lesions recovered right-sided language function as detected by TMS. In patients with rapidly progressive lesions no right-sided language function was found and language performance was linearly correlated with the lateralization of language related brain activation to the left hemisphere. It can thus be concluded that time is the factor which determines successful integration of the right hemisphere into the language network for compensation of lost left hemisphere language function.

  20. Volumetric hemispheric ratio as a useful tool in personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Wagner, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Weber, Bernd; Quesada, Carlos M

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the link between volumetric hemispheric ratios (VHRs) and personality measures in N=267 healthy participants using Eysenck's Personality Inventory-Revised (EPQ-R) and the BIS/BAS scales. A robust association between extraversion and VHRs was observed for gray matter in males but not females. Higher gray matter volume in the left than in the right hemisphere was associated with higher extraversion in males. The results are discussed in the context of positive emotionality and laterality of the human brain.

  1. Cerebellar mass as a location of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Ilaria; Canovetti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Caniglia, Michele; Ciancia, Eugenio; Bartolozzi, Carlo; Puglioli, Michele; Cosottini, Mirco

    2014-09-01

    A 22-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was referred to our observation for headache, cervical pain and sopor. A computed tomography study revealed triventricular obstructive hydrocephalus due to a left cerebellar hyperdense mass impinging on the fourth ventricle. A magnetic resonance study demonstrated an area of hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, hypointensity on T1, restricted diffusivity and contrast enhancement involving the left hemispherical cerebellar cortex and the vermis and causing cerebellar herniation. After surgical excision of the lesion, histological examination revealed an infiltrate of lymphoblastic leukaemia with B cells. Leukaemic intracranial masses are rare. Our report describes a case presenting a cerebellar mass of leukaemic tissue characterized by high cellularity and low apparent diffusion coefficient value comparable to acute ischaemia. Therefore leukaemic intracranial mass has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses.

  2. Hemispheric asymmetry in neglect produced by unilateral lesions of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Vargo, J M; Corwin, J V; King, V; Reep, R L

    1988-11-01

    Unilateral lesions of the medial precentral prefrontal cortex produce severe polymodal neglect which reaches a stable level of recovery over 3 to 4 weeks. Previous research has indicated that neglect is produced by unilateral destruction of this region in either hemisphere, but that the nature of the neglect produced is dependent on the hemisphere damaged. The present study is a further examination of behavioral laterality produced by this unilateral destruction. The results indicated that destruction of medial precentral cortex in the left hemisphere (n = 12) produced severe contralateral multimodal neglect of visual, somatosensory, and auditory stimuli. Identical destruction in the right hemisphere (n = 18) also produced severe neglect, but unlike the left hemisphere operates which always demonstrated contralateral neglect, there were two distinct populations of right hemisphere operates. These subjects demonstrated either ipsilateral neglect or a "switching" response pattern characterized by the initial demonstration of contralateral or ipsilateral neglect and then, during the course of recovery, severe neglect on the opposite body side. Histological analysis indicated that the left and right hemisphere lesions were equivalent, as were the lesions in the two behavioral subcategories of right hemisphere operates. Operated controls (n = 12) did not demonstrate long-standing neglect or this switching pattern. The behavioral laterality observed following unilateral destruction of medial precentral prefrontal cortex is discussed in relationship to the anatomical and neurochemical asymmetries which have been demonstrated in this cortical region.

  3. Io's Kanehekili Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This color composite of Io, acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter, shows the hemisphere of Io which is centered at longitude 52 degrees. The dark feature just to the lower right of the center of the disk is called Kanehekili. Named after an Hawaiian thunder god, Kanehekili contains two persistent high temperature hot spots and a 'new' active volcanic plume. NASA's Voyager spacecraft returned images of nine active plumes during its 1979 flyby of this dynamic satellite. To date, Galileo's plume monitoring observations have shown continued activity at four of those nine plume locations as well as new activity at six other locations.

    North is to the top of the picture which combines images acquired using violet, green, and near-infrared (756 micrometers) filters. The resolution is 21 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 1,033,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  4. Continuous administration of insulin-like growth factor-I and basic fibroblast growth factor does not affect left ventricular geometry after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Scheinowitz, M; Abramov, D; Kotlyar, A; Savion, N; Eldar, M

    1998-02-28

    We examined the long-term effect of exogenous administration of bFGF and IGF-I on myocardial geometry in 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats subjected to AMI. A preloaded miniature osmotic pump subsequently implanted in the peritoneum for continuous infusion (1 week) of IGF-I, bFGF, IGF-I+bFGF or rat albumin. Six weeks following AMI the rats were killed and cross-section slices were analyzed for left ventricular geometry. No differences were observed between IGF-I-treated, bFGF-treated, IGF-I+bFGF-treated and control groups in all parameters of the left ventricle.

  5. Is math lateralised on the same side as language? Right hemisphere aphasia and mathematical abilities.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Delazer, Margarete; Bertella, Laura; Granà, Alessia; Mori, Ileana; Conti, Fabio M; Pignatti, Riccardo; Bartha, Lisa; Domahs, Frank; Benke, Thomas; Mauro, Alessandro

    2006-10-09

    The main purpose of the present study was to learn how mathematical abilities are located and develop in the brain with respect to language. Mathematical abilities were assessed in six right-handed patients affected by aphasia following a lesion to their non-dominant hemisphere (crossed aphasia) and in two left-handed aphasics with a right-sided lesion. Acalculia, although in different degrees, was found in all cases. The type of acalculia depended on the type of aphasia, following patterns that have been previously observed in the most common aphasias resulting from left hemisphere lesions. No sign of right hemisphere or spatial acalculia (acalculia in left lateralised right-handed subjects) was detected. These results suggest that, as a rule, language and calculation share the same hemisphere. A primitive computational mechanism capable of recursion may be the precursor of both functions.

  6. Do Left or Right Brain Training Exercises Have the Greater Effect upon College Calculus Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    Research supports the premise that various mathematical topics can be categorized as being performed better by the left or right brain hemisphere. This study examined the effect of left and right brain hemispheric lateralization exercises upon course grades in two sections of Analysis I (beginning calculus for mathematics/science majors) at a…

  7. Reaction Times of Aging Subjects to Monaural Verbal Stimuli: Some Evidence for a Reduction in Right-Hemisphere Linguistic Processing Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastatter, Michael P.; Lawson-Brill, Cindy

    1987-01-01

    Effects of advanced aging on hemispheric organization for linguistic processing was investigated with 24 geriatric subjects. Findings indicated that only the left hemisphere was used in language processing, suggesting that right hemispheric language processing ability is inhibited in the elderly. (Author/DB)

  8. Valles Marineris Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mosaic composed of 102 Viking Orbiter images of Mars, covering nearly a full hemisphere of the planet (approximate latitude -55 to 60 degrees, longitude 30 to 130 degrees). The mosaic is in a point-perspective projection with a scale of about 1 km/pixel. The color variations have been enhanced by a factor of about two, and the large-scale brightness variations (mostly due to sun-angle variations) have been normalized by large-scale filtering. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and up to 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east. Bright white layers of material in the eastern canyons may consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes. Huge ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and from north-central canyons and run north. Many of the channels flowed into a basin called Acidalia Planitia, which is the dark area in the extreme north of this picture. The Viking 1 landing site (Mutch Memorial Station) is located in Chryse Planitia, south of Acidalia Planitia. The three Tharsis volcanoes (dark red spots), each about 25 km high, are visible to the west. The large crater with two prominent rings located at the bottom of this image is named Lowell, after the Flagstaff astronomer. The images were acquired by Viking Orbiter 1 in 1980 during early northern summer on Mars (Ls = 70 degrees); the atmosphere was relatively dust-free. A variety of clouds appear as bright blue streaks and hazes, and probably consist of water ice. Long, linear clouds north of central Valles Marineris appear to emanate from impact craters.

  9. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  10. Left/Right Brains, Teammates in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Gertrude M.

    1983-01-01

    Left/right brain research and its implications for teachers of handicapped and nonhandicapped students are highlighted. Medical and psychological research in asymmetry and the related attitudinal changes toward brain functioning are reviewed. Respect for the functioning of each hemisphere and the need for the "teaming" of both are emphasized.…

  11. Handedness- and hemisphere-related differences in small-world brain networks: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    PubMed

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Wang, Yifeng; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2014-03-01

    Previous behavioral and scanning studies have suggested that handedness is associated with differences in brain morphology as well as in anatomical and functional lateralization. However, little is known about the topological organization of the white matter (WM) structural networks related to handedness. We employed diffusion tensor imaging tractography to investigate handedness- and hemisphere-related differences in the topological organization of the human cortical anatomical network. After constructing left hemispheric/right hemispheric weighted structural networks in 32 right-handed and 24 left-handed healthy individuals, we analyzed the networks by graph theoretic analysis. We found that both the right and left hemispheric WM structural networks in the two groups possessed small-world attributes (high local clustering and short paths between nodes), findings which are consistent with recent results from whole-brain structural networks. In addition, the right hemisphere tended to be more efficient than the left hemisphere, suggesting a high efficiency of general information processing in the right hemisphere. Finally, we found that the right-handed subjects had significant asymmetries in small-world properties (normalized clustering coefficient γ, normalized path length λ, and small-worldness σ), while left-handed subjects had fewer asymmetries. Our findings from large-scale brain networks aid in understanding the structural substrates underlying handedness-related and hemisphere-related differences in cognition and behavior.

  12. Complementary Hemispheric Asymmetries in Object Naming and Recognition: A Voxel-Based Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acres, K.; Taylor, K. I.; Moss, H. E.; Stamatakis, E. A.; Tyler, L. K.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientific research proposes complementary hemispheric asymmetries in naming and recognising visual objects, with a left temporal lobe advantage for object naming and a right temporal lobe advantage for object recognition. Specifically, it has been proposed that the left inferior temporal lobe plays a mediational role linking…

  13. An asymmetric inhibition model of hemispheric differences in emotional processing

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Gina M.; Carmel, David

    2014-01-01

    Two relatively independent lines of research have addressed the role of the prefrontal cortex in emotional processing. The first examines hemispheric asymmetries in frontal function; the second focuses on prefrontal interactions between cognition and emotion. We briefly review each perspective and highlight inconsistencies between them. We go on to describe an alternative model that integrates approaches by focusing on hemispheric asymmetry in inhibitory executive control processes. The asymmetric inhibition model proposes that right-lateralized executive control inhibits processing of positive or approach-related distractors, and left-lateralized control inhibits negative or withdrawal-related distractors. These complementary processes allow us to maintain and achieve current goals in the face of emotional distraction. We conclude with a research agenda that uses the model to generate novel experiments that will advance our understanding of both hemispheric asymmetries and cognition-emotion interactions. PMID:24904502

  14. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Haselman, L.C. Jr.

    1996-06-04

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved. 8 figs.

  15. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C.

    1996-01-01

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  16. Archimedes and the Magdeburg Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Carl H.

    1975-01-01

    Weights suspended from a lever arm separate evacuated hemispheres allowing estimation of atmospheric pressure to within five percent of the barometric reading. An illustration and a reference to von Guericke's demonstration are provided. (GH)

  17. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  18. Enhancing the ecological validity of tests of lateralization and hemispheric interaction: Evidence from fixated displays of letters or symbols of varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew J; Upshaw, Jennifer N; Macaulay, Georgia M; Rutherford, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments expand upon behavioural evidence of interactions among lateralization, hemispheric interaction, and task complexity with findings from an ecologically valid procedure. Target displays of letters or symbols were presented at fixation in go/no-go matching tasks of physical or categorical identity. Simultaneously with the target, a distractor appeared in the left visual field or right visual field to weight processing of the target to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the distractor, or the distractor did not appear at all. Comparison of the respective distractor-present trials with distractor-absent trials measures the relative costs or benefits of hemispheric interaction. Both experiments found that 3-item displays were processed faster and more accurately than displays of 5 items, suggesting they are relatively simple. Accuracy to the simple tasks showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the lexical task, right-hemisphere lateralization in the spatial task, a cost of hemispheric interaction compared to the advantaged hemisphere, and a benefit of hemispheric interaction compared to the less-advantaged hemisphere, suggesting that the contributions of the less-advantaged hemisphere interfere with processing, and that the advantaged hemisphere controls the lion's share. In contrast, 5-item displays for physical match in both experiments showed a significant benefit to accuracy of hemispheric interaction compared to the left hemisphere, an insignificant benefit compared to the right hemisphere, no lateralization, no cost of hemispheric interaction, and a consequence to performance that was more costly to the hemisphere that had been advantaged in simple tasks, suggesting that the advantaged hemisphere relinquishes control as tasks become more complex and complementary processing results from both increased collaboration and decreased lateralization between the hemispheres. The findings expand upon behavioural evidence, converge with imaging evidence, and

  19. Proprioceptive target matching asymmetries in left-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Noble, Brittany C; Brown, Susan H

    2009-08-01

    In right-handers, the ability to reproduce proprioceptive targets has been shown to be asymmetric, favoring the non-preferred left arm. The present study sought to determine whether a similar arm/hemisphere asymmetry exists for left-handers. Ten strong left-handed adults used the left or right arm to perform proprioceptive target matching tasks that varied in processing demands (i.e., need for memory, interhemispheric transfer) and target amplitude (20, 40 degrees). Similar to right-handers, left-handed individuals had smaller total errors when matching with the non-preferred arm. This asymmetry was greatest in conditions with increased processing demands and larger amplitude targets. These results provide the first evidence to date of right arm/left hemisphere dominance for proprioceptive target matching in left-handers that is the "mirror image" of right-handers.

  20. Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

    Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer

  1. Comparison of the usefulness of Doppler-derived deceleration time versus plasma brain natriuretic peptide to predict left ventricular remodeling after mechanical revascularization in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cerisano, Giampaolo; Pucci, Paolo Domenico; Valenti, Renato; Boddi, Vieri; Migliorini, Angela; Tommasi, Maria Silvia; Raspanti, Silvia; Parodi, Guido; Antoniucci, David

    2005-04-15

    The correlation between Doppler deceleration time (DT) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and their predictive value for detecting left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients who are treated with primary percutaneous intervention for infarction and LV dysfunction are unknown. Fifty-six patients (64 +/- 12 years of age; 11 women) who had a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and systolic dysfunction that was successfully treated with direct primary coronary intervention underwent 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic and plasma BNP evaluation at days 1 and 3 and 1 and 6 months after the index infarction. Repeat coronary angiograms were obtained at 1 and 6 months. Because of previous consistent evidence, 3 days after the index infarction was the time point of comparison between BNP and DT values. Echocardiographic LV remodeling was defined as an increase in end-diastolic volume index above baseline values of 2 x SD. Ventricular remodeling occurred in 20 patients (36%). Multivariate analyses that included BNP level, Doppler DT, echocardiographic measurements of systolic function, peak creatine kinase, and anterior infarct location showed Doppler DT to be the only predictor of LV remodeling (odds ratio 0.963, 95% confidence interval 0.936 to 0.990, p = 0.008). The optimal cutoff for DT in the prediction of 6-month LV remodeling was <136 ms (sensitivity 75%, specificity 97%, accuracy 81%, area under receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.90). Thus, in patients who have a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and LV systolic dysfunction that is successfully treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, Doppler-derived DT 3 days after index infarction is more effective than BNP level in detecting patients who are at higher risk for 6-month LV remodeling.

  2. Atmospheric Motion in Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    True-color (left) and false-color (right) mosaics of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric motions are controlled by alternating eastward and westward bands of air between Jupiter's equator and polar regions. The direction and speed of these bands influences the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. The high and thin clouds are represented by light blue, deep clouds are reddish, and high and thick clouds are white. A high haze overlying a clear, deep atmosphere is represented by dark purple. This image was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft on April 3, 1997 at a distance of 1.4 million kilometers (.86 million miles).

  3. State anxiety reduction and exercise: does hemispheric activation reflect such changes?

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Landers, D M

    1994-08-01

    Acute bouts of aerobic exercise have been consistently associated with significant reductions in anxiety, but explanations for this effect remain elusive. The cerebral lateralization hypothesis predicts that anxiety reductions would be caused by a postexercise decrease in anterior right, relative to left, hemisphere activation. A sample of 19 right-handed males ran at 75% of their VO2max for 30 min on a treadmill. Electroencephalogram (EEG; F3, F4, T3, T4) and state anxiety were collected before and following exercise. Compared with preexercise, anxiety was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 10, 20, and 30 min postexercise. Preexercise EEG alpha asymmetry was significantly related to trait anxiety and also predicted a significant amount of variance (30%; P = 0.008) in postexercise anxiety reduction. From pre- to postexercise, the relative activation of the left frontal area increased with respect to the homologous right frontal site. Within-subject correlations for the change in anxiety with corresponding EEG changes were small but in line with theoretical predictions. It is concluded that the cerebral lateralization hypothesis remains tenable for explaining anxiety reductions associated with exercise.

  4. Hemispheric inference priming during comprehension of conversations and narratives.

    PubMed

    Powers, Chivon; Bencic, Rachel; Horton, William S; Beeman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examined asymmetric semantic activation patterns as people listened to conversations and narratives that promoted causal inferences. Based on the hypothesis that understanding the unique features of conversational input may benefit from or require a modified pattern of conceptual activation during conversation, we compared semantic priming in both hemispheres for inferences embedded in conversations and in narratives. Participants named inference-related target words or unrelated words presented to the left visual field-right hemisphere (lvf-RH) or to the right visual field-left hemisphere (rvf-LH) at critical coherence points that required an inference in order to correctly understand an utterance in the context of the conversation or narrative. Fifty-seven undergraduates listened to 36 conversations or narratives and were tested at 100 target inference points. During narrative comprehension, inference-related priming was reliable and equally strong in both hemispheres. In contrast, during conversation comprehension, inference-related priming was only reliable for target words presented to lvf-RH. This work demonstrates that priming for inference-related concepts can be measured with input in conversational form and suggests the language processing style of the RH is advantageous for comprehending conversation.

  5. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible (“The boy is eating the apple”) and reversible (“The boy is pushing the girl”) sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  6. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible ("The boy is eating the apple") and reversible ("The boy is pushing the girl") sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia.

  7. GERSTMANN’S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Zukic, Sanela; Mrkonjic, Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patients. Patients and methods: We prospectively analyzed 194 acute stroke patients (average age 65±11.06 years, male 113 (58.2%), female 81 (41.8%) hospitalized at department of Neurology, University Clinical Center tuzla, during the six mounths in 2010. For clinical assessment of agraphia, alexia and acalculia we used Minessota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia’s. Results: Among these acute stroke patients, 59 (30.40%) had alexia, agraphia and acalculia or different combinations of these disorders. two patients (3.4%) had agraphia and acalculia associated with other part of tetrad of GS: fi nger agnosia and left-right disorientation. they both where men, right handed, and cranial computed tomography scan showed ischemic lesion in the left parietal and left temporoparietal lobe. Conclusion: Gerstmann`s syndrome is rare clinical entity, and has the high value in localization and the lesion is mainly localized to angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. PMID:23378691

  8. The "consonance effect" and the hemispheres: a study on a split-brain patient.

    PubMed

    Prete, Giulia; Fabri, Mara; Foschi, Nicoletta; Brancucci, Alfredo; Tommasi, Luca

    2015-05-01

    The association between musical consonance and pleasantness, and between musical dissonance and unpleasantness ("consonance effect") is well established. Furthermore, a number of studies suggest the main involvement of the left hemisphere in the perception of dissonance and that of the right hemisphere in the perception of consonance. In the present study, the consonance effect was studied in a callosotomized patient, D. D. C. and in a control group. In binaural presentations, the patient did not attribute different pleasantness judgements to consonant and dissonant chords, differently from the control group who showed the consonance effect. However, in dichotic presentations (e.g. a chord in one ear and white noise in the other ear), a trend towards the consonance effect was found in D. D. C., but only when chords were presented in his right ear (left hemisphere), whereas the control group confirmed the known hemispheric asymmetry in labelling the pleasantness of consonant and dissonant chords. These results suggest that the right-hemispheric superiority in appreciating consonance might hide the inability of the right hemisphere to classify dissonant chords as unpleasant in the split-brain, whereas the left hemisphere seems capable to differently label the pleasantness of consonant and dissonant chords, even if it is more sensitive to dissonance.

  9. Line bisection-based hemisphericity estimates of university students and professionals: evidence of sorting during higher education and career selection.

    PubMed

    Morton, Bruce E

    2003-08-01

    Recently, hemisphericity has been assessed by six intercorrelated methods. Here, one of these, the "Best Hand Test," a two-hand line bisection-based biophysical method relatively independent of language, culture, or education, was applied to the measurement of hemisphericity distributions within large groups. Entering university students (n=402) enrolled in three lower division courses were chosen as a reference population. Each of these classes contained about 56% left brain-oriented individuals. In contrast, mean student left-brain distributions in four specialized, upper level courses (n=180), ranged from 35 to 68%, suggestive of hemisphericity sorting. Even more pronounced hemisphericity distribution differences were found within university representatives of 15 professions (n=421) and within professional subspecialists (n=45). For example, of biochemists (n=18), 83% were left brain-oriented, while among astronomers (n=21), only 29% were. These results are of intrinsic interest, and demonstrate the capability of the Best Hand Test to estimate hemisphericity in large groups.

  10. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  11. Persistent Left Unilateral Mirror Writing: A Neuropsychological Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelillo, Valentina G.; De Lucia, Natascia; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Mirror writing (MW) is a rare disorder in which a script runs in direction opposite to normal and individual letters are reversed. The disorder generally occurs after left-hemisphere lesions, is transient and is observed on the left hand, whereas usually motor impairments prevent assessment of direction of right handwriting. We describe a…

  12. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: 1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and 2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients were faster in detecting targets in the right visual field when the target and distracters had different color names compared to when their names were the same. This effect was absent in the LH patients, consistent with the hypothesis that injury to the left hemisphere handicaps the automatic activation of lexical codes. Moreover, the LH patients showed a reversed effect, such that the advantage of different target-distracter names was now evident for targets in the left visual field. This reversal may suggest a reorganization of the color lexicon in the right hemisphere following left hemisphere brain injury and/or the unmasking of a heightened right hemisphere sensitivity to color categories. PMID:21216454

  13. Intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry and its relationships with handedness and language Lateralization.

    PubMed

    Joliot, M; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Mazoyer, B

    2016-12-01

    Asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity, and its association with handedness and hemispheric dominance for language, were investigated in a sample of 290 healthy volunteers enriched in left-handers (52.7%). From the resting-state FMRI data of each participant, we derived an intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry (HICA) matrix as the difference between the left and right intra-hemispheric matrices of intrinsic correlation computed for each pair of the AICHA atlas ROIs. We defined a similarity measure between the HICA matrices of two individuals as the correlation coefficient of their corresponding elements, and computed for each individual an index of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry as the average similarity measure of his HICA matrix to those of the other subjects of the sample (HICAs). Gaussian-mixture modeling of the age-corrected HICAs sample distribution revealed that two types of HICA patterns were present, one (Typical_HICA) including 92.4% of the participants while the other (Atypical_HICA) included only 7.6% of them, mostly left-handers. In addition, we investigated the relationship between asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity and language hemispheric dominance, including a potential effect of handedness on this relationship, thanks to an FMRI acquisition during language production from which an hemispheric functional lateralization index for language (HFLI) and a type of hemispheric dominance for language, namely leftward, ambilateral, or rightward, were derived for each individual. There was a significant association between the types of language hemispheric dominance and of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry, occurrence of Atypical_HICAs individuals being very high in the group of individuals rightward-lateralized for language (80%), reduced in the ambilateral group (19%) and rare in individuals leftward-lateralized for language (less than 3%). Quantitatively, we found a

  14. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with AIDS, acute myocardial infarction, and severe left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bittner, H B; Fogelson, B G

    2003-02-01

    A 48-year-old male patient with AIDS presented with postinfarct unstable angina, decreased left ventricular function (EF 35%), significant left main coronary artery disease, and total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. In order to avoid the potential immunosuppressive effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an already compromised host with an already low CD4+ helper/inducer T cell count (180/microL) and high retroviral load (165,000 copies/mL), the application of beating-heart technology and off-pump coronary bypass grafting was an ideal indication. The patient underwent successfully off-pump/CPB coronary revascularization. The triple drug combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was resumed postoperatively. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 7(th) postoperative day. The CD4+ count was 142/microL and the viral load decreased to 450 copies/mL. Seven months post-operatively the patient was free of angina and without shortness of breath. The CD4+ count was 160/(m)L and the viral load undetectable. Improved survival of HIV positive patients has resulted in a shift from caring for terminally ill patients to caring for patients with chronic illness. While protease inhibitors have positively affected survival, they may also cause plasma lipid abnormalities, which can lead to severe premature coronary artery disease. Therefore, an increasing population of AIDS and HIV positive patients with coronary artery disease may require cardiac interventions in the near future. Coronary revascularization without CPB and its potential immunocompromising effect may play an important role in patients with severe coronary artery disease and AIDS.

  15. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-06-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 +/- 81 to 350 +/- 77 ml and from 52 +/- 26 to 43 +/- 20 volume units, respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 +/- 10 to 17 +/- 9 mm Hg and 10 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 5 mm Hg. Although stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 +/- 6% to 22+/- 5% and from 25 +/- 9% to 29 +/- 11%, respectively. During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. This, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured.

  16. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-06-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 + 81 to 350 + 77 ml (p < 0.01) and from 52 + 26 to 43 + 20 volume units (p < 0.01), respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 + 10 to 17 + 9 mm Hg and 10 + 5 to and + 5 mm Hg (both p < 0.01). Altough stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 + 6% to 22 + 5% and from 25 + 9% to 29 + 11%, respectively (both p < 0.01). During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. Thus, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured.

  17. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS The redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific

  18. Semantic Processing in Native and Second Language: Evidence from Hemispheric Differences in Fine and Coarse Semantic Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Vardi, Nili

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is involved in fine semantic processing, the right hemisphere (RH) is uniquely engaged in coarse semantic coding including the comprehension of distinct types of language such as figurative language, lexical ambiguity and verbal humor (e.g., and ). The present study examined the…

  19. Hemispheric Differences in the Time-Course of Semantic Priming Processes: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouaffre, Sarah; Faita-Ainseba, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    To investigate hemispheric differences in the timing of word priming, the modulation of event-related potentials by semantic word relationships was examined in each cerebral hemisphere. Primes and targets, either categorically (silk-wool) or associatively (needle-sewing) related, were presented to the left or right visual field in a go/no-go…

  20. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  1. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Word- and Sentence-Level Context: Evidence From Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Seana; Federmeier, Kara D.; Van Petten, Cyma; Kutas, Marta

    2005-01-01

    Researchers using lateralized stimuli have suggested that the left hemisphere is sensitive to sentence-level context, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) primarily processes word-level meaning. The authors investigated this message-blind RH model by measuring associative priming with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For word pairs in…

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetries Depend on the Phonetic Feature: A Dichotic Study of Place of Articulation and Voicing in French Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Ferragne, Emmanuel; Marsico, Egidio

    2010-01-01

    Dichotic listening experiments show a right-ear advantage (REA), reflecting a left-hemisphere (LH) dominance. However, we found a decrease in REA when the initial stop consonants of two simultaneous French CVC words differed in voicing rather than place of articulation (Experiment 1). This result suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) is more…

  3. Hemispheric asymmetries in memory processes as measured in a false recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Marsolek, Chad J

    2003-01-01

    Although memory differs in important ways between the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the nature of these differences remains controversial. We examined this issue in two experiments using a false memory paradigm that allowed novel tests of two theories that have not been assessed in a common paradigm previously. Lists of semantically related words (e.g., bed, rest, wake...), all highly associated to one "critical" word (e.g., sleep), were presented auditorily during a study phase. Memory for both the related words and the critical words was measured in a subsequent old/new recognition test using divided-visual-field word presentations. The most important results were that the ability to correctly reject previously unpresented words was greater when test items were presented to the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) than to the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) and that participants were more confident in correctly rejecting unpresented words when test items were presented to the RVF/LH than to the LVF/RH. Results were in line with the theory that associative activation of semantic information is restricted in the left hemisphere but diffuse in the right; however, these results contrasted with the theory that memory traces are interpretive in the left hemisphere but veridical in the right. A potential resolution to the seemingly contradictory theories of asymmetries in memory processing is briefly discussed.

  4. A MEMS diamond hemispherical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, J. J.; Bancu, M. G.; Cook, E. H.; Chaparala, M. V.; Teynor, W. A.; Weinberg, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication of hemispherical polycrystalline diamond resonators fabricated on a novel high-temperature glass substrate. The hemispherical resonator gyroscope is one of the most accurate and rugged of the mechanical gyroscopes, and can be operated in either rate or whole-angle mode due to its high degree of symmetry. A fabrication sequence for creating extremely symmetric 3D MEMS hemispheres is presented. Mode shapes and frequencies obtained with a laser vibrometer are shown, as well as curves of Q versus pressure, and the dependence of frequency on anchor size. Fundamental mode frequency matching to <0.1% in as-fabricated devices has been achieved, which is essential to gyroscope operation in whole-angle mode.

  5. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  6. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  7. Overestimation of numerical distances in the left side of space.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, M; Rausei, V; Koch, G; Torriero, S; Turriziani, P; Caltagirone, C

    2004-12-14

    Normal subjects presented with a middle number and two left- and right-sided outer numbers overestimate the numerical distance between the middle number and that positioned at its left side. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right posterior parietal cortex specifically counteracts this bias, suggesting that the mental representation of space defined by numbers is shifted toward the left side depending on a greater activity of the right hemisphere.

  8. Spinal cord ischemia and left atrial myxoma.

    PubMed

    Hirose, G; Kosoegawa, H; Takado, M; Shimazaki, K; Murakami, E

    1979-07-01

    A 62-year-old man had an acute, transient, flaccid paraplegia. Examination showed a primary cardiac tumor with emboli to major branches of the aorta. A myxoma was removed from the left atrium, and normal function returned. Left atrial myxoma should be suspected as a cause for embolism to the CNS.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry in recognition memory: effects of retention level on the recognition of Portuguese words.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jorge; Perea, Maria Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Gamito, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Early findings from Broca and Wernicke led to the classical view of hemispheric specialization, where the main idea relates to left-hemisphere language capabilities compared to right-hemisphere visual capabilities. Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) have suggested that semantic encoding for verbal information in the right hemisphere can be more effective when memory demands are higher. In light of this, our main goal was to study the effect of retention level of verbal information on hemispheric processes. However, regarding the cross-linguistic differences in orthography and their subsequent effects on word recognition (Frost, Katz, & Bentin, 1987), our intent was also to test prior predictions of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) for a "shallow" orthography language, where words have a clear correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, as opposed to English, which is a "deep" orthography language. Portuguese concrete nouns were selected. The participants were submitted to a visual half-field word presentation using a continuous recognition memory paradigm. The retention level included 1, 2, 4, 8, 20 or 40 words. Results showed that recognition accuracy was higher for words studied in the right visual field, compared to those studied in the left visual field, when the retention interval included 2, 4, or 20 words. No significant differences were found for the remaining intervals. Further analysis on accuracy data for intermediate retention levels showed that recognition accuracy was higher for the 2 words retention level than for the levels including 4, 8, or 20 words; it was higher for left-hemisphere encoding as well. Our results also indicated that reaction times were slower for left-hemisphere encoding and for the 40 words retention level when compared to that of 20 words. In summary, the current results are in partial agreement with those of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) and suggest different hemispheric memory strategies for the semantic encoding of verbal

  10. Dynamics of hemispheric specialization and integration in the context of motor control.

    PubMed

    Serrien, Deborah J; Ivry, Richard B; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2006-02-01

    Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence convincingly establish that the left hemisphere is dominant for motor skills that are carried out with either hand or those that require bimanual coordination. As well as this prioritization, we argue that specialized functions of the right hemisphere are also indispensable for the realization of goal-directed behaviour. As such, lateralization of motor function is a dynamic and multifaceted process that emerges across different timescales and is contingent on task- and performer-related determinants.

  11. Hemispheric asymmetry in the recognition of emotional attitude conveyed by facial expression, prosody and propositional speech.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J J; Hartje, W; Willmes, K

    1997-03-01

    In this study 27 patients with right hemisphere lesions, 25 patients with left hemisphere lesions and 26 normal control subjects were investigated for unimodal and simultaneous multimodal recognition of emotional attitude. All subjects were shown 330 videotaped items of 4 seconds duration, each of which was to be judged in terms of facial expression, emotional prosody and the emotional meaning of the underlying spoken sentence. In a preceding experiment comparable unimodal emotional stimuli were applied. The results suggest (a) right hemisphere superiority for recognition of emotions conveyed by facial and prosodic information, (b) a right hemisphere dominance for the recognition of fear and (c) no significant enhancement of right hemisphere superiority under multimodal presentation of emotional stimuli.

  12. Math Learning: The Two Hemispheres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Meda F.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the duality of mental processes, learning styles and brain research (concerning brain growth, hemispheric specialization, and sex differences) as they apply to teaching mathematics. Discusses the implications of these topics as well as individual learning styles and basics-versus-creative school curricula for curriculum development. (WAS)

  13. Role of inter-hemispheric transfer in generating visual evoked potentials in V1-damaged brain hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Kavcic, Voyko; Triplett, Regina L; Das, Anasuya; Martin, Tim; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2015-02-01

    Partial cortical blindness is a visual deficit caused by unilateral damage to the primary visual cortex, a condition previously considered beyond hopes of rehabilitation. However, recent data demonstrate that patients may recover both simple and global motion discrimination following intensive training in their blind field. The present experiments characterized motion-induced neural activity of cortically blind (CB) subjects prior to the onset of visual rehabilitation. This was done to provide information about visual processing capabilities available to mediate training-induced visual improvements. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) were recorded from two experimental groups consisting of 9 CB subjects and 9 age-matched, visually-intact controls. VEPs were collected following lateralized stimulus presentation to each of the 4 visual field quadrants. VEP waveforms were examined for both stimulus-onset (SO) and motion-onset (MO) related components in postero-lateral electrodes. While stimulus presentation to intact regions of the visual field elicited normal SO-P1, SO-N1, SO-P2 and MO-N2 amplitudes and latencies in contralateral brain regions of CB subjects, these components were not observed contralateral to stimulus presentation in blind quadrants of the visual field. In damaged brain hemispheres, SO-VEPs were only recorded following stimulus presentation to intact visual field quadrants, via inter-hemispheric transfer. MO-VEPs were only recorded from damaged left brain hemispheres, possibly reflecting a native left/right asymmetry in inter-hemispheric connections. The present findings suggest that damaged brain hemispheres contain areas capable of responding to visual stimulation. However, in the absence of training or rehabilitation, these areas only generate detectable VEPs in response to stimulation of the intact hemifield of vision.

  14. Colateralization of Broca's Area and the Visual Word form Area in Left-Handers: fMRI Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Language production has been found to be lateralized in the left hemisphere (LH) for 95% of right-handed people and about 75% of left-handers. The prevalence of atypical right hemispheric (RH) or bilateral lateralization for reading and colateralization of production with word reading laterality has never been tested in a large sample. In this…

  15. Recovery from visual neglect after right hemisphere stroke: does starting point in cancellation tasks change after 6 months?

    PubMed

    Kettunen, J E; Nurmi, M; Dastidar, P; Jehkonen, M

    2012-01-01

    In the acute phase of stroke, patients with left visual neglect (VN) automatically orient to the right hemispace. This study examined the presence of rightward bias after right hemisphere stroke within 10 days of stroke onset and after 6 months. Our sample comprised 43 patients and 49 healthy controls. Presence of VN was evaluated with the six conventional subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BITC). Starting points were determined in three BITC cancellation tasks by measuring the distance between the starting point and the median line of the stimulus sheet in centimeters. Activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed with the Barthel Index. At baseline VN patients showed more robust rightward bias than patients without VN. The magnitude of rightward bias decreased clearly in the VN patients at follow-up. A favorable ADL outcome was observed in 90% of the patients with VN and in all of the patients without VN. The magnitude of rightward bias differed clearly between the patient groups and controls. Our result implies that VN was likely to have improved as measured by BITC sum scores, but symptoms of rightward attention bias were still detected. We therefore suggest that, for clinical purposes, it is important that attention bias is measured accurately after right hemisphere stroke.

  16. The acute effects of low flow oxygen and isosorbide dinitrate on left and right ventricular ejection fractions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.; Caldwell, J.; Lakshminaryan, S.; Ritchie, J.L.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of low flow oxygen and isosorbide dinitrate on rest and exercise biventricular ejection fractions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to relate these ejection fraction responses to changes in pressure and flow. Nine patients with stable, moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had no prior history of heart failure performed supine exercise with simultaneous hemodynamic and radionuclide ventriculographic monitoring. Eight patients performed a second exercise during low flow oxygen breathing and five performed a third exercise after ingesting 10 mg oral isosorbide. Oxygen led to a decrease in exercise pulmonary artery pressure in all subjects and a decline in total pulmonary resistance in five of the seven in whom it was measured. Right ventricular ejection fraction increased 0.05 or more only in subjects who had a decrease in total pulmonary resistance. Isosorbide led to an increase in rest and exercise right and left ventricular ejection fractions with simultaneous decreases in pulmonary artery pressure, total pulmonary resistance, blood pressure and arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but without a history of right heart failure, the right ventricular systolic functional response to low flow oxygen and isosorbide at rest and exercise is, in part, determined by changes in total pulmonary resistance. The chronic relation between right ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains to be evaluated.

  17. Hemispheric differences of motor execution: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Ingo; Rein, Robert; Niermann, Nico; Lausberg, Hedda

    2013-01-01

    Distal movements of the limbs are predominantly controlled by the contralateral hemisphere. However, functional neuroimaging studies do not unequivocally demonstrate a lateralization of the cerebral activation during hand movements. While some studies show a predominant activation of the contralateral hemisphere, other studies provide evidence for a symmetrically distributed bihemispheric activation. However, the divergent results may also be due to methodological shortcomings. Therefore, the present study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy examines cerebral activation in both hemispheres during motor actions of the right and left hands. Twenty participants performed a flexion/extension task with the right- or left-hand thumb. Cerebral oxygenation changes were recorded from 48 channels over the primary motor, pre-motor, supplementary motor, primary somatosensory cortex, subcentral area, and the supramarginal gyrus of each hemisphere. A consistent increase of cerebral oxygenation was found for oxygenated and for total hemoglobin in the hemisphere contralateral to the moving hand, regardless of the laterality. These findings are in line with previous data from localization [1-3] and brain imaging studies [4-6]. The present data support the proposition that there is no hemispheric specialization for simple distal motor tasks. Both hemispheres are equally activated during movement of the contralateral upper limb.

  18. Neuroendocrine hemisphere asymmetries: salivary cortisol secretion during lateralized viewing of emotion-related and neutral films.

    PubMed

    Wittling, W; Pflüger, M

    1990-11-01

    The study set out to examine whether the cerebral hemispheres differ in their ability to regulate cortisol secretion during emotion-related situations. One hundred twenty-three adult subjects were shown either an emotionally aversive or a neutral film in the left or right hemisphere by means of a technique for lateralizing visual input that allows prolonged viewing while permitting free ocular scanning. The film-related changes of cortisol secretion were determined by salivary cortisol radioimmunoassay. Right hemispheric viewing of the emotionally aversive film resulted in a significantly higher increase of cortisol secretion than left hemispheric viewing of the same film. No such differences were observed with respect to the neutral film. Comparing the effects of the two films separately for each hemisphere revealed that only the right hemisphere was able to respond neuroendocrinologically in a different manner to the emotional and the neutral film. Therefore, it is concluded that cortical regulation of cortisol secretion in emotion-related situations is under primary control of the right hemisphere. The potential implications of asymmetric control of cortisol secretion with respect to the pathogenesis of psychosomatic and immunological disorders are discussed.

  19. Resting thallium-201 myocardial perfusion patterns in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction: differences between patients with primary cardiomyopathy, chronic coronary artery disease, or acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.

    1986-04-01

    This study examined the value of resting thallium-201 imaging in differentiating patients with primary cardiomyopathy from those with ischemic cardiomyopathy. There were 15 patients with primary cardiomyopathy (group I); 20 with chronic CAD (group II); and 25 with acute Q wave myocardial infarction (group III). All patients had LVEF less than or equal to 35%. The thallium score was less than 50 (maximum 60) in one patient (7%) in group I, in 17 patients (85%) in group II, and in 25 patients (100%) in group III (p less than 0.0001, I vs II and III). The number of normal segments was 11.4 +/- 4.9 in group I, 6.9 +/- 2.9 in group II, and 7.0 +/- 2.2 in group III (p less than 0.0001, I vs II, III). Reversible defects were present in three patients in group II, three in group III, and none in group I. Abnormal right ventricular thallium uptake was observed in 27% of patients in group I, 25% in group II, and 40% in group III (p = NS). Abnormal lung thallium uptake was observed in 33% in group I, 20% in group II, and 20% in group III (p = NS). Thus, rest thallium imaging is useful in separating patients with primary cardiomyopathy from those with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  20. Acute influence of different beta-blocking agents upon left heart hemodynamics at rest and during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Reale, A; Nigri, A; Gioffrè, P A; Motolese, M

    1979-02-01

    The study investigated the acute hemodynamic changes induced in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease by 3 beta-blockers: metoprolol, cardioselective without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), group I, 11 patients; bunitrolol, noncardioselective with ISA, group II, 11 patients; oxprenolol, noncardioselective with ISA, group III, 11 patients. Hemodynamic variables were obtained at rest and during exercise, before and 45 min after 10 mg i.v. of the drug. Changes in LVEDP and cardiac indexes were such as LV function was improved in 1 patient of group I, 7 patients of group II and 5 patients of group III; impaired in 4 patients of group I and in 1 patient of group III; unchanged in the others. Contractility indexes were less influenced by bunitrolol and oxprenolol. During exercise there was a significant difference between groups for LVEDP which was lower in group II (P less than 0.01). The data seem to indicate that the choice of the beta-blocker may be of importance when it is desirable that an already compromised cardiac function be not further impaired by pharmacological intervention.

  1. Comparison of the two cerebral hemispheres in inhibitory processes operative during movement preparation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies suggest that in right-handed individuals, the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in praxis, relative to the right hemisphere. However hemispheric asymmetries assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has not shown consistent differences in corticospinal (CS) excitability of the two hemispheres during movements. In the current study, we systematically explored hemispheric asymmetries in inhibitory processes that are manifest during movement preparation and initiation. Single-pulse TMS was applied over the left or right primary motor cortex (M1LEFT and M1RIGHT, respectively) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the contralateral hand while participants performed a two-choice reaction time task requiring a cued movement of the left or right index finger. In Experiments 1 and 2, TMS probes were obtained during a delay period following the presentation of the preparatory cue that provided partial or full information about the required response. MEPs were suppressed relative to baseline regardless of whether they were elicited in a cued or uncued hand. Importantly, the magnitude of these inhibitory changes in CS excitability was similar when TMS was applied over M1LEFT or M1RIGHT, irrespective of the amount of information carried by the preparatory cue. In Experiment 3, there was no preparatory cue and TMS was applied at various time points after the imperative signal. When CS excitability was probed in the cued effector, MEPs were initially inhibited and then rose across the reaction time interval. This function was similar for M1LEFT and M1RIGHT TMS. When CS excitability was probed in the uncued effector, MEPs remained inhibited throughout the RT interval. However, MEPs in right FDI became more inhibited during selection and initiation of a left hand movement, whereas MEPs in left FDI remained relatively invariant across RT interval for the right hand. In addition to these task-specific effects, there

  2. Hemispheric asymmetries in the transition from action preparation to execution.

    PubMed

    Sulpizio, Valentina; Lucci, Giuliana; Berchicci, Marika; Galati, Gaspare; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Di Russo, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Flexible and adaptive behavior requires the ability to contextually stop inappropriate actions and select the right one as quickly as possible. Recently, it has been proposed that three brain regions, i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus (iFg), the anterior insula (aIns), and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPs), play an important role in several processing phases of perceptual decision tasks, especially in the preparation, perception and action phases, respectively. However, little is known about hemispheric differences in the activation of these three areas during the transition from perception to action. Many studies have examined how people prepare to stop upcoming responses through both proactive and reactive inhibitory control. Although inhibitory control has been associated with activity in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), we have previously reported that, during a discriminative response task performed with the right hand, we observed: 1) a bilateral activity in the iFg during the preparation phase, and 2) a left dominant activity in the aIns and aIPs during the transition from perception to action, i.e., the so-called stimulus-response mapping. To clarify the hemispheric dominance of these processes, we combined the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the high spatial resolution of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants performed a discriminative response task (DRT) and a simple response task (SRT) using their non-dominant left hand. We confirmed that proactive inhibitory control originates in the iFg: its activity started one second before the stimulus onset and was released concomitantly to the stimulus appearance. Most importantly, we confirmed the presence of a bilateral iFg activity that seems to reflect a bilateral proactive control rather than a right-hemisphere dominance or a stronger control of the hemisphere contralateral to the responding hand. Further, we observed a stronger

  3. Sex and hemispheric differences in facial invariants extraction.

    PubMed

    Godard, Ornella; Fiori, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This present study investigates sex differences in hemispheric cooperation during a facial identity matching task. The method used was a divided visual field paradigm in which the probe face was neutral or expressive and the target face was always neutral. Probe and target faces were presented both unilaterally and sequentially. A total of 28 right-handed women and 32 right-handed men participated in this study. The results confirm the women's advantage in face recognition and reveal symmetrical interhemispheric cooperation in women only. In men, processing time was faster when the probe face appeared in the left visual field-and encoded by the right hemisphere-and the target in the right visual field-projected to the left hemisphere-compared to the reverse direction. Interestingly, the data also show that women were not influenced by the expression of the probe face when matching identity, whereas men were always faster when the probe face was neutral, like the target, than when it was expressive. These results are discussed in light of Bruce and Young's (1986) model, and in terms of view-dependent and view-independent processes.

  4. Controlled semantic processes within and between the two cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Orna; Eviatar, Zohar

    2017-01-01

    To test the separate and combined abilities of the two cerebral hemispheres to perform controlled semantic selection and integration processes, Hebrew readers saw pairs of words and had to decide whether the two words were semantically related. The first word in each pair was presented centrally. The second word was presented in the left, right, or central visual field (LVF, RVF, and CVF). We compared response latencies for related pairs in two conditions: In the ambiguous condition, the first word was a homograph (either homophonic or heterophonic) and the second word was related to either its dominant or subordinate meaning. In the unambiguous condition, homographs were replaced with unambiguous control words. Irrespective of VF or homograph type, response times for ambiguous pairs were significantly longer than for unambiguous pairs only when targets were related to the subordinate meaning of the homograph. In the left hemisphere (RVF/LH), this ambiguity effect was larger for heterophones than for homophones, whereas in the right hemisphere (LVF/RH), similar patterns were observed for both types of homographs. Finally, performance patterns in the CVF revealed the same patterns as those in the RVF/LH, and were different from those in the LVF/RH. The implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Hemispheric asymmetry and somatotopy of afferent inhibition in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Helmich, R C G; Bäumer, T; Siebner, H R; Bloem, B R; Münchau, A

    2005-11-01

    A conditioning electrical stimulus to a digital nerve can inhibit the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in adjacent hand muscles elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) when given 25-50 ms before the TMS pulse. This is referred to as short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI). We studied inter-hemispheric differences (Experiment 1) and within-limb somatotopy (Experiment 2) of SAI in healthy right-handers. In Experiment 1, conditioning electrical pulses were applied to the right or left index finger (D2) and MEPs were recorded from relaxed first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles ipsilateral to the conditioning stimulus. We found that SAI was more pronounced in right hand muscles. In Experiment 2, electrical stimulation was applied to the right D2 and MEPs were recorded from ipsilateral FDI, extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles. The amount of SAI did not differ between FDI, EDC and BB muscles. These data demonstrate inter-hemispheric differences in the processing of cutaneous input from the hand, with stronger SAI in the dominant left hemisphere. We also found that SAI occurred not only in hand muscles adjacent to electrical digital stimulation, but also in distant hand and forearm and also proximal arm muscles. This suggests that SAI induced by electrical D2 stimulation is not focal and somatotopically specific, but a more widespread inhibitory phenomenon.

  6. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-03-12

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants.

  7. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M. H.; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C.; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2015-01-01

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants. PMID:25761654

  8. Conflicting strategies and hemispheric suppression in a lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Barbara J; Lutz, Kevin T

    2004-07-01

    The research tests the prediction of the inhibitory-interaction hypothesis that experience with a task accentuates the functional imbalance between the hemispheres. Right-handed males who were experienced readers were presented a letter string to the centre visual field for lexical decision. The string was or was not accompanied by a blinking light to the left or right visual field. It was predicted that asymmetry would be greatest for strings that spelled words, less for strings that were orthographically correct (pseudowords) and least for strings that were orthographically incorrect (nonwords) because efficient adult readers have more experience with letter strings that do than do not spell a word, and have more experience with orthographically correct than incorrect letter strings. The analysis of response times supported the prediction. Moreover, in the nonword and in early trials of the pseudoword conditions, response times were faster when one or other hemisphere was distracted than when both were engaged suggesting the hemispheres use strategies that conflict when suppression has not been accentuated by practice. As well, as the trials progressed in the pseudoword condition, asymmetry reversed before increasing suggesting that the hemispheres reduce conflict by competing for and then strengthening suppression.

  9. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-07-26

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention.

  10. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  11. Functional changes in inter- and intra-hemispheric cortical processing underlying degraded speech perception.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Howell, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that at poorer signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), auditory cortical event-related potentials are weakened, prolonged, and show a shift in the functional lateralization of cerebral processing from left to right hemisphere. Increased right hemisphere involvement during speech-in-noise (SIN) processing may reflect the recruitment of additional brain resources to aid speech recognition or alternatively, the progressive loss of involvement from left linguistic brain areas as speech becomes more impoverished (i.e., nonspeech-like). To better elucidate the brain basis of SIN perception, we recorded neuroelectric activity in normal hearing listeners to speech sounds presented at various SNRs. Behaviorally, listeners obtained superior SIN performance for speech presented to the right compared to the left ear (i.e., right ear advantage). Source analysis of neural data assessed the relative contribution of region-specific neural generators (linguistic and auditory brain areas) to SIN processing. We found that left inferior frontal brain areas (e.g., Broca's areas) partially disengage at poorer SNRs but responses do not right lateralize with increasing noise. In contrast, auditory sources showed more resilience to noise in left compared to right primary auditory cortex but also a progressive shift in dominance from left to right hemisphere at lower SNRs. Region- and ear-specific correlations revealed that listeners' right ear SIN advantage was predicted by source activity emitted from inferior frontal gyrus (but not primary auditory cortex). Our findings demonstrate changes in the functional asymmetry of cortical speech processing during adverse acoustic conditions and suggest that "cocktail party" listening skills depend on the quality of speech representations in the left cerebral hemisphere rather than compensatory recruitment of right hemisphere mechanisms.

  12. Hemispheric superiority for processing a mirror image.

    PubMed

    Garren, R B; Gehlsen, G M

    1981-04-01

    39 adult subjects were administered a test using tachistoscopic half-field presentations to determine hemispheric dominance and a mirror-tracing task to determine if an hemispheric superiority exists for processing a mirror-image. The results indicate superiority of the nondominant hemisphere for this task.

  13. Hemispheric Specialization in Normal and Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, David; Rugel, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    Degree of hemispheric specialization in 32 normal and 32 disabled readers (9 to 12 years old) was evaluated using a linguistic task and a musical task. While normals demonstrated hemispheric specialization on these tasks in the expected directions, disabled readers showed a right hemisphere deficit. (Author)

  14. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  15. Small-World Characteristics of Cortical Connectivity Changes in Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Caliandro, Pietro; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Reale, Giuseppe; Della Marca, Giacomo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Lacidogna, Giordano; Iacovelli, Chiara; Padua, Luca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. Recently, complexity of brain connectivity has been described using graph theory, a mathematical approach that depicts important properties of complex systems by quantifying topologies of network representations. Functional and dynamic changes of brain connectivity can be reliably analyzed via electroencephalography (EEG) recordings even when they are not yet reflected in structural changes of connections. Objective We tested whether and how ischemic stroke in the acute stage may determine changes in small-worldness of cortical networks as measured by cortical sources of EEG. Methods Graph characteristics of EEG of 30 consecutive stroke patients in acute stage (no more than 5 days after the event) were examined. Connectivity analysis was performed using eLORETA in both hemispheres. Results Network rearrangements were mainly detected in delta, theta, and alpha bands when patients were compared with healthy subjects. In delta and alpha bands similar findings were observed in both hemispheres regardless of the side of ischemic lesion: bilaterally decreased small-worldness in the delta band and bilaterally increased small-worldness in the alpha2 band. In the theta band, bilaterally decreased small-worldness was observed only in patients with stroke in the left hemisphere. Conclusions After an acute stroke, brain cortex rearranges its network connections diffusely, in a frequency-dependent modality probably in order to face the new anatomical and functional frame.

  16. Speech processing: from peripheral to hemispheric asymmetry of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Collette, Jean-Louis; Perrot, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Language processing from the cochlea to auditory association cortices shows side-dependent specificities with an apparent left hemispheric dominance. The aim of this article was to propose to nonspeech specialists a didactic review of two complementary theories about hemispheric asymmetry in speech processing. Starting from anatomico-physiological and clinical observations of auditory asymmetry and interhemispheric connections, this review then exposes behavioral (dichotic listening paradigm) as well as functional (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography) experiments that assessed hemispheric specialization for speech processing. Even though speech at an early phonological level is regarded as being processed bilaterally, a left-hemispheric dominance exists for higher-level processing. This asymmetry may arise from a segregation of the speech signal, broken apart within nonprimary auditory areas in two distinct temporal integration windows--a fast one on the left and a slower one on the right--modeled through the asymmetric sampling in time theory or a spectro-temporal trade-off, with a higher temporal resolution in the left hemisphere and a higher spectral resolution in the right hemisphere, modeled through the spectral/temporal resolution trade-off theory. Both theories deal with the concept that lower-order tuning principles for acoustic signal might drive higher-order organization for speech processing. However, the precise nature, mechanisms, and origin of speech processing asymmetry are still being debated. Finally, an example of hemispheric asymmetry alteration, which has direct clinical implications, is given through the case of auditory aging that mixes peripheral disorder and modifications of central processing.

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of Japanese script.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, Kevin; Coney, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    The Japanese written language comprises both a logographic (kanji) and a phonetic (kana) script. Patterns of hemispheric asymmetry in the encoding of these scripts have been found to differ. The present study examined the way in which hemispheric differences at the level of orthographic encoding impact at the level of lexical access. A total of 32 participants performed a lexical decision task within an associative priming paradigm across both scripts. The results showed a right visual field advantage for the processing of kana, but no lateralised advantage for kanji stimuli. Patterns of facilitation also differed, with kanji stimuli eliciting a late-developing and eventually stronger priming effect in the left visual field. The results are discussed with reference to the recognition-with-phonology model in the processing of logographic script.

  18. Right hemisphere involvement in non-fluent primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Claudia; Manenti, Rosa; Cotelli, Maria; Calabria, Marco; Zanetti, Orazio; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Miniussi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We described a 56-years-old man with a diagnosis of "non-fluent primary progressive aphasia" (NfPPA). An accurate neuropsychological, neurological and neuroimaging evaluation was performed in order to assess clinical and behavioural features of the patient. From a neuropsychological point of view, the patient showed a typical cognitive profile of subjects affected by NfPPA: a prominent language deficit, associated with impairments in several cognitive domains after three years from the onset of the symptomatology. The most intriguing feature is that SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in the right frontal cortex, albeit the patient is right-handed. This unexpected finding shows that NfPPA may arise not only from cortical abnormalities in the language-dominant left hemisphere, but also from right hemisphere involvement in a right hander (crossed aphasia).

  19. FOXP2 variation modulates functional hemispheric asymmetries for speech perception.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Arning, Larissa; Gerding, Wanda M; Epplen, Jörg T; Güntürkün, Onur; Beste, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Left-hemispheric language dominance is a well-known characteristic of the human language system, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this crucial feature of vocal communication are still far from being understood. The forkhead box P2 gene FOXP2, which has been related to speech development, constitutes an interesting candidate gene in this regard. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating effects of variation in FOXP2 on individual language dominance. To this end, we used a dichotic listening and a visual half-field task in a sample of 456 healthy adults. The FOXP2 SNPs rs2396753 and rs12533005 were found to be significantly associated with the distribution of correct answers on the dichotic listening task. These results show that variation in FOXP2 may contribute to the inter-individual variability in hemispheric asymmetries for speech perception.

  20. Communicating with the non-dominant hemisphere: Implications for neurological rehabilitation☆

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira; Correia Marin, Sheilla de Medeiros; Ferreira Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic syndromes usually result from injuries to the dominant hemisphere of the brain. Despite the fact that localization of language functions shows little interindividual variability, several brain areas are simultaneously activated when language tasks are undertaken. Mechanisms of language recovery after brain injury to the dominant hemisphere seem to be relatively stereotyped, including activations of perilesional areas in the acute phase and of homologues of language areas in the non-dominant hemisphere in the subacute phase, later returning to dominant hemisphere activation in the chronic phase. Plasticity mechanisms reopen the critical period of language development, more specifically in what leads to disinhibition of the non-dominant hemisphere when brain lesions affect the dominant hemisphere. The non-dominant hemisphere plays an important role during recovery from aphasia, but currently available rehabilitation therapies have shown limited results for efficient language improvement. Large-scale randomized controlled trials that evaluate well-defined interventions in patients with aphasia are needed for stimulation of neuroplasticity mechanisms that enhance the role of the non-dominant hemisphere for language recovery. Ineffective treatment approaches should be replaced by more promising ones and the latter should be evaluated for proper application. The data generated by such studies could substantiate evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for patients with aphasia. PMID:25206418

  1. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Cheung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing.…

  2. Functional Ear (A)Symmetry in Brainstem Neural Activity Relevant to Encoding of Voice Pitch: A Precursor for Hemispheric Specialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Smalt, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere; linguistic pitch is further mediated by left cortical areas. This experiment investigates whether ear asymmetries vary in brainstem representation of pitch depending on linguistic status. Brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were elicited by monaural stimulation of the left and…

  3. Individual Differences in Hemispheric Specialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Aphasia affecting the cerebral nemisphere on the same side as the preferred hand has also long been understood. Individual variation in degree...no LVF superiority for recognising dot patterns (Harcum and Dyer, 1962) and no differences between sides to a unilateral auditory stimulus...equal frequency after either left or right sides lesions, sinistrals with only dextral relatives tended to develop aphasia after only left sided

  4. Receptive amusia: evidence for cross-hemispheric neural networks underlying music processing strategies.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, M; Münte, T F; Wieringa, B M; Altenmüller, E

    2000-03-01

    Perceptual musical functions were investigated in patients suffering from unilateral cerebrovascular cortical lesions. Using MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) technique, a standardized short test battery was established that covers local (analytical) as well as global perceptual mechanisms. These represent the principal cognitive strategies in melodic and temporal musical information processing (local, interval and rhythm; global, contour and metre). Of the participating brain-damaged patients, a total of 69% presented with post-lesional impairments in music perception. Left-hemisphere-damaged patients showed significant deficits in the discrimination of local as well as global structures in both melodic and temporal information processing. Right-hemisphere-damaged patients also revealed an overall impairment of music perception, reaching significance in the temporal conditions. Detailed analysis outlined a hierarchical organization, with an initial right-hemisphere recognition of contour and metre followed by identification of interval and rhythm via left-hemisphere subsystems. Patterns of dissociated and associated melodic and temporal deficits indicate autonomous, yet partially integrated neural subsystems underlying the processing of melodic and temporal stimuli. In conclusion, these data contradict a strong hemispheric specificity for music perception, but indicate cross-hemisphere, fragmented neural substrates underlying local and global musical information processing in the melodic and temporal dimensions. Due to the diverse profiles of neuropsychological deficits revealed in earlier investigations as well as in this study, individual aspects of musicality and musical behaviour very likely contribute to the definite formation of these widely distributed neural networks.

  5. Alteration of the Intra- and Cross- Hemisphere Posterior Default Mode Network in Frontal Lobe Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haosu; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Chengjun; Tang, Weijun; Yao, Demin; Zhang, Chenxi; Wang, Manning; Wu, Jinsong; Song, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe gliomas often experience neurocognitive dysfunctions before surgery, which affects the default mode network (DMN) to different degrees. This study quantitatively analyzed this effect from the perspective of cerebral hemispheric functional connectivity (FC). We collected resting-state fMRI data from 20 frontal lobe glioma patients before treatment and 20 healthy controls. All of the patients and controls were right-handed. After pre-processing the images, FC maps were built from the seed defined in the left or right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the target regions determined in the left or right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), respectively. The intra- and cross-group statistical calculations of FC strength were compared. The conclusions were as follows: (1) the intra-hemisphere FC strength values between the PCC and TPJ on the left and right were decreased in patients compared with controls; and (2) the correlation coefficients between the FC pairs in the patients were increased compared with the corresponding controls. When all of the patients were grouped by their tumor’s hemispheric location, (3) the FC of the subgroups showed that the dominant hemisphere was vulnerable to glioma, and (4) the FC in the dominant hemisphere showed a significant correlation with WHO grade. PMID:27248706

  6. Hemispheric dominance underlying the neural substrate for learned vocalizations develops with experience.

    PubMed

    Chirathivat, Napim; Raja, Sahitya C; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2015-06-22

    Many aspects of song learning in songbirds resemble characteristics of speech acquisition in humans. Genetic, anatomical and behavioural parallels have most recently been extended with demonstrated similarities in hemispheric dominance between humans and songbirds: the avian higher order auditory cortex is left-lateralized for processing song memories in juvenile zebra finches that already have formed a memory of their fathers' song, just like Wernicke's area in the left hemisphere of the human brain is dominant for speech perception. However, it is unclear if hemispheric specialization is due to pre-existing functional asymmetry or the result of learning itself. Here we show that in juvenile male and female zebra finches that had never heard an adult song before, neuronal activation after initial exposure to a conspecific song is bilateral. Thus, like in humans, hemispheric dominance develops with vocal proficiency. A left-lateralized functional system that develops through auditory-vocal learning may be an evolutionary adaptation that could increase the efficiency of transferring information within one hemisphere, benefiting the production and perception of learned communication signals.

  7. Right Hemisphere Remapping of Naming Functions Depends on Lesion Size and Location in Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Xing, Shihui

    2017-01-01

    The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production. We found that lesion size was positively associated with greater right hemisphere activity during both phases of naming, a pattern that has frequently been suggested but has not previously been clearly demonstrated. During overt naming, lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus led to deactivation of contralateral frontal areas, while lesions in motor cortex led to increased right motor cortex activity. Furthermore, increased right motor activity related to better naming performance only when left motor cortex was lesioned, suggesting compensatory takeover of speech or language function by the homotopic node. These findings demonstrate that reorganization of language function, and the degree to which reorganization facilitates aphasia recovery, is dependent on the size and site of the lesion. PMID:28168061

  8. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in females. As ...

  9. Pure amnesia after unilateral left polar thalamic infarct: topographic and sequential neuropsychological and metabolic (PET) correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, S; Assal, G; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F; Townsend, D W; Leenders, K L; Blecic, S

    1994-01-01

    A 54-year-old patient who had an isolated small polar thalamic infarct and acute global amnesia with slight frontal type dysfunction but without other neurological dysfunction was studied. Memory improved partially within 8 months. At all stages the impairment was more severe for verbal than non-verbal memory. Autobiographic recollections and newly acquired information tended to be disorganised with respect to temporal order. Procedural memory was unaffected. Both emotional involvement and pleasure in reading were lost. On MRI, the infarct was limited to the left anterior thalamic nuclei and the adjacent mamillothalamic tract. The regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (measured with PET) was decreased on the left in the thalamus, amygdala, and posterior cingulate cortex 2 weeks after the infarct, and in the thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex 9 months later. These findings stress the specific role of the left anterior thalamic region in memory and confirm that longlasting amnesia from a thalamic lesion can occur without significant structural damage to the dorsomedial nucleus. Furthermore, they suggest that the anterior thalamic nuclei and possibly their connections with the posterior cingulate cortex play a role in emotional involvement linked to ipsilateral hemispheric functions. Images PMID:8301301

  10. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    PubMed

    Mazoyer, Bernard; Zago, Laure; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Perchey, Guy; Mellet, Emmanuel; Petit, Laurent; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH). A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH) and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH), "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH) and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH). Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population) who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  11. Switching handedness: fMRI study of hand motor control in right-handers, left-handers and converted left-handers.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Anna; Gut, Malgorzata; Binder, Marek; Forsberg, Lars; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the brain organization of motor control in left- and right-handers and to study whether early left-to-right handwriting switch changes the cortical representation of finger movements in the left and right hemispheres. Echo-planar MR imaging was performed in 52 subjects: consistent right-handers (RH), consistent left-handers (LH), and subjects who had been forced at an early age to switch their left-hand preferences toward the right side. The scanning was performed during simple (flexion/extension of the index finger) and complex (successive finger-thumb opposition) tasks. Subjects performed the tasks using both the preferred and non-preferred hand. In right-handers, there was a general predominance of left-hemisphere activation relative to right hemisphere activation. In lefthanders this pattern was reversed. The switched subjects showed no such volumetric asymmetry. Increasing levels of complexity of motor activity resulted in an increase in the volume of consistently activated areas and the involvement of the ipsilateral in addition to contralateral activations. In both right- and left-handers, movements of the preferred hand activated mainly the contralateral hemisphere, whereas movements of the non-preferred hand resulted in a more balanced pattern of activation in the two hemispheres, indicating greater involvement of the ipsilateral activations. Overall, this study shows that in both left- and right-handed subjects, the preferred hand is controlled mainly by the hemisphere contralateral to that hand, whereas the non-preferred hand is controlled by both hemispheres. The switched individuals share features of both lefthanders and right-handers regarding their motor control architectures.

  12. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in hemispheric intraparenchymal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Billy; Pollock, Jeffrey A; Hinson, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a hyperadrenergic syndrome that may follow acute brain injury characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs. Identifying commonality in lesion localization in patients with PSH is challenging, but intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) represents a focal injury that might provide insight. We describe a series of patients with IPH that developed PSH, and review the literature. Methods Patients with IPH who developed PSH were identified from OHSU hospital records. A literature review was conducted to identify similar cases through PUBMED, OVID, and Google Scholar. Results Three cases meeting criteria for PSH were identified. Hemorrhage volume ranged from 70 to 128 mL, and intracranial hemorrhage score ranged from 2 to 3. The laterality of the hemorrhage and significant volume of hemorrhage was similar in each of the patients, specifically all hemorrhages were large, subcortical, and right-sided. A literature search identified six additional cases, half of whom reported a right hemisphere hemorrhage and the majority also had subcortical localization. Conclusions Our literature review identified six cases of IPH associated with PSH with five cases having subcortical lesion locations, echoing the areas of disruption in our three cases. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesize that injuries along the pathway from the insular cortex to downstream sympathetic centers may remove tonic inhibition leading to unchecked sympathetic outflow. Prospective investigations of lesion location in patients with IPH and PSH are warranted to test this hypothesis, especially with advanced neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24904923

  13. Indeterminacy tolerance as a basis of hemispheric asymmetry within prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    There is an important hemispheric distinction in the functional organization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) that has not been fully recognized and explored. Research with split-brain patients provides considerable evidence for a left hemisphere (LH) “interpreter” that abhors indeterminacy and automatically draws inferences to complete patterns (real or imaginary). It is suggested that this “interpreter” function may be a byproduct of the linguistic capabilities of the LH. This same literature initially limited the role of the right hemisphere (RH) to little more than visual organization. Recent reviews have garnered evidence for several different roles for the right PFC in reasoning, problem solving, and decision-making. We here focus on the beneficial but neglected role of indeterminacy in real-world problem solving and argue that the right PFC complements the left PFC “interpreter” by maintaining, and even enhancing indeterminacy. Successful real-world functioning is a delicate balancing act between these two systems. PMID:26136673

  14. Lateralized free-association priming: implications for the hemispheric organization of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, M; Laine, M

    1995-01-01

    The organization of semantic memory in intact cerebral hemispheres was examined by a free-association priming task. Normal subjects studied a list of word pairs where the semantic relations were either coordinate (e.g. saw-axe) or locative (e.g. bear-forest). Priming of the word pairs was tested by presenting test cues (initial words of the pairs) to the left or to the right visual field. Results showed an interaction between visual field and word pair type, suggesting a qualitative difference in the semantic organization of the hemispheres. Specifically, the results support the view that coordinate relations are represented in both hemispheres whereas locative relations are represented mainly in the right hemisphere.

  15. Inference in Right Hemisphere Damaged Individuals' Comprehension: The Role of Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ahlsen, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    The ability to make inferences for the purposes of comprehension is considered an important factor in pragmatic ability. In this experimental group study with stroke patients, the ability to make inferences and its associations with sustained attention and verbal working memory were explored. A group of 14 left-hemisphere-damaged individuals had…

  16. Hemispheric Asymmetries for Temporal Information Processing: Transient Detection versus Sustained Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated functional differences in the processing of visual temporal information between the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH). Participants indicated whether or not a checkerboard pattern contained a temporal gap lasting between 10 and 40 ms. When the stimulus contained a temporal signal (i.e. a gap), responses were more…

  17. Temporal Sequence of Hemispheric Network Activation during Semantic Processing: A Functional Network Connectivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince; Kraut, Michael; Hart, John, Jr.; Pearlson, Godfrey

    2009-01-01

    To explore the temporal sequence of, and the relationship between, the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) during semantic memory (SM) processing we identified the neural networks involved in the performance of functional MRI semantic object retrieval task (SORT) using group independent component analysis (ICA) in 47 healthy individuals. SORT…

  18. Visual speech perception in foveal and extrafoveal vision: further implications for divisions in hemispheric projections.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Sheen, Mercedes; Abedipour, Lily; Paterson, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    When observing a talking face, it has often been argued that visual speech to the left and right of fixation may produce differences in performance due to divided projections to the two cerebral hemispheres. However, while it seems likely that such a division in hemispheric projections exists for areas away from fixation, the nature and existence of a functional division in visual speech perception at the foveal midline remains to be determined. We investigated this issue by presenting visual speech in matched hemiface displays to the left and right of a central fixation point, either exactly abutting the foveal midline or else located away from the midline in extrafoveal vision. The location of displays relative to the foveal midline was controlled precisely using an automated, gaze-contingent eye-tracking procedure. Visual speech perception showed a clear right hemifield advantage when presented in extrafoveal locations but no hemifield advantage (left or right) when presented abutting the foveal midline. Thus, while visual speech observed in extrafoveal vision appears to benefit from unilateral projections to left-hemisphere processes, no evidence was obtained to indicate that a functional division exists when visual speech is observed around the point of fixation. Implications of these findings for understanding visual speech perception and the nature of functional divisions in hemispheric projection are discussed.

  19. On the Other Hand Am I Rational? Hemispheric Activation and the Framing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Todd; Seta, John J.

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades the investigation of framing effects has become the foremost studied phenomenon of rational/irrational decision making. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the functional specializations of the left and the right hemispheres would produce different responses to a traditional framing task. In Experiment 1, a…

  20. Sex-Related Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetries in Processing Simple Geometrical Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Bagnara, Sebastiano

    1980-01-01

    Eight men and eight women responded "same" or "different" to pairs of geometric figures. Male subjects showed a left visual-field advantage regardless of the level of processing, whereas female subjects did not show a clear-cut hemispheric asymmetry. Results are discussed in terms of sex differences in processing strategies. (Author/SJL)