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Sample records for acute massive pe

  1. Surgical embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Senol; Toktas, Faruk; Goncu, Tugrul; Eris, Cuneyt; Gucu, Arif; Ay, Derih; Erdolu, Burak; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Karaagac, Kemal; Vural, Hakan; Ozyazicioglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with significant mortality rate despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The aim of this study was to analyze our clinical outcomes of patients with acute massive PE who underwent emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Methods: This retrospective study included 13 consecutive patients undergoing emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive PE at our institution from March 2000 to November 2013. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for demograhic and preoperative data and postoperative outcomes. All patients presented with cardiogenic shock with severe right ventricular dysfunction confirmed by echocardiography, where 4 (30.8%) of the patients experienced cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation before surgery. Results: The mean age of patients was 61.8 ± 14 years (range, 38 to 82 years) with 8 (61.5%) males. The most common risk factors for PE was the history of prior deep venous thrombosis (n = 9, 69.2%). There were 3 (23.1%) in-hospital deaths including operative mortality of 7.7% (n = 1). Ten (76.9%) patients survived and were discharged from the hospital. The mean follow-up was 25 months; follow-up was 100% complete in surviving patients. There was one case (7.7%) of late death 12 months after surgery due to renal carcinoma. Postoperative echocardiographic pressure measurements demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.001). At final follow-up, all patients were in New York Heart Association class I and no readmission for a recurrent of PE was observed. Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a reasonable option and could be performed with acceptable results, if it is performed early in patients with acute massive PE who have not reached the profound cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. PMID:25664045

  2. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission.

  3. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission. PMID:27413520

  4. Thrombolytic treatment (alteplase; rt-Pa) in acute massive pulmonary embolism and cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Adem; Ozkaya, Sevket; Atas, Ali Ekber; Ulu, Esra Kayahan; Kitapci, Ilknur; Ece, Ferah

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) often decompensate suddenly, and once hemodynamic compromise has developed, mortality is extremely high. Currently, thrombolytic therapy for PE is still controversial. We retrospectively evaluated 34 patients with PE between January 2010 and December 2013 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. The demographic and disease characteristics of patients who received thrombolytic treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The female to male ratio was 19/15 and the mean age was 63.1±13.2 years. PE diagnosis was made using echocardiography (64.7%) or contrast-enhanced thorax computed tomography with echocardiography (32.4%). Twenty-two (64.7%) patients went into the cardiopulmonary arrest due to massive PE and 17 (50%) patients recovered without sequelae. Eleven (32.4%) patients were diagnosed with massive PE during cardiopulmonary arrest with clinical and echocardiographic findings. Alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) was administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and four (36.3%) patients responded and survived without sequelae. The complications of rt-PA treatment were hemorrhage in five (14.7%) patients and allergic reactions in two (5.9%) patients. There was no mortality due to rt-PA treatment complications. In conclusion, mortality due to massive PE is much more than estimated and alteplase can be used safely in patients with massive PE. This thrombolytic treatment was not associated with any fatal hemorrhage complication. If there is any sign of acute PE, echocardiography should be used during cardiopulmonary arrest/instability. Alteplase should be given to patients with suspected massive PE.

  5. Massive Hemolysis Causing Renal Failure in Acute Hepatitis E Infection

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pragya; Malik, Sarthak; Mallick, Bipadabhanjan; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The patient experienced a long, protracted course of illness, requiring renal replacement therapy with other supportive management, which led to improvement over a period of four weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing associated hemolysis in a patient with viral hepatitis who presents with very high bilirubin levels or associated kidney injury. Such patients will require aggressive supportive care with prompt fluid and electrolyte management. PMID:28097104

  6. Massive spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema. Acute management with infraclavicular "blow holes".

    PubMed

    Herlan, D B; Landreneau, R J; Ferson, P F

    1992-08-01

    Four patients who recently developed massive spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in our intensive care unit are reported. No obviously remediable intrathoracic process was found in any of these patients. The acute physiologic impairment and grotesque cosmetic deformity were immediately alleviated by making bilateral 3-cm infraclavicular incisions down to the pectoralis fascia. These acutely decompressed the progressive subcutaneous dissection and each patient's subcutaneous emphysema resolved without any additional invasive therapy.

  7. Acute massive mitral regurgitation from prosthetic valve dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D K; Sturridge, M F

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of prosthetic valve dysfunction resulting in acute massive mitral regurgitation are reported; emergency operation was successful in both cases. Survival following complete dislodgement of the occluder of a disc valve, as occurred in one case, does not appear to have been reported before. The diffculty in diagnosis of sudden cardiac decompensation in patients with prosthetic valves is stressed, as is the need for urgent operation. Images PMID:973894

  8. Acute kidney injury after massive attack of Africanised bees

    PubMed Central

    Bridi, Ramaiane A; Balbi, Andre Luis; Neves, Precil M; Ponce, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of massive attack by Africanised bees and can be observed 48–72 h after the accident. We report a case of Africanised bees attack followed by severe and lethal AKI. A 56-year-old man was admitted to emergency department after a massive attack of Africanised bees (>1000 bee stings). He was unconscious, presenting with hypotension and tachycardia. Mechanical ventilation, volume expansion and care for anaphylaxis were instituted. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) and after 48 h he developed rhabdomyolysis, oliguria, increased creatinine levels, hyperkalaemia and refractory acidosis. A diagnosis of AKI secondary to rhabdomyolysis and shock was made. The patient was treated with a prolonged course of haemodialysis. However, he progressed to refractory shock and died 5 days after admission. PMID:24618864

  9. Successful use of Alteplase during cardiopulmonary resuscitation following massive PE in a patient presenting with ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Robert; Neumann, Juliane; Ward, Simon Michael

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with acute stroke regarding treatment of thromboembolism is supported by a limited evidence base. We present the case of a 55-year-old female patient who initially presented with an ischaemic cerebral infarct with haemorrhagic transformation. Her clinical recovery was complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to massive pulmonary embolism. This was successfully treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolysis using Alteplase, which led to a full recovery to the pre-arrest state with no evidence of haemorrhagic complication. The patient was successfully discharged to a specialist centre for on-going stroke rehabilitation with no additional neurological impact. Despite the limited evidence base we believe this case highlights that thrombolysis can be used in select patients with haemorrhagic transformation of stroke and serious thromboembolic complications to achieve a positive outcome. PMID:25362185

  10. Acute renal failure following massive attack by Africanized bee stings.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, Nilzete L; Carvalho, Lígia C; Goes, Eduardo C; Fernandes, Regina; Barotto, Adriana M

    2002-08-01

    Bee venom is a complex substance, which acts in several tissues. Although severe allergic reactions have occurred after one or more stings, several deaths have been reported without allergic manifestations, emphasizing the toxic effects of massive poisoning. A number of about 500 stings have been considered necessary to cause death by direct toxicity, but as few as 30-50 stings have proved fatal in children. Among the major toxic effects are hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure (ARF), and shock. ARF may be due to a common toxic-ischemic mechanism with hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, pigment tubulopathy (myoglobinuria and hemoglobinuria), or acute tubular necrosis (ATN) from a direct kidney toxicity of the venom. We present a case of rhabdomyolysis and hemolysis with consequent ARF which developed after about 800 bee stings. The patient recovered completely after peritoneal dialysis.

  11. Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Percutaneous Emergency Treatment Using an Aspirex Thrombectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter; Bunc, Matjaz

    2010-10-15

    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition with a high early mortality rate caused by acute right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. A 51-year-old woman with a massive PE and contraindication for thrombolytic therapy was treated with percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using an Aspirex 11F catheter (Straub Medical AG, Wangs, Switzerland). The procedure was successfully performed and showed a good immediate angiographic result. The patient made a full recovery from the acute episode and was discharged on heparin treatment. Our case report indicates that in patients with contraindications to systemic thrombolysis, catheter thrombectomy may constitute a life-saving intervention for massive PE.

  12. Thick lung wedge resection for acute life-threatening massive hemoptysis due to aortobronchial fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Tomomi; Ikeda, Akihiko; Konishi, Taisuke; Matsuzaki, Kanji

    2016-01-01

    Massive hemoptysis from an aortobronchial fistula due to thoracic aortic dissection is an extremely rare symptom, but is a potentially life-threatening condition. We report a case of acute massive hemoptysis due to aortobronchial fistula that was successfully controlled by a simple and rapid thick wedge resection of the lung with hematoma by using the black cartilage stapler. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute massive hemoptysis. After tracheal intubation, chest computed tomography revealed hematoma in the left lung and ruptured aortic dissection from the distal arch to the descending aorta. He was diagnosed with aortobronchial fistula and underwent an emergency surgery on the same day. We performed posterolateral thoracotomy. A dissecting aortic aneurysm (diameter, ~80 mm) with adhesion of the left upper lobe and the superior segment of the lower lobe was found. The lung parenchyma expanded with the hematoma. We stapled the upper and lower lobes by using the black cartridge stapler along the aortopulmonary window. Massive hemoptysis disappeared, and the complete aortic dissection appeared. Aortic dissection with adherent lung was excised, and graft replacement of the distal arch and descending thoracic aorta was performed. Proximal lung wedge resection using black cartridge stapler is a simple and quick method to control massive hemoptysis from aortic dissection; hence, this procedure is an effective option to control massive hemoptysis due to aortobronchial fistula. This technique could rapidly stop massive hemoptysis and prevent dissection of the adherent lung tissue and intra-thoracic bleeding. PMID:27747035

  13. Gas in Hepatic Portal Veins with Gastric Massive Dilatation and Pneumatosis in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Nadeem; Pateria, Vibhor; Ahmad, Imtiyaz; Kulshreshtha, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Gas in portal veins is a rare phenomenon observed secondary to bowel ischaemia and necrosis. A young girl with history of pica ingestion presented with acute abdomen with huge distension. Investigation revealed air in hepatic portal veins, air within stomach wall, and massive distension of stomach secondary to acute pancreatitis. Successful conservative treatment confirmed the current concept that all cases of hepatic portal venous gas do not warrant immediate surgical intervention. PMID:26557565

  14. A case report of massive acute boric acid poisoning.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Francesco; Brusasco, Claudia; Palermo, Salvatore; Belvederi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Boric acid comes as colourless, odourless white powder and, if ingested, has potential fatal effects including metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure and shock. An 82-year-old male was brought to the emergency room 3 h after unintentional ingestion of a large amount of boric acid. Clinical course was monitored by collecting data at admittance, 12 h after admission, every 24 h for 5 days and again 1 week after admission. During the first 132 h, serum and urinary concentrations of boric acid were measured. Serum boric acid levels decreased from 1800 to 530 microg/ml after haemodialysis and from 530 to 30 microg/ml during the forced diuresis period. During dialysis, boric acid clearance averaged 235 ml/min with an extraction ratio of 70%. The overall patient's condition steadily improved over 84 h after admission. In conclusion, early treatment with forced diuresis and haemodialysis may be considered for boric acid poisoning, even if signs of renal dysfunction are not apparent, to prevent severe renal damage and its complications.

  15. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called “second pathway of liver regeneration.” The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687

  16. Massive hyperdiploidy and tetraploidy in acute myelocytic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Renuka V; Sait, Sheila N J; Matsui, Sei-Ichi; Block, AnneMarie W; Barcos, Maurice; Slack, James L; Wetzler, Meir; Baer, Maria R

    2004-01-01

    Massive hyperdiploidy (>50 chromosomes) and tetraploidy (4n) are rare cytogenetic abnormalities in myelocytic malignancies, and their significance is unknown. We report on 11 patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and two patients with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with massive hyperdiploidy (10 patients) or tetraploidy (3 patients) seen at our institution over a 12-year period. Eleven patients were male and two were female. Age range was 44-84 years (median, 70 years). Only one AML patient had a previous MDS, and no patient had therapy-related disease. One or more copies of chromosomes 8 and 19 were gained in eight patients each; other frequently gained chromosomes included 13, 15, and 21. Eight patients had structural abnormalities in addition to chromosome gain; del(5q) was most common (five patients). Eleven patients received induction chemotherapy, but only four achieved complete remission. Survival ranged from 1 to 22 months, with a median of 6 months. We conclude that massive hyperdiploidy and tetraploidy are infrequent abnormalities in AML and MDS, are seen primarily in de novo disease in older male patients and are associated with a low remission rate and short survival. Massive hyperdiploidy and tetraploidy define a prognostically unfavorable cytogenetic group in de novo AML.

  17. Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Surgical Pulmonary Embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Aaron; Tapson, Victor F; Ramzy, Danny

    2017-02-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to large emboli that cause hemodynamic instability, right ventricular failure, and circulatory collapse. According to the 2016 ACCP Antithrombotic Guidelines, therapy for massive PE should include systemic thrombolytic therapy in conjunction with anticoagulation and supportive care. However, in patients with a contraindication to systemic thrombolytics or in those who fail the above interventions, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and/or surgical embolectomy may be used to improve oxygenation, achieve hemodynamic stability, and successfully treat massive PE. Randomized controlled human trials evaluating ECMO in this context have not been done, and its role has not been well-defined. The European Society of Cardiology 2014 acute PE guidelines briefly mention that ECMO can be used for massive PE as a method for hemodynamic support and as an adjunct to surgical embolectomy. The 2016 CHEST Antithrombotic Therapy for venous thromboembolism Disease guidelines do not mention ECMO in the management of massive PE. However, multiple case reports and small series cited benefit with ECMO for massive PE. Further, ECMO may facilitate stabilization for surgical embolectomy. Unfortunately, ECMO requires full anticoagulation to maintain the functionality of the system; hence, significant bleeding complicates its use in 35% of patients. Contraindications to ECMO include high bleeding risk, recent surgery or hemorrhagic stroke, poor baseline functional status, advanced age, neurologic dysfunction, morbid obesity, unrecoverable condition, renal failure, and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation without adequate perfusion of end organs. In this review, we discuss management of massive PE, with an emphasis on the potential role for ECMO and/or surgical embolectomy.

  18. Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Treatment with the Rotarex Thrombectomy System

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Gu Jianping; Yang Zhengqiang; Chen Liang; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Zhou Weizhong; Zhou Chungao; Zhao Linbo; Xia Jinguo; Li Linsun

    2011-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Fourteen patients (8 men, 6 women) with a mean age of 55.4 (range, 38-71) years with acute massive PE were initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and confirmed by pulmonary angiography. All patients presented with acute PE symptoms and hemodynamic compromise. Each patient was treated with Straub Rotarex thrombectomy device and five patients received additional thrombolysis. Technique success and clinical improvement were achieved in all patients without major complications. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) decreased from 37.6 {+-} 6.6 to 29 {+-} 6.4 mmHg (P < 0.01) after PMT. Partial arterial pressures of O{sub 2} (PaO{sub 2}) increased from 61.1 {+-} 9.2 to 88 {+-} 5.1 mmHg (P < 0.01). The Miller index was 0.67 {+-} 0.11 and 0.37 {+-} 0.13 (P < 0.01), respectively, before and after PMT (P < 0.01). Eleven patients had no recurrence of PE on a mean follow-up of 28.3 months, whereas the other three patients were lost to follow-up. The preliminary experience in our series suggests that the Straub Rotarex thrombectomy device, which has been utilized in peripheral arteries, also is useful for the treatment of acute massive PE.

  19. Mechanical Thrombectomy for Early Treatment of Massive Pulmonary Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A. Baarslag, Henk Jan; Koolen, Maria G.J.; Delden, Otto van; Beek, Edwin J.R. van

    2003-06-15

    We report our technique and results of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy in a consecutive series of eight patients with massive PE. We also discuss the possible role of mechanical PE thrombectomy. Eight consecutive patients with acute massive PE, with or without hemodynamic impairment, were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We used a modified 7-fr hydrolyzer catheter. The treatment was combined with systemic fibrinolysis. From the logistic and technical point we encountered no problems. All patients showed significant improvement while still in the angiography suite. There were no bleeding complications and no other events related to the procedure. Despite the clinical improvement, one patient died shortly after the procedure from cardiac failure. In all patients there was an acute increase in PO2 to normal values. Only a mean of about 50% of all local thrombus could be removed (range 30-80%). The mean PAP pre-intervention decreased only minimally from 42.5 mmHg to 36.3 mm Hg post-intervention (not significant). In three patients, the PAP continues to remain high at follow-up. The most important feature of mechanical thrombectomy for massive PE is the immediate improvement of the cardiac output, PO2, and clinical situation, overcoming the first critical hours after massive PE. The amount of thrombus reduction seems not to be an important parameter.

  20. Postpartum Acute Liver Dysfunction: A Case of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy Developing Massive Intrahepatic Calcification.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Khalid Javid; Shovkat, Rabia; Samoon, Hamad Jeelani

    2015-12-01

    The function of the liver is particularly affected by the unique physiologic milieu of the pregnancy. Pregnancy-related liver diseases encompass a spectrum of different etiologies that are related to gestation or one of its complications. Hepatic calcification, a rare entity, is usually associated with infectious, vascular, or neoplastic lesions in the liver. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of rapidly occurring pregnancy-related intrahepatic calcification has been documented in a patient with severe eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. Here we present a case of immediate "postpartum" acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in a 23-year-old hypertensive primigravida, complicated by acute renal dysfunction who developed dense intrahepatic calcification in less than a month after the initial diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach for the management was used, to which the patient responded aptly. This case illustrates the first description of intrahepatic calcification in AFLP syndrome and highlights some of the challenges met in making the final diagnosis.

  1. Treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism by streptokinase during labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Hall, R J; Young, C; Sutton, G C; Cambell, S

    1972-12-16

    A 29-year-old woman sustained an acute massive pulmonary embolism in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Rapid clinical improvement followed the use of streptokinase. Treatment was continued for 41 hours, including labour and the first three hours after delivery. There was slow but severe postpartum haemorrhage. Partial uterine atony occurred, and may have been due, at least in part, to fibrin degradation products arising from thrombolysis. No adverse effects were noted in the baby.Our experience suggests that streptokinase may be given during labour but that an oxytocic agent may be needed; and that reversal of fibrinolysis before delivery is best achieved by the use of aprotinin (Trasylol) rather than aminocaproic acid.

  2. Breakthrough disseminated zygomycosis induced massive gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia receiving micafungin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Sugawara, Yumiko; Sekine, Takao; Nakase, Kazunori; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2014-11-01

    A 69-year-old man, who had been receiving prednisolone for 11 months for treatment of interstitial pneumonia, was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. During induction therapy, he developed severe pneumonia. Although meropenem and micafungin were started, he died of circulatory failure owing to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Autopsy specimens obtained from the stomach revealed fungal hyphae, which had invaded diffusely into submucosal vessels and caused the massive gastric bleeding. The same hyphae were also observed in both lungs. A diagnosis of disseminated zygomycosis was confirmed by its characteristic histopathological findings. Because zygomycetes are spontaneously resistant to the newer antifungal agents, such as voriconazole or micafungin, it seems likely that the prevalence of zygomycosis as a breakthrough infection may increase in the future. Zygomycosis is a rare, but life-threatening, deep fungal infection that appears in immunologically or metabolically compromised hosts. Its manifestations are clinically similar to those of invasive aspergillosis. In addition to the well-established epidemiology of zygomycosis, this case suggests the following new characteristics. (1) Although the gastrointestinal manifestation of zygomycosis is relatively rare, it is observed more frequently than invasive aspergillosis. (2) Gastrointestinal zygomycosis occasionally leads to the development of necrotic ulcers and may induce hemorrhagic shock.(3) We should be cautious of an occurrence of breakthrough zygomycosis when we use echinocandins for patients with known risk factors, especially steroid use and neutropenia. (4) For patients who are receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics and echinocandins, who are negative for culture studies and aspergillus antigen, and who present with unresolved fever, it is important to make a prompt clinical diagnosis of zygomycosis.

  3. Fatal acute poisoning from massive inhalation of gasoline vapors: case report and comparison with similar cases.

    PubMed

    Papi, Luigi; Chericoni, Silvio; Bresci, Francesco; Giusiani, Mario

    2013-03-01

    We describe a case of an acute lethal poisoning with hydrocarbons resulting from massive accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors. The victim, a 50-year-old man was found unconscious inside a control room for the transport of unleaded fuel. Complete autopsy was performed and showed evidence of congestion and edema of the lungs. Toxicological investigation was therefore fundamental to confirm exposure to fumes of gasoline. Both venous and arterial blood showed high values of volatiles in particular for benzene (39.0 and 30.4 μg/mL, respectively), toluene (23.7 and 20.4 μg/mL), and xylene isomers (29.8 and 19.3 μg/mL). The relatively low values found in the lungs are consistent with the fact that the subject, during the rescue, underwent orotracheal intubation followed by resuscitation techniques, while the low concentrations for all substances found in urine and kidneys could point to a death that occurred in a very short time after first contact with the fumes of gasoline.

  4. Massive pulmonary embolism: treatment with the rotarex thrombectomy system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin; Gu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Chen, Liang; Lou, Wen-Sheng; He, Xu; Zhou, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Chun-Gao; Zhao, Lin-Bo; Xia, Jin-Guo; Li, Lin-Sun

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Fourteen patients (8 men, 6 women) with a mean age of 55.4 (range, 38-71) years with acute massive PE were initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and confirmed by pulmonary angiography. All patients presented with acute PE symptoms and hemodynamic compromise. Each patient was treated with Straub Rotarex thrombectomy device and five patients received additional thrombolysis. Technique success and clinical improvement were achieved in all patients without major complications. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) decreased from 37.6 ± 6.6 to 29 ± 6.4 mmHg (P < 0.01) after PMT. Partial arterial pressures of O(2) (PaO(2)) increased from 61.1 ± 9.2 to 88 ± 5.1 mmHg (P < 0.01). The Miller index was 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.13 (P < 0.01), respectively, before and after PMT (P < 0.01). Eleven patients had no recurrence of PE on a mean follow-up of 28.3 months, whereas the other three patients were lost to follow-up. The preliminary experience in our series suggests that the Straub Rotarex thrombectomy device, which has been utilized in peripheral arteries, also is useful for the treatment of acute massive PE.

  5. Salvage intraosseous thrombolysis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for massive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Northey, Luke Cameron; Shiraev, Timothy; Omari, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous access is an alternative route of pharmacotherapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides cardiac and respiratory support when conventional therapies fail. This case reports the use of intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO in a patient with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). A 34-year-old female presented to the emergency department with sudden onset severe shortness of breath. Due to difficulty establishing intravenous access, an intraosseous needle was inserted into the left tibia. Echocardiography identified severe right ventricular dilatation with global systolic impairment and failure, indicative of PE. Due to the patient's hemodynamic compromise a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Alteplase) bolus was administered through the intraosseous route. After transfer to the intensive care unit, venous-arterial ECMO was initiated as further therapy. The patient recovered and was discharged 36 days after admission. This is the first report of combination intraosseous thrombolysis and ECMO as salvage therapy for massive PE.

  6. Natural history, clinicoradiologic correlates, and response to triclabendazole in acute massive fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Luis A; Tagle, Martin; Terashima, Angelica; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Ramirez, Cesar; Carrasco, Carlos; Valdez, Luis; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge; Freedman, David O; Vinetz, Joseph M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Fascioliasis is highly endemic in the Andean region of South America. Newer serological assays have improved our ability to diagnose acute fascioliasis. The diagnosis was established by Fasciola hepatica serology (Fas2-ELISA or Western blot) in 10 patients. Identifiable exposure included ingestion of watercress (N = 8), alfalfa juice (N = 5), and lettuce (N = 1). Computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly (N = 9), track-like hypodense lesions with subcapsular location (N = 8), and subcapsular hematoma (N = 2). Radiologic sequelae included cyst calcifications detectable at least 3 years after treatment. Stool examinations were negative for F. hepatica eggs; serology was positive (Arc II [N = 2], Fas2-ELISA [N = 6], Western blot [N = 2]). The syndrome of eosinophilia, fever, and right upper quadrant pain, elevated transaminases without jaundice, hypodense liver lesions on CT, and an appropriate exposure history suggests acute fascioliasis. Fascioliasis is specifically treatable with a single dose of triclabendazole.

  7. Postmortem tissue contents of {sup 241}Am in a person with a massive acute exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McInroy, J.F.; Kathren, R.L.; Toohey, R.E. |

    1995-09-01

    {sup 241}Am was determined radiochemically in the tissues of USTUR Case 246, a 76-y-old man who died of cardiovascular disease 11 y after massive percutaneous exposure following a chemical explosion in a glove box. This worker was treated extensively with a chelation drug, DTPA, for over 4 y after exposure. The estimate {sup 241}Am deposition at the time of death was 540 kBq, of which 90% was in the skeleton, 5.1% in the liver, and 3.5% in muscle and fat. Among the soft tissues, the highest concentrations were observed in liver (22 Bq g{sup -1}), certain cartilaginous structures such as the larynx (15 Bq g{sup -1}) and the red marrow (9.7 Bq g{sup -1}), as compared with the mean soft tissue concentration of approximately 1 Bq g{sup -1}. Concentration in muscle was approximately that of the soft tissue average, while concentrations in the pancreas, a hilar lymph node and fat were less than the average. Concentrations in bone ash were inversely related to the ratio of ash weight to wet weight a surrogate for bone volume-to-surface ratio. the distribution of activity in this case is reasonable consistent with that observed in another human case, when allowance is made for chelation therapy, and also tends to support more recent models of {sup 241}Am metabolism. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Autoantibodies to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) recognize a kininogen-PE complex.

    PubMed

    Sugi, T; McIntyre, J A

    1995-10-15

    Demonstration of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies (aPA) to negatively charged phospholipids (PL) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) requires the presence of certain phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, eg, beta 2-glycoprotein I. We found a requirement for plasma against the electrically neutral or zwitterionic phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Two of these PE-binding plasma proteins were identified as high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and low molecular weight kininogen (LMWK). We studied anti-PE antibody (aPE) seropositive plasma from 13 patients with SLE and/or recurrent spontaneous abortions by using partially purified kininogens and kininogen binding proteins from adult bovine serum isolated by carboxymethyl (CM)-papain affinity chromatography. Eleven of 13 sera recognized a kininogen-PE complex and/or a kininogen-binding protein-kininogen-PE complex. Some aPE-positive patient sera were shown to recognize highly purified HMWK and LMWK by ELISA only when the kininogens were presented on a PE substrate. These aPE sera did not recognize PE, HMWK, or LMWK when they were presented independently as the sole antigens on the ELISA plates. Other aPE-positive sera that did not react with PE-bound HMWK or LMWK reacted with the CM-papain column eluate when it was bound to PE, which suggests that these aPE recognize factor XI or prekallikrein, which normally bind to HMWK. The aPE ELISA reactivity of two patient sera were inhibited by preincubation of the CM-papain column eluate in the ELISA plate. These data show that most aPE are not specific for PE but require the presence of certain PL-binding plasma proteins that are kininogens or proteins in complex with kininogens. Our studies indicate that aPE bind to different plasma proteins than those implicated in anionic PL, aPA ELISA reactivity.

  9. The role of UHMW-PE in microporous PE separators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.C.; Harvey, M.K.; Stein, H.L.; Scheunemann, U.

    1997-12-01

    Microporous PE separators have gained large popularity in the lead acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition) Automotive Applications. The PE (Polyethylene) in battery separator is actually UHMW-PE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). UHMW-PE has a molecular weight more than ten times that of conventional HDPE (High Density Polyethylene). This paper gives an overview of the UHMW-PE`s contributions to the PE battery separator process, assembly, and performance, in comparison to other conventional separators, such as PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), cellulose, and glass fiber.

  10. An Autopsy Case of Acute Massive Hematochezia Caused by Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis: A First Report in Forensic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Unuma, Kana; Makino, Yohsuke; Noritake, Kanako; Yamada, Atsushi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT) is an uncommon cause of intestinal ischemia and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. This report describes a man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, who died of massive hematochezia due to SMVT. A medicolegal autopsy disclosed a thrombus at the superior mesenteric vein and hemorrhagic infarction of the bowel wall, an area also within the territory of the superior mesenteric vein. Liver cirrhosis, an enlarged spleen, and esophageal varices without rupture were also observed, but ulcers and variceal bleeding were not. Other organs showed no significant findings. His blood alcohol level was 0.14% w/v. Thus, this man died from severe hematochezia associated with SMVT due to liver cirrhosis and alcohol dehydration, which can lead to coagulopathy and rapid progress of thrombus formation. This is the first report on an alternate cause for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a cirrhotic patient in a forensic autopsy.

  11. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  12. Endovascular Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Using the Ultrasound-Enhanced EkoSonic System.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    Acute, symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) in the massive and submassive categories continues to be a healthcare concern with significant risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased awareness and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, endovascular treatment is still an important option for many of these patients. There are a variety of techniques and devices used for treating PE, but none have been evaluated as extensively as the EkoSonic endovascular system that is also currently the only FDA-approved device for the treatment of pulmonary embolism. This article describes the use of the EkoSonic device for this patient population.

  13. Massive Thrombosis of the Right Atrium Extended to the Superior Vena Cava at the Diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Houssou, Bienvenu; Orou-Guiwa, Gnon Gourou; Habbal, Rachida; Qachouh, Meryem; Quessar, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Venous thromboembolic disease is a common complication found in 8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The location at the right atrium is exceptional. These last fifty years, only 6 cases of thrombosis of the atrium in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia were published on PubMed search engine. Case Presentation. 35-year-old farmer, who had been admitted by emergency department for superior vena cava syndrome and had a hyperleukocytic AML with complex karyotype associated with a significant thrombosis of the right atrium, extended all along the superior vena cava. He has been treated by the 2011 AML protocol using low molecular weight heparin and died from respiratory distress. Conclusions. If thrombosis is common in AML, the location in right atrium is rare. Its management requires surgery that is sometimes difficult to achieve.

  14. Massive Thrombosis of the Right Atrium Extended to the Superior Vena Cava at the Diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Orou-Guiwa, Gnon Gourou; Habbal, Rachida; Qachouh, Meryem; Quessar, Asmaa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Venous thromboembolic disease is a common complication found in 8% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The location at the right atrium is exceptional. These last fifty years, only 6 cases of thrombosis of the atrium in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia were published on PubMed search engine. Case Presentation. 35-year-old farmer, who had been admitted by emergency department for superior vena cava syndrome and had a hyperleukocytic AML with complex karyotype associated with a significant thrombosis of the right atrium, extended all along the superior vena cava. He has been treated by the 2011 AML protocol using low molecular weight heparin and died from respiratory distress. Conclusions. If thrombosis is common in AML, the location in right atrium is rare. Its management requires surgery that is sometimes difficult to achieve. PMID:27847650

  15. Heparin-Induced-Thrombocytopenia Causing Massive Aortic Thrombosis after Ascending Aortic Replacement for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Keiji; Isoda, Susumu; Karube, Norihisa; Yasuda, Shota; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman underwent emergency ascending aortic replacement for type A acute aortic dissection. Fifteen days after the operation, she had motor and sensory disturbances in the lower limbs. Computed tomography revealed multiple aortic thrombi and disrupted blood flow in the right external iliac and left common iliac arteries. She underwent an emergency thrombectomy for acute limb ischemia. Because heparin- induced-thrombocytopenia (HIT) was suspected to have caused the multiple aortic thrombi, we postoperatively changed the anticoagulant therapy from heparin to argatroban. Seventeen days after the first operation, gastrointestinal bleeding developed, and the patient died of mesenteric ischemia caused by HIT. Arterial embolization caused by HIT after cardiovascular surgery is a rare, but fatal event. To avoid fatal complications, early diagnosis and early treatment are essential. Use of a scoring system would probably facilitate early diagnosis. PMID:26780951

  16. Endovascular treatment for acute pulmonary embolism in neurological patient

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gunchan; Paul, Birinder S; Gautam, Parshotam L; Mohan, Bishav; Sharma, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Among the spectrum of venous thrombo-embolic disease, acute pulmonary embolism accounts for the most life threatening manifestations with mortality exceeding 50%. It can affect many patient populations across various disciplines, hence immediate attention and aggressive treatment is crucial. With the advancement of technologies, various catheter-based devices are available to treat massive or submassive PE. In this paper we report two patients of acute pulmonary embolism with neurological issues where the life threatening emergency was successfully managed by utilizing endovascular directed thrombolytic reperfusion therapy. PMID:26609298

  17. Catheter-Directed Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: A Promising Modality to Provide Early Hemodynamic Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Cetinoglu, Ezgi Demirdogen; Acet, Nilufer Aylin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Guven; Coskun, Funda; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

    2016-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) for pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis (ST) in patients with hemodynamically unstable acute PE who are considered at high bleeding risk for ST. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDT in the management of acute PE with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). The primary outcomes were mortality, clinical success, and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in hemodynamic parameters in the first 24 hours following the procedure. Material/Methods Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed as having acute massive or submassive PE with accompanying RVD treated by immediate CDT at our institution from January 2007 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, mortality, achievement of clinical success, and minor and major bleeding complications were analyzed in the overall study group, as well as massive vs. submassive PE subgroups. Change in hemodynamic parameters in the second, eighth, and 24th hours after the CDT procedure were also analyzed. Results The study included 15 consecutive patients (M/F=10/5) with a mean age of 54.2±16.6 years who underwent immediate CDT. Nine of the patients had submassive PE, and 6 had massive PE. In-hospital mortality rate was 13.3% (95% CI, 0.04–0.38). One major, but not life-threatening, bleeding episode was evident in the whole group. Hemodynamic parameters were stabilized and clinical success was achieved in 14/15 (93.3%; 95% CI, 70.2–98.8) of the patients in the first 24 hours. Notably, the hemodynamic recovery was significantly evident in the first 8 hours after the procedure. Conclusions CDT is a promising treatment option for patients with acute PE with RVD with no fatal bleeding complication. In experienced centers, CDT should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with acute PE and RVD and contraindications for ST, with the advantage of providing early hemodynamic recovery. PMID:27081754

  18. Catheter-Based Approaches for the Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Victor F; Jimenez, David

    2017-02-01

    Except when contraindicated, anticoagulation should be initiated when pulmonary embolism (PE) is strongly suspected and the bleeding risk is perceived to be low, even if the evaluation has not been completed. Low-risk patients with acute PE are simply continued on anticoagulation. Severely ill patients with high-risk (massive) PE require aggressive therapy, and if the bleeding risk is acceptable, systemic thrombolysis should be considered. However, despite clear evidence that parenteral thrombolytic therapy leads to more rapid clot resolution than anticoagulation alone, the risk of major bleeding including intracranial bleeding is significantly higher with thrombolytic therapy. It has been demonstrated that right ventricular dysfunction as well as abnormal biomarkers (troponin and brain natriuretic peptide) are associated with increased mortality in acute PE. In spite of this, intermediate-risk (submassive) PE comprises a fairly broad clinical spectrum so that there is not a solid evidence base permitting a consistent algorithm for clinicians to follow. Thus, for several decades, thromboembolism basic scientists, clinical trialists, and clinicians have worked toward a lower risk solution for treatment of patients with more than simply low-risk PE. Catheter-based therapy, consisting of various devices and techniques, with or without low-dose thrombolytic therapy, offers one potential solution and continues to evolve.

  19. Anticoagulant treatment of pulmonary embolism: impact and implications of the EINSTEIN PE study.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE), which can develop as a consequence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is a serious and potentially fatal venous thromboembolic event. Patients with PE are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and serious complications such as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Anticoagulants, namely heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), have been the main treatments for PE in patients who are haemodynamically stable. However, use of these agents can be complex and is associated with an increased risk of bleeding (a characteristic that is common to all anticoagulants). Simplified, effective treatment regimens for PE would be very beneficial for patients, physicians and payers. Compared with DVT, PE is a different clinical manifestation of VTE; phase III trials have now started to focus specifically on patients with PE. Trials in patients with PE can provide further information on the optimal management of these patients. Results of the phase III EINSTEIN PE study demonstrated non-inferiority in the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban compared with standard of care (enoxaparin/VKA) for the treatment of patients with acute symptomatic PE (with or without symptomatic DVT). Rates of major bleeding were significantly lower in patients receiving rivaroxaban. This review will discuss the findings of recent trials, particularly the potential impact of single, oral agents for both the initial and long-term treatment of a range of patients with PE, and how these results may influence the clinical management of PE.

  20. Complete genome sequence of acute viral necrosis virus associated with massive mortality outbreaks in the Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute viral necrosis virus (AVNV) is the causative agent of a serious disease resulting in high mortality in cultured Chinese scallops, Chlamys farreri. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of AVNV. Results The AVNV genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule of 210,993 bp with a nucleotide composition of 38.5% G + C. A total of 123 open reading frames were predicted to encode functional proteins, ranging from 41 to 1,878 amino acid residues. The DNA sequence of AVNV is 97% identical to that of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), and the amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins of these two viruses are 94-100% identical. The genomic organization of AVNV is similar to that of OsHV-1, and consists of two unique regions (170.4 kb and 3.4 kb, respectively), each flanked by two inverted repeats (7.6 kb and 10.2 kb, respectively), with a third unique region (1.5 kb) situated between the two internal repeats. Conclusions Our results indicate that AVNV is a variant of OsHV-1. The AVNV genome sequence provides information useful for understanding the evolution and divergence of OsHV-1 in marine molluscs. PMID:23566284

  1. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  2. Paradoxical Thromboembolism/ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction via a Patent Foramen Ovale in Sub-Massive Pulmonary Embolism Following an Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis: Is It Time for a Change in the Standard of Care?

    PubMed Central

    Tukaye, Deepali Nivas; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this case study is to discuss a rare case of proven paradoxical thromboembolism captured in-transit. A 23-year-old female with a diagnosis of right internal jugular deep vein thrombus who developed acute onset chest pain, dyspnea and hypotension, was selected for the study. Sub-massive PE and STEMI were diagnosed. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular (LV) mass moving across the aortic valve. Soon after, the patient developed numbness of right extremities with non-palpable pulses. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed absent LV mass, PFO, left atrial mass entering through the PFO and emboli in bilateral pulmonary arteries. We report a case of sub-massive PE and paradoxical proven coronary and upper extremity embolism, captured in-transit, following destabilization of an UEDVT in a patient with PFO.

  3. The New P.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  4. Massive Hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Tariq, Cheema

    2016-01-01

    Hemoptysis, or coughing of blood, oftentimes triggers anxiety and fear for patients. The etiology of hemoptysis will determine the clinical course, which includes watchful waiting or intensive care admission. Any amount of hemoptysis that compromises the patient's respiratory status is considered massive hemoptysis and should be considered a medical emergency. In this article, we review introduction, definition, bronchial circulation anatomy, etiology, and management of massive hemoptysis.

  5. "False negatives" and "false positives" in acute pulmonary embolism: a clinical-postmortem comparison.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, V; Schmid, C; Zogno, C; Morpurgo, M

    1997-02-01

    Although recent advances have been made in understanding its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, pulmonary embolism (PE) is still largely undetected and untreated, and the mortality rate has not appreciably changed in the last decades. The aim of this study was to: compare the postmortem frequency of massive and sub-massive PE during two different time periods in the same general hospital; ascertain whether the percentage of correct clinical diagnosis of PE has changed; identify factors which might contribute to the inaccuracy of the clinical diagnosis of PE. Altogether, 288 patients with autopsy-proven PE and adequate clinical data were collected in the first period; 182 subjects with the same characteristics were found in the second period. Cases observed from 1989 through 1994 were evaluated in terms of frequency of false negatives and false positives, predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of PE, and correlations between clinical and post-mortem diagnosis of PE on one side and several independent variables such as age, gender, associated diseases, recent surgery on the other. In our hospital the frequency of massive and submassive PE at autopsy was 8.6% from 1966 through 1974, 12.6% from 1989 through 1994 (p < 0.01). The percentage of correct clinical diagnosis of PE was 19.6% in the former period, 21.6% in the latter (NS) with 78.57% of false negatives and only 1.73% of false positives. Altogether the true positives were 21.42%, most of them being patients with massive PE. Clinical findings showed the coexistence of heart disease in 51.6% of the cases, congestive heart failure in 20.15%, metabolic disease in 7%, stroke in 12.5%, recent surgery in 12.5%. Autopsy revealed the presence of pulmonary infarction in 22% of cases, malignancy in 24.0%, pneumonia in 17.05%, acute myocardial infarction in 14.8%. Seventy percent of the cases in whom the point of origin of thromboemboli could be demonstrated had one or more thrombus in the district of inferior vena

  6. Determinants of PE Teachers Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the cause's célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the…

  7. Acute kidney injury in patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fu, Chung-Ming; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chen, Shao-Wei; Chang, Su-Wei; Mao, Chun-Tai; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is overlooked in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk factors for and long-term outcomes of this complication remain unknown. This study evaluated the predictors and prognosis of AKI in patients with PE. This retrospective cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We enrolled a total of 7588 patients who were admitted to a hospital for PE from January1997 to December 2011 and administered anticoagulation or thrombolytic agents. All demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were analyzed. AKI was diagnosed in 372 (4.9%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed pre-existing chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, massive PE, anemia, and sepsis as independent risk factors for AKI. In the long-term follow-up, the survival rate was similar in the AKI and non-AKI groups. Careful risk factor screening and intensive intervention in patients with AKI might yield outcomes similar to those in patients without AKI. PMID:28248851

  8. Massive Urinary Protein Excretion Associated with Greater Neonatal Risk in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Julio; Newman, Roger; Sibai, Baha M.; Li, Qing; Barton, John R.; Combs, C. Andrew; Guzman, Edwin; Boggess, Kim A.; Gyamfi, Cynthia; von Dadelszen, Peter; Woelkers, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of preeclamptic pregnancies according to the proteinuria level. Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort study of women with preeclampsia (PE) symptomatology. Nonproteinuria, mild-proteinuria, and massive-proteinuria PEs were defined as: < 165 mg in 12 hours or < 300 mg in 24 hours, 165 mg to 2.69 g in 12 hours or 300 mg to 4.99 g in 24 hours, and ≥ 2.7 g in 12 hours or ≥ 5.0 g in 24 hours, respectively. Individual and composite maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes were compared among the PE groups. Results Of the 406 analyzed pregnancies, 36 (8.8%) had massive-proteinuria PE, 268 (66.0%) mild-proteinuria PE, and 102 (25.1%) nonproteinuria PE. Compared with the other groups, massive-proteinuria PE women had significantly higher blood pressures (p < 0.001), epigastric pain (p = 0.007), and uric acid serum levels (p < 0.001) prior to delivery. Composite maternal morbidity was similar across the groups. Delivery < 340/7 weeks occurred in 80.6, 49.3, and 22.5% of massive-proteinuria, mild-proteinuria, and nonproteinuria PE groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). Composite adverse neonatal outcomes were significantly higher in the massive-proteinuria PE compared with the other groups (p = 0.001). Conclusion While potentially not important diagnostically, massive proteinuria is associated with more severe clinical manifestations of PE prompting earlier delivery.

  9. No, Really: P.E. Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    Because some students need to drop some extracurricular activities in order to enroll in a PE class, public schools have developed PE courses that can be fitted into students' tight schedules. These programs are popular because of convenience. Not only can workouts be scheduled as desired, but students can sweat it out almost anywhere: the local…

  10. Elementary Students' Construct of PE Teacher Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Nilo O.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended…

  11. Acute Stroke and Limb Ischemia Secondary to Catastrophic Massive Intracardiac Thrombus in a 40-Year-Old Patient With Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Gi Jung; Song, Bong Gun; Park, Yong Hwan; Kang, Gu Hyun; Chun, Woo Jung; Oh, Ju Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy has been associated with left ventricular (LV) thrombosis which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality as a site for systemic emboli. We report an interesting case of a stroke and acute limb ischemia secondary to a large mobile pedunculated LV thrombus in 40-year-old patient with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  12. Chimeric cytotoxin IL2-PE40 delays and mitigates adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Case, J P; Lorberboum-Galski, H; Lafyatis, R; FitzGerald, D; Wilder, R L; Pastan, I

    1989-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis in rats is a T-cell dependent "autoimmune" disease with close similarities to several forms of human arthritis. Injection of mycobacterial adjuvant leads to T-cell activation and proliferation, processes in which the de novo expression of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor plays a pivotal role. The subsequent massive mononuclear cell infiltration of the joints ultimately results in complete joint destruction. Because activation of the helper/inducer subset of T lymphocytes is critical to the establishment of disease, we reasoned that IL2-PE40, a cytotoxic IL-2-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein that targets the membrane-penetration and ADP-ribosylation domains of the toxin to cells bearing the IL-2 receptor, would be an effective and specific therapy. Adjuvant-injected rats were randomized to treatment with IL2-PE40, phosphate-buffered saline, or either of two control proteins related to IL2-PE40 but lacking either the receptor-binding moiety or an enzymatically active toxin domain and previously demonstrated to lack cytotoxicity in vitro. Intraperitoneal IL2-PE40 given before the establishment of overt clinical disease proved an effective and specific modifier of adjuvant arthritis by clinical, histological, and radiographic criteria. Our data suggest that IL2-PE40 may be effective in those diseases in which activated T-cells play an important role. Images PMID:2492102

  13. Massive myeloid sarcoma affecting the central nervous system, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, and rectum associated with acute myeloblastic leukaemia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Best-Aguilera, C R; Vazquez-Del Mercado, M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Herrera-Zarate, L; Navarro-Hernandez, R E; Martin-Marquez, B T; Oregon-Romero, E; Ruiz-Quezada, S; Bonilla, G M; Lomeli-Guerrero, A

    2005-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary tumours with granulocytic precursors. When associated with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), these tumours usually affect no more than two different extramedullary regions. This report describes a myeloid sarcoma associated with AML with tumour formation at five anatomical sites. The patient was a 37 year old man admitted in September 1999 with a two month history of weight loss, symptoms of anaemia, rectal bleeding, and left facial nerve palsy. The anatomical sites affected were: the rectum, the right lobe of the liver, the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, and the central nervous system. A bone marrow smear was compatible with AML M2. Flow cytometry showed that the peripheral blood was positive for CD4, CD11, CD13, CD14, CD33, CD45, and HLA-DR. A karyotypic study of the bone marrow revealed an 8;21 translocation. The presence of multiple solid tumours in AML is a rare event. Enhanced expression of cell adhesion molecules may be the reason why some patients develop myeloid sarcomas. PMID:15735171

  14. Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421

  15. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  16. What Is the PE Password? Incorporating Vocabulary in Your Elementary PE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelee, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a novel program for third through fifth grade called "What is the PE Password?" that teaches vocabulary words and concepts without sacrificing activity time in order to support Common Core learning.

  17. Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and PE100 Pipe Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jar, P.-Y. Ben

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical properties, including yield stress, relaxation behavior, moduli (elastic modulus at the strain of 0.5% and strain hardening modulus at strains above 70%), viscous stress, and quasi-static stress, are compared between polyethylene (PE) pipes that are made of PE80 and PE100 resins. The mechanical properties are measured using D-split tensile test on modified notched pipe ring specimens. The comparison includes the influence of strain rate (by the change of crosshead speed) on the yield strength and influence of pre-strain on the relaxation behavior and the modulus values. A two-stage approach is used to characterize the influence of pre-strain on the moduli, to ensure that viscous recovery from the first-stage of the test, to introduce the pre-strain, does not affect the modulus measurement from the second-stage test. The results show that elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening modulus, viscous stress, and quasi-static stress for PE100 are higher than those for PE80, but PE80 shows higher resistance to stress relaxation. The results also show that with the increase in the pre-strain level, the elastic modulus drops but the strain hardening modulus remains relatively constant.

  18. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  19. Design procedure prevents PE pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Grigory, S.C.

    1995-12-01

    A rupture prevention design procedure for plastic gas distribution pipe is nearing completion at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin, and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure can be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program, called PFRAC, has been developed for this purpose and uses Charpy energy as the measurement of fracture toughness of PE. Present efforts, however, involve replacing Charpy energy with a dynamic toughness measurement obtained from the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test that is required in ISO 4437. The program is being financed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago. RCP events in PE pipe have been rare primarily because operating pressures are low and pipe diameters are small in most gas distribution systems. However, controlled RCP experiments in the US and other countries clearly demonstrate that as the gas industry moves toward higher line pressures and larger diameters, the likelihood of an RCP event increases. Recognizing this, ISO includes a requirement for RCP in its ISO 4437 standard for pipe greater than 10 inches in diameter or operating pressures greater than 58 psig. The S4 test may be used on all pipe diameters. A full scale test or the S4 test can be used on pipe greater than 10 inches diameter.

  20. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  1. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  2. The "physiologically effective" correlates: peDk/L and peDk.

    PubMed

    Hill, R M

    1999-03-01

    Introduced here are two predictive parameters, peDk/L and peDk. The prefix pe- (for physiologically effective) indicates that such values are estimates of lens transmissibility (Dk/L) and material permeability (Dk) and have been derived through a reverse application of the Residual Hypoxia model of Smith, relating corneal response (in hypoxic stress units) to lens transmissibility (Dk/L). Here, using independent databases, physiological responses to simple oxygen pathways (one layer, one material) but of unknown Dk value were entered into that model to estimate the Dk/L and (then by calculation) the Dk value of single vision rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Also demonstrated was the application of this strategy for estimation of composite (integrated) Dk/L and Dk values of complex (multi-layer, multi-material) oxygen pathways, wherein one or more material Dk values and/or one or more local thickness are unknown.

  3. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. . E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy

    2006-12-15

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK.

  4. Logistics of massive transfusions.

    PubMed

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of the patient with massive bleeding involves more than aggressive surgery and infusion of large amounts of blood products. The proper management of massive transfusions-whether they are in trauma patients or other bleeding patients-requires coordination of the personnel in the surgical suite or the emergency department, the blood bank, and laboratory.

  5. [Massive traumatic hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Bourdereau, J M; Mathé, D; Voultoury, J C

    1985-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient who suffered a rupture of one lung as result of thoracic trauma. This gave rise to respiratory distress with massive haemoptysis which was initially treated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube, with separate lung ventilation, a chest drain and massive transfusion. A haemostatic pneumonectomy had to be performed because of the persisting and profuse bleeding.

  6. From PE Experiences to PE Teaching Practices? Insights from Scottish Primary Teachers' Experiences of PE, Teacher Education, School Entry and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Atencio, Matthew; Campbell, Theresa; Jess, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Morgan and Hansen suggest that further research is needed to explore how non-specialist primary teachers approach and teach physical education (PE) based on their personal school PE backgrounds, teacher education experiences and ongoing professional development. This paper adopts Lawson's socialisation model, a theoretical framework subsequently…

  7. Home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Rationale and design of the HoT-PE Trial.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Binder, Harald; Schellong, Sebastian; Christ, Michael; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Duerschmied, Daniel; Bauersachs, Rupert; Empen, Klaus; Held, Matthias; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Fonseca, Cândida; Jiménez, David; Becattini, Cecilia; Quitzau, Kurt; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2016-07-04

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiovascular syndrome. However, more than 95 % of patients are haemodynamically stable at presentation, and among them are patients at truly low risk who may qualify for immediate or early discharge. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) study is a prospective international multicentre single-arm phase 4 management (cohort) trial aiming to determine whether home treatment of acute low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. Patients with confirmed PE, who have no right ventricular dysfunction or free floating thrombi in the right atrium or ventricle, are eligible if they meet none of the exclusion criteria indicating haemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity or any condition mandating hospitalisation, or a familial/social environment unable to support home treatment. The first dose of rivaroxaban is given in hospital, and patients are discharged within 48 hours of presentation. Rivaroxaban is taken for at least three months. The primary outcome is symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or PE-related death within three months of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and patient satisfaction, and health care resource utilisation compared to existing data on standard-duration hospital treatment. HoT-PE is planned to analyse 1,050 enrolled patients, providing 80 % power to reject the null hypothesis that the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism is >3 % with α≤0.05. If the hypothesis of HoT-PE is confirmed, early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment may become an attractive, potentially cost-saving option for a significant proportion of patients with acute PE.

  8. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, RBN; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  9. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    SciTech Connect

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-22

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  10. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  11. Successful retreatment with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced acute pulmonary embolism in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Hayama, Manabu; Satoh, Shingo; Nasu, Shingo; Tanaka, Ayako; Morita, Satomu; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) can be life-threatening, and it is challenging to diagnose because of its nonspecific signs and symptoms. PE is also an important potential risk of osimertinib treatment, however, clinical courses regarding retreatment after osimertinib-induced acute pulmonary embolism remain unclear. We described a 77-year-old woman with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma who developed osimertinib-induced acute PE. She received apixaban and was later successfully retreated with osimertinib. This case suggests that retreatment with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced acute PE may be a treatment option when alternative therapeutic options are limited.

  12. Resummation of Massive Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2011-06-10

    We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resume explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model.

  13. Severe Lower Limb Ischemia by Massive Arterial Thrombosis Revealing an Acute Myeloid Leukemia Needing for Leg Amputation: Clinical and Emotional Aspects Related to the Communication with the Patient and His Family

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, Calogero; Mosa, Clara; Di Marco, Floriana; Valentino, Fabrizio; Trizzino, Angela; Guadagna, Paola; Talarico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Large vessel thrombosis is a very rare clinical presentation of acute leukemia, generally associated with coagulopathy, usually characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia. A 13- year-old boy with a previously undiagnosed acute myeloid leukemia was referred to our hospital with acute ischemia of the right lower limb due to occlusion of the right external iliac artery, treated with emergency double surgical thromboembolectomy and chemotherapy. The thrombotic complication resulted in leg amputation. Now the boy is well in complete remission, with a good social integration and quality of life, 30 months after completing treatment. The report highlights the crucial role of early diagnosis and subsequent chemotherapy in avoiding amputation. We particularly focused critical and emotional aspects related to the communication about the leg amputation with the patient and his family. PMID:28058104

  14. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  15. Massively Redundant Electromechanical Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-30

    date of determination). DoD Controlling Office is (insert controlling DoD office). "Massively Redundant Electromechanical Actuators" August... electromechanical systems) processes are used to manufacture reliable and reproducible stators and sliders for the actuators. These processes include

  16. Acute pulmonary edema secondary to hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Paul, Vishesh; Chadha, Sameer; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, air embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and gas gangrene with minimal adverse effects. Very few cases of HBOT causing acute pulmonary edema (PE) has been described; with a study on dogs suggesting that a complication of this therapy could be PE. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man with a history of stable systolic heart failure and diabetes mellitus presenting with acute PE following treatment with HBOT for diabetic foot. PMID:25988073

  17. Massive ovarian edema, due to adjacent appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Callen, Andrew L; Illangasekare, Tushani; Poder, Liina

    2017-04-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a benign clinical entity, the imaging findings of which can mimic an adnexal mass or ovarian torsion. In the setting of acute abdominal pain, identifying massive ovarian edema is a key in avoiding potential fertility-threatening surgery in young women. In addition, it is important to consider other contributing pathology when ovarian edema is secondary to another process. We present a case of a young woman presenting with subacute abdominal pain, whose initial workup revealed marked enlarged right ovary. Further imaging, diagnostic tests, and eventually diagnostic laparoscopy revealed that the ovarian enlargement was secondary to subacute appendicitis, rather than a primary adnexal process. We review the classic ultrasound and MRI imaging findings and pitfalls that relate to this diagnosis.

  18. PeV-scale dark matter as a thermal relic of a decoupled sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we consider a class of scenarios in which the dark matter is part of a heavy hidden sector that is thermally decoupled from the Standard Model in the early universe. The dark matter freezes-out by annihilating to a lighter, metastable state, whose subsequent abundance can naturally come to dominate the energy density of the universe. When this state decays, it reheats the visible sector and dilutes all relic abundances, thereby allowing the dark matter to be orders of magnitude heavier than the weak scale. For concreteness, we consider a simple realization with a Dirac fermion dark matter candidate coupled to a massive gauge boson that decays to the Standard Model through its kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We identify viable parameter space in which the dark matter can be as heavy as ∼1-100 PeV without being overproduced in the early universe.

  19. Massively Parallel Genetics.

    PubMed

    Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley

    2016-06-01

    Human genetics has historically depended on the identification of individuals whose natural genetic variation underlies an observable trait or disease risk. Here we argue that new technologies now augment this historical approach by allowing the use of massively parallel assays in model systems to measure the functional effects of genetic variation in many human genes. These studies will help establish the disease risk of both observed and potential genetic variants and to overcome the problem of "variants of uncertain significance."

  20. New improved massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, T.; Yetişmişoğlu, C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first-order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space AdS 3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  1. Multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms: a rare cause of massive hemoptysis as presentation of Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Al Amri, Salem Mohammad; Banjar, Ahmad Hassan; Cheema, Ahsan Iqbal

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of an acute episode of massive hemoptysis in a diagnosed patient of Behcet's disease, managed conservatively, using angio-guided vascular plug and coils for occluding the multiple bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms with thoracic surgery backup. The episode of massive hemoptysis was caused by ruptured Pulmonary Artery Aneurysms (PAA).

  2. Temporospatial dissociation of Pe subcomponents for perceived and unperceived errors.

    PubMed

    Endrass, Tanja; Klawohn, Julia; Preuss, Julia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on performance monitoring revealed that errors are followed by an initial fronto-central negative deflection (error-related negativity, ERN or Ne) and a subsequent centro-parietal positivity (error positivity, Pe). It has been shown that error awareness mainly influences the Pe, whereas the ERN seems unaffected by conscious awareness of an error. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of ERN and Pe to error awareness in a visual size discrimination task in which errors are not elicited by impulsive responding but by perceptual difficulty. Further, we applied a temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA) to examine whether the temporospatial subcomponents of the Pe would differentially relate to error awareness. Event-related potential (ERP) results were in accordance with earlier studies: a significant error awareness effect was found for the Pe, but not for the ERN. Interestingly, a modulation with error perception on correct trials was found: correct responses considered as incorrect had larger correct-related negativity (CRN) and lager Pe amplitudes than correct responses considered as correct. The PCA yielded two relevant spatial factors accounting for the Pe (latency 300 ms). A temporospatial factor characterized by a centro-parietal positivity varied significantly with error awareness. Of the two temporospatial factors corresponding to ERN and CRN, one factor with central topography varied with response correctness and subjective error perception on correct responses. The PCA results indicate that the error awareness effect is specifically related to the centro-parietal subcomponent of the Pe. Since this component has also been shown to be related to the importance of an error, the present variation with error awareness indicates that this component is sensitive to the salience of an error and that salience secondarily may trigger error awareness.

  3. A Preliminary Comparison Between TNT and PE4 Landmines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    derived, peak pressure based equivalency ratio of 1.37 previously used in DSTO landmine vehicle vulnerability research. A 4.38 kg PE4 and a 6 kg TNT ...an equivalent weight of TNT , and a toggle to change between a spherical blast and a hemispherical blast. As the landmine was buried in soil, 50 mm...A Preliminary Comparison Between TNT and PE4 Landmines Samuel Weckert and Christopher Anderson Weapons Systems Division

  4. Phases of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei L.

    2004-10-01

    We systematically study the most general Lorentz-violating graviton mass invariant under three-dimensional Eucledian group. We find that at general values of mass parameters the massive graviton has six propagating degrees of freedom, and some of them are ghosts or lead to rapid classical instabilities. However, there is a number of different regions in the mass parameter space where massive gravity is described by a consistent low-energy effective theory with cutoff ~ (mMPl)1/2. This theory is free of rapid instabilities and vDVZ discontinuity. Each of these regions is characterized by certain fine-tuning relations between mass parameters, generalizing the Fierz Pauli condition. In some cases the required fine-tunings are consequences of the existence of the subgroups of the diffeomorphism group that are left unbroken by the graviton mass. We found two new cases, when the resulting theories have a property of UV insensitivity, i.e. remain well behaved after inclusion of arbitrary higher dimension operators without assuming any fine-tunings among the coefficients of these operators, besides those enforced by the symmetries. These theories can be thought of as generalizations of the ghost condensate model with a smaller residual symmetry group. We briefly discuss what kind of cosmology can one expect in massive gravity and argue that the allowed values of the graviton mass may be quite large, affecting growth of primordial perturbations, structure formation and, perhaps, enhancing the backreaction of inhomogeneities on the expansion rate of the Universe.

  5. Impaired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific effector CD8+ T cells undergo massive apoptosis in the peripheral blood during acute HCV infection and in the liver during the chronic phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Radziewicz, Henry; Ibegbu, Chris C; Hon, Huiming; Osborn, Melissa K; Obideen, Kamil; Wehbi, Mohammad; Freeman, Gordon J; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Workowski, Kimberly A; Hanson, Holly L; Grakoui, Arash

    2008-10-01

    A majority of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) do not sustain an effective T-cell response, and viremia persists. The mechanism leading to failure of the HCV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response in patients developing chronic infection is unclear. We investigated apoptosis susceptibility of HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute and chronic stages of infection. Although HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the blood during the acute phase of infection and in the liver during the chronic phase were highly activated and expressed an effector phenotype, the majority was undergoing apoptosis. In contrast, peripheral blood HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells during the chronic phase expressed a resting memory phenotype. Apoptosis susceptibility of HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells was associated with very high levels of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and low CD127 expression and with significant functional T-cell deficits. Further evaluation of the "death phase" of HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells during acute HCV infection showed that the majority of cells were dying by a process of cytokine withdrawal, mediated by activated caspase 9. Contraction during the acute phase occurred rapidly via this process despite the persistence of the virus. Remarkably, in the chronic phase of HCV infection, at the site of infection in the liver, a substantial frequency of caspase 9-mediated T-cell death was also present. This study highlights the importance of cytokine deprivation-mediated apoptosis with consequent down-modulation of the immune response to HCV during acute and chronic infections.

  6. Risk Stratification for Proven Acute Pulmonary Embolism: What Information Is Needed?

    PubMed

    Barrios, Deisy; Yusen, Roger D; Jiménez, David

    2017-02-01

    Classification of risk drives treatment decisions for patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). High-risk patients with acute symptomatic PE have hemodynamic instability (i.e., shock or hypotension present), and treatment guidelines suggest systemically administered thrombolytic therapy in this setting. Normotensive PE patients at low risk for early complications (low-risk PE) might benefit from treatment at home or early discharge, while normotensive patients with preserved systemic arterial pressure deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might benefit from close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy. Prognostic tools (e.g., clinical prognostic scoring systems, imaging testing, and cardiac laboratory biomarkers) assist with the classification of patients into these categories.

  7. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kruti S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg) in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione. PMID:28044113

  8. Prognostic Scores for Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Raquel; Moores, Lisa; Jiménez, David

    2017-02-06

    Rapid and accurate risk stratification is critical in determining the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Early identification of patients with normal blood pressure and a favorable prognosis (low-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for outpatient treatment, which is associated with reduced cost and improved patient satisfaction, and has been shown to be effective and safe. Alternatively, identification of normotensive patients deemed as having a high risk for PE-related adverse clinical events (intermediate-high-risk PE) might select a subset of patients for close observation and consideration of escalation of therapy. Clinical prognostic scores have been gaining importance in the classification of patients into these categories. They should be derived and validated following strict methodological standards, and their use in clinical practice should be encouraged.

  9. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE); a rare association with phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R N; Phaujdar, Sibaji; Banerjee, Siwalik; Siddhanta, Sattik; De, Dibyendu; Bhattachary, Kuntal; Pal, Hare Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare entity mainly found in elderly males. It is characterized by pitting edema mainly of dorsum of both hands giving a "boxing glove hand" appearance; rarely involving feet also, acute in onset, negative rheumatoid factor and a good response to low dose corticosteroid therapy. Clinically it almost resembles a case of polymyalgia rheumatica, late onset rheumatoid arthritis or other seronegative spondyloarthropathy.Though there are multiple underlying factors causing this rare entity but it has very close associations with many malignancies.So far its association with solid tumours and hematological malignancies has been reported. Phyllodes tumour of breast shows wide spectrum of activity from a benign condition to a locally aggressive and sometimes metastatic tumour.One fourth of the cases recur after definitive treatment.Our case represent an unusual association with recurrent phyllodes tumour of breast with RS3PE.

  10. The designing and implementation of PE teaching information resource database based on broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In order to change traditional PE teaching mode and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources, a distance PE teaching platform based on broadband network is designed and PE teaching information resource database is set up. The designing of PE teaching information resource database takes Windows NT 4/2000Server as operating system platform, Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 as RDBMS, and takes NAS technology for data storage and flow technology for video service. The analysis of system designing and implementation shows that the dynamic PE teaching information resource sharing platform based on Web Service can realize loose coupling collaboration, realize dynamic integration and active integration and has good integration, openness and encapsulation. The distance PE teaching platform based on Web Service and the design scheme of PE teaching information resource database can effectively solve and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources and adapt to the informatization development demands of PE teaching.

  11. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    chloride and the extracts combined. After extraction, the PE is air -dried and weighed. PE extracts are concentrated using rotary evaporation (or...Appendix 2). A known mass of pre-cleaned PE is then added and weighted to insure complete PE submersion. The vessel is agitated to remove any air ...and weighted to insure complete submersion. The vessel should be agitated to remove any air pockets adhering to the submerged PE. Equilibration

  12. Inconsistency of topologically massive hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.; Deser, S.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled topologically massive spin-5/2 gravity system in D = 3 dimensions whose kinematics represents dynamical propagating gauge invariant massive spin-5/2 and spin-2 excitations, is shown to be inconsistent, or equivalently, not locally hypersymmetric. In contrast to D = 4, the local constraints on the system arising from failure of the fermionic Bianchi identities do not involve the 'highest spin' components of the field, but rather the auxiliary spinor required to construct a consistent massive model.

  13. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  14. Massively parallel mathematical sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.

  15. Functional analyses of Populus euphratica brassinosteroid biosynthesis enzyme genes DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD) in the regulation of growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Si, Jianping; Sun, Yan; Wang, L U; Qin, Ying; Wang, Chongying; Wang, Xinyu

    2016-12-01

    DWF4 and CPD are key brassinosteroids (BRs) biosynthesis enzyme genes. To explore the function of Populus euphratica DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD), Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines (TLs) expressing PeDWF4, PeCPD or PeDWF4 plus PeCPD, namely PeDWF4-TL, PeCPD-TL and PeCP/DW-TL, were characterized. Compared with wild type (WT), the changes of both PeDWF4-TL and PeCPD-TL in plant heights, silique and hypocotyls lengths and seed yields were similar, but in bolting time and stem diameters, they were opposite. PeCP/DW-TL was more in plant heights and the lengths of primary root, silique, and fruit stalk, but less in silique numbers and seed yields than either PeDWF4-TL or PeCPD-TL. PeDWF4 and PeCPD specially expressed in PeDWF4-TL or PeCPDTL, and the transcription level of PeDWF4 was higher than that of PeCPD. In PeCP/DW-TL, their expressions were all relatively reduced. Additionally, the expression of PeDWF4 and PeCPD differentially made the expression levels of AtDWF4, AtCPD, AtBR6OX2, AtFLC, AtTCP1 and AtGA5 change in the TLs. The total BRs contents were PeDWF4-TL greater than PeCP/DW-TL greater than WT greater than PeCPD-TL. These results imply that PeDWF4 is functionally not exactly the same as PeCPD and there may be a synergistic and antagonistic effects in physiology between both of them in the regulation of plant growth and development.

  16. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  17. The evolution of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  18. "Cool PE" and Confronting the Negative Stereotypes of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux

    2014-01-01

    To change the public's negative perceptions, it may be necessary to change the nature of physical education programming. One way of doing so is by adopting "Cool PE," which refers to physical education that "moves" students, empowers students with choice, and is meaningful to students outside of the gym.

  19. PE: It's Just Me: Physically Active and Healthy Teacher Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the significance of embodied understandings to the emerging subjectivities and pedagogical practices of pre-service teachers undertaking a Physical Education (PE) specialisation through a B.Ed. (primary/middle). Data from a research project conducted at an Australian university with seven pre-service teachers will be…

  20. Temperature, pressure critical in PE line pipe use

    SciTech Connect

    Oney, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) line pipe is used for low-pressure gas (gathering, supply gas, etc.) and water lines and, in some cases for flow lines. API Spec 15LE specifies minimum requirements for qualification of product and quality control by manufacturers of polyethylene pipe. Spec 15LE also provides guidelines for design of polyethylene. Thermoplastic pipe (PE and PVC) is manufactured by melting resin pellets or powder and extruding the melt through dies. Thermoplastic pipe pressure classes are designated by ''standard dimension ratios'' (SDR). The SDR is the average OD divided by the wall thickness (w.t.). Thus 2 3/8-in. OD pipe (nominal 2 in.) with 0.216-in. w.t. is SDR 11. Nominal 3-in. pipe (3 1/2-in. OD) must have a minimum 0.318-in. w.t. to be SDR 11. Table 5.1 in Spec 15LE lists the most commonly used SDRs. Quality control during manufacture required by Spec 15LE for PE pipe includes short-term hydrostatic tests and dimensional checks. Frequency of tests depend on whether the pipe is coiled or cut into lengths. PE pipe sizes of 3 in. and smaller sizes usually are coiled. In addition, annual tests for verification of long-term pressure rating are required by Spec 15LE.

  1. Building a Model PE Curriculum: Education Reform in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2012-01-01

    The blueprint to build a model physical education (PE) curriculum begins by establishing a sound curricular foundation based on a lesson plan template that incorporates clear and concise program goals, the alignment of lessons to state or national content standards, and the collection, analysis and use of objective assessment data that informs…

  2. "Race" Talk! Tensions and Contradictions in Sport and PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The universal sport discourses of meritocracy and equality are so engrained that few challenge them. The most cursory interest in sport, Physical Education (PE), and society will reveal that the lived reality is quite different. Racial disparities in the leadership and administration of sport are commonplace worldwide; yet, from…

  3. Unilateral massive hemothorax in Dengue hemorrhagic fever: a unique presentation.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Suman S; Gupta, Anurag; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana

    2012-09-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more serious form of disease characterised by plasma leakage syndrome, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We present a 51 year old male who presented with fever, petechiae and acute onset of breathlessness. Emergency chest rhoentogram showed a massive right sided pleural effusion. On insertion of intercostal drain, there was a sudden gush of blood tinged fluid suggestive of hemothorax. There was no history of trauma or bleeding tendencies. Laboratory investigations revealed a raised hematocrit and severe thrombocytopenia. Dengue IgM was surprisingly positive. After aggressive supportive management the patient gradually improved and was discharged. While bilateral pleural effusion is a known occurrence in dengue hemorrhagic fever, massive hemothorax is unheard of. We report the first case in literature of dengue hemorrhagic fever presenting as unilateral massive hemothorax. A suspicion of dengue must also be borne in mind in cases of non-traumatic hemothorax especially in endemic areas.

  4. Massively parallel processor computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, L. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for processing multidimensional data with strong spatial characteristics, such as raw image data, characterized by a large number of parallel data streams in an ordered array is described. It comprises a large number (e.g., 16,384 in a 128 x 128 array) of parallel processing elements operating simultaneously and independently on single bit slices of a corresponding array of incoming data streams under control of a single set of instructions. Each of the processing elements comprises a bidirectional data bus in communication with a register for storing single bit slices together with a random access memory unit and associated circuitry, including a binary counter/shift register device, for performing logical and arithmetical computations on the bit slices, and an I/O unit for interfacing the bidirectional data bus with the data stream source. The massively parallel processor architecture enables very high speed processing of large amounts of ordered parallel data, including spatial translation by shifting or sliding of bits vertically or horizontally to neighboring processing elements.

  5. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-05-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  6. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  7. Massive gauge-flation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Carlos M.; Rodríguez, Yeinzon

    2016-06-01

    Gauge-flation model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory offers an interesting scenario for realizing inflation within a particle physics context, allowing us to investigate interesting possible connections between inflation and the subsequent evolution of the Universe. Difficulties, however, arise at the perturbative level, thus motivating a modification of the original model. In order to agree with the latest Planck observations, we modify the model such that the new dynamics can produce a relation between the spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r allowed by the data. By including an identical mass term for each of the fields of the system, we find interesting dynamics leading to slow-roll inflation of the right length. The presence of the mass term has the potential to modify the ns versus r relation so as to agree with the data. As a first step, we study the model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory, finding the conditions required for slow-roll inflation and the number of e-foldings of inflation. Numerical solutions are used to explore the impact of the mass term. We conclude that the massive version of gauge-flation offers a viable inflationary model.

  8. Pancreaticopleural Fistula Causing Massive Right Hydrothorax and Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Esther Ern-Hwei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothorax secondary to a pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. In patients with a history of pancreatitis, diagnosis is made by detection of amylase in the pleural exudate. Imaging, particularly magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, aids in the detection of pancreatic ductal disruption. Management includes thoracocentesis and pancreatic duct drainage or pancreatic resection procedures. We present a case of massive right hydrothorax secondary to a PPF due to recurrent acute pancreatitis. Due to respiratory failure, urgent thoracocentesis was done. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The patient remains well at one-year follow-up. PMID:27747128

  9. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments: Standard Operating Procedure for PE Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    GCMS Detection Limit ~ 100 pg / 100 mg PE PRCs d10-phenanthrene d10-pyrene d12-chrysene Surrogates d10- anthracene d10-fluoranthene d12-benz(a... anthracene Injection Standards d10-acenaphthene d14-m-terphenyl d12-perylene B. PRCs and surrogate compounds suitable for polychlorinated biphenyl

  10. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. Methods Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability of death. A logistic regression model for the prediction of massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of red cell transfusions, was developed. Results In total, 5,693 patient records were available for analysis. Mortality increased as transfusion requirements increased, but the model indicated no threshold effect. Mortality was 9% in patients who received none to five PRBC units, 22% in patients receiving six to nine PRBC units, and 42% in patients receiving 10 or more units. A logistic model for prediction of massive transfusion was developed and validated at multiple sites but achieved only moderate performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81, with specificity of only 50% at a sensitivity of 90% for the prediction of 10 or more PRBC units. Performance varied widely at different trauma centers, with specificity varying from 48% to 91%. Conclusions No threshold for definition exists at which a massive transfusion specifically results in worse outcomes. Even with a large sample size across multiple trauma datasets, it was not possible to develop a

  11. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit Density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosier, Dan L.; Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.

    2007-01-01

    A mineral-deposit density model for volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits was constructed from 38 well-explored control areas from around the world. Control areas contain at least one exposed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit. The control areas used in this study contain 150 kuroko, 14 Urals, and 25 Cyprus massive sulfide subtypes of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. For each control area, extent of permissive rock, number of exposed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, map scale, deposit age, and deposit density were determined. The frequency distribution of deposit densities in these 38 control areas provides probabilistic estimates of the number of deposits for tracts that are permissive for volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits-90 percent of the control areas have densities of 100 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers, 50 percent of the control areas have densities of 700 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers, and 10 percent of the control areas have densities of 3,700 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers. Both map scale and the size of the control area are shown to be predictors of deposit density. Probabilistic estimates of the number of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits can be made by conditioning the estimates on sizes of permissive area. The model constructed for this study provides a powerful tool for estimating the number of undiscovered volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits when conducting resource assessments. The value of these deposit densities is due to the consistency of these models with the grade and tonnage and the descriptive models. Mineral-deposit density models combined with grade and tonnage models allow reasonable estimates of the number, size, and grades of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits to be made.

  12. The evaluation of a new marker of transmyocardial repolarization parameters in ischemic stroke patients; T peak-T end (T p-e), T p-e/QTc.

    PubMed

    Emektar, Emine; Çorbacıoğlu, Şeref Kerem; Korucu, Osman; Ramadan, Selma; Uzunosmanoğlu, Hüseyin; Kan, Eda; Çevik, Yunsur

    2017-01-21

    The cardiovascular manifestations of acute ischemic stroke have been well known. Several electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities have been reported in patients following acute stroke, including QT interval prolongation, ST segment deviation and T-wave changes. This study aimed to investigate the changes in transmyocardial repolarization parameters, in ischemic stroke patients. The study is a prospective, blind, and controlled clinical study. The patients without cardiac disease who received ischemic stroke diagnoses were included in the study. ECG was received from the patients in the first hour and 72 h. The P, QT, T p-e, T p-e dispersion, and the T p-e/QT ratio were calculated. Moreover, fifty-five stroke patients and 35 control subjects were included to the study. All dispersion values and T p-e/QTc ratio in patients group were higher than those of control group (p < 0.05 for all values). When evaluated between ECGs' on first and third days, it was found that decreasing on all dispersion values and T p-e/QTc ratio in ECGs on third day than ECGs on first day (p < 0.05 for all values). QT, QTc, and T p-e dispersions values in patients who have insular lobe involvement were higher than those of patients who do not have insular lobe involvement (p < 0.001 for all values). In this study, we showed that acute stroke increases that P d, QTd, QTcd and new repolarization markers T p-e and T p-e/QTc, during first 24 and 72 h in acute stroke patients without cardiovascular disease compared with the control group. The physicians should be aware about ventricular dysrhythmias in patients with ischemic stroke and these patients closely observed with cardiac monitoring, especially within first 24 h, and especially patients with insular lobe involvement.

  13. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  14. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynina, A. A. Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2013-10-15

    The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.

  15. Fragmentation in massive star formation.

    PubMed

    Beuther, Henrik; Schilke, Peter

    2004-02-20

    Studies of evolved massive stars indicate that they form in a clustered mode. During the earliest evolutionary stages, these regions are embedded within their natal cores. Here we present high-spatial-resolution interferometric dust continuum observations disentangling the cluster-like structure of a young massive star-forming region. The derived protocluster mass distribution is consistent with the stellar initial mass function. Thus, fragmentation of the initial massive cores may determine the initial mass function and the masses of the final stars. This implies that stars of all masses can form via accretion processes, and coalescence of intermediate-mass protostars appears not to be necessary.

  16. Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dang, G K; Parekar, R R; Kamat, S K; Scindia, A M; Rege, N N

    2011-06-01

    Experimental studies conducted earlier have proved that Phyllanthus emblica (Pe), Plumbago zeylanica (Pz) and Cyperus rotundus (Cr), plants from the medohara group of Ayurveda possess antiatherosclerotic activity. As inflammation is also one of the pathophysiological factors, it was of interest to evaluate whether these drugs exhibit any antiinflammatory activity. Two models of acute inflammation, namely carrageenan induced rat paw edema and acetic acid induced peritonitis in mice were used. In the model of carrageenan induced paw edema Pe, Pz and Cr showed a trend to reduce the edema while the combination of Pe + Pz (PI: 20.64%) showed results comparable to aspirin (23.74%). Whereas in a model of acetic acid induced peritonitis, all the plant drugs i.e. Pe, Pz, Cr and a combination of Pe + Pz showed a significant decrease in the protein content of the peritoneal exudates compared with the disease control group (p < 0.05), however, only Pe + Pz exhibited activity comparable to aspirin.

  17. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3K9me2 in acute myeloid leukemia reveals large chromosomal domains associated with massive gene silencing and sites of genome instability

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Keasey, Nikki; Loughran, Thomas P.; Claxton, David F.

    2017-01-01

    A facultative heterochromatin mark, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by histone methyltransferases G9a/GLP (EHMT2/1), undergoes dramatic rearrangements during myeloid cell differentiation as observed by chromatin imaging. To determine whether these structural transitions also involve genomic repositioning of H3K9me2, we used ChIP-sequencing to map genome-wide topography of H3K9me2 in normal human granulocytes, normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, primary myeloblasts from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and a model leukemia cell line K562. We observe that H3K9me2 naturally repositions from the previously designated “repressed” chromatin state in hematopoietic progenitors to predominant association with heterochromatin regions in granulocytes. In contrast, AML cells accumulate H3K9me2 on previously undefined large (> 100 Kb) genomic blocks that are enriched with AML-specific single nucleotide variants, sites of chromosomal translocations, and genes downregulated in AML. Specifically, the AML-specific H3K9me2 blocks are enriched with genes regulated by the proto-oncogene ERG that promotes stem cell characteristics. The AML-enriched H3K9me2 blocks (in contrast to the heterochromatin-associated H3K9me2 blocks enriched in granulocytes) are reduced by pharmacological inhibition of the histone methyltransferase G9a/GLP in K562 cells concomitantly with transcriptional activation of ERG and ETS1 oncogenes. Our data suggest that G9a/GLP mediate formation of transient H3K9me2 blocks that are preserved in AML myeloblasts and may lead to an increased rate of AML-specific mutagenesis and chromosomal translocations. PMID:28301528

  18. What Can Veterinary Educators Learn from PE Teachers?

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; McCullick, Bryan A

    Veterinary education requires the training of students in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. However, the veterinary education literature tends to focus more on the cognitive domain, with less emphasis on the affective and psychomotor domains. Physical education (PE) teachers have been teaching psychomotor skills to students for decades using a variety of teaching models. Teaching models provide a framework encompassing theory, student and teacher interactions, instructional themes, research support, and valid assessments. This paper reviews some of the models used by PE teachers, including the Direct Instruction Model, the Cooperative Learning Model, the Personalized System for Instruction, and the Peer Teaching Model. We posit that these models might be particularly helpful for novice teachers in veterinary education settings, providing a structure for the teaching and assessment of psychomotor skills.

  19. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  20. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and... funding is available for PE and construction? Up to 15 percent of the funding made available in any fiscal year will be eligible for PE. The remaining funding in any fiscal year will be available...

  1. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and... funding is available for PE and construction? Up to 15 percent of the funding made available in any fiscal year will be eligible for PE. The remaining funding in any fiscal year will be available...

  2. Modulation of the Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipY by Its PE Domain.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Christopher K; Broadwell, Lindsey J; Hayne, Cassandra K; Neher, Saskia B

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors over 160 genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, several of which have roles in the pathogen's virulence. A number of PE/PPE proteins are secreted via Type VII secretion systems known as the ESX secretion systems. One PE protein, LipY, has a triglyceride lipase domain in addition to its PE domain. LipY can regulate intracellular triglyceride levels and is also exported to the cell wall by one of the ESX family members, ESX-5. Upon export, LipY's PE domain is removed by proteolytic cleavage. Studies using cells and crude extracts suggest that LipY's PE domain not only directs its secretion by ESX-5, but also functions to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the role of LipY's PE domain in the regulation of its enzymatic activity. First, we established an improved purification method for several LipY variants using detergent micelles. We then used enzymatic assays to confirm that the PE domain down-regulates LipY activity. The PE domain must be attached to LipY in order to effectively inhibit it. Finally, we determined that full length LipY and the mature lipase lacking the PE domain (LipYΔPE) have similar melting temperatures. Based on our improved purification strategy and activity-based approach, we concluded that LipY's PE domain down-regulates its enzymatic activity but does not impact the thermal stability of the enzyme.

  3. Attitudes toward and Motivation for PE. Who Collects the Benefits of the Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Säfvenbom, Reidar; Haugen, Tommy; Bulie, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Due to attitudinal and motivational aims in the national curriculum, and to lack of research on adolescents' experiences with physical education (PE) in Norway, the purposes of this study were to (1) attain data on attitudes toward PE and self-determined motivation for PE among a representative sample of adolescents (N =…

  4. Making the Case for Developing New PE-for-Health Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a new direction in research on health education within physical education (PE). Governments are increasingly looking to schools as a convenient form of public health investment. PE is implicated in health because of its core focus on physical activity, but there is little evidence to suggest that PE improves health…

  5. Targeting the Body and the Mind: Evaluation of a P.E. Curriculum Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    P.E. classes are often the only opportunity for inner-city youth to engage in physical activity, but budget cuts and pressure to perform well on standardized tests has made P.E. an afterthought for many school administrators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new P.E. curriculum in five Los Angeles inner-city schools. Interviews were…

  6. Infant acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569

  7. Strangelets and the TeV-PeV cosmic-ray anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Kumiko; Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles; Silk, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Several experiments (e.g., Milagro and IceCube) have reported the presence in the sky of regions with significant excess in the arrival direction distributions of Galactic cosmic rays in the TeV-to-PeV energy range. Here we study the possibility that these hotspots are a manifestation of the peculiar nature of these cosmic rays, and of the presence of molecular clouds near the sources. We propose that stable quark matter lumps or so-called strangelets can be emitted in the course of the transition of a neutron star to a more compact astrophysical object. A fraction of these massive particles would lose their charge by spallation or electron capture in molecular clouds located in the immediate neighborhood of their source, and propagate rectilinearly without decaying further, hence inducing anisotropies of the order of the cloud size. With reasonable astrophysical assumptions regarding the neutron star transition rate, strangelet injection and neutralization rates, we can reproduce successfully the observed hotspot characteristics and their distribution in the sky.

  8. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic Φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  9. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic Φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelasticmore » scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.« less

  10. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic ϕ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1−2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  11. Holographically viable extensions of topologically massive and minimal massive gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Recently [E. Bergshoeff et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 31, 145008 (2014)], an extension of the topologically massive gravity (TMG) in 2 +1 dimensions, dubbed as minimal massive gravity (MMG), which is free of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash that inflicts the former theory and all the other known three-dimensional theories, was found. Field equations of MMG differ from those of TMG at quadratic terms in the curvature that do not come from the variation of an action depending on the metric alone. Here we show that MMG is a unique theory and there does not exist a deformation of TMG or MMG at the cubic and quartic order (and beyond) in the curvature that is consistent at the level of the field equations. The only extension of TMG with the desired bulk and boundary properties having a single massive degree of freedom is MMG.

  12. Combining polyethylene and polypropylene: Enhanced performance with PE/iPP multiblock polymers.

    PubMed

    Eagan, James M; Xu, Jun; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Thurber, Christopher M; Macosko, Christopher W; LaPointe, Anne M; Bates, Frank S; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-24

    Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) constitute nearly two-thirds of the world's plastic. Despite their similar hydrocarbon makeup, the polymers are immiscible with one another. Thus, common grades of PE and iPP do not adhere or blend, creating challenges for recycling these materials. We synthesized PE/iPP multiblock copolymers using an isoselective alkene polymerization initiator. These polymers can weld common grades of commercial PE and iPP together, depending on the molecular weights and architecture of the block copolymers. Interfacial compatibilization of phase-separated PE and iPP with tetrablock copolymers enables morphological control, transforming brittle materials into mechanically tough blends.

  13. Comparative proteome analysis of serum from acute pulmonary embolism rat model for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-qing; Yun, Jun; Xue, Fu-bo; Bai, Chang-qing; Yang, Shu-guang; Que, Hai-ping; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, potentially fatal disease and its diagnosis is challenging because clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific. In this study, to investigate protein alterations of a rat PE model, total serum proteins collected at different time points were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bioinformatics analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 20 had corresponding protein candidates in the database. According to their properties and obvious alterations after PE, changes of serum concentrations of Hp, Fn, DBP, RBP, and TTR were selected to be reidentified by western blot analysis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed DBP, RBP, and TTR to be down-regulated at mRNA levels in livers but not in lung tissues. The low serum concentrations of DBP, RBP, and TTR resulted in the up-regulation of 25(OH)D3, vitamin A, and FT4 (ligands of DBP, RBP, and TTR) after acute PE in rat models. The serum levels of Hp and Fn were detected in patients with DVT/PE and controls to explore their diagnostic prospects in acute PE because the mRNA levels of Hp and Fn were found to be up-regulated both in lung tissues and in livers after acute PE. Our data suggested that the concentration of serum Fn in controls was 79.42 +/- 31.57 microg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 554.43 +/- 136.18 microg/L (P < 0.001), and that the concentration of serum Hp in controls was 824.37 +/- 235.24 mg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 2063.48 +/- 425.38 mg/L (P < 0.001). The experimental PE rat model selected in this study was more similar to the clinical process than the other existing PE animal models, and the findings indicated instant changes of serum proteins within 48 h after acute PE. The exploration of these differentially expressed proteins or their combination with existent markers such as D-dimer may greatly improve the

  14. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  15. Positive signs in massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. Furthermore, the high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. And while the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  16. Positive signs in massive gravity

    DOE PAGES

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. Furthermore, the high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small islandmore » in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. And while the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.« less

  17. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  18. RESPECT-ED: Rates of Pulmonary Emboli (PE) and Sub-Segmental PE with Modern Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiograms in Emergency Departments: A Multi-Center Observational Study Finds Significant Yield Variation, Uncorrelated with Use or Small PE Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin; Joseph, Anthony; Read, Catherine; Blecher, Gabriel; Furyk, Jeremy; Bharat, Chrianna; Velusamy, Karthik; Munro, Andrew; Baker, Kylie; Kinnear, Frances; Mukherjee, Ahses; Watkins, Gina; Buntine, Paul; Livesay, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4–10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America. Aims To describe current yield variation and CTPA utilisation in Australasian ED, exploring potential factors correlated with variation. Methods A retrospective multi-centre review of consecutive ED-ordered CTPA using standard radiology reports. ED CTPA report data were inputted onto preformatted data-sheets. The primary outcome was site level yield, analysed both intra-site and against a nominated 15.3% yield. Factors potentially associated with yield were assessed for correlation. Results Fourteen radiology departments (15 ED) provided 7077 CTPA data (94% ≥64-slice CT); PE were reported in 1028 (yield 14.6% (95%CI 13.8–15.4%; range 9.3–25.3%; site variation p <0.0001) with four sites significantly below and one above the 15.3% target. Admissions, CTPA usage, PE diagnosis rates and size of PE were uncorrelated with yield. Large PE (≥lobar) were 55% (CI: 52.1–58.2%) and SSPE 8.8% (CI: 7.1–10.5%) of positive scans. CTPA usage (0.2–1.5% adult attendances) was correlated (p<0.006) with PE diagnosis but not SSPE: large PE proportions. Discussion/ Conclusions We found significant intra-site CTPA yield variation within Australasia. Yield was not clearly correlated with CTPA usage or increased small PE rates. Both SSPE and large PE rates were similar to higher yield historical cohorts. CTPA use was considerably below USA 2.5–3% rates. Higher CTPA utilisation was positively correlated with PE diagnoses, but without evidence of increased proportions

  19. "We Should Assess the Students in More Authentic Situations": Swedish PE Teacher Educators' Views of the Meaning of Movement Skills for Future PE Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik; Pearson, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The question of what knowledge a student of Physical Education (PE) needs to develop during PE teacher education (PETE) was recently discussed. One form of knowledge is the movement practices that students must meet during their education. Given the limited time, a delicate matter is whether to prioritize movement knowledge and consider it as…

  20. Caño Martín Peña (Martín Peña Channel, Puerto Rico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Martín Peña Channel Urban Waters Federal Partnership seeks to make significant contributions to the health and welfare of the eight communities that surround the Martín Peña Channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

  1. Processing massive datasets in genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artiguenave, F.

    2011-02-01

    Life science researches have been profoundly impacted by technological advances allowing faster and cheaper DNA sequencing. Opening a wide range of applications in medical and biology, the last generation sequencing platforms raised new challenges, in particular in processing, analysing and interpreting massive data. In this talk, the growing role of bioinformatics will be illustrated by providing some figures about genome sequencing and others applications aimed at unravelling biological mechanisms. Methods to gather insights from massive amount of data will be illustrated by the genome annotation process, by which genes are identified in the genome sequence.

  2. Broadbeam for Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Deli; Qian, Haifeng; Li, Geoffrey Ye

    2016-05-01

    Massive MIMO has been identified as one of the promising disruptive air interface techniques to address the huge capacity requirement demanded by 5G wireless communications. For practical deployment of such systems, the control message need to be broadcast to all users reliably in the cell using broadbeam. A broadbeam is expected to have the same radiated power in all directions to cover users in any place in a cell. In this paper, we will show that there is no perfect broadbeam. Therefore, we develop a method for generating broadbeam that can allow tiny fluctuations in radiated power. Overall, this can serve as an ingredient for practical deployment of the massive MIMO systems.

  3. Massive photons and Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambiaso, Mauro; Lehnert, Ralf; Potting, Robertus

    2012-04-01

    All quadratic translation- and gauge-invariant photon operators for Lorentz breakdown are included into the Stueckelberg Lagrangian for massive photons in a generalized Rξ gauge. The corresponding dispersion relation and tree-level propagator are determined exactly, and some leading-order results are derived. The question of how to include such Lorentz-violating effects into a perturbative quantum-field expansion is addressed. Applications of these results within Lorentz-breaking quantum-field theories include the regularization of infrared divergences as well as the free propagation of massive vector bosons.

  4. Regional right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism: relationship with clot burden and biomarker profile.

    PubMed

    Tuzovic, Mirela; Adigopula, Sasikanth; Amsallem, Myriam; Kobayashi, Yukari; Kadoch, Michael; Boulate, David; Krishnan, Gomathi; Liang, David; Schnittger, Ingela; Fleischmann, Dominik; McConnell, Michael V; Haddad, François

    2016-03-01

    Regional right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (RRVD) is an echocardiographic feature in acute pulmonary embolism (PE), primarily reported in patients with moderate-to-severe RV dysfunction. This study investigated the clinical importance of RRVD by assessing its relationship with clot burden and biomarkers. We identified consecutive patients admitted to the emergency department between 1999 and 2014 who underwent computed tomographic angiography, echocardiography, and biomarker testing (troponin and NT-proBNP) for suspected acute PE. RRVD was defined as normal excursion of the apex contrasting with hypokinesis of the mid-free wall segment. RV assessment included measurements of ventricular dimensions, fractional area change, free-wall longitudinal strain and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. Clot burden was assessed using the modified Miller score. Of 82 patients identified, 51 had acute PE (mean age 66 ± 17 years, 43% male). No patient had RV myocardial infarction. RRVD was present in 41% of PEs and absent in all patients without PE. Among patients with PE, 86% of patients with RRVD had central or multi-lobar PE. Patients with RRVD had higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe RV dilation (81 vs. 30%, p < 0.01) and dysfunction (86 vs. 23%, p < 0.01). There was a strong trend for higher troponin level in PE patients with RRVD (38 vs. 13% in PE patients without RRVD, p = 0.08), while there was no significant difference for NT-proBNP (67 vs. 73%, p = 0.88). RRVD showed good concordance between readers (87%). RRVD is associated with an increased clot burden in acute PE and is more prevalent among patients with moderate-to-severe RV enlargement and dysfunction.

  5. Combustion of PMMA, PE, and PS in a ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    van der Geld, C.W.M. ); Korting, P.A.O.G. ); Wijchers, T. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the combustion behavior of polymethylmetharcrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) with air investigated in a connected pipe test facility; spectroscopy showed the presence of OH, C{sub 2}, and CH and temperatures between 1300 and 3000 K during combustion. Particular attention was focused on regression rate and combustion efficiency and the role of temperature and soot production. The present investigation gives an understanding of the most important phenomena that control (or emanate from) the combustion of a cylindrical solid fuel with a rearward facing step, and this has application for solid fuel ramjets, the safe burning of toxic waste, and hot gas generators. The results are summarized.

  6. Highly Variable Young Massive Stars in ATLASGAL Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. S. N.; Contreras Peña, C.; Lucas, P. W.; Thompson, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    High-amplitude variability in young stellar objects (YSOs) is usually associated with episodic accretion events. It has not been observed so far in massive YSOs. Here, the high-amplitude variable star sample of Contreras Peña et al. has been used to search for highly variable (ΔK ≥ 1 mag) sources coinciding with dense clumps mapped using the 850 μm continuum emission by the ATLASGAL survey. A total of 18 variable sources are centered on the submillimeter clump peaks and coincide (<1″) with a 24 μm point or compact (<10″) source. Of these 18 sources, 13 can be fit by YSO models. The 13 variable YSOs (VYSOs) have luminosities of ∼103 L ⊙, an average mass of 8 M ⊙, and a range of ages up to 106 yr. A total of 11 of these 13 VYSOs are located in the midst of infrared dark clouds. Nine of the 13 sources have ΔK > 2 mag, significantly higher compared to the mean variability of the entire VVV sample. The light curves of these objects sampled between 2010 and 2015 display rising, declining, or quasi-periodic behavior but no clear periodicity. Light-curve analysis using the Plavchan method shows that the most prominent phased signals have periods of a few hundred days. The nature and timescale of variations found in 6.7 Ghz methanol maser emission in massive stars are similar to that of the VYSO light curves. We argue that the origin of the observed variability is episodic accretion. We suggest that the timescale of a few hundred days may represent the frequency at which a spiraling disk feeds dense gas to the young massive star.

  7. Fast, Massively Parallel Data Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Robert A.; Blevins, Donald W.; Davis, ED

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fast, massively parallel data processor contains 8x16 array of processing elements with efficient interconnection scheme and options for flexible local control. Processing elements communicate with each other on "X" interconnection grid with external memory via high-capacity input/output bus. This approach to conditional operation nearly doubles speed of various arithmetic operations.

  8. Cosmic ray anisotropies to 5 PeV

    SciTech Connect

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W. E-mail: a.w.wolfendale@durham.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    Several large cosmic ray (CR) detectors have recently provided data on the arrival directions of CR, which taken together with previous data recorded over many decades allow the amplitude and phase of the first harmonic to be derived with reasonable precision and up to higher energies. We find a high degree of consistency amongst the various measurements. The new data indicate that at an energy above ∼ 0.1 PeV a change of the CR anisotropy sets in. The amplitude of the first harmonic, which rises to 3 TeV, then diminishes and begins to rise again. The direction of the phase also changes to the opposite one. A measure of understanding follows from the use of two-dimensional maps of cosmic ray excesses over the mean background. When the energy of cosmic rays approaches the PeV region, the excess of cosmic rays moves from the Galactic Anti-Centre to the opposite direction of the Galactic Centre. The possible role of such potential cosmic ray sources as the supernovae Monogem Ring and Vela, which could help to explain some of the observed results, is discussed.

  9. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-12-01

    We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV-vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  10. [Acute pulmonary embolism: beware of the wolf in sheep's clothing].

    PubMed

    Klok, Frederikus A; Vahl, Jelmer E; Huisman, Menno V; van Dijkman, Paul R M

    2012-01-01

    Two male patients aged 57 and 73 were referred to the cardiologist because of progressive dyspnoea. In one patient, the general practitioner had previously adopted an expectative policy because of a clean chest X-ray. At presentation after 4 weeks, the patient was diagnosed with and treated for acute coronary syndrome because of minor ECG abnormalities. Additional CT scanning showed a large saddle embolus. Despite adequate treatment, the patient suffered an electrical asystole and died. The other patient underwent ECG, bicycle ergometry, MRI adenosine, echocardiography and lung function tests over a period of 5 weeks before pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed. As the signs and symptoms of PE are largely non-specific, diagnostic delay is common, with risk of poor clinical outcome. PE should at least be considered whenever a patient presents with acute or worsening breathlessness, chest pain, circulatory collapse or coughing, particularly in the presence of known thrombotic risk factors or when there is no clear alternative.

  11. Immunoadsorption therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders long after the acute phase.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Nanri, Kazunori; Taguchi, Takeshi; Ishiko, Tomoko; Yoshida, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Sugisaki, Kentaro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease with exacerbations involving recurrent or bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Pulse steroid therapy is recommended as the initial, acute-phase treatment for NMO. If ineffective, treatment with plasma exchange (PE) should commence. However, no evidence exists to support the effectiveness of PE long after the acute phase. Immunoadsorption therapy (IA) eliminates pathogenic antibodies while sparing other plasma proteins. With IA, side effects of PE resulting from protein substitution can be avoided. However, whether IA is effective for NMO remains unclear. We describe a patient with anti-aquaporin-4-positive myelitis who responded to IA using a tryptophan polyvinyl alcohol gel column that was begun 52 days after disease onset following the acute phase. Even long after the acute phase when symptoms appear to be stable, IA may be effective and should not be excluded as a treatment choice.

  12. Experimental and clinical observations on massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Lakhanpal, V

    1993-01-01

    We have been able to create a reproducible experimental model of nonexpulsive massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage in a rabbit eye. Massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage was demonstrated on echography and confirmed on histopathologic examination in all eyes. The natural course of the disease suggests that there is very little change in the size of the choroidal detachment in the first 7 days. Maximum liquefaction of the suprachoroidal hemorrhage clot was seen to occur between 7 and 14 days. However, increased retinal and ciliary body atrophy was also noted at 14 days. Therefore, the optimum time to drain massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage appears to be between 7 and 14 days. Immediate sclerotomy during the acute formation of massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage resulted in further increase in the suprachoroidal hemorrhage, with marked extension of the hemorrhage into the retina and vitreous. Therefore, in our opinion, immediate sclerotomy during massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage is detrimental to the eye. Our clinical data have shown that eyes with massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be treated successfully by secondary surgery, and the majority of the eyes can be salvaged with good visual results. No serious complications of this surgery were encountered in our cases. We advocate early surgical intervention between 7 and 14 days. Aggressive anterior and posterior segment reconstruction by anterior and posterior vitrectomy after sclerotomy drainage of the suprachoroidal hemorrhage is essential for better anatomic and visual results. Our animal data and clinical experience suggest that the optimum time of drainage of massive suprachoroidal hemorrhage is between 7 and 14 days. The results of our animal experiments in relation to human clinical application should be taken with caution. Furthermore, we had a small number of animals to study the various groups. In addition, longer follow-up may be needed for comparing controls with the treatment groups. Our animal model may help

  13. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  14. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  15. Classification of principal connections on W{sup r}PE

    SciTech Connect

    Vondra, Jan

    2008-11-18

    We assume a vector bundle E{yields}M and the principal bundle PE of frames of E. Let K be a general linear connection on E and let {lambda} be a linear connection on M. We classify all connections on W{sup r}PE = P{sup r}Mx{sub M}J{sup r}PE naturally given by K and {lambda}.

  16. Modulation of the Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipY by Its PE Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Christopher K.; Broadwell, Lindsey J.; Hayne, Cassandra K.; Neher, Saskia B.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors over 160 genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, several of which have roles in the pathogen’s virulence. A number of PE/PPE proteins are secreted via Type VII secretion systems known as the ESX secretion systems. One PE protein, LipY, has a triglyceride lipase domain in addition to its PE domain. LipY can regulate intracellular triglyceride levels and is also exported to the cell wall by one of the ESX family members, ESX-5. Upon export, LipY’s PE domain is removed by proteolytic cleavage. Studies using cells and crude extracts suggest that LipY’s PE domain not only directs its secretion by ESX-5, but also functions to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the role of LipY’s PE domain in the regulation of its enzymatic activity. First, we established an improved purification method for several LipY variants using detergent micelles. We then used enzymatic assays to confirm that the PE domain down-regulates LipY activity. The PE domain must be attached to LipY in order to effectively inhibit it. Finally, we determined that full length LipY and the mature lipase lacking the PE domain (LipYΔPE) have similar melting temperatures. Based on our improved purification strategy and activity-based approach, we concluded that LipY’s PE domain down-regulates its enzymatic activity but does not impact the thermal stability of the enzyme. PMID:26270534

  17. Web-PE: Internet-Delivered Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    sessions of a web-version of Prolonged Exposure (PE), “Web-PE,” delivered over 8- weeks to 10 sessions of Present Centered Treatment (PCT) delivered over...8- weeks by a therapist in 120 active duty military personnel with PTSD. Up to 170 individuals will be consented to obtain data from 120 for analysis...Exposure (PE), “Web-PE,” delivered over 8- weeks to 10 sessions of Present Centered Treatment (PCT) delivered over 8- weeks by a therapist in 120

  18. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  19. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  20. PE_PGRS30 is required for the full virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Iantomasi, Raffaella; Sali, Michela; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Palucci, Ivana; Zumbo, Antonella; Soldini, Silvia; Rocca, Stefano; Greco, Emanuela; Maulucci, Giuseppe; De Spirito, Marco; Fraziano, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    The role and function of PE_PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains elusive. In this study for the first time, Mtb isogenic mutants missing selected PE_PGRSs were used to investigate their role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB). We demonstrate that the MtbΔPE_PGRS30 mutant was impaired in its ability to colonize lung tissue and to cause tissue damage, specifically during the chronic steps of infection. Inactivation of PE_PGRS30 resulted in an attenuated phenotype in murine and human macrophages due to the inability of the Mtb mutant to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of PE_PGRS30 to complement MtbΔPE_PGRS30, we show that the unique C-terminal domain of the protein is not required for the full virulence. Interestingly, when Mycobacterium smegmatis recombinant strain expressing PE_PGRS30 was used to infect macrophages or mice in vivo, we observed enhanced cytotoxicity and cell death, and this effect was dependent upon the PGRS domain of the protein.Taken together these results indicate that PE_PGRS30 is necessary for the full virulence of Mtb and sufficient to induce cell death in host cells by the otherwise non-pathogenic species M. smegmatis, clearly demonstrating that PE_PGRS30 is an Mtb virulence factor.

  1. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    PubMed

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  2. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  3. Massive gas gangrene secondary to occult colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrew S; Crawford, Matthew D; Gupta, Rajan T

    2016-06-01

    Gas gangrene is a rare but often fatal soft-tissue infection. Because it is uncommon and the classic symptom of crepitus does not appear until the infection is advanced, prompt diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. We present a case report of a middle-aged man who presented with acute onset lower-extremity pain that was initially thought to be due to deep vein thrombosis. After undergoing workup for pulmonary embolism, he was found to have massive gas gangrene of the lower extremity secondary to an occult colon adenocarcinoma and died within hours of presentation from multisystem organ failure.

  4. New branches of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comelli, D.; Crisostomi, M.; Koyama, K.; Pilo, L.; Tasinato, G.

    2015-06-01

    The basic building block for Lorentz-invariant and ghost-free massive gravity is the square root of the combination g-1η , where g-1 is the inverse of the physical metric and η is a reference metric. Since the square root of a matrix is not uniquely defined, it is possible to have physically inequivalent potentials corresponding to different branches. We show that around the Minkowski background, the only perturbatively well-defined branch is the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley. On the other hand, if Lorentz symmetry is broken spontaneously, other potentials exist with a standard perturbative expansion. We show this explicitly building new Lorentz-invariant, ghost-free massive gravity potentials for theories that in the background preserve rotational invariance but break Lorentz boosts.

  5. Black holes in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Brito, Richard

    2015-08-01

    We review the black hole (BH) solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension, and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact BH solutions, analogous to those of general relativity (GR). In addition to these solutions, hairy BHs—solutions with no correspondent in GR—have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of Birkhoff’s theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these BHs richer and more complex than those of GR. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild BH exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical BHs are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability of the Kerr solution imposes stringent bounds on the graviton mass.

  6. Topologically massive higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2011-10-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the presence of a non-trivial trace and its logarithmic partner at the chiral point. The trace modes carry energy opposite in sign to the traceless modes. The logarithmic partner of the traceless mode carries negative energy indicating an instability at the chiral point. We make several comments on the asymptotic symmetry and its possible deformations at this chiral point and speculate on the higher spin generalisation of LCFT2 dual to the spin-3 massive gravity at the chiral point.

  7. Spin-3 topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Long, Jiang; Wu, Jun-bao

    2011-11-01

    In this Letter, we study the spin-3 topologically massive gravity (TMG), paying special attention to its properties at the chiral point. We propose an action describing the higher spin fields coupled to TMG. We discuss the traceless spin-3 fluctuations around the AdS3 vacuum and find that there is an extra local massive mode, besides the left-moving and right-moving boundary massless modes. At the chiral point, such extra mode becomes massless and degenerates with the left-moving mode. We show that at the chiral point the only degrees of freedom in the theory are the boundary right-moving graviton and spin-3 field. We conjecture that spin-3 chiral gravity with generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary condition is holographically dual to 2D chiral CFT with classical W3 algebra and central charge cR = 3 l / G.

  8. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  9. Theoretical Considerations of Massive Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the formation of massive stars. The formation of massive stars is different in many ways from the formation of other stars. The presentation shows the math, and the mechanisms that must be possible for a massive star to form.

  10. Massive star clusters in galaxies.

    PubMed

    Harris, William E

    2010-02-28

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  11. Voids in massive neutrino cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Massara, Elena; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Sutter, P.M. E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it E-mail: sutter@oats.inaf.it

    2015-11-01

    Cosmic voids are a promising environment to characterize neutrino-induced effects on the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe. We perform a comprehensive numerical study of the statistical properties of voids, identified both in the matter and galaxy distributions, in massive and massless neutrino cosmologies. The matter density field is obtained by running several independent N-body simulations with cold dark matter and neutrino particles, while the galaxy catalogs are modeled by populating the dark matter halos in simulations via a halo occupation distribution (HOD) model to reproduce the clustering properties observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II Data Release 7. We focus on the impact of massive neutrinos on the following void statistical properties: number density, ellipticities, two-point statistics, density and velocity profiles. Considering the matter density field, we find that voids in massive neutrino cosmologies are less evolved than those in the corresponding massless neutrinos case: there is a larger number of small voids and a smaller number of large ones, their profiles are less evacuated, and they present a lower wall at the edge. Moreover, the degeneracy between σ{sub 8} and Ω{sub ν} is broken when looking at void properties. In terms of the galaxy density field, we find that differences among cosmologies are difficult to detect because of the small number of galaxy voids in the simulations. Differences are instead present when looking at the matter density and velocity profiles around these voids.

  12. Extinction in young massive clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Up to ages of ~100 Myr, massive clusters are still swamped in large amounts of gas and dust, causing considerable and uneven levels of extinction. At the same time, large grains (ices?) produced by type II supernovae profoundly alter the interstellar medium (ISM), thus resulting in extinction properties very different from those of the diffuse ISM. To obtain physically meaningful parameters of stars (luminosities, effective temperatures, masses, ages, etc.) we must understand and measure the local extinction law. We have developed a powerful method to unambiguously determine the extinction law everywhere across a cluster field, using multi-band photometry of red giant stars belonging to the red clump (RC) and are applying it to young massive clusters in the Local Group. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, with about 20 RC stars per arcmin2, for each field we can easily derive an accurate extinction curve over the entire wavelength range of the photometry. As an example, we present the extinction law of the Tarantula nebula (30 Dor) based on thousands of stars observed as part of the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. We discuss how the incautious adoption of the Milky Way extinction law in the analysis of massive star forming regions may lead to serious underestimates of the fluxes and of the star formation rates by factors of 2 or more.

  13. Resuscitation of prolonged cardiac arrest from massive pulmonary embolism by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Seok; Choi, Wookjin; Hwang, Jaecheol

    2017-01-10

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be used as a rescue strategy in cases of prolonged cardiac arrest caused by massive pulmonary embolism. We present a case of a male patient who was in prolonged cardiac arrest following massive pulmonary embolism. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated approximately 93 min after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After resuscitation, bedside echocardiography and a chest computed tomography angiogram revealed a massive pulmonary embolism during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The patient received transcatheter mechanical thrombectomy without haemodynamic instability in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. He was also treated with therapeutic hypothermia to improve neurological outcome. Renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury was continued for 36 days. The patient was discharged at 60 days after admission with no serious complications. This case demonstrates that veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and therapeutic hypothermia are an effective treatment strategy for prolonged cardiac arrest caused by massive pulmonary embolism.

  14. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  15. Functional conservation of the sex-lethal sex determining promoter, Sxl-Pe, in Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Jinks, Timothy Morgan; Calhoun, Gretchen; Schedl, Paul

    2003-05-01

    The primary sex determination signal in Drosophila melanogaster, the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes, sets the activity state of the switch gene, Sex-lethal ( Sxl), by regulating the establishment promoter, m-Sxl-Pe. We have identified and characterized the establishment promoter, v-Sxl-Pe, of the distantly related species Drosophila virilis. Like melanogaster, the virilis Sxl-Pe is organized into four sub-domains: the Sxl-Pe mRNA leader and exon E1 of Sxl protein, the core promoter, the sex-specific element and the augmentation element. The core promoter and sex-specific element of v-Sxl-Pe show considerable sequence similarity to m-Sxl-Pe and contain target sites for components of the X/A signaling system. While the augmentation element of v-Sxl-Pe also has sequence motifs that could function as target sites for the X/A signaling system, it shows little similarity to the melanogaster augmentation element. Functional studies reveal that v-Sxl-Pe drives sex-specific expression in D. melanogaster embryos and that the activity of the virilis promoter is controlled by known components of the melanogaster X/A counting system. Although v-Sxl-Pe responds appropriately to the melanogaster sex determination signal, it is less active than Sxl-Pe from melanogaster. Unexpectedly, the reduced activity is due to differences in the activity of the conserved core promoter, while the non-conserved augmentation element functions effectively. These findings suggest that low-affinity target sites for the X/A counting system are critical for the functioning of Sxl-Pe.

  16. PE_PGRS30 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates suppression of proinflammatory immune response in macrophages through its PGRS and PE domains.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2016-09-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen relies on its ability to survive inside macrophages and evade host immune mechanisms. M. tuberculosis employs multiple strategies to confer resistance against immune system including inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion, modulation of cytokine responses and granuloma formation. PE_PGRS proteins, uniquely present in pathogenic mycobacteria, are cell surface molecules that are suggested to interact with host cells. PE_PGRS proteins have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, immuno-regulatory property of Rv1651c-encoded PE_PGRS30 protein was explored. Infection of PMA-differentiated human THP-1 macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis harbouring pVV(1651c) resulted in reduced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6, as compared to infection with M. smegmatis harbouring the control plasmid pVV16. No differential effect was observed on bacterial persistence inside macrophages or on macrophage mortality upon infection with the two recombinant strains. Infection of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant M. smegmatis expressing deletion variants of PE_PGRS30 indicated that anti-inflammatory function of the protein is possessed by its PGRS and PE domains while the C-terminal domain, when expressed alone, displayed antagonistic effect in terms of TNF-α secretion. These results suggest that PE_PGRS30 interferes with macrophage immune functions important for activation of adaptive T-cell responses.

  17. 78 FR 13401 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8453-PE, U.S. Partnership...., Washington, DC 20224, or through the Internet at Katherine.b.dean@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  18. 75 FR 5868 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8453-PE, U.S. Partnership...., Washington, DC 20224, or through the Internet at Dawn.E.Bidne@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title:...

  19. 75 FR 28325 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8879-PE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8879-PE AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8879-PE, IRS e-file Signature..., DC 20224, or through the Internet at Joel.P.Goldberger@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  20. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  1. synthesis of novel four armed PE-PCL grafted superparamagnetic and biocompatible nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Panja, Sudipta; Saha, Biswajit; Ghosh, S K; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2013-10-08

    Novel biocompatible polymer immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are prepared by grafting four armed pentaerythritol poly(ε-polycaprolactone) (PE-PCL) onto silane modified MNP. The MNPs are synthesized by hydrothermal process and its modification using (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMAS) coating is done by the sol-gel technique. The pentaerythritol (PE) initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is carried out to prepare four armed PE-PCL. The reaction is shown to follow first order kinetics. The structure of PE-PCL is confirmed by NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF analysis. The in situ grafting of PE-PCL onto modified MNP has been carried out by using 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an intermediate linker. The grafting density as determined by TGA analysis has been found to be significantly higher than previously reported linear PCL grafted MNPs in the literature. This leads to uniform dispersion of grafted MNPs which still is a challenging task in contemporary research. The effective dispersion of MNP into PE-PCL matrix is analyzed by HRTEM. The saturation magnetization of the PE-PCL grafted MNPs is significantly high and this can be tailored further by varying the grafting density. The biocompatibility of polymer grafted nanoparticles is confirmed by MTT assay using HeLa cell line. The superparamagnetic and biocompatible novel PE-PCL grafted MNP so prepared would have manifold potential applications including in therapy and targeted drug delivery.

  2. Physical Activity during Physical Education Lessons: A Qualitative Investigation of Australian PE Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennie, Andrew; Langan, Edel

    2015-01-01

    School physical education (PE) experiences play a critical role in adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels. Teachers are crucial to students' initial experiences in PA; however, limited research has explored teachers' perspectives about PA during PE using in-depth qualitative research techniques. We conducted interviews with 25 current…

  3. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  4. The Swedish Sports Movement and the PE Teacher 1940-2003: From Supporter to Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) used to be the foremost advocate and defender of physical education (PE) as a subject and the work of PE teachers. This paper deals with the way in which this support manifested itself during 1940-2003 and is based on a discourse analysis of texts from RF. The analysis shows that RF has assigned three…

  5. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  6. Impact of ICT and PE on Disaffected Pupils: Interim Report March 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Andre; Needham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Over a three month period in spring 2004, The British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE) and New Media (a PLATO Learning Company) researched and evaluated models for harnessing ICT in physical education (PE). The project developed a unique ICT infrastructure for two PE departments to evaluate the impact of ICT on…

  7. "Really on the Ball": Exploring the Implications of Teachers' PE-CPD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Campbell, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) is currently high on the Scottish Education agenda. Recent curriculum reform in Scotland, with the introduction of Curriculum for Excellence, places physical education (PE) at the forefront for its role in directly supporting learners' mental, emotional, social and physical well-being. This emphasis on PE,…

  8. Adjunctive Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, V. M.; Lee-Llacer, J.; Williams, J.; Ubaissi, H.; Gutierrez, G.

    2010-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are sometimes placed as an adjunct to full anticoagulation in patients with significant pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to determine the prevalence of adjunctive IVC filter placement in individuals diagnosed with PE, as well as the effect of adjunctive filter placement on mortality in patients with right heart strain associated with PE. This was a retrospective study of patients with acute PE treated with full anticoagulation admitted to a single academic medical center. Information abstracted from patient charts included presence or absence of right heart strain and of deep-vein thrombosis, and whether or not an IVC filter was placed. The endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Over 2.75 years, we found that 248 patients were diagnosed with acute PE, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 4.4%. The prevalence of adjunctive IVC filter placement was 13.3% (33 of 248), and the prevalence of documented right heart strain was 27.0% (67 of 248). In-hospital mortality was 10.2% in the non-filter-treated group (5 of 49), whereas there were no deaths in the filter-treated group (0 of 18); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.37). Both the presence of deep-vein thrombosis and of right heart strain increased the likelihood that an adjunctive IVC filter was placed (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). At our institution, patients were treated with IVC filters in addition to anticoagulation in 13.3% of cases of acute PE. Prospective studies or large clinical registries should be conducted to clarify whether this practice improves outcomes.

  9. Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.

    The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".

  10. Scintigraphic Evidence for Overdiagnosis of Small PE on CT Pulmonary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A 68-year-old man with recent history of a fall presented with dyspnea on exertion, and underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for possible pulmonary embolism (PE). The CTPA was first read by the radiology resident as nondiagnostic for segmental PE. Subsequent planar perfusion (Q) images were normal; meanwhile, the attending radiologist revised the CTPA results as subsegmental PE in the left upper lobe. Further Q-SPECT images were obtained and fused with CTPA for clarification, which showed normal perfusion in the region of PE. The patient was monitored without anticoagulation treatment and remained uneventful for 12 months. This case illustrates that CTPA can lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of nonocclusive subsegmental PE.

  11. PE-11, a peptide derived from chromogranin B, in the rat eye.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Katrin; Troger, Josef; Gramlich, Oliver; Grus, Franz; Hattmannstorfer, Rosa; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Joachim, Stephanie; Schmid, Eduard; Teuchner, Barbara; Haas, Gertrud; Bechrakis, Nikolaos

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the presence and distribution of PE-11, a peptide derived from chromogranin B, in the rat eye. For this purpose, newborn rats were injected with a single dosage of 50mg/kg capsaicin subcutaneously under the neck fold and after three months, particular eye tissues were dissected and the concentration of PE-11-like immunoreactivity was determined by radioimmunoassay. Furthermore, PE-11-like immunoreactivities were characterized in an extract of the rat eye by reversed phase HPLC. Then, the distribution pattern of PE-11 was investigated in the rat eye and rat trigeminal ganglion by immunofluorescence. As a result, PE-11 was present in each tissue of the rat eye and capsaicin pretreatment led to a 88.05% (±7.07) and a 64.26% (±14.17) decrease of the levels of PE-11 in the cornea and choroid/sclera, respectively, and to a complete loss in the iris/ciliary body complex. Approximately 70% of immunoreactivities detected by the PE-11 antiserum have been found to represent authentic PE-11. Sparse nerve fibers were visualized in the corneal and uveal stroma, surrounding blood vessels at the limbus, ciliary body and choroid and in association with the dilator and sphincter muscle. Furthermore, immunoreactivity was present in the corneal endothelium. In the retina and optic nerve, glia was labeled. In the rat trigeminal ganglion, PE-11-immunoreactivity was visualized in small and medium sized ganglion cells with a diameter of up to 30μm. In conclusion, there is unequivocal evidence that PE-11 is a constituent of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons innervating the rat eye and the distribution pattern is typically peptidergic in the peripheral innervation but in the retina completely atypical for neuropeptides and unique.

  12. [Cloning and functional analysis of Phyllostachys edulis MYB transcription factor PeMYB2].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong-Chang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Ying-Wu; Yang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Wang, Chao-Li

    2013-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factor is one of the largest families in plants, which plays important roles in accepting stress signals from environment and regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes. In this paper, using homologous cloning and RACE technology, a MYB-type transcription factor, designated PeMYB2, was cloned from Phyllostachys edulis. The results of bioinformatics showed that PeMYB2 is a typical R2R3-MYB. It contained two tandem repeats in its N-terminus, and a membrane protein DUF3651 in its C-terminus. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeMYB2 shared the highest homology with 85.98% to OsMYB18 protein from Oryza sativa spp. Japonica. In addition, a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeMYB2 could activate the expression of downstream genes. After PeMYB2 was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, seven PeMYB2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis showed that over-expression of PeMYB2 caused delayed flower or dwarfism in transgenic Arabidopsis. Under the abiotic stress conditions, such as salt and cold stresses, the over-expression of PeMYB2 in Arabidopsis had higher survival rate than the wild-type Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in the transgenic and wild-type plants under the salt stress condition showed that PeMYB2 regulated the expression of NXH1, SOS1, RD29A, and COR15A. As the result, PeMYB2 might play an important role in various responses to abiotic stresses in P. edulis.

  13. Upper extremity acute compartment syndrome during tissue plasminogen activator therapy for pulmonary embolism in a morbidly obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Serkan; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Ulusoy, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are more frequently observed in morbidly obese patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent which dissolves the thrombus more rapidly than conventional heparin therapy and reduces the mortality and morbidity rates associated with PE. Compartment syndrome is a well-known and documented complication of thrombolytic treatment. In awake, oriented and cooperative patients, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made based on clinical findings including swelling, tautness, irrational and continuous pain, altered sensation, and severe pain due to passive stretching. These clinical findings may not be able to be adequately assessed in unconscious patients. Presentation of case In this case report, we present compartment syndrome observed, for which fasciotomy was performed on the upper right extremity of a 46-year old morbidly obese, conscious female patient who was receiving tPA due to a massive pulmonary embolism. Discussion Compartment syndrome had occurred due to the damage caused by the repeated unsuccessful catheterisation attempts to the brachial artery and the accompanying tPA treatment. Thus, the bleeding that occurred in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm led to acute compartment syndrome (ACS). After relaxation was brought about in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm, the circulation in the limb was restored. Conclusion As soon as the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made, an emergency fasciotomy should be performed. Close follow-up is required to avoid wound healing problems after the fasciotomy. PMID:25618841

  14. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    SciTech Connect

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-27

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, mu->e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  15. Solid holography and massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-02-01

    Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.

  16. The PGRS domain is responsible for translocation of PE_PGRS30 to cell poles while the PE and the C-terminal domains localize it to the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Garg, Lalit C

    2014-03-18

    PE_PGRS proteins localize in the mycobacterial cell wall and the cell wall localization of PE_PGRS33 has been shown to be attributed to its PE domain. In this study, we expressed deletion mutants of PE_PGRS30 in Mycobacterium smegmatis to characterize the role of its domains in protein localization. It was revealed that, apart from the PE domain, the C-terminal domain present in few PE_PGRS proteins carries individual cell wall localization signals. Proteinase K sensitivity assay showed that PE_PGRS30 is exposed on the mycobacterial surface through its PGRS domain. PGRS domain was also shown to be responsible for polar localization of PE_PGRS30.

  17. Massive hemorrhage management–a best evidence topic report

    PubMed Central

    Vymazal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Massive hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Better control of bleeding could improve survival rates by 10%–20%. Transfusion intervention concepts have been formulated in order to minimize acute traumatic coagulopathy. These interventions still have not been standardized and vary among medical centers. Materials and Methods Based on a literature search using free term keywords and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) index, we analyzed published articles addressing massive hemorrhage, component therapy, fresh whole blood, and fibrinogen from the year 2000 onward, in journals with impact factor >1.000, in Medline, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The evidence was grouped into topics including laboratory testing and transfusion interventions/viscoelastic assays vs standard laboratory tests, the effect of component therapy on patient outcome, the effect of warm fresh whole blood on patient outcome, and the effects of fibrinogen in severe bleeding. The obtained information was compared, evaluated, confronted, and was focused on to present an adequate and individual-based massive hemorrhage management approach. Results Viscoelastic whole-blood assays are superior to standard coagulation blood tests for the identification of coagulopathy and for guiding decisions on appropriate therapy in patients with severe bleeding. Replacement of plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and fibrinogen in a ratio of 1:1:1:1 has appeared to be the best substitution for lost whole blood. There is no evidence that cryoprecipitate improves the outcome of patients with severe hemorrhage. Current literature promotes the transfusion of warm fresh whole blood, which seems to be superior to the component therapy in certain clinical situations. Some authors recommend that fibrinogen and other coagulation factors be administered according to the viscoelastic attributes of the blood clot. Conclusion This best-evidence topic report brings comprehensive information

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  19. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity.

  20. Impact of protein domains on PE_PGRS30 polar localization in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Flavio; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Minerva, Mariachiara; Anoosheh, Saber; Palucci, Ivana; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Palmieri, Valentina; Camassa, Serena; Sali, Michela; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Bitter, Wilbert; Manganelli, Riccardo; De Spirito, Marco; Delogu, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    PE_PGRS proteins are unique to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and a number of other pathogenic mycobacteria. PE_PGRS30, which is required for the full virulence of M. tuberculosis (Mtb), has three main domains, i.e. an N-terminal PE domain, repetitive PGRS domain and the unique C-terminal domain. To investigate the role of these domains, we expressed a GFP-tagged PE_PGRS30 protein and a series of its functional deletion mutants in different mycobacterial species (Mtb, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis) and analysed protein localization by confocal microscopy. We show that PE_PGRS30 localizes at the mycobacterial cell poles in Mtb and M. bovis BCG but not in M. smegmatis and that the PGRS domain of the protein strongly contributes to protein cellular localization in Mtb. Immunofluorescence studies further showed that the unique C-terminal domain of PE_PGRS30 is not available on the surface, except when the PGRS domain is missing. Immunoblot demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to maintain the protein strongly associated with the non-soluble cellular fraction. These results suggest that the repetitive GGA-GGN repeats of the PGRS domain contain specific sequences that contribute to protein cellular localization and that polar localization might be a key step in the PE_PGRS30-dependent virulence mechanism.

  1. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  2. Folding and stability studies on C-PE and its natural N-terminal truncant.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Khalid; Parmar, Asha; Rahman, Safikur; Kaushal, Avani; Madamwar, Datta; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2014-03-01

    The conformational and functional state of biliproteins can be determined by optical properties of the covalently linked chromophores. α-Subunit of most of the phycoerythrin contains 164 residues. Recently determined crystal structure of the naturally truncated form of α-subunit of cyanobacterial phycoerythrin (Tr-αC-PE) lacks 31 N-terminal residues present in its full length form (FL-αC-PE). This provides an opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationship between these two natural forms. We measured guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturation curves of FL-αC-PE and Tr-αC-PE proteins, followed by observing changes in absorbance at 565nm, fluorescence at 350 and 573nm, and circular dichroism at 222nm. The denaturation curve of each protein was analyzed for ΔGD(∘), the value of Gibbs free energy change on denaturation (ΔGD) in the absence of GdmCl. The main conclusions of the this study are: (i) GdmCl-induced denaturation (native state↔denatured state) of FL-αC-PE and Tr-αC-PE is reversible and follows a two-state mechanism, (ii) FL-αC-PE is 1.4kcalmol(-1) more stable than Tr-αC-PE, (iii) truncation of 31-residue long fragment that contains two α-helices, does not alter the 3-D structure of the remaining protein polypeptide chain, protein-chromophore interaction, and (iv) amino acid sequence of Tr-αC-PE determines the functional structure of the phycoerythrin.

  3. PRISM Polarimetry of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkstra, Brennan; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Skiff, Brian; Covey, Kevin R.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We present the early results from our long-term, multi-epoch filter polarization survey of massive stars in and around young Galactic clusters. These BVRI polarization data were obtained using the PRISM instrument mounted on the 1.8m Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory. We first detail the creation of our new semi-automated polarization data reduction pipeline that we developed to process these data. Next, we present our analysis of the instrumental polarization properties of the PRISM instrument, via observations of polarized and unpolarized standard stars. Finally, we present early results on the total and intrinsic polarization behavior of several isolated, previously suggested classical Be stars, and discuss these results in the context of the larger project.BK acknowledges support from a NSF/REU at the University of Oklahoma. This program was also supported by NSF-AST 11411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  4. Merlin - Massively parallel heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittie, Larry; Maples, Creve

    1989-01-01

    Hardware and software for Merlin, a new kind of massively parallel computing system, are described. Eight computers are linked as a 300-MIPS prototype to develop system software for a larger Merlin network with 16 to 64 nodes, totaling 600 to 3000 MIPS. These working prototypes help refine a mapped reflective memory technique that offers a new, very general way of linking many types of computer to form supercomputers. Processors share data selectively and rapidly on a word-by-word basis. Fast firmware virtual circuits are reconfigured to match topological needs of individual application programs. Merlin's low-latency memory-sharing interfaces solve many problems in the design of high-performance computing systems. The Merlin prototypes are intended to run parallel programs for scientific applications and to determine hardware and software needs for a future Teraflops Merlin network.

  5. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xian; Heisenberg, Lavinia E-mail: lavinia.heisenberg@eth-its.ethz.ch

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  6. BFKL Pomeron with massive gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene; Lipatov, Lev; Siddikov, Marat

    2014-04-01

    We solve the BFKL equation in the leading logarithmic approximation numerically in the Yang-Mills theory with the Higgs mechanism for the vector boson mass generation. It can be considered as a model for the amplitude with the correct behavior of the s-channel partial waves at large impact parameters. The Pomeron spectrum of the massive BFKL kernel in the ω space for t=0 coincides with the continuous spectrum for the massless case although the density of its eigenvalues is 2 times smaller for ω>ω0, where ω0 is a negative number. We find a simple parametrization for the corresponding eigenfunctions. Because the leading singularity in the ω plane in this Higgs model for t=0 is a fixed cut, the Regge pole contributions could be only for nonphysical positive t. Hence we can state that the correct behavior at large b does not influence the main properties of the BFKL equation.

  7. Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  8. Understanding the Two-Photon Absorption Spectrum of PE2 Platinum Acetylide Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-09

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0188 UNDERSTANDING THE TWO-PHOTON ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF PE2 PLATINUM ACETYLIDE COMPLEX (POSTPRINT) Thomas M...UNDERSTANDING THE TWO-PHOTON ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF PE2 PLATINUM ACETYLIDE COMPLEX (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER...on the two-absorption crosssection spectrum of trans-Pt(PBu3)2 (C≡C−C6H4−C≡C−C6H5)2 (PE2) platinum acetylide complex employing the femtosecond

  9. Norovirus GII.Pe Genotype: Tracking a Foodborne Outbreak on a Cruise Ship Through Molecular Epidemiology, Brazil, 2014.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; Ribeiro, Cibele Daniel; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2016-12-08

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In 2014, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV became the suspected etiology. Here we present the molecular identification of the NoV strains and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Food (cream cheese, tuna salad, grilled fish, orange mousse, and vegetables soup) and clinical samples were analyzed by ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and sequencing. Genogroup GII NoV was identified by ELISA and conventional RT-PCR in fecal samples from 5 of 12 patients tested (41.7%), and in the orange mousse food sample by conventional RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Two fecal GII NoV samples and the orange mousse GII NoV sample were successfully genotyped as GII.Pe (ORF 1), revealed 98.0-98.8% identities among them, and shared phylogenetically distinct cluster. Establishing the source of a NoV outbreak can be a challenging task. In this report, the molecular analysis of the partial RdRp NoV gene provided a powerful tool for genotyping (GII.Pe) and tracking of outbreak-related samples. In addition, the same fast and simple extraction methods applied to clinical samples could be successfully used for complex food matrices, and have the potential to be introduced in routine laboratories for screening foods for presence of NoV.

  10. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Berkeley -- In a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy. On Oct. 20, 2004, Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki saw the star let loose an outburst so bright that it was initially mistaken for a supernova. The star survived, but for only two years. On Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed the star actually blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova 2006jc. Swift UVOT Image Swift UVOT Image (Credit: NASA / Swift / S.Immler) "We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," says University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader. artistic rendering This artistic rendering depicts two years in the life of a massive blue supergiant star, which burped and spewed a shell of gas, then, two years later, exploded. When the supernova slammed into the shell of gas, X-rays were produced. (Credit: NASA/Sonoma State Univ./A.Simonnet) Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters. "The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," says Immler. "This

  11. Remark on massive particle's de Sitter tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Chen, De-You; Wen, Dan E-mail: deyouchen@126.com

    2013-11-01

    In the work [J. Y. Zhang and Z. Zhao, Massive particles's black hole tunneling and de Sitter tunneling, Nucl. Phys. B 725 (2005) 173.], the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon has been first described in the tunneling framework. However, the geodesic equation of the massive particle was unnaturally and awkwardly defined there by investigating the relation between the group and phase velocity. In this paper, we start from the Lagrangian analysis on the action to naturally produce the geodesic equation of the tunneling massive particle. Then, based on the new definition for the geodesic equation, we revisit the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon. It is noteworthy that, the highlight of our work is a new and important development of the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling method, which can make it more physical.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Penicillium expansum PE-12.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Qi, Z; Yu, Q S; Tang, K X

    2013-07-15

    Penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. We isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PeGPD) from P. expansum PE-12 through reverse transcriptase PCR and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The gene is 1266 bp long, including an ORF of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. A phylogenetic tree based on GPD proteins showed that P. expansum is close to Aspergillus species, but comparatively distant from P. marneffei. Southern blot results revealed a single copy of PeGPD, and expression analysis gave evidence of high expression levels. PeGPD genes have potential for genetic engineering of P. expansum for industrial lipase production.

  13. Conversion of post-industrial PET-PE scraps into compatibilized plastic blends for new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Flavia; Bruni, Cosimo; Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Castelvetro, Valter; Ciardelli, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) / poly(ethylene) (PE) granules coming from a post-industrial packaging stream were directed to new applications. The collected material was first characterized through selective extractions followed by infrared analysis. After the characterization work the presence of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) copolymer was evidenced. Moreover the degree of yellowing was shown to increase by increasing the PE content in the granules batch. The blending of PET/PE with a stabilizer allowed to control its thermal stability, moreover the addition of compatibilizers resulted in the possibility of modulating both rheological and mechanical properties. Hence the use of stabilizers and compatibilizers allowed to upgrade postindustrial PET/PE based materials for the use in different industrial applications

  14. Production and crosslinking of multi-layer tubes (PE & metal) by E-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyball, Alfred

    2000-03-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of PE-tubes has been used for heating floors for about 25 years. Such tubes are also used today for drinking water supply. A further development has been the coating of such tubes with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol-Copolymers (EVAL), in order to prevent oxygen diffusion into the water through the PE tube. For about 15 years composite tubes made of PE and aluminum have been available. These tubes are crosslinked with electron beams. The energy of the accelerated electrons must be adjusted for the particular tube configuration, so that the inner PE-layer will be crosslinked. This paper will concern itself with the manufacture and the crosslinking of composite tubes.

  15. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in the Course of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Clinical Significance and Impact on Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Agnieszka; Kiluk, Izabela; Kosacka, Urszula; Krajewski, Jacek; Musial, Wlodzimierz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The relationship and clinical implications of atrial fibrillation (AF) in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are poorly investigated. We aimed to analyze clinical characteristics and prognosis in PE patients with paroxysmal AF episode. Methods. From the 391 patients with PE 31 subjects with paroxysmal AF were selected. This group was compared with patients with PE and sinus rhythm (SR) and 32 patients with PE and permanent AF. Results. Paroxysmal AF patients were the oldest. Concomitant DVT varies between groups: paroxysmal AF 32.3%, SR 49.5%, and permanent AF 28.1% (p = 0.02). The stroke history frequency was 4.6% SR, 12.9% paroxysmal AF, and 21.9% permanent AF (p < 0.001). Paroxysmal AF comparing to permanent AF and SR individuals had higher estimated SPAP (56 versus 48 versus 47 mmHg, p = 0.01) and shorter ACT (58 versus 65 versus 70 ms, p = 0.04). Patients with AF were more often classified into high-risk group according to revised Geneva score and sPESI than SR patients. In-hospital mortality was lower in SR (5%) and paroxysmal AF (6.5%) compared to permanent AF group (25%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Patients with PE-associated paroxysmal AF constitute a separate population. More severe impairment of the parameters reflecting RV afterload may indicate relation between PE severity and paroxysmal AF episode. Paroxysmal AF has no impact on short-term mortality. PMID:28280732

  16. Recombinant chimeric vaccine composed of PRRSV antigens and truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE-K13).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Ping; Wang, Tsan-Chih; Wang, Shiou-Jen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Wu, Eva; Lai, Shao-Qun; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Liao, Chao-Wei

    2013-10-01

    A Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE-KDEL)-based chimeric subunit vaccine system was recently developed using a reverse vaccinology technique. In this study, the plasmids containing PE-PRRS chimeric subunits were constructed that composed of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigen moieties, a ligand moiety and a Pseudomonas exotoxin A deleted domain III (PE (ΔIII)), and a carboxyl terminal moiety that includes a polypeptide with amino acid sequence KDEL (K3). The PE-PRRS combination vaccine can effectively induce not only PRRSV-specific INF-γ cellular immunity but also a slow-reacting and complement-requiring type serum neutralizing antibody in pigs. In a specific pathogen free (SPF) pig challenge model, body temperature (colonic temperature), occurrence of PRRSV viremia, nasal excretions, gross and histopathological appearances of pneumonia, and serum antibody activity (IFA and SN) titers significantly differed between the immunized group and the control group. The survey showed that a 0.3mg/dose PE-PRRS vaccine formula conferred protection against PRRSV. A field trial of PE-PRRS vaccine was performed to study the immune response of pregnant sows after vaccination in a PRRSV persist farm. The RT-PCR analysis of viremia and serological titers showed that the PE-PRRS vaccine not only increased sow reproductive performance and evoked its immune response to PRRS viremia, it also activated maternal immune protections to prevent piglets from inflicting viremia. In conclusion, we developed a novel and effective PRRS cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs)-based vaccine containing Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE-KDEL) carrier in combination with PRRSV conserved epitopes against PRRS virus.

  17. Comparison of BIASI and Columbia CHF correlations using BODYFIT-2PE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper compares the BIASI critical heat flux (CHF) correlation with the Columbia CHF correlation by using both the homogeneous equilibrium two-phase model with algebraic slip and the drift flux model in BODYFIT-2PE. All calculations were compared with the GE 3 x 3 CHF experiment. This comparison serves as a qualification process for the CHF correlations in the framework of BODYFIT-2PE.

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration upon acute exposure to moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, C; Stang, J; Thorsen, E; Stensrud, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess immediate changes in the partial pressure of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled gas (PE NO ) in healthy trained subjects who were acutely exposed to moderate altitude. One group of nine and another group of 20 healthy subjects were exposed to an ambient pressure of 728 hPa (546 mmHg) corresponding to an altitude of 2800 m for 5 and 90 min, respectively, in an altitude chamber. PE NO was measured offline by sampling exhaled gas in tight metal foil bags at 5, 30, 60, and 90 min. A correction for increased expiratory flow rate due to gas density effects at altitude was performed (PE NO corr). PE NO was significantly decreased by 13-16%, while the fraction of NO in exhaled gas (FE NO) was increased by 16-19% compared to sea level. There was no significant change in PE NO corr after exposure to altitude for 5, 30, 60, and 90 min. We conclude that there was no change in PENO upon arrival at altitude after correcting for gas density effects on expiratory flow rate. Corrections for altitude effects must be done before comparing measurements performed at different altitudes when using measurements of FENO to monitor athletes who have asthma during training at altitude.

  19. Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS).

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy A; Cook, James R; Redfern, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and the concurrent validity of an observational instrument, the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), which assesses stereotypical postures and movements associated with computer keyboard use. Three trained raters independently rated the video clips of 45 computer keyboard users to ascertain inter-rater reliability, and then re-rated a sub-sample of 15 video clips to ascertain intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the ratings obtained using the K-PeCS to scores developed from a 3D motion analysis system. The overall K-PeCS had excellent reliability [inter-rater: intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)=.90; intra-rater: ICC=.92]. Most individual items on the K-PeCS had from good to excellent reliability, although six items fell below ICC=.75. Those K-PeCS items that were assessed for concurrent validity compared favorably to the motion analysis data for all but two items. These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style.

  20. Towards Engineering Novel PE-Based Immunotoxins by Targeting Them to the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Marta; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Grzesik, Joanna; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Salkowska, Anna; Rodakowska, Ewelina; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Rychlewski, Leszek; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-11-10

    Exotoxin A (PE) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase, which can permanently inhibit translation in the attacked cells. Consequently, this toxin is frequently used in immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we propose a novel modification to PE by incorporating the NLS sequence at its C-terminus, to make it a selective agent against fast-proliferating cancer cells, as a nucleus-accumulated toxin should be separated from its natural substrate (eEF2) in slowly dividing cells. Here, we report the cytotoxic activity and selected biochemical properties of newly designed PE mutein using two cellular models: A549 and HepG2. We also present a newly developed protocol for efficient purification of recombinant PE and its muteins with very high purity and activity. We found that furin cleavage is not critical for the activity of PE in the analyzed cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed increased toxicity of the toxin accumulated in the nucleus. This might be explained by unexpected nuclease activity of PE and its potential ability to cleave chromosomal DNA, which seems to be a putative alternative intoxication mechanism. Further experimental investigations should address this newly detected activity to identify catalytic residues and elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for this action.

  1. Towards Engineering Novel PE-Based Immunotoxins by Targeting Them to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Marta; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Grzesik, Joanna; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Salkowska, Anna; Rodakowska, Ewelina; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Rychlewski, Leszek; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Exotoxin A (PE) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase, which can permanently inhibit translation in the attacked cells. Consequently, this toxin is frequently used in immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we propose a novel modification to PE by incorporating the NLS sequence at its C-terminus, to make it a selective agent against fast-proliferating cancer cells, as a nucleus-accumulated toxin should be separated from its natural substrate (eEF2) in slowly dividing cells. Here, we report the cytotoxic activity and selected biochemical properties of newly designed PE mutein using two cellular models: A549 and HepG2. We also present a newly developed protocol for efficient purification of recombinant PE and its muteins with very high purity and activity. We found that furin cleavage is not critical for the activity of PE in the analyzed cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed increased toxicity of the toxin accumulated in the nucleus. This might be explained by unexpected nuclease activity of PE and its potential ability to cleave chromosomal DNA, which seems to be a putative alternative intoxication mechanism. Further experimental investigations should address this newly detected activity to identify catalytic residues and elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for this action. PMID:27834892

  2. [Clinical probability of PE: should we use a clinical prediction rule?].

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M; Perrier, A

    2008-12-01

    The determination of the clinical pretest probability using clinical prediction models is an important step in the assessment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). It helps establish which test or sequence of tests can effectively corroborate or safely rule out PE. For example, it has been demonstrated that it is safe to withhold anticoagulant therapy in patients with negative d-dimer results and low pretest probability at initial presentation. Clinical probability will also increase the diagnostic yield of ventilation perfusion lung scan. Compared with clinical gestalt, clinical prediction rules provide a standardized and more reproducible estimate of a patient's probability of having a PE. Clinical prediction models combine aspects of the history and physical examination to categorize a patient's probability of having a disease. The models classify patients as having a low, moderate, or high likelihood of having PE. Clinical prediction models have been validated and are well established for the diagnosis of PE in symptomatic patients. They allow all physicians, whatever their expertise, to reliably determine the clinical pretest probability of PE, and thus safely manage their patients using diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms.

  3. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  4. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  5. PE-Swab Direct STR Amplification of Forensic Touch DNA Samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Y

    2015-05-01

    The PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow was developed to process low-level "touch DNA" samples. In this workflow, a forensic sample is first collected on a 4-mm PE-Swab (a novel sample collection device); two 2-mm punches containing collected samples are then generated from the PE-Swab and directly amplified for STR typing. Compared to the conventional STR workflow, which involves DNA extraction, purification, and elution volume reduction, the PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow does not require sample preparation and takes <60 sec before a touch sample is ready for STR amplification. Because there is no DNA loss due to sample preparation, the PE-Swab workflow is more sensitive than the conventional STR workflow. The average peak height per sample obtained by the PE-swab workflow is 3 times higher than that from the conventional workflow with both low-level single source and two-contributor mixture samples tested in this study.

  6. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna

    2011-09-01

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by γ-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6×10 -2 mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5×10 -2 mol/L, [AAm]=28.1×10 -2 mol/L), [BPO]=8.3×10 -2 mol/L at 100 °C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days.

  7. Fabry-Pérot interferometer utilized for displacement measurement in a large measuring range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-09-01

    The optical configuration of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer is uncomplicated. This has already been applied in different measurement systems. For the displacement measurement with the Fabry-Pérot interferometer, the result is significantly influenced by the tilt angles of the measurement mirror in the interferometer. Hence, only for the rather small measuring range, the Fabry-Pérot interferometer is available. The goal of this investigation is to enhance the measuring range of Fabry-Pérot interferometer by compensating the tilt angles. To verify the measuring characteristic of the self-developed Fabry-Pérot interferometer, some comparison measurements with a reference standard have been performed. The maximum deviation of comparison experiments is less than 0.3 μm in the traveling range of 30 mm. The experimental results show that the Fabry-Pérot interferometer is highly stable, insensitive to environment effects, and can meet the measuring requirement of the submicrometer order.

  8. Confinement effect on liquid and ion transport in nanochannels coated with environmental-stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte(PE) brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-11-01

    We study the confinement effect in the electrokinetic transport in polyelectrolyte(PE)-brush-grafted nanochannels. Starting with thermodynamically self-consistent description, i.e., accounting for the elastic, excluded volume and electrostatic effects of the PE brush and the effects of the induced electric double layer, we first probe the equilibrium brush height. We show that this height is dictated by PE size, grafting density, concentration of electrolyte solution and the extent of confinement. Shrinking-swelling behavior of PE brush with various configurations are compared: 1) short sparse end-charged PE brush swells as the salt concentration increases, while long dense end-charged PE brush shrinks; 2) PE brush with constant volume charge along the backbone always shrinks with the increase of the salt concentration. This shrinking-swelling behavior as well as the monomer distribution of PE interplay with the PE-induced drag force to dictate the overall electroosmotic and ionic current transport in such PE-brush-grafted nanochannels. We exhibit that among other factors, height of the nanochannels can be tuned to regulate this transport. We anticipate that our study will shed new light on structure of nano confined PE brushes with implications in ionic current rectifier design.

  9. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Thushara

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom-made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  10. Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, G. S. Thushara

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom--made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.

  11. Inside-out formation of massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    A significant fraction of the present day massive galaxies have compact cores embedded inside their disks or halos. Strikingly, those compact cores are similar to the massive high-redshift quiescent compact galaxies, nicknamed red-nuggets. We present observational evidence supporting an inside-out formation scenario, where present-day massive galaxies can begin as dense spheroidal cores (red-nuggets), around which either a spheroidal halo or a disk are accreted later. This contribution is based on the paper by de la Rosa et al. (2016).

  12. Fluid/gravity correspondence for massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid/gravity correspondence in the framework of massive Einstein gravity. Treating the gravitational mass terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor and utilizing the Petrov-like boundary condition on a timelike hypersurface, we find that the perturbation effects of massive gravity in bulk can be completely governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation living on the cutoff surface under the near horizon and nonrelativistic limits. Furthermore, we have concisely computed the ratio of dynamical viscosity to entropy density for two massive Einstein gravity theories, and found that they still saturate the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) bound.

  13. Thromboembolism in the Sub-Acute Phase of Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Belci, Maurizio; Van Middendorp, Joost J; Al Halabi, Ahmed; Meagher, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    To review the evidence of thromboembolism incidence and prophylaxis in the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI) 3–6 months post injury. All observational and experimental studies with any length of follow-up and no limitations on language or publication status published up to March 2015 were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcomes studied were incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the sub-acute phase of SCI. The secondary outcome was type of thromboprophylaxis. Our search identified 4305 references and seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. Five papers reported PE events and three papers reported DVT events in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Studies were heterogeneous in populations, design and outcome reporting, therefore a meta-analysis was not performed. The included studies report a PE incidence of 0.5%–6.0% and DVT incidence of 2.0%–8.0% in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Thromboprophylaxis was poorly reported. Spinal patients continue to have a significant risk of PE and DVT after the acute period of their injury. Clinicians are advised to have a low threshold for suspecting venous thromboembolism in the sub-acute phase of SCI and to continue prophylactic anticoagulation therapy for a longer period of time. PMID:27790330

  14. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  15. Integrative Properties of the Pe1 Neuron, a Unique Mushroom Body Output Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Jürgen; Menzel, Randolf

    1998-01-01

    A mushroom body extrinsic neuron, the Pe1 neuron, connects the peduncle of the mushroom body (MB) with two areas of the protocerebrum in the honeybee brain, the lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) and the ring neuropil around the α-lobe. Each side of the bee brain contains only one Pe1 neuron. Using a combination of intracellular recording and neuroanatomical techniques we analyzed its properties of integrative processing of the different sensory modalities. The Pe1 neuron responds to visual, mechanosensory, and olfactory stimuli. The responses are broadly tuned, consisting of a sustained increase of spike frequency to the onset and offset of light flashes, to horizontal and vertical movements of extended objects, to mechanical stimuli applied to the antennae or mouth parts, and to all olfactory stimuli tested (29 chemicals). These multisensory properties are reflected in its dendritic organization. Serial reconstructions of intracellularly stained Pe1 neurons using confocal microscopy reveal that the Pe1 neuron arborizes throughout all layers of MB peduncle with finger-like, vertically oriented dendrites. The peduncle of the MB is formed by the axons of Kenyon cells, whose dendritic inputs are organized in modality-specific subcompartments of the calyx region. The peduncular arborization indicates that the Pe1 neuron receives input from Kenyon cells of all calycal subcompartments. Because the Pe1 neuron changes its odor responses transiently as a consequence of olfactory learning, we hypothesize that the multimodal response properties might have a role in memory consolidation and help to establish contextual references in the long-term trace. PMID:10454378

  16. In vitro and in vivo studies of antitumor effects of the recombinant immunotoxin MSH-PE38KDEL on melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Q; Ma, J; Song, J; Liu, Z; Ren, H; Jiang, W; Wang, Y; Xu, Y; Guo, D; Zhang, X; Lu, S

    2014-01-01

    MSH-PE38KDEL is a chimeric molecule composed of MSH, and fused to a truncated mutant form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38KDEL). Our study aims to evaluate the specific cytotoxicity of recombinant immunotoxin MSH-PE38KDEL on melanoma cells A875 and B16 in vitro, as well as its inhibition of metastatic melanoma in vivo. MSH-PE38KDEL was expressed in Escherichia coli, and greater than 90% purity was obtained. The purified MSH-PE38KDEL was found to be selectively cytotoxic to MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells in vitro. The specific cytotoxicity of recombinant MSH-PE38KDEL to A875 and B16 was over 85% by cell viability assay; however, MSH-PE38KDEL had no cytotoxicity to the human 2BS cells. The anti-tumor activity of MSH-PE38KDEL was evaluated in mice with induced melanoma through intra-tumor or intravenous administration. The results showed that 90% melanoma growths were inhibited, and 40% of the tumors were disappeared completely. Histopathology results showed MSH-PE38KDEL can effectively inhibit intrahepatic metastasis. In conclusion, MSH-PE38KDEL had cytotoxic effects on MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells, and causes significant tumor growth inhibition. These results support a possible new approach for the treatment of melanoma.

  17. Induction of cell death after localization to the host cell mitochondria by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS33 protein.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Nathalie; Parra, Marcela; Cohen, Hannah; Maric, Dragan; Morris, Sheldon L; Brennan, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    PE_PGRS33 is the most studied member of the unique PE family of mycobacterial proteins. These proteins are composed of a PE domain (Pro-Glu motif), a linker region and a PGRS domain (polymorphic GC-rich-repetitive sequence). Previous studies have shown that PE_PGRS33 is surface-exposed, constitutively expressed during growth and infection, involved in creating antigenic diversity, and able to induce death in transfected or infected eukaryotic cells. In this study, we showed that PE_PGRS33 co-localizes to the mitochondria of transfected cells, a phenomenon dependent on the linker region and the PGRS domain, but not the PE domain. Using different genetic fusions and chimeras, we also demonstrated a direct correlation between localization to the host mitochondria and the induction of cell death. Finally, although all constructs localizing to the mitochondria did induce apoptosis, only the wild-type PE_PGRS33 with its own PE domain also induced primary necrosis, indicating a potentially important role for the PE domain. Considering the importance of primary necrosis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis dissemination during natural infection, the PE_PGRS33 protein may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

  18. [Results of noxythiolin use in acute peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Migliori, G; Codinach, F; Marsan, A; Inglésakis, J A

    1978-01-01

    The authors present a series of 30 cases of acute supra- and inframesocolic peritonitis which, in addition to the treatment of their organic causes, benefitted from medical treatment by noxythioline, used as a peritoneal lavage, an irrigation with aspiration, or an instillation. A marked amelioration in the postoperative course was noted, particularly in those cases with infra-mesocolic peritonitis, with the absence of adhesions and suppurative collections on reintervention, and a rapid return to negativity of the positive bacteriological investigations performed systematically on the pe ritoneal fluid and on the drainage.

  19. A cosmological study in massive gravity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Supriya Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the various cosmological aspects in massive gravity theory has been presented in the present work. For the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW model, the deceleration parameter has been evaluated, and, it has been examined whether there is any transition from deceleration to acceleration in recent past, or not. With the proper choice of the free parameters, it has been shown that the massive gravity theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity with a modified Newtonian gravitational constant together with a negative cosmological constant. Also, in this context, it has been examined whether the emergent scenario is possible, or not, in massive gravity theory. Finally, we have done a cosmographic analysis in massive gravity theory.

  20. Evolution of Massive Stars at Low Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges; Walborn, Nolan R.; Hunter, Ian; Martayan, Christophe; van Marle, Allard Jan; Marchenko, Sergey; Vink, Jorick S.; Limongi, Marco; Levesque, Emily M.; Modjaz, Maryam

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports the contributions made on the occasion of the Special Session entitled “Evolution of Massive Stars at Low Metallicity” which was held on Sunday, December 9, 2007 in Kauai (USA).

  1. Dwarf Galaxies with Active Massive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Greene, J. E.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies with bulges, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. However, the birth and growth of the first supermassive BH "seeds" is far from understood. While direct observations of these distant BHs in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current capabilities, massive BHs in present-day dwarf galaxies can place valuable constraints on the masses, formation path, and hosts of supermassive BH seeds. Using optical spectroscopy from the SDSS, we have systematically assembled the largest sample of dwarf galaxies hosting active massive BHs to date. These dwarf galaxies have stellar masses comparable to the Magellanic Clouds and contain some of the least-massive supermassive BHs known.

  2. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe genes reveals high sequence variation and an apparent absence of selective constraints.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Christopher R E; Cloete, Ruben; Müller, Borna; Schürch, Anita C; van Helden, Paul D; Gagneux, Sebastien; Warren, Robin M; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes contain 2 large gene families termed pe and ppe. The function of pe/ppe proteins remains enigmatic but studies suggest that they are secreted or cell surface associated and are involved in bacterial virulence. Previous studies have also shown that some pe/ppe genes are polymorphic, a finding that suggests involvement in antigenic variation. Using comparative sequence analysis of 18 publicly available MTBC whole genome sequences, we have performed alignments of 33 pe (excluding pe_pgrs) and 66 ppe genes in order to detect the frequency and nature of genetic variation. This work has been supplemented by whole gene sequencing of 14 pe/ppe (including 5 pe_pgrs) genes in a cohort of 40 diverse and well defined clinical isolates covering all the main lineages of the M. tuberculosis phylogenetic tree. We show that nsSNP's in pe (excluding pgrs) and ppe genes are 3.0 and 3.3 times higher than in non-pe/ppe genes respectively and that numerous other mutation types are also present at a high frequency. It has previously been shown that non-pe/ppe M. tuberculosis genes display a remarkably low level of purifying selection. Here, we also show that compared to these genes those of the pe/ppe families show a further reduction of selection pressure that suggests neutral evolution. This is inconsistent with the positive selection pressure of "classical" antigenic variation. Finally, by analyzing such a large number of genes we were able to detect large differences in mutation type and frequency between both individual genes and gene sub-families. The high variation rates and absence of selective constraints provides valuable insights into potential pe/ppe function. Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design.

  3. Self-protection of massive cosmological gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhahn, Felix; Dietrich, Dennis D.; Hofmann, Stefan E-mail: dietrich@cp3.sdu.dk

    2010-11-01

    Relevant deformations of gravity present an exciting window of opportunity to probe the rigidity of gravity on cosmological scales. For a single-graviton theory, the leading relevant deformation constitutes a graviton mass term. In this paper, we investigate the classical and quantum stability of massive cosmological gravitons on generic Friedman backgrounds. For a Universe expanding towards a de Sitter epoch, we find that massive cosmological gravitons are self-protected against unitarity violations by a strong coupling phenomenon.

  4. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  5. Late outcomes after acute pulmonary embolism: rationale and design of FOCUS, a prospective observational multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros V; Barco, Stefano; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Lankeit, Mareike; Held, Matthias; Gerhardt, Felix; Bruch, Leonard; Ewert, Ralf; Faehling, Martin; Freise, Julia; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Grünig, Ekkehard; Halank, Michael; Heydenreich, Nadine; Hoeper, Marius M; Leuchte, Hanno H; Mayer, Eckhard; Meyer, F Joachim; Neurohr, Claus; Opitz, Christian; Pinto, Antonio; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Wachter, Rolf; Zäpf, Bianca; Wilkens, Heinrike; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp S

    2016-11-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent cause of death and serious disability. The risk of PE-associated mortality and morbidity extends far beyond the acute phase of the disease. In earlier follow-up studies, as many as 30 % of the patients died during a follow-up period of up to 3 years, and up to 50 % of patients continued to complain of dyspnea and/or poor physical performance 6 months to 3 years after the index event. The most feared 'late sequela' of PE is chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the true incidence of which remains obscure due to the large margin of error in the rates reported by mostly small, single-center studies. Moreover, the functional and hemodynamic changes corresponding to early, possibly reversible stages of CTEPH, have not been systematically investigated. The ongoing Follow-Up after acute pulmonary embolism (FOCUS) study will prospectively enroll and systematically follow, over a 2-year period and with a standardized comprehensive program of clinical, echocardiographic, functional and laboratory testing, a large multicenter prospective cohort of 1000 unselected patients (all-comers) with acute symptomatic PE. FOCUS will possess adequate power to provide answers to relevant remaining questions regarding the patients' long-term morbidity and mortality, and the temporal pattern of post-PE abnormalities. It will hopefully provide evidence for future guideline recommendations regarding the selection of patients for long-term follow-up after PE, the modalities which this follow-up should include, and the findings that should be interpreted as indicating progressive functional and hemodynamic post-PE impairment, or the development of CTEPH.

  6. Suppression of autophagy and antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS47.

    PubMed

    Saini, Neeraj K; Baena, Andres; Ng, Tony W; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M; Kennedy, Steven C; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Larsen, Michelle H; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-08-15

    Suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation is believed to be among the major mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to escape protective host immune responses. Through a genome-wide screen for the genetic loci of M. tuberculosis that inhibit MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by mycobacteria-infected dendritic cells, we identified the PE_PGRS47 protein as one of the responsible factors. Targeted disruption of the PE_PGRS47 (Rv2741) gene led to attenuated growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo, and a PE_PGRS47 mutant showed enhanced MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation during in vivo infection of mice. Analysis of the effects of deletion or over-expression of PE_PGRS47 implicated this protein in the inhibition of autophagy in infected host phagocytes. Our findings identify PE_PGRS47 as a functionally relevant, non-redundant bacterial factor in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by M. tuberculosis, suggesting strategies for improving antigen presentation and the generation of protective immunity during vaccination or infection.

  7. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Leite, Natália Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D; Ruggiero Neto, João; Beales, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells' surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1's anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7-8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1's anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells.

  8. Adsorption of urease on PE-MCM-41 and its catalytic effect on hydrolysis of urea.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kazi-Zakir; Monreal, Carlos M; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2008-03-15

    Pore-expanded MCM-41 (PE-MCM-41) silica exhibits a unique combination of high specific surface area (ca. 1000 m(2)/g), pore size (up to 25 nm) and pore volume (up to 3.5 cm(3)/g). As such, this material is highly suitable for the adsorption of large biomolecules. The current study focused primarily on the application of PE-MCM-41 material as suitable host for urease (nickel-based large metalloenzyme) in controlled hydrolysis of urea. Urease adsorbed on PE-MCM-41, regular MCM-41 and silica gel (SGA) were used as catalysts for urea hydrolysis reaction. Adsorption studies of urease on these materials from aqueous solution at pH 7.2 revealed that the adsorption capacity of PE-MCM-41 (102 mg/g) is significantly higher than that of MCM-41 (56 mg/g) and SGA (21 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted using the Langmuir-Freundlich model. Furthermore, the kinetic study revealed that the uptake of urease follow the pseudo-first order kinetics. The in vitro urea hydrolysis reaction on pristine urease and different urease-loaded catalysts showed that the rate of hydrolysis reaction is significantly slower on U/PE-MCM-41 compared to that of bulk urease and urease on MCM-41 and SGA. This technique could be an alternative means to the use of urease inhibitors to control the ammonia release from urea fertilizer.

  9. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Natália Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D.; Neto, João Ruggiero; Beales, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells’ surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1’s anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7–8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1’s anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells. PMID:26331251

  10. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  11. VelProbePE: An automated spreadsheet program for interpreting point velocity probe breakthrough curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillig, P. C.

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater velocity is an important parameter for determining the fate and transport of contaminants. Recently developed point velocity probes (PVPs) were designed to provide centimeter-scale measurements of the direction and magnitude of groundwater velocity based on the injection and electrical detection of a small, saline tracer. The code reported here for velocity probe parameter estimation (VelProbePE) was designed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) in Microsoft Excel for processing and interpreting tracer breakthrough curves specifically for PVP applications. VelProbePE contains multiple, autoinitializing user forms that guide the user through the data-processing steps. The program allows for the rapid processing and editing of up to 16 detector signals in a single workbook. VelProbePE uses simplex optimization to calculate the intermediate parameters required for the estimation of velocity magnitude and direction.

  12. A nuclear-directed human pancreatic ribonuclease (PE5) targets the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vert, Anna; Castro, Jessica; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2016-04-05

    Ribonucleases represent a new class of antitumor RNA-damaging drugs. However, many wild-type members of the vertebrate secreted ribonuclease family are not cytotoxic because they are not able to evade the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor. We previously engineered the human pancreatic ribonuclease to direct it to the cell nucleus where the inhibitor is not present. The best characterized variant is PE5 that kills cancer cells through apoptosis mediated by the p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction and the inactivation of JNK. Here, we have used microarray-derived transcriptional profiling to identify PE5 regulated genes on the NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell line. RT-qPCR analyses have confirmed the expression microarray findings. The results show that PE5 cause pleiotropic effects. Among them, it is remarkable the down-regulation of multiple genes that code for enzymes involved in deregulated metabolic pathways in cancer cells.

  13. Surface modification by γ-ray-induced grafting of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA onto PE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titaux, G. A.; Contreras-García, A.; Bucio, E.

    2009-07-01

    Radiation grafting of poly[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) onto polyethylene (PE) films was synthesized using gamma radiation from a 60Co source. PE was modified by the PDMAEMA and PEGMEMA by pre-irradiation and one-step method. Grafting as a function of the pre-irradiation dose between 50 and 200 kGy, dose rate of 9 kGy h -1, and monomer concentration 50% of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA (1/1) in toluene. The characterization of the graft copolymer obtained was carried out by FTIR-ATR, TGA, and DSC. Stimuli-responsive behavior and critical pH point were studied by swelling in water, pH and thermo-responsive films of PE-g-(DMAEMA/PEGMEMA) presented a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 55 °C and critical pH point around 8.5.

  14. [Acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Mayer, K; Askevold, I; Collet, P; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Padberg, W; Hecker, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with individually differing expression of systemic involvement. For this reason early diagnosis with subsequent risk stratification is essential in the clinical management of this frequent gastroenterological disorder. Severe forms of acute pancreatitis occur in approximately 20 % of cases often requiring intensive care monitoring and interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. In the acute phase adequate fluid replacement and sufficient analgesic therapy is of major therapeutic importance. Concerning the administration of antibiotics and the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis a change in paradigms could be observed in recent years. Furthermore, endoscopic, radiological or surgical interventions can be necessary depending on the severity of the disease and potential complications.

  15. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a cough and coughing up mucus. Acute means the symptoms ... diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus on most days for at least ...

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...

  17. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE): awareness and prophylaxis practices reported by patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anita; Fullam, Lisa; Brownstein, Alan P; Maynard, Gregory A; Ansell, Jack; Varga, Elizabeth A; Friedman, Richard J; Rickles, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). An online survey to measure PE/DVT terminology awareness and understanding of VTE risks revealed 24% and 15% of the 500 cancer patients surveyed had heard of term DVT/PE; 19% and 17% could name signs/ symptoms of DVT/PE; 3% recognized cancer treatments as risk factors for DVT/PE. Only 25% of the patients received prevention education from providers; <50% received VTE prophylaxis. Cancer patient awareness of VTE terminology and cancer and/or its treatment as risk for VTE is low. More effective patient/physician dialogue about VTE risk and thromboprophylaxis is needed.

  18. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-12-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved.

  19. 2PE-STED microscopy with a single Ti:sapphire laser for reduced illumination.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifeng; Wang, Yang; Chen, Da; Wu, Sherry S H

    2014-01-01

    We reported a new effective approach to carry out two-photon excitation stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) microscopy using a single Ti:sapphire laser system. With an acoustic-optic Bragg cell, the modulated-CW 2PE STED microscope had the benefits of both CW and pulse approaches: lower input power, simple optical scheme and no complicated synchronization. Additionally, it also took advantages of fluorescence yield increasing. The sub-diffraction-limit resolution was demonstrated using ATTO 425-tagged clathrin-coated vesicles.

  20. Synthesis of isotopically labeled versions of L-MTP-PE (mifamurtide) and MDP.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuexian; Plesescu, Mihaela; Prakash, Shimoga R

    2013-01-01

    L-MTP-PE (1), an immunomodulator and its metabolite MDP (4) were synthesized from labeled l-alanine and its protected derivative, respectively. The key intermediate product for the labeled L-MTP-PE synthesis, [(13) C3 ,D4 ]-alanyl-cephalin (2A), was synthesized from [(13) C3 ,D4 ]-l-alanine (3A) in three steps. The key intermediate product for labeled MDP synthesis, amine 11, was prepared from [(13) C3 ,(15) N]-Boc-l-alanine (5A) in two steps.

  1. Higher mortality rate in patients hospitalised for acute pulmonary embolism during weekends.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Dentali, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    The management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is often challenging and requires specific medical expertise, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options that may not be available in all hospitals throughout the entire week. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether or not an association exists between weekday or weekend admission and mortality for patients hospitalised with acute PE. Using routinely collected hospital administrative data, we examined patients discharged with a diagnosis of PE from the hospitals of the Emilia- Romagna Region in Italy (January 1999-December 2009). The risk of in-hospital death was calculated for admissions at the weekend and compared to weekday admissions. Of a total of 26,560 PEs, 6,788 (25.6%) had been admitted during weekends. PE admissions were most frequent on Mondays (15.8%) and less frequent on Saturdays and Sundays/holidays (12.8%) (p<0.001). Weekend admissions were associated with significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality than weekday admissions (28% vs. 24.8%) (p<0.001). The risk of weekend admission and in-hospital mortality was higher after adjusting for sender, hospital characteristics, and the Charlson co-morbidity index. In conclusion, hospitalisation for PE on weekends seems to be associated with a significantly higher mortality rate than on weekdays. Further research is needed to investigate the reasons for this observed difference in mortality in order to try and implement future strategies that ensure an adequate level of care throughout the entire week.

  2. Effectiveness of combining plasma exchange with continuous hemodiafiltration on acute Fatty liver of pregnancy complicated by multiple organ dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Feng; Meng, Mei; Zeng, Juan; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Jin-Jiao; Ren, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Wang, Chun-Ting

    2012-06-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disease of progressive hepatic insufficiency and secondary systemic complications that induce significant maternal risk. The application of combining plasma exchange (PE) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) is a novel concept for patients with AFLP. Since 2002, we have utilized the combination of PE with CHDF as adjunctive medical therapy for 11 AFLP patients with multiple organ dysfunction. Before PE and CHDF initiation, four patients had signs and symptoms of encephalopathy, four required ventilatory support, and all 11 were developing liver failure, significant renal compromise, and coagulopathy. PE combined with CHDF for patients was initiated a mean of 2 days postpartum (range, days 0-3). Daily or every other day PE combined with CHDF was undertaken on two to eight occasions for each of the 11 patients. Ten patients responded with composite clinical and laboratory improvement and were discharged to the ward, then cured and discharged from hospital; one patient died of septic shock. Average duration of hospitalization was 17 days (range, days 9-38) from time of admission to discharge; the average duration of intensive care unit was 10 days (range, days 4-23). No significant PE- and CHDF-related complications occurred. These results indicate that combing PE and CHDF in a series-parallel circuit is an effective and safe treatment for patients with severe AFLP. This finding may have important implications for the development of an effective treatment for patients with AFLP suffering multiple organ dysfunction.

  3. Heavy element abundances and massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) remains a great challenge in astronomy. In the solar neighborhood, the IMF is reasonable well determined for stellar masses from about 0.1 to 60 solar mass. However, outside the solar neighborhood, the IMF is poorly known. Among those frequently discussed arguments favoring a different IMF outside the solar neighborhood are the estimated time to consume the remaining gas in spiral galaxies, and the high rate of forming massive stars in starburst galaxies. An interesting question then is whether there may be an independent way of testing possible variations in the IMF. Indeed, the heavy elements in the interstellar medium are mostly synthesized in massive stars, so increasing, or decreasing, the fraction of massive stars naturally leads to a variation in the heavy element yield, and thus, the metallicity. The observed abundance should severely constrain any deviations of the IMF from the locally determined IMF. We focus on element oxygen, which is the most abundant heavy element in the interstellar medium. Oxygen is ejected only by massive stars that can become Type 1 supernovae, and the oxygen abundance is, therefore, a sensitive function of the fraction of massive stars in the IMF. Adopting oxygen enables us to avoid uncertainties in Type 1 supernovae. We use the nucleosynthesis results to calculate the oxygen yield for given IMF. We then calculate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium assuming instantaneous recycling of oxygen.

  4. A Hunt for Massive Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shuo; Tan, Jonathan C.; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco; Liu, Mengyao; Butler, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    We carry out an ALMA {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+(3-2) and 1.3 mm continuum survey of 32 high-mass surface density regions of seven infrared dark clouds, with the aim of finding massive starless cores that may form the initial conditions for the formation of massive stars. Cores showing strong {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+(3-2) emission are expected to be highly deuterated and indicative of early, potentially pre-stellar stages of star formation. We also present maps of these regions in ancillary line tracers, including C18O(2-1), DCN(3-2), and DCO+(3-2). Over 100 {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+ cores are identified with our newly developed core-finding algorithm, based on connected structures in position–velocity space. The most massive core has ∼ 70 {M}ȯ (potentially ∼ 170 {M}ȯ ) and so may be representative of the initial conditions or early stages of massive star formation. The existence and dynamical properties of such cores constrain massive star formation theories. We measure the line widths and thus velocity dispersion of six of the cores with strongest {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+(3-2) line emission, finding results that are generally consistent with virial equilibrium of pressure confined cores.

  5. The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Halil; de Roos, Albert; Geleijins, Jacob; Huisman, Menno V.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life threatening condition requiring adequate diagnosis and treatment. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is excellent for including and excluding PE, therefore CT is the first-choice diagnostic imaging technique in patients suspected of having acute PE. Due to its wide availability and low invasiveness, CTPA tends to be overused. Correct implementation of clinical decision rules in diagnostic workup for PE improves adequate use of CT. Also, CT adds prognostic value by evaluating right ventricular (RV) function. CT-assessed RV dysfunction and to lesser extent central emboli location predicts PE-related mortality in normotensive and hypotensive patients, while PE embolic obstruction index has limited prognostic value. Simple RV/left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio measures >1.0 already predict risk for adverse outcome, whereas ratios <1.0 can safely exclude adverse outcome. Consequently, assessing the RV/LV diameter ratio may help identify patients who are potential candidates for treatment at home instead of treatment in the hospital. A minority of patients develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) following acute PE, which is a life-threatening condition that can be diagnosed by CT. In proximal CTEPH, involving the more central pulmonary arteries, thrombectomy usually results in good outcome in terms of both functional status and long-term survival rate. CT is becoming the imaging method of choice for diagnosing CTEPH as it can identify patients who may benefit from thrombectomy. New CT developments such as distensibility measurements and dual-energy or subtraction techniques may further refine diagnosis and prognosis for improved patient care. PMID:26133321

  6. Risk Factors and Outcome for Massive Intra-Abdominal Bleeding Among Patients With Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Jingzhu; Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Gang; Jiang, Wei; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of acute bleeding is reported to be 13.5% in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. However, of all the bleeding events, intra-abdominal bleeding was less studied in the literature and its risk factors have not been well defined yet. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the risk factors for massive intra-abdominal bleeding among the patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis and assessed the outcome of these patients. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied for evaluating risk factors for intra-abdominal bleeding using 33 indices, including age, sex, etiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), APACHE II score, etc. Outcome assessments such as mortality, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) durations, and cost were also compared between patients with or without intra-abdominal bleeding. Acute kidney injury (AKI) (odds ratio [OR]: 7.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-22.52, P < 0.001) and number of operation (OR: 8.84, 95% CI: 2.01-38.86, P = 0.004) were 2 predictors for massive intra-abdominal bleeding in the patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. In addition, AP patients with intra-abdominal bleeding also showed significantly higher mortality rate, prolonged hospital and ICU durations, more complications and invasive treatments, as well as increased cost. Our study revealed that AKI and multiple operations were 2 critical factors increasing the risk of intra-abdominal bleeding among patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Additionally, massive intra-abdominal bleeding was also associated with poor prognosis.

  7. Risk Factors and Outcome for Massive Intra-Abdominal Bleeding Among Patients With Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Jingzhu; Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Gang; Jiang, Wei; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of acute bleeding is reported to be 13.5% in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. However, of all the bleeding events, intra-abdominal bleeding was less studied in the literature and its risk factors have not been well defined yet. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the risk factors for massive intra-abdominal bleeding among the patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis and assessed the outcome of these patients. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied for evaluating risk factors for intra-abdominal bleeding using 33 indices, including age, sex, etiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), APACHE II score, etc. Outcome assessments such as mortality, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) durations, and cost were also compared between patients with or without intra-abdominal bleeding. Acute kidney injury (AKI) (odds ratio [OR]: 7.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53–22.52, P < 0.001) and number of operation (OR: 8.84, 95% CI: 2.01–38.86, P = 0.004) were 2 predictors for massive intra-abdominal bleeding in the patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. In addition, AP patients with intra-abdominal bleeding also showed significantly higher mortality rate, prolonged hospital and ICU durations, more complications and invasive treatments, as well as increased cost. Our study revealed that AKI and multiple operations were 2 critical factors increasing the risk of intra-abdominal bleeding among patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Additionally, massive intra-abdominal bleeding was also associated with poor prognosis. PMID:26181564

  8. Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh

    2016-10-01

    We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.

  9. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement.

  10. HST Infrared Imaging of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Joseph B.; Goullaud, Charles; Blakeslee, John; Mitchiner, Casey; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We have recently obtained high-resolution HST WFC3/IR F110W (J-band) images of 34 early-type galaxies in the MASSIVE study sample. These galaxies are among the most massive in the local universe, and were chosen to study the connection between supermassive central black holes and their host galaxies. To determine accurate masses for the black holes, we are measuring high-precision surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances to the galaxies. The WFC3/IR data also allow us to measure high spatial resolution central surface brightness profiles to understand better the nuclear structure and dynamics of the galaxies. We present a first look at the IR images, profiles, and SBF magnitudes for 34 galaxies in the MASSIVE sample.

  11. Gyromagnetic ratio of a massive body.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Tiomno, J.; Wald, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    It is well known that the gyromagnetic ratio (g factor) of a classical, slowly rotating body whose charge density is proportional to its mass density must be equal to unity. However, if the body is very massive, the spacetime curvature effects of general relativity become important and the result g = 1 is no longer valid. We calculate here the gyromagnetic ratio of a slowly rotating, massive shell with uniform charge density. When the shell is large compared with the Schwarzschild radius we have g = 1, but as the shell becomes more massive the g factor increases. In the limit as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius we obtain g approaching 2 (the same value as for an electron).

  12. Massive Particle Reflection from Moving Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarti, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the reflection of massive particles from moving mirrors. The adoption of the formalism based on the energy-momentum allowed us to derive the most general set of formulas, valid for massive and, in the limit, also for massless particles. We show that the momentum change of the reflecting particle always lies along the normal to the mirror, independent of the mirror speed. The subject is interesting not only to physicists designing concentrators for fascicles of massive particles and electron microscopes but also to computer scientists working in raytracing operating in the photon sector. The paper, far from being only theoretical, has profound and novel practical applications in both domains of engineering design and computer science.

  13. Massive Hemorrhage From Multiple Hepatic Artery Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S Lowell; McClain, Jonathan; Kaufman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    A 66-year-old man, with an abnormal porta hepatis, consistent with tumor or inflammation, developed massive bleeding from one of numerous hepatic artery aneurysms, and coil embolization achieved control of bleeding. He died of subsequent multisystem organ failure, and the most likely diagnosis was either polyarteritis nodosa or segmental arterial mediolysis. Although the dual hepatic blood supply allows a degree of arterial embolization, this case demonstrates the risks associated with large territory hepatic arterial embolization in the presence of hemodynamic instability. We discuss the management issues related to massive hepatic bleeding when no surgical approach is possible.

  14. Factors associated with massive fibrosis in silicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Chan, S L

    1991-01-01

    Data on 1432 patients with silicosis on a register in Hong Kong were analysed to examine the association of massive fibrosis with possible predisposing factors. Detailed occupational and clinical histories, clinical records, radiographic readings according to the International Standard Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, and environmental dust measurements from hygiene surveys were used to obtain information for several variables--namely, age at first exposure, relative dust exposure level, duration of exposure, smoking, previous recorded history of tuberculosis, and background profusion of small opacities. The most significant risk factors associated with massive fibrosis were high relative dust exposure level, a history of tuberculosis, and increased background profusion of small opacities. PMID:2038729

  15. Primordial Li abundance and massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Latin-Capital-Letter-Eth apo, H.

    2012-10-20

    The problem of the observed lithium abundance coming from the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is as of yet unsolved. One of the proposed solutions is including relic massive particles into the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We investigated the effects of such particles on {sup 4}HeX{sup -}+{sup 2}H{yields}{sup 6}Li+X{sup -}, where the X{sup -} is the negatively charged massive particle. We demonstrate the dominance of long-range part of the potential on the cross-section.

  16. Physics of Mass Loss in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Joachim; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Markova, Nevena

    2015-01-01

    We review potential mass-loss mechanisms in the various evolutionary stages of massive stars, from the well-known line-driven winds of O-stars and BA-supergiants to the less-understood winds of Red Supergiants. We discuss optically thick winds from Wolf-Rayet stars and Very Massive Stars, and the hypothesis of porosity-moderated, continuum-driven mass loss from stars formally exceeding the Eddington limit, which might explain the giant outbursts from Luminous Blue Variables. We finish this review with a glance on the impact of rapid rotation, magnetic fields and small-scale inhomogeneities in line-driven winds.

  17. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  18. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  19. 77 FR 43873 - P.E. Partners III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... stock of the registered investment company. Applicants' Legal Analysis 1. Section 6(b) of the Act... 6(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') granting an exemption from all provisions... Act. Applicants: P.E. Partners III, LLC, VP Fund Investments 2004, LLC, VP Fund Investments 2006,...

  20. Transmission and reflective ultrasound images using PE-CMOS sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Kula, John; Lasser, Bob; Lasser, Marvin E.; Wang, Yue

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the imaging capability of a CMOS (PE-CMOS) ultrasound sensing array coated with piezoelectric material. There are three main components in the laboratory setup: (1) a transducer operated at 3.5MHz-7MHz frequency generating unfocused ultrasound plane waves, (2) an acoustic compound lens that collects the energy and focuses ultrasound signals onto the detector array, and (3) a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array (Model I400, Imperium Inc. Silver Spring, MD) that receives the ultrasound and converts the energy to analog voltage followed by a digital conversion. The PE-CMOS array consists of 128×128 pixel elements with 85μm per pixel. The major improvement of the new ultrasound sensor array has been in its dynamic range. We found that the current PE-CMOS ultrasound sensor (Model I400) possesses a dynamic range up to 70dB. The system can generate ultrasound attenuation images of soft tissues which are similar to digital images obtained from an x-ray projection system. In the paper, we also show that the prototype system can image bone fractures using reflective geometry.

  1. Development of PE Metrics Elementary Assessments for National Physical Education Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Rink, Judy; Zhu, Weimo; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Fox, Connie; Raynes, De; Park, Youngsik

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how assessments in PE Metrics were developed following six steps: (a) determining test blueprint, (b) writing assessment tasks and scoring rubrics, (c) establishing content validity, (d) piloting assessments, (e) conducting item analysis, and (f) modifying the assessments based on analysis and expert opinion. A task force,…

  2. PE on YouTube--Investigating Participation in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this article, students' diverse ways of participating in physical education (PE) practice shown in clips on YouTube were investigated. YouTube is the largest user-generated video-sharing website on the Internet, where different video content is presented. The clips on YouTube, as used in this paper, can be seen as a user-generated…

  3. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  4. Bourdieu and the Social Space of the PE Class: Reproduction of Doxa through Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the social space of one physical education (PE) class in the middle years of schooling. I endeavour to tease out the dialectic between the discursive spaces available to the students positioned within this space and the construction and negotiation of student subjectivities. Using the conceptual tools of field, habitus,…

  5. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  6. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  7. Meet EPA Scientist Carolina Peñalva-Arana, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Carolina Peñalva-Arana, Ph.D., researches how to use molecular data to determine the health of an ecosystem. She and her colleagues are observing these tiny changes in ecosystem health to predict when an ecosystem is impaired earlier

  8. Representing Valued Bodies in PE: A Visual Inquiry with British Asian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joanne; Azzarito, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Status or value in sport and physical education (PE) contexts is often associated with performances of highly proficient sporting bodies, which produce hierarchies of privileged and marginalised gendered and racialised positions. This may be communicated through text and images shared within school, physical cultures and media that…

  9. The Disciplinary and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys' PE--The Art of Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In taking heed of the so-called "spatial turn" in social theory this paper explores how the spatial intersects with boys' performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE). In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation and implementation of physical and social spaces in…

  10. Not Your Father's PE: Obesity, Exercise, and the Role of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Newhouse, David

    2006-01-01

    American children are gaining weight at an alarming rate. Since the 1960s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the percentage of American six- to eleven-year-olds who fall into the CDC's highest weight classification for children has almost quadrupled. Requiring more physical education (PE) seems like a logical…

  11. Independent adsorption of monovalent cations and cationic polymers at PE/PG lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, Daria A.; Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Kostritskii, Andrei Yu; Kondinskaia, Diana A.; Ermakov, Yuri A.; Gurtovenko, Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic cationic polymers constitute a wide class of polymeric biocides. Commonly their antimicrobial effect is associated to their interaction with bacterial membranes. In the present study we analyze the interaction of various cationic polymers with model bacterial membranes comprised of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). We describe a polymer-membrane interaction as a process of modification of the surface charge. It is well known that small monovalent inorganic cations (Na+, K+) cannot overcharge the surface of a bilayer containing anionic lipids. In contrast, polycations are able to overcharge anionic membranes and demonstrate a very large input to the electric field distribution at the membrane-water interface. We aimed here to study the electrostatic effects associated with the interaction of polycations of different types with a model lipid membrane whose composition closely resembles that of bacterial membranes (PE:PG = 1:4). Four different cationic polymers (polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, poly-L-lysine and polyethylenimine) were adsorbed at a model PE/PG bilayer in MD simulations. Adsorption of sodium cations was inspected separately for PE/PG bilayers of different composition and cation’s binding parameters were determined. From computational experiments and consequent theoretical analysis we concluded that sodium adsorption at anionic binding sites does not depend on the presence of polycations. Therefore, we hypothesize that antimicrobial activity of the studied cationic polymers should depend on the ionic composition of the medium.

  12. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the excess or surplus funding? 661.41 Section 661.41 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens...

  13. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the excess or surplus funding? 661.41 Section 661.41 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens...

  14. (Re)Telling Lived Experiences in Different Tales: A Potential Pathway in Working towards an Inclusive PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg Svendby, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Existing research reveals that there are large discrepancies between the rhetoric of inclusive practice and what actually takes place in physical education (PE) lessons. PE appears to be a conservative subject, where little has changed over the years, despite increased diversity in schools and new modes of movement in society at large. In this…

  15. Swedish Primary-School Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusion--The Case of PE and Pupils with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerlinder, Kajsa; Danermark, Berth; Gill, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Teachers play a decisive role in making inclusive education a reality. The particular case of inclusion in physical education (PE) poses a specific challenge to teaching practice. How PE teachers view inclusion may provide special insights into teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and inclusive practices in the general school curriculum.…

  16. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  17. Game Changers: New Concepts of PE and Sports Programs Are Making It More Fun for Everyone to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Sean

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports an up-and-coming generation of teachers and coaches who are dedicated to inclusive PE practices. They are passionate about helping all kids discover the physical, social, and emotional benefits--as well as pleasures--of physical activity. The benefits of inclusive PE practices are too great to forfeit, says Lynn…

  18. Detection of a multi-PeV neutrino-induced muon event from the Northern sky with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenen, Sebastian; Raedel, Leif

    2015-07-01

    We observed a muon event with an energy of multiple PeV originating from a neutrino interaction in the vicinity of the IceCube detector. IceCube is a cubic-kilometer neutrino detector installed in the ice at the geographic South Pole mostly sensitive to neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range.

  19. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. "Governmentality" in the Origins of European Female PE and Sport: The Spanish Case Study (1883-1936)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Raul Sanchez; Herraiz, Antonio Rivero

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to contribute to the analysis of the origins of modern European female PE and sports from a power perspective, inspired by Foucault's work; and (2) to present a detailed analysis of female PE and sport in Spain (1883-1936) as a specific European case study. It is argued that these physical activities could…

  1. Learning-related plasticity in PE1 and other mushroom body-extrinsic neurons in the honeybee brain.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryuichi; Rybak, Jürgen; Manz, Gisela; Menzel, Randolf

    2007-10-24

    Extracellular recording were performed from mushroom body-extrinsic neurons while the animal was exposed to differential conditioning to two odors, the forward-paired conditioned stimulus (CS+; the odor that will be or has been paired with sucrose reward) and the unpaired CS- (the odor that will be or has been specifically unpaired with sucrose reward). A single neuron, the pedunculus-extrinsic neuron number 1 (PE1), was identified on the basis of its firing pattern, and other neurons were grouped together as non-PE1 neurons. PE1 reduces its response to CS+ and does not change its response to CS- after learning. Most non-PE1 neurons do not change their responses during learning, but some decrease, and one neuron increases its response to CS+. PE1 receives inhibitory synaptic inputs, and neuroanatomical studies indicate closely attached GABA-immune reactive profiles originating at least partially from neurons of the protocerebral-calycal tract (PCT). Thus, either the associative reduction of odor responses originates within the PE1 via a long-term depression (LTD)-like mechanism, or PE1 receives stronger inhibition for the learned odor from the PCT neurons or from Kenyon cells. In any event, as the decreased firing of PE1 correlates with the increased probability of behavioral responses, our data suggest that the mushroom bodies exert general inhibition over sensory-motor connections, which relaxes selectively for learned stimuli.

  2. Claustral afferents of superior parietal areas PEc and PE in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Michela; Passarelli, Lauretta; Bakola, Sophia; Impieri, Daniele; Fattori, Patrizia; Rosa, Marcello G P; Galletti, Claudio

    2017-04-15

    The exposed surface of the primate superior parietal cortex includes two cytoarchitectonically defined areas, the PEc and PE. In the present study we describe the distribution of neurons projecting from the claustrum to these areas. Retrograde neuronal tracers were injected by direct visualization of regions of interest, and the location of injection sites was reconstructed relative to cytoarchitectural borders. For comparison, the patterns of claustral label that resulted from injections involving neighboring cytoarchitectonic areas were analyzed. We found that the claustral territories sending projections to areas PE and PEc partially overlapped zones previously shown to form projections to the posterior parietal, somatosensory, visual, and motor cortex. The projection zones to the PE and PEc overlapped extensively, and consisted of multiple patches separated by label-free zones. Most of the labeled neurons were located in the posterior-ventral part of the claustrum. Area PE received additional inputs from a posterior-dorsal part of the claustrum, which has been previously reported to project to the somatosensory cortex, while the PEc receives additional input from an anterior-ventral region of the claustrum, which has been reported to project to the visual association cortex. These observations reflect the known functional properties of the PE and PEc, with the former containing neurons that are predominantly involved in somatosensory processing, and the latter including both somatosensory and visual neurons. The present results suggest that the claustrum projections may help coordinate the activity of an extensive neural circuit involved in sensory and motor processing for movement execution. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1475-1488, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. αs-Casein-PE6400 mixtures: surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anne; Menéndez-Aguirre, Orquidéa; Hinrichs, Jörg; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly of mixtures of a food-grade αs-casein and the triblock copolymer PE6400 (PEO13-PPO30-PEO13) were examined. The properties at the surface were determined by surface pressure measurements for a 1:1 molar mixture. Comparison of the measured with the calculated isotherms show attractive interactions at surface pressures above 9mN/m. The miscibility gaps of solutions containing 0.004-0.2mmol/l αs-casein and 0.02-0.1mol/l polymer were examined. It was found that a one-phase region exists at distinct mixing ratios and temperatures. Comparison of the cloud points of mixtures of αs-casein and PE6400 with pure αs-casein showed that the presence of the triblock copolymer enhanced the solubility of the protein. The ζ-potential of the αs-casein solution decreased by addition of PE6400 to zero. Our results thus suggest that αs-casein and PE6400 are miscible. The results of the cloud point and ζ-potential measurements were explained by formation of a mixed aggregate where the PPO chains are anchored inside the hydrophobic part of the αs-casein while the PEO chains cover the charged hydrophilic part of the αs-casein thereby leading to an increase of the cloud point and a decrease in ζ-potential. This is in agreement with the attractive interactions between αs-casein and PE6400 as observed via surface pressure measurements at the surface.

  4. Overexpression of PeHA1 enhances hydrogen peroxide signaling in salt-stressed Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijuan; Wang, Yang; Sun, Jian; Ding, Mingquan; Deng, Shurong; Hou, Peichen; Ma, Xujun; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Feifei; Sa, Gang; Tan, Yeqing; Lang, Tao; Li, Jinke; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase plays a crucial role in controlling K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress. Our previous microarray analysis indicated that Populus euphratica retained a higher abundance of PM H(+)-ATPase transcript versus a salt-sensitive poplar. To clarify the roles of the PM H(+)-ATPase in salt sensing and adaptation, we isolated the PM H(+)-ATPase gene PeHA1 from P. euphratica and introduced it into Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to wild-type, PeHA1-transgenic Arabidopsis had a greater germination rate, root length, and biomass under NaCl stress (50-150 mM). Ectopic expression of PeHA1 remarkably enhanced the capacity to control the homeostasis of ions and reactive oxygen species in salinized Arabidopsis. Flux data from salinized roots showed that transgenic plants exhibited a more pronounced Na(+)/H(+) antiport and less reduction of K(+) influx versus wild-type. Enhanced PM ATP hydrolytic activity, proton pumping, and Na(+)/H(+) antiport in PeHA1-transgenic plants, were consistent to those observed in vivo, i.e., H(+) extrusion, external acidification, and Na(+) efflux. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were typically higher in transgenic seedlings irrespective of salt concentration. In transgenic Arabidopsis roots, H2O2 production was higher under control conditions and increased more rapidly than wild-type when plants were subjected to NaCl treatment. Interestingly, transgenic plants were unable to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis when salt-induced H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These observations suggest that PeHA1 accelerates salt tolerance partially through rapid H2O2 production upon salt treatment, which triggers adjustments in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

  5. Anti-melanoma activity of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin in dacarbazine resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Oystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    We have earlier shown that the 9.2.27 Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) immunotoxin (IT) efficiently kills melanoma cells through inhibition of protein synthesis followed by some morphologic and biochemical features of apoptosis, a different cell killing mechanism than the one caused by Dacarbazine (DTIC), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat malignant melanoma. To examine whether induced DTIC resistance also is a determining factor for the effectiveness of 9.2.27PE IT, we developed a DTIC resistant subline, FEMX-200DR, from the DTIC sensitive cell line FEMX. The cell variants were treated with 9.2.27PE, an IT binding to the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) expressed on most malignant melanoma cells. The IT was equally effective in killing the FEMX-200DR and the FEMX cells, and the cell death was primarily caused by inhibition of protein synthesis. The DNA repair enzyme and apoptotic marker PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, was inactivated, although we observed only a minor activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, intracellular proteases involved in apoptosis. In addition to being DTIC resistant, the FEMX-200DR cells were also more resistant to apoptosis than the parent cells as a 3 times higher concentration of the apoptotic inducer Staurosporine was needed to obtain IC50. Furthermore, in early passage malignant melanoma cell lines established from lymph node metastases, the 9.2.27PE caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability independent of their DTIC sensitivity. These findings show that the 9.2.27PE IT efficiently can cause cell death in malignant melanoma cells independent of their level of resistance to apoptosis and DTIC.

  6. Early experience in endoscopic management of massive intraventricular hemorrhage with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zamzuri; Raj, Jason; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-01-01

    Massive intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is nearly always associated with hydrocephalus and is often treated with prolonged external ventricular drainage (EVD); however this procedure can lead to bacterial ventriculitis and meningitis, which can worsen the clinical outcomes. Endoscopic burr hole surgery to remove the hematomas in lateral and third ventricles is an alternative treatment option. We describe the surgical techniques and benefits of endoscopic surgery for acute massive IVH in four patients and discuss the current published literature-related to this condition. Four patients were treated endoscopically for massive IVH. Three patients presented with secondary IVH due to vascular malformation, tumoral bleed and chronic hypertension, while one case presented as massive primary IVH. Endoscopic wash out and removal of hematomas was normally performed together with an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Recombinant factor VIIa was only administered prior to surgery for IVH secondary to vascular malformation and for cases with postoperative rebleeding which required second endoscopic surgery. Weaning from ventilator and EVD commenced on day 4 postoperatively. All treated patients recovered and did not require further shunt surgery. Good outcomes obtained may be related to early removal of hematomas, creation of new cerebrospinal fluid diversion pathway after thorough wash-out, early weaning from ventilator and EVD. Endoscopic surgery is beneficial in treating poor grade IVH with Graeb score of more than 6. PMID:25685202

  7. The MOC31PE immunotoxin reduces cell migration and induces gene expression and cell death in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The standard treatment of ovarian cancer with chemotherapy often leads to drug resistance and relapse of the disease, and the need for development of novel therapy alternatives is obvious. The MOC31PE immunotoxin binds to the cell surface antigen EpCAM, which is expressed by the majority of epithelial cancers including ovarian carcinomas, and we studied the cytotoxic effects of MOC31PE in ovarian cancer cells. Methods Investigation of the effects of MOC31PE treatment on protein synthesis, cell viability, proliferation and gene expression of the ovarian cancer cell lines B76 and HOC7. Results MOC31PE treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent reduction of protein synthesis with ID50 values of less than 10 ng/ml, followed by reduced cell viability. In a gene expression array monitoring the expression of 84 key genes in cancer pathways, 13 of the genes were differentially expressed by MOC31PE treatment in comparison to untreated cells. By combining MOC31PE and the immune suppressor cyclosporin A (CsA) the MOC31PE effect on protein synthesis inhibition and cell viability increased tenfold. Cell migration was also reduced, both in the individual MOC31PE and CsA treatment, but even more when combining MOC31PE and CsA. In tumor metastasis PCR arrays, 23 of 84 genes were differentially expressed comparing CsA versus MOC31PE + CsA treatment. Increased expression of the tumor suppressor KISS1 and the nuclear receptor NR4A3 was observed, and the differential candidate gene expression was confirmed in complementary qPCR analyses. For NR4A3 this was not accompanied by increased protein expression. However, a subcellular fractionation assay revealed increased mitochondrial NR4A3 in MOC31PE treated cells, suggesting a role for this protein in MOC31PE-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that MOC31PE may become a new targeted therapy for ovarian cancer and that the MOC31PE anti-cancer effect is potentiated by CsA. PMID:24528603

  8. Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.

    2012-01-01

    The most massive stars (M> 60 Solar Mass) play crucial roles in altering the chemical and thermodynamic properties of their host galaxies. Stellar mass is the fundamental stellar parameter that determines their ancillary properties and which ultimately determines the fate of these stars and their influence on their galactic environs. Unfortunately, stellar mass becomes observationally and theoretically less well constrained as it increases. Theory becomes uncertain mostly because very massive stars are prone to strong, variable mass loss which is difficult to model. Observational constraints are uncertain too. Massive stars are rare, and massive binary stars (needed for dynamical determination of mass) are rarer still: and of these systems only a fraction have suitably high orbital inclinations for direct photometric and spectroscopic radial-velocity analysis. Even in the small number of cases in which a high-inclination binary near the upper mass limit can be identified, rotational broadening and contamination of spectral line features from thick circumstellar material (either natal clouds or produced by strong stellar wind driven mass loss from one or both of he stellar components) biases the analysis. In the wilds of the upper HR diagram, we're often left with indirect and circumstantial means of determining mass, a rather unsatisfactory state of affairs.

  9. Evolutionary tracks of massive stars during formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2014-02-01

    A model for massive stars is constructed by piecing together evolutionary algorithms for the protostellar structure, the environment, the inflow and the radiation feedback. We investigate specified accretion histories of constant, decelerating and accelerating forms and consider both hot and cold accretion, identified with spherical free-fall and disc accretion, respectively. Diagnostic tools for the interpretation of the phases of massive star formation and testing the evolutionary models are then developed. Evolutionary tracks able to fit Herschel Space Telescope data require the generated stars to be three to four times less massive than in previous interpretations, thus being consistent with clump star formation efficiencies of 10-15 per cent. However, for these cold Herschel clumps, the bolometric temperature is not a good diagnostic to differentiate between accretion models. We also find that neither spherical nor disc accretion can explain the high radio luminosities of many protostars. Nevertheless, we discover a solution in which the extreme ultraviolet flux needed to explain the radio emission is produced if the accretion flow is via free-fall on to hotspots covering less than 10 per cent of the surface area. Moreover, the protostar must be compact, and so has formed through cold accretion. We show that these conclusions are independent of the imposed accretion history. This suggests that massive stars form via gas accretion through discs which, in the phase before the star bloats, download their mass via magnetic flux tubes on to the protostar.

  10. Embeddings of the "New Massive Gravity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, E. L.

    2016-07-01

    Here we apply different types of embeddings of the equations of motion of the linearized "New Massive Gravity" in order to generate alternative and even higher-order (in derivatives) massive gravity theories in D=2+1. In the first part of the work we use the Weyl symmetry as a guiding principle for the embeddings. First we show that a Noether gauge embedding of the Weyl symmetry leads to a sixth-order model in derivatives with either a massive or a massless ghost, according to the chosen overall sign of the theory. On the other hand, if the Weyl symmetry is implemented by means of a Stueckelberg field we obtain a new scalar-tensor model for massive gravitons. It is ghost-free and Weyl invariant at the linearized level around Minkowski space. The model can be nonlinearly completed into a scalar field coupled to the NMG theory. The elimination of the scalar field leads to a nonlocal modification of the NMG. In the second part of the work we prove to all orders in derivatives that there is no local, ghost-free embedding of the linearized NMG equations of motion around Minkowski space when written in terms of one symmetric tensor. Regarding that point, NMG differs from the Fierz-Pauli theory, since in the latter case we can replace the Einstein-Hilbert action by specific f(R,Box R) generalizations and still keep the theory ghost-free at the linearized level.

  11. Massive Open Online Courses and Economic Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.; Williams, Shirley A.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of users around the world have registered on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by hundreds of universities (and other organizations) worldwide. Creating and offering these courses costs thousands of pounds. However, at present, revenue generated by MOOCs is not sufficient to offset these costs. The sustainability of MOOCs is a…

  12. Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; Pilli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  13. A Taxonomy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilli, Olga; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as a new approach to distance education, which originated from the open education resources (OER) movement, are becoming widespread throughout the world. Over time, early versions of cMOOCs have undergone changes in terms of use, name and structure. In their short life, MOOCs have been categorized into different…

  14. The Fate of Massive Closed Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Li Miao; She Jianhuang

    2005-12-02

    We calculate the semi-inclusive decay rate of an average string state with toroidal compactification in the the superstring theory. We also apply this calculation to a brane-inflation model in a warped geometry and find that the decay rate is greatly suppressed if the final strings are both massive and enhanced for massless radiation.

  15. Recovery From Giant Eruptions in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, A.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We perform radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study how very massive stars recover from giant eruptions. The post eruption star experience strong mass loss due to strong winds, driven by radial pulsations in the star*s interior, that operate by the κ-mechanism. The mass loss history obtained in our simulations resembles η Car*s history.

  16. Radial Infall onto a Massive Molecular Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Cara; Myers, Philip C.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Keto, Eric; Kirk, Helen

    The newly discovered Massive Molecular Filament (MMF) G32.02+0.05 (~ 70 pc long, 105 M⊙) has been shaped and compressed by older generations of massive stars. The similarity of this filament in physical structure (density profile, temperature) to much smaller star-forming filaments, suggests that the mechanism to form such filaments may be a universal process. The densest portion of the filament, apparent as an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) shows a range of massive star formation signatures throughout. We investigate the kinematics in this filament and find widespread inverse P cygni asymmetric line profiles. These line asymmetries are interpreted as a signature of large-scale radial collapse. Using line asymmetries observed with optically thick HCO+ (1-0) and optically thin H13CO+ (1-0) across a range of massive star forming regions in the filament, we estimate the global radial infall rate of the filament to range from a few 100 to a few 1000 M⊙ Myr-1 pc-1. At its current infall rate the densest portions of the cloud will more than double their current mass within a Myr.

  17. NOTE: Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Franklin, J.

    2010-05-01

    We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null.

  18. The Dynamics of Massive Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Kong, S.; Butler, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Progress towards resolving a decade-long debate about how massive stars form can be made by determining if massive starless cores exist in a state of near virial equilibrium. These are the initial conditions invoked by the Core Accretion model of McKee & Tan (2003). Alternatively, the Competitive Accretion model of Bonnell et al. (2001) requires sub-virial conditions. We have identified 4 prime examples of massive ( 50 Msun) cores from mid-infrared (MIR) extinction mapping (Butler & Tan 2009, 2012) of Infrared Dark Clouds. We have found spectacularly high deuterated fractions of N_2H+ of 0.5 in these objects with the IRAM 30m telescope (Fontani et al. 2011). Thus N_2D+ is expected to be an excellent tracer of the kinematics of these cold, dark cores, where most other molecular tracers are thought to be depleted from the gas phase. We report on ALMA Cycle 0 Compact Configuration Band 6 observations of these 4 cores that probe the N_2D+(3-2) line on scales from 9" down to 2.3", well-matched to the structures we see in MIR extinction and discuss their implications for massive star formation theories.

  19. FIBTEM provides early prediction of massive transfusion in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) among trauma patients is difficult in the early phase of trauma management. Whole-blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) tests provide immediate information about the coagulation status of acute bleeding trauma patients. We investigated their value for early prediction of MT. Methods This retrospective study included patients admitted to the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, Austria, with an injury severity score ≥16, from whom blood samples were taken immediately upon admission to the emergency room (ER). ROTEM® analyses (extrinsically-activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM), intrinsically-activated test using ellagic acid (INTEM) and fibrin-based extrinsically activated test with tissue factor and the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D (FIBTEM) tests) were performed. We divided patients into two groups: massive transfusion (MT, those who received ≥10 units red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours of admission) and non-MT (those who received 0 to 9 units). Results Of 323 patients included in this study (78.9% male; median age 44 years), 78 were included in the MT group and 245 in the non-MT group. The median injury severity score upon admission to the ER was significantly higher in the MT group than in the non-MT group (42 vs 27, P < 0.0001). EXTEM and INTEM clotting time and clot formation time were significantly prolonged and maximum clot firmness (MCF) was significantly lower in the MT group versus the non-MT group (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Of patients admitted with FIBTEM MCF 0 to 3 mm, 85% received MT. The best predictive values for MT were provided by hemoglobin and Quick value (area under receiver operating curve: 0.87 for both parameters). Similarly high predictive values were observed for FIBTEM MCF (0.84) and FIBTEM A10 (clot amplitude at 10 minutes; 0.83). Conclusions FIBTEM A10 and FIBTEM MCF provided similar predictive values for massive transfusion in trauma patients to the most predictive

  20. Modeling populations of rotationally mixed massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, I.

    2011-02-01

    Massive stars can be considered as cosmic engines. With their high luminosities, strong stellar winds and violent deaths they drive the evolution of galaxies through-out the history of the universe. Despite the importance of massive stars, their evolution is still poorly understood. Two major issues have plagued evolutionary models of massive stars until today: mixing and mass loss On the main sequence, the effects of mass loss remain limited in the considered mass and metallicity range, this thesis concentrates on the role of mixing in massive stars. This thesis approaches this problem just on the cross road between observations and simulations. The main question: Do evolutionary models of single stars, accounting for the effects of rotation, reproduce the observed properties of real stars. In particular we are interested if the evolutionary models can reproduce the surface abundance changes during the main-sequence phase. To constrain our models we build a population synthesis model for the sample of the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive stars, for which star-formation history and rotational velocity distribution are well constrained. We consider the four main regions of the Hunter diagram. Nitrogen un-enriched slow rotators and nitrogen enriched fast rotators that are predicted by theory. Nitrogen enriched slow rotators and nitrogen unenriched fast rotators that are not predicted by our model. We conclude that currently these comparisons are not sufficient to verify the theory of rotational mixing. Physical processes in addition to rotational mixing appear necessary to explain the stars in the later two regions. The chapters of this Thesis have been published in the following Journals: Ch. 2: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars I: Grids of Evolutionary Models and Isochrones'', I. Brott, S. E. de Mink, M. Cantiello, N. Langer, A. de Koter, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, C. Trundle, J.S. Vink submitted to Astronomy & Astrop hysics Ch. 3: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive

  1. Positivity constraints for pseudolinear massive spin-2 and vector Galileons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, James; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2016-11-01

    We derive analyticity constraints on a nonlinear ghost-free effective theory of a massive spin-2 particle known as pseudolinear massive gravity, and on a generalized theory of a massive spin-1 particle, both of which provide simple IR completions of Galileon theories. For pseudolinear massive gravity we find that, unlike de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley massive gravity, there is no window of parameter space which satisfies the analyticity constraints. For massive vectors which reduce to Galileons in the decoupling limit, we find that no two-derivative actions are compatible with positivity but that higher derivative actions can be made compatible.

  2. Prevalence of Echocardiography Use in Patients Hospitalized with Confirmed Acute Pulmonary Embolism: A Real-World Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Rong; Chow, Vincent; Lau, Jerrett K.; Thomas, Liza; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) carries an increased risk of death. Using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to assist diagnosis and risk stratification is recommended in current guidelines. However, its utilization in real-world clinical practice is unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study to delineate the prevalence of inpatient TTE use following confirmed acute PE, identify predictors for its use and its impact on patient’s outcome. Methods Clinical details of consecutive patients (2000 to 2012) from two tertiary-referral hospitals were retrieved from dedicated PE databases. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was tracked from a state-wide death registry. Results In total, 2306 patients were admitted with confirmed PE, of whom 687 (29.8%) had inpatient TTE (39.3% vs 14.4% between sites, P<0.001). Site to which patient presented, older age, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation and diabetes were independent predictors for inpatient TTE use, while malignancy was a negative predictor. Overall mortality was 41.4% (mean follow-up 66.5±49.5months). Though inpatient TTE use was not an independent predictor for all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in multivariable analysis, in the inpatient TTE subgroup, right ventricle-right atrial pressure gradient (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02 per-1mmHg increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03) and moderate/severe aortic stenosis (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.20–4.27) independently predicted all-cause mortality. Conclusions Inpatient TTE is used infrequently in real-world clinical settings following acute PE despite its usefulness in risk stratification, prognostication and assessing comorbid cardiac pathologies. Identifying patients that will benefit most from a TTE assessment following an acute PE episode and reducing barriers in accessing TTE should be explored. PMID:27977781

  3. The Rb problem in massive AGB stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mesa, V.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.

    2017-03-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is formed by low- and intermediate-mass stars (0.8 M_{⊙} < M < 8 M_{⊙}) in their last nuclear-burning phase, when they develop thermal pulses (TP) and suffer extreme mass loss. AGB stars are the main contributor to the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) and thus to the chemical evolution of galaxies. In particular, the more massive AGB stars (M > 4 M_{⊙}) are expected to produce light (e.g., Li, N) and heavy neutron-rich s-process elements (such as Rb, Zr, Ba, Y, etc.), which are not formed in lower mass AGB stars and Supernova explosions. Classical chemical analyses using hydrostatic atmospheres revealed strong Rb overabundances and high [Rb/Zr] ratios in massive AGB stars of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds (MC), confirming for the first time that the ^{22}Ne neutron source dominates the production of s-process elements in these stars. The extremely high Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios observed in the most massive stars (specially in the low-metallicity MC stars) uncovered a Rb problem; such extreme Rb and [Rb/Zr] values are not predicted by the s-process AGB models, suggesting fundamental problems in our present understanding of their atmospheres. We present more realistic dynamical model atmospheres that consider a gaseous circumstellar envelope with a radial wind and we re-derive the Rb (and Zr) abundances in massive Galactic AGB stars. The new Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios derived with these dynamical models significantly resolve the problem of the mismatch between the observations and the theoretical predictions of the more massive AGB stars.

  4. Solitary tubercular caecal ulcer causing massive lower gastrointestinal bleed: a formidable diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ram, Duvuru; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ali, Sheik Manwar

    2014-03-06

    Gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage is a common surgical emergency accounting for approximately 1% of acute hospital admissions. Lower GI bleed is less common and less severe than upper GI bleed and is usually caused by diverticulosis, neoplasms, angiodysplasia and inflammatory bowel disease. A 51-year-old man presented with massive lower GI bleed. He had no history of tuberculosis. He underwent colonoscopy and an isolated caecal ulcer was noted. Segmental ileocaecal resection was performed and no specific cause was identifiable on histopathology. PCR was performed on this specimen and it was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This case reports the unusual presentation of tuberculosis as solitary caecal ulcer with massive lower GI bleed and highlights the role of PCR as an adjuvant diagnostic tool for its diagnosis when characteristic histopathological findings are absent.

  5. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-05-31

    Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for varying times up to 2.3 years in closed containers. Sample mass and size measurements (to calculate density), spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of tritium exposure on these samples. Changes of the tritium exposure gas itself were characterized at the end of exposure by measuring total pressure and by mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas composition. None of the polymers exhibited significant changes of density. The color of initially white UHMW-PE and PTFE dramatically darkened to the eye and the color also significantly changed as measured by colorimetry. The bulk of UHMW-PE darkened just like the external surfaces, however the fracture surface of PTFE appeared white compared to the PTFE external surfaces. The white interior could have been formed while the sample was breaking or could reflect the extra tritium dose at the surface directly from the gas. The dynamic mechanical response of UHMW-PE was typical of radiation effects on polymers- an initial stiffening (increased storage modulus) and reduction of viscous behavior after three months exposure, followed by lowering of the storage modulus after one year exposure and longer. The storage modulus of PTFE increased through about nine months tritium exposure, then the samples became too weak to handle or test using DMA. Characterization of Vespel{reg_sign} using DMA was problematic--sample-to-sample variations were significant and no systematic change with tritium exposure could be discerned. Isotopic exchange and incorporation of tritium into UHMW-PE (exchanging for protium) and into PTFE (exchanging for fluorine) was observed by FT-IR using an attenuated

  6. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  7. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  8. Humanized CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins exhibit promising anti-T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia potential

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuan; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xuejun; Tang, Xiaowen; Bao, Yangyi; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Yuhui; Tian, Fang; Liu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background Nanobodies, named as VHHs (variable domain of heavy chain of HCAb [heavy-chain antibodies]), are derived from heavy-chain-only antibodies that circulate in sera of camelids. Their exceptional physicochemical properties, possibility of humanization, and unique antigen recognition properties make them excellent candidates for targeted delivery of biologically active components, including immunotoxins. In our previous efforts, we have successfully generated the monovalent and bivalent CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins, which can effectively trigger the apoptosis of CD7-positive malignant cells. To pursue the possibility of translating those immunotoxins into clinics, we humanized the nanobody sequences (designated as dhuVHH6) as well as further truncated the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE)-derived PE38 toxin to produce a more protease-resistant form, which is named as PE-LR, by deleting majority of PE domain II. Methods and results Three new types of immunotoxins, dhuVHH6-PE38, dVHH6-PE-LR, and dhuVHH6-PE-LR, were successfully constructed. These recombinant immunotoxins were expressed in Escherichia coli and showed that nanobody immunotoxins have the benefits of easy soluble expression in a prokaryotic expression system. Flow cytometry results revealed that all immunotoxins still maintained the ability to bind specifically to CD7-positive T lymphocyte strains without binding to CD7-negative control cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that these proteins can be endocytosed into the cytoplasm after binding with CD7-positive cells and that this phenomenon was not observed in CD7-negative cells. WST-8 experiments showed that all immunotoxins retained the highly effective and specific growth inhibition activity in CD7-positive cell lines and primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. Further in vivo animal model experiments showed that humanized dhuVHH6-PE38 immunotoxin can tolerate higher doses and extend the survival of NOD-Prkdcem26Il

  9. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( P<0.02), and the scavenging rates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still

  10. Acute renal failure in pregnancy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Randeree, I G; Czarnocki, A; Moodley, J; Seedat, Y K; Naiker, I P

    1995-03-01

    This study compares our experiences of the incidence and etiology of acute renal failure in pregnancy (ARF-P) in patients requiring hemodialysis, a decade after a previous publication from our institution. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 42 patients with a diagnosis of ARF-P during a 3-year period from 1990 to 1992 was undertaken [16% of the total number of acute renal failure (ARF) patients needing hemodialysis]. The incidence of ARF-P (expressed relative to all cases of acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis) decreased from 24.6% (1978) to 16% (1992: p = 0.03). Preeclampsia-eclampsia (PE:E) replaced septic abortion as the principal cause of ARF-P. In those patients with PE:E, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x 10(9)/L) occurred in all, while 33% developed the HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets). Ingestion of herbal toxins was noted mostly in patients with septic abortion. Maternal mortality was 5% and was due to multiorgan failure complicating septic abortion. The perinatal mortality of 55% occurred in women with early gestation, thrombocytopenia, and high serum creatinine levels. Acute renal failure in pregnancy continues to present a challenge in South Africa, a developing country. There were significantly more obstetric than gynecological causes in 1992 (p = 0.0003). This could be attributed to the steady decline in septic abortion since 1978. The main contributor to obstetric-related causes was PE:E. Greater emphasis should therefore be placed on detecting hypertension at antenatal visits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-03-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 < z < 0.07. We discover a significant population of superdense massive galaxies with masses and sizes comparable to those observed at high redshift. They approximately represent 22% of all cluster galaxies more massive than 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R{sub e} ) = 1.61 +- 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 +- 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 +- 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10{sup -2} Mpc{sup -3} for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z {approx} 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M{sub *} > 4 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  12. Massively Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Barhen, Jacob; Toomerian, Nikzad

    1994-01-01

    In this paper massively parallel algorithms for solution of Schrodinger equation are developed. Our results clearly indicate that the Crank-Nicolson method, in addition to its excellent numerical properties, is also highly suitable for massively parallel computation.

  13. Imunomodulative effect of liposomized muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) on mice with alveolar echinococcosis and treated with albendazole.

    PubMed

    Dvoroznáková, Emília; Porubcová, Jarmila; Snábel, Viliam; Fedorocko, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The effect of liposomized muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) administered separately or with anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) on cellular immunity of mice with alveolar echinococcosis was studied. The proliferative activity of splenic T and B lymphocytes was the most stimulated after combined L-MTP-PE + ABZ therapy [from weeks 8 to 14 post-infection (p.i.)] that also induced a long-term development of protective Th1 response (the highest serum concentration of IFN-gamma from weeks 8 to 18 p.i.). On the contrary, Th2 response (cytokine IL-5) in infected mice treated with L-MTP-PE was inhibited since week 8 p.i., but a significant long-term decrease in IL-5 concentration was found after combined L-MTP-PE+ABZ therapy until the end of the experiment (until week 26 p.i.). L-MTP-PE stimulated the production of superoxide anion (O2-) by peritoneal macrophages from weeks 8 to 12 p.i., but the highest O2- production was accordingly recorded after therapy L-MTP-PE+ABZ from weeks 8 to 18 p.i. Stimulation of cellular immunity of mice with alveolar echinococcis with L-MTP-PE and an interaction with ABZ's anti-parasitic effect resulted in the greatest and long-term reduction of growth of Echinococcus multilocularis cysts in the host from week 10 p.i. until the end of the experiment.

  14. The "PE coach" smartphone application: an innovative approach to improving implementation, fidelity, and homework adherence during prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Hoffman, Julia; Riggs, David; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ruzek, Josef; Holloway, Kevin M; Kuhn, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically supported treatment that is being disseminated broadly to providers in the Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense. Innovative methods are needed to support the implementation, dissemination, and patient and provider adherence to PE. The PE Coach is a smartphone application (app) designed to mitigate barriers to PE implementation. PE Coach is installed on the patient's phone and includes a range of capabilities for use during the PE session and after each session to support the treatment. Functions include the ability to audio record treatment sessions onto the patient's device, to construct the in vivo hierarchy on the device, to record completed homework exercises, to review homework adherence, and to track symptom severity over time. The app also allows sessions and homework to be scheduled directly in the app, populating the device calendar with patient reminder notifications. In the final session, a visual display of symptom improvement and habituation to items on the in vivo hierarchy is presented. These capabilities may significantly improve convenience, provider implementation and adherence, and patient compliance with treatment. Future research is needed to test whether PE Coach is useful and effective.

  15. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, Damian C; Cox, Jeffery S

    2014-10-14

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Moreover, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.

  16. Cortical connectivity suggests a role in limb coordination for macaque area PE of the superior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bakola, Sophia; Passarelli, Lauretta; Gamberini, Michela; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2013-04-10

    In macaques, superior parietal lobule area 5 has been described as occupying an extensive region, which includes the caudal half of the postcentral convexity as well as the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Modern neuroanatomical methods have allowed the identification of various areas within this region. In the present study, we investigated the corticocortical afferent projections of one of these subdivisions, area PE. Our results demonstrate that PE, defined as a single architectonic area that contains a topographic map of the body, forms specific connections with somatic and motor fields. Thus, PE receives major afferents from parietal areas, mainly area 2, PEc, several areas in the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus, opercular areas PGop/PFop, and the retroinsular area, frontal afferents from the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the caudal subdivision of dorsal premotor cortex, as well as afferents from cingulate areas PEci, 23, and 24. The presence and relative strength of these connections depend on the location of injection sites, so that lateral PE receives preferential input from anterior sectors of the medial bank of intraparietal sulcus and from the ventral premotor cortex, whereas medial PE forms denser connections with area PEc and motor fields. In contrast with other posterior parietal areas, there are no projections to PE from occipital or prefrontal cortices. Overall, the sensory and motor afferents to PE are consistent with functions in goal-directed movement but also hint at a wider variety of motor coordination roles.

  17. Functional dissection of protein domains involved in the immunomodulatory properties of PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zumbo, Antonella; Palucci, Ivana; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Ventura, Marcello; D'Alfonso, Pamela; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    PE_PGRSs are a large family of proteins identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and in few other pathogenic mycobacteria. The PE domain of PE_PGRS33 mediates localization of the protein on the mycobacterial cell surface, where the PGRS domain is available to interact with host components. In this study, PE_PGRS33 and its functional deletion mutants were expressed in M. smegmatis, and in vitro and in vivo assays were used to dissect the protein domains involved in the immunomodulatory properties of the protein. We demonstrate that PE_PGRS33-mediated secretion of TNF-α by macrophages occurs by extracellular interaction with TLR2. Our results also show that while the PGRS domain of the protein is required for triggering TNF-α secretion, mutation in the PE domain affects the pro-inflammatory properties of the protein. These results indicate that PE_PGRS33 is a protein with immunomodulatory activity and that protein stability and localization on the mycobacterial surface can affect these properties.

  18. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    DOE PAGES

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-10-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), whichmore » adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.« less

  19. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter and PeV neutrinos at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, P.S. Bhupal; Kazanas, D.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Teplitz, V.L.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-08-17

    We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group SU(2){sub L}×SU(2){sup ′}×U(1){sub B−L} where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of SU(2){sup ′}, play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-PeV range. We use a resonant s-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the PeV cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. The model can be tested with more precise flavor information of the highest-energy neutrino events in future data.

  20. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Laha, Ranjan; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Ahlers, Markus

    2015-08-14

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse γ-ray background data. Critical tests are possible by a detailed analysis and identification of the sub-TeV isotropic diffuse γ-ray data observed by Fermi and future observations of sub-PeV γ rays by observatories like HAWC or Tibet AS+MD. In addition, with several-year observations by next-generation telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2, muon neutrino searches for nearby dark matter halos such as the Virgo cluster should allow us to rule out or support the dark matter models, independently of γ-ray and anisotropy tests.

  1. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    PubMed

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  2. Search for PeV Gamma Rays with IceTop and IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Zachary; Pandya, Hershal; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray induced air showers produce muons at a rate much lower than hadronic air showers. Therefore, air showers detected by the surface array IceTop that pass through the underground muon detector IceCube can be effectively separated into photons and hadrons by utilizing the presence of IceCube signal. As the threshold for muon detection in IceCube is around 500 GeV, this veto becomes effective at close to PeV primary energies. We present results of a search for PeV gamma rays with IceTop and IceCube, including a search for point sources, correlations with TeV sources detected by H.E.S.S., neutrino events from IceCube's high energy starting event sample, and the Galactic plane. National Science Foundation.

  3. Atmospheric-Pressure Non-thermal Plasma-JET effects on PS and PE surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, J.; Asenjo, J.; Vargas, I.; Solis, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma (APNTP) has become a topic of a great interest for a wide spectrum of applications in different industry branches, including the surface of treatment processes. In this work we evaluate the effect of an argon APNTP exposure to determine changes suffered by a polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) polymer surface through RAMAN spectroscopy and SEM. It was determined that the hydrophilic change in energetic terms, i.e. surface activation in the PS and PE polymers is addition of oxygen by surface activation when the samples with jet plasma are exposed with the inert argon gas. It was possible to characterize the hydrophilic shift based on the change in intensity of the spectra.

  4. Perceived Research Burden Assessment (PeRBA): Instrument Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Schmidt, Karen; Gentry, Amanda; Hu, Lu; Terhorst, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Protecting human participants requires consideration and minimization of the burdens imposed by research. Effective conceptualizations of research burden should include appraisals of indirect burdens depending on research duration, intensity, and invasiveness. Introducing the concept of perceived research burden, we developed, tested, and validated a psychometric instrument for measuring burden, using vignettes of research studies presented to research volunteers and family members. We found high internal consistency of the Perceived Research Burden Assessment (PeRBA), across research scenarios (Cronbach’s alpha .87 – .96). We demonstrated convergent validity by correlating research burden with likelihood for enrolling in a research study. Because perceived research burden was largely unrelated to perceived social support, we interpreted PeRBA as demonstrating discriminant validity. PMID:26125079

  5. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol strains PE-2 and CAT-1 for efficient lignocellulosic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romaní, Aloia; Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Björn; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-03-01

    In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains PE-2 and CAT-1, commonly used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, were engineered for xylose fermentation, where the first fermented xylose faster than the latter, but also produced considerable amounts of xylitol. An engineered PE-2 strain (MEC1121) efficiently consumed xylose in presence of inhibitors both in synthetic and corn-cob hydrolysates. Interestingly, the S. cerevisiae MEC1121 consumed xylose and glucose simultaneously, while a CEN.PK based strain consumed glucose and xylose sequentially. Deletion of the aldose reductase GRE3 lowered xylitol production to undetectable levels and increased xylose consumption rate which led to higher final ethanol concentrations. Fermentation of corn-cob hydrolysate using this strain, MEC1133, resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.47 g/g of total sugars which is 92% of the theoretical yield.

  7. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies.

  8. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO2/FiO2), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (P<0.05), of which TBIL and ALT were decreased more significantly (P<0.01) in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups. Only changes in the PE+HP+CVVHDF and PE+CVVHDF groups were statistically significant after prothrombin time and albumin treatment (P<0.05). The difference between the decrease in TBIL in the PE+HP+CVVHDF group and that in the HP+CVVHDF group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment of the 61 patients using the artificial liver support system yielded a survival rate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure. PMID:28105119

  9. Prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Antoine; Mallett, Susan; Daoud-Elias, Marie; Poggi, Jean-Noël; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for existing prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and determine how valid and useful they are for predicting patient outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from inception to July 2014, and sources of grey literature. Eligibility criteria Studies aiming at constructing, validating, updating or studying the impact of prognostic models to predict all-cause death, PE-related death or venous thromboembolic events up to a 3-month follow-up in patients with an acute symptomatic PE. Data extraction Study characteristics and study quality using prognostic criteria. Studies were selected and data extracted by 2 reviewers. Data analysis Summary estimates (95% CI) for proportion of risk groups and event rates within risk groups, and accuracy. Results We included 71 studies (44 298 patients). Among them, 17 were model construction studies specific to PE prognosis. The most validated models were the PE Severity Index (PESI) and its simplified version (sPESI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.3% (1.7% to 2.9%) in the low-risk group and 11.4% (9.9% to 13.1%) in the high-risk group for PESI (9 studies), and 1.5% (0.9% to 2.5%) in the low-risk group and 10.7% (8.8% to12.9%) in the high-risk group for sPESI (11 studies). PESI has proved clinically useful in an impact study. Shifting the cut-off or using novel and updated models specifically developed for normotensive PE improves the ability for identifying patients at lower risk for early death or adverse outcome (0.5–1%) and those at higher risk (up to 20–29% of event rate). Conclusions We provide evidence-based information about the validity and utility of the existing prognostic models in acute PE that may be helpful for identifying patients at low risk. Novel models seem attractive for the high-risk normotensive PE but need to be externally validated then be assessed in impact studies. PMID

  10. [A case of fetal death resulting from a massive fetomaternal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Denef, M; Capelle, X; Vanlinthout, C; Lepage, S; Emonts, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a late stillbirth which unexpectedly occurred in a patient without any medical history and after a meticulous obstetrical follow up. Stillbirth is unfortunately not unusual and implies a complete etiological work up. In the present observation, the Kleihauer test and anatomoclinical examination concluded that the death was due to an acute cerebral anoxy resulting from a massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (HFM). HFM is rarely considered as the cause of a late stillbirth, but its occurrence is certainly underestimated. Yet, if HFM is identified before fetal death, an .adequate management could considerably improve the fetal prognosis and, sometines, save the child's life.

  11. Dieulafoy disease of the trachea with recurrent episodes of massive hemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Danrong; Rong, Chaohui; Gu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Jiayin; Zhang, Guobin; Shen, Ce

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Dieulafoy disease is characterized by the presence of dilated, tortuous arteries that project into the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and less frequently the bronchus. Patient concerns: Dieulafoy disease of the trachea has not been previously described. A 60-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of massive hemoptysis. Diagnoses: Dieulafoy disease of the trachea. Interventions :Selective arterial embolization was undertaken. Outcomes: The intervention was successful and no fresh episode of acute hemoptysis was observed. Lessons: Apart from the bronchus, vascular anomaly may also be present in the trachea in Dieulafoy disease. PMID:28151860

  12. Clearly Defining Pediatric Massive Transfusion: Cutting Through the Fog and Friction with Combat Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Neff L . P., Cannon J. W., Morrison J. J., Edwards M . J., Spinella P. C., Borgman M . A., 5d...from Afghanistan and Iraq, 2002Y2010. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(5):1278Y1283. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M , Cantrell J, Oetjen-Gerdes L , Zubko T...Gaarder C, Goslings JC, Maegele M , Cohen MJ, König TC, Davenport RA, Pittet JF, Johansson PI, et al. Reappraising the concept of massive

  13. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS's, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  14. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS’s, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24904584

  15. The PE_PGRS Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are Ca(2+) Binding Mediators of Host-Pathogen Interaction.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Khandelwal, Radhika; Sharma, Yogendra; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2016-08-23

    The phenomenal success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) as a pathogen is primarily based on its ability to modulate host immune responses. The genome of M.tb encodes multiple immunomodulatory proteins, including several members of the multigenic PE_PPE family of which the PE_PGRS proteins are a subset. Curiously, 56 of the 61 PE_PGRS proteins contain multiple copies of the glycine-rich sequence motif GGXGXD/NXUX, a nonapeptide sequence predicted to bind Ca(2+), but the functional significance of these motifs remains a mystery. Here we provide evidence via isothermal titration calorimetry, (45)Ca blotting, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy that Ca(2+) binds to the PE_PGRS proteins, PE_PGRS33 (Rv1818c) (10 motifs) and PE_PGRS61 (Rv3653) (one motif). Ca(2+) was observed not to bind to PE_PGRS8 (Rv0742), which lacks nonapeptide motifs. Using recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing Rv1818c and Rv3653 and the THP-1 macrophage model of infection, we show that the two proteins mediate Ca(2+)-dependent upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, events critical to the pathogenesis of M.tb. Both Rv1818c and Rv3653 interact with TLR2 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, providing a novel mechanistic basis for their immunomodulatory effects. Mutations in the nonapeptide motif of Rv3653 led to compromised Ca(2+) binding, validating the functional criticality of this motif. This study demonstrates for the first time not only their Ca(2+) binding properties but also an essential role for Ca(2+) in the functioning of the M.tb PE_PGRS proteins, opening up the possibility of developing novel anti-tuberculosis therapeutics that inhibit Ca(2+)-PE_PGRS binding.

  16. Phase I trial of EpCAM-targeting immunotoxin MOC31PE, alone and in combination with cyclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Y; Engebraaten, O; Juell, S; Aamdal, S; Brunsvig, P; Fodstad, Ø; Dueland, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: A phase I trial was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of the anti-EpCAM immunotoxin (IT) MOC31PE in cancer patients. An important part of the study was to investigate whether the addition of Sandimmune (cyclosporin, CsA) suppressed the development of anti-IT antibodies. Methods: Patients with EpCAM-positive metastatic disease were eligible for treatment with intravenous MOC31PE using a modified Fibonacci dose escalation sequence. Maximum tolerated dose was first established without, then with intravenously administered CsA. Results: Sixty-three patients were treated with MOC31PE in doses ranging from 0.5 to 8 μg kg−1. Maximum tolerated dose was 8 μg kg−1 for MOC31PE alone, and 6.5 μg kg−1 when combined with CsA. The dose-limiting adverse event was reversible liver toxicity. No radiological complete or partial responses were observed, whereas stable disease was seen in 36% of the patients receiving MOC31PE only. The pharmacokinetic profile of MOC31PE was characterised by linear kinetics and with a half-life of ∼3 h. The addition of CsA delayed the generation of anti-IT antibodies. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of MOC31PE can safely be administered to cancer patients. Immune suppression with CsA delays the development of anti-MOC31PE antibodies. The antitumour effect of MOC31PE warrants further evaluation in EpCAM-positive metastatic disease. PMID:26554649

  17. Massive higher spins from BRST and tractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Waldron, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    We obtain the higher spin tractor equations of motion conjectured by Gover et al. from a BRST approach and use those methods to prove that they describe massive, partially massless and massless higher spins in conformally flat backgrounds. The tractor description makes invariance under local choices of unit systems manifest. In this approach, physical models are described by conformal, rather than (pseudo-)Riemannian geometry. In particular masses become geometric quantities, namely the weights of tractor fields. Massive models can therefore be handled in a unified and simple manner mimicking the gauge principle usually employed for massless models. From a holographic viewpoint, these models describe both the bulk and boundary theories in terms of conformal geometry. This is an important advance, because tying the boundary conformal structure to that of the bulk theory gives greater control over a bulk-boundary correspondence.

  18. Superdense massive galaxies in the nearby universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2010-04-01

    At high-z the most superdense massive galaxies are supposed to be the result of gas-rich mergers resulting in compact remnant (Khochfar & Silk (2006); Naab et al. (2007)). After this, dry mergers are expected to be the mechanism that moves these very massive galaxies towards the current stellar mass size relation. Whitin these merging scenarios, a non-negligible fraction (1-10%) of these galaxies is expected to survive since that epoch retaining their compactness and presenting old stellar populations in the past universe.Using the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (DR6), we find only a tiny fraction of galaxies (~0.03%) with re ≤ 1.5 kpc and M* ≥ 8x1010M⊙ in the local Universe (z~0.2). Surprisingly, they are relatively young (~2Gyr) and metal rich ([Z/H]~0.2) These results have been published in Trujillo et al. (2009)

  19. Visser's massive graviton bimetric theory revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Roany, Alain de; Chauvineau, Bertrand; Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. de

    2011-10-15

    A massive gravity theory was proposed by Visser in the late 1990s. This theory, based on a background metric b{sub {alpha}{beta}} and on an usual dynamical metric g{sub {alpha}{beta}} has the advantage of being free of ghosts as well as discontinuities present in other massive theories proposed in the past. In the present investigation, the equations of Visser's theory are revisited with particular care on the related conservation laws. It will be shown that a multiplicative factor is missing in the graviton tensor originally derived by Visser, which has no incidence on the weak field approach but becomes important in the strong field regime when, for instance, cosmological applications are considered. In this case, contrary to some previous claims found in the literature, we conclude that a nonstatic background metric is required in order to obtain a solution able to mimic the {Lambda}CDM cosmology.

  20. Stable FLRW solutions in generalized massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia; Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    We present exact Friedmann Lemaítre Robertson Walkers (FLRW) solutions in generalized massive gravity where the mass parameters are naturally promoted to Lorentz-invariant functions of the Stückelberg fields. This new dependence relaxes the constraint that would otherwise prevent massive gravity from possessing exact FLRW solutions. It does so without the need to introduce additional degrees of freedom. We find self-accelerating cosmological solutions and show that, with a mild restriction on the region of phase space, these cosmological solutions exhibit full stability, i.e. absence of ghosts and gradient instabilities for all the tensor, vector and scalar modes, for all cosmic time. We perform the full decoupling limit analysis, including vector degrees of freedom, which can be used to confirm the existence of an active Vainshtein mechanism about these solutions.

  1. Parallel rendering techniques for massively parallel visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Krogh, M.; Painter, J.

    1995-07-01

    As the resolution of simulation models increases, scientific visualization algorithms which take advantage of the large memory. and parallelism of Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs) are becoming increasingly important. For large applications rendering on the MPP tends to be preferable to rendering on a graphics workstation due to the MPP`s abundant resources: memory, disk, and numerous processors. The challenge becomes developing algorithms that can exploit these resources while minimizing overhead, typically communication costs. This paper will describe recent efforts in parallel rendering for polygonal primitives as well as parallel volumetric techniques. This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume render use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Ma.chines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  2. How Massive Single Stars End Their Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heger, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Woosley, S. E.; Langer, N.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    How massive stars die-what sort of explosion and remnant each produces-depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided that single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate on stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.

  3. Massively Parallel Computing: A Sandia Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Greenberg, David S.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Heroux, Michael A.; Plimpton, Steve J.; Tomkins, James L.; Womble, David E.

    1999-05-06

    The computing power available to scientists and engineers has increased dramatically in the past decade, due in part to progress in making massively parallel computing practical and available. The expectation for these machines has been great. The reality is that progress has been slower than expected. Nevertheless, massively parallel computing is beginning to realize its potential for enabling significant break-throughs in science and engineering. This paper provides a perspective on the state of the field, colored by the authors' experiences using large scale parallel machines at Sandia National Laboratories. We address trends in hardware, system software and algorithms, and we also offer our view of the forces shaping the parallel computing industry.

  4. Method for PE Pipes Fusion Jointing Based on TRIZ Contradictions Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianguang; Tan, Runhua; Gao, Jinyong; Wei, Zihui

    The core of the TRIZ theories is the contradiction detection and solution. TRIZ provided various methods for the contradiction solution, but all that is not systematized. Combined with the technique system conception, this paper summarizes an integration solution method for contradiction solution based on the TRIZ contradiction theory. According to the method, a flowchart of integration solution method for contradiction is given. As a casestudy, method of fusion jointing PE pipe is analysised.

  5. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  6. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  7. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL POLYIMIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-11-01

    Samples of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the polyimide Vespel{reg_sign} were exposed to tritium gas in closed containers initially at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) pressure and ambient temperature for various times up to 2.3 years. Tritium exposure effects on the samples were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and radiolysis products were characterized by measuring the total final pressure and composition in the exposure containers at the end of exposure period.

  8. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  9. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2012-05-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' Multiplication-Sign 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of {approx}20-70 pixel{sup -1} in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} > 150 km s{sup -1}, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by {approx}50%, and only a weak correlation between {sigma}{sub *} and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are {approx} an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 R{sub e} , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high {alpha}-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.

  10. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  11. Are All Magnetic White Dwarf Stars Massive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Kulebi, B.; Koester, D.; Kleinman, S. J.; Winget, D. E.; Castanheira, B. G.; Corsico, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    We obtained follow-up spectra on 25 white dwarf stars identified in our white dwarf catalog of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as massive or magnetic. We identified over 300 magnetic white dwarf stars from SDSS with some uncertainties due to the low S/N of the spectra. With much higher S/N Gemini data, our sample should be able to help us confirm accuracy of our determinations. We present here our results so far from the follow up observations.

  12. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan; Qiu, Keping; Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Frau, Pau; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  13. Theoretical Developments in Understanding Massive Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Bodenheimer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Except under special circumstances massive stars in galactic disks will form through accretion. The gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core will initially produce one or more low mass quasi-hydrostatic objects of a few Jupiter masses. Through subsequent accretion the masses of these cores grow as they simultaneously evolve toward hydrogen burning central densities and temperatures. We review the evolution of accreting (proto-)stars, including new results calculated with a publicly available stellar evolution code written by the authors.

  14. The Stellar Halos of Massive Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.

    2012-05-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive elliptical galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' × 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of ~20-70 pixel-1 in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive elliptical galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions σ* > 150 km s-1, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by ~50%, and only a weak correlation between σ* and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of elliptical galaxies that are ~ an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 Re , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high α-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive elliptical galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.

  15. On 3D minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    We study linearized equations of motion of the newly proposed three dimensional gravity, known as minimal massive gravity, using its metric formulation. By making use of a redefinition of the parameters of the model, we observe that the resulting linearized equations are exactly the same as that of TMG. In particular the model admits logarithmic modes at critical points. We also study several vacuum solutions of the model, specially at a certain limit where the contribution of Chern-Simons term vanishes.

  16. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  17. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  18. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Kong, Huan-Yu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Huang; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2013-06-15

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. The dry root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn has been long used to treat respiratory diseases in China. In the present study, Praeruptorin A, C, D and E (PA, PC, PD and PE), four pyranocoumarins extracted from this herb, have been investigated for the pharmacological effects in experimental lung injury mouse models. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice, PA and PC did not show protective effect against lung injury at the dose of 80 mg/kg. However, PD and PE significantly inhibited the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group. Further study demonstrated that PD and PE suppressed protein extravasations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the pathological changes in the lung. Both PD and PE suppressed LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. We also extended our study to acid-induced acute lung injury and found that these two compounds protected mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation. Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury.

  19. Acute Blindness.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed.

  20. Possible Domain Formation In PE/PC Bilayers Containing High Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesterol is a significant component of animal cell membranes, and its presence has the effects of not only adding rigidity to the lipid bilayer, but also leading to the formation of lipid domains. Two other lipids of interest are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which constitutes about 45 percent of the phospholipids found in human nervous tissues, and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is found in every cell of the human body. The maximum solubility of cholesterol is the highest mole fraction of cholesterol that the lipid bilayer can retain, at which point cholesterol begins to precipitate out to form cholesterol monohydrate crystals. We have measured the maximum solubility of cholesterol in mixtures of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-18:1PC using a new light scattering technique, which utilizes the anisotropic nature of light scattering by cholesterol crystals. This new method is highly accurate and reproducible. Our results show that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the molar ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC), which suggests possible domain formation in mixtures of PE and PC containing maximum amount of cholesterol.

  1. Interfacial characterization of Pluronic PE9400 at biocompatible (air-water and limonene-water) interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis M; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Ramírez, Pablo; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Muñoz, José

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we provide an accurate characterization of non-ionic triblock copolymer Pluronic PE9400 at the air-water and limonene-water interfaces, comprising a systematic analysis of surface tension isotherms, dynamic curves, dilatational rheology and desorption profiles. The surface pressure isotherms display two different slopes of the Π-c plot suggesting the existence of two adsorption regimes for PE9400 at both interfaces. Application of a theoretical model, which assumes the coexistence of different adsorbed states characterized by their molar areas, allows quantification of the conformational changes occurring at the adsorbed layer, indentifying differences between the conformations adopted at the air-water and the limonene-water interface. The presence of two maxima in the dilatational modulus vs. interfacial pressure importantly corroborates this conformational change from a 2D flat conformation to 3D brush one. Moreover, the dilatational response provides mechanical diferences between the interfacial layers formed at the two interfaces analyzed. Dynamic surface pressure data were transformed into a dimensionless form and fitted to another model which considers the influence of the reorganization process on the adsorption dynamics. Finally, the desorption profiles reveal that Pluronic PE9400 is irreversibly adsorbed at both interfaces regardless of the interfacial conformation and nature of the interface. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial properties of pluronics which can be applied in the rational development of new products, such as biocompatible limonene-based emulsions and/or microemulsions.

  2. Nano-cage-mediated refolding of insulin by PEG-PE micelle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaocui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Luoyang; Yu, Jibing; Wei, Xiuli; Zhou, Yinjian; Wang, Chen; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin aggregation has pronounced pharmaceutical implications and biological importance. Deposition of insulin aggregates is associated with type II diabetes and instability of pharmaceutical formulations. We present in this study the renaturation effect of PEG-PE micelle on dithiothreitol (DTT)-denatured insulin revealed by techniques including turbidity assay, circular dichroism (CD), thioflavinT (ThT) binding assay, bis-ANS binding assay, agarose gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. The obtained results show that PEG-PE micelle having a hydrophilic nano-cage-like structure in which with a negative charge layer, can capture DTT-induced insulin A and B chains, and block their hydrophobic interaction, thereby preventing aggregation. The reduced insulin A and B chain in the nano-cage are capable of recognizing each other and form the native insulin with yields of ∼30% as measured by hypoglycemic activity analysis in mice. The observed insulin refolding assisted by PEG-PE micelle may be applicable to other proteins.

  3. Industrial PE-2 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: from alcoholic fermentation to the production of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Soares-Costa, Andrea; Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Andrade, Letícia de Freitas; Catelli, Lucas Ferioli; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2014-01-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important microorganism used in the ethanol fermentation process. The PE-2 strain of this yeast is widely used to produce alcohol in Brazil due to its high fermentation capacity. The aim of the present study was to develop an expression system for recombinant proteins using the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation process. The protein chosen as a model for this system was CaneCPI-1, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor. A plasmid containing the CaneCPI-1 gene was constructed and yeast cells were transformed with the pYADE4_CaneCPI-1 construct. To evaluate the effect on fermentation ability, the transformed strain was used in the fermentation process with cell recycling. During the nine-hour fermentative cycles the transformed strain did not have its viability and fermentation ability affected. In the last cycle, when the fermentation lasted longer, the protein was expressed probably at the expense of ethanol once the sugars were exhausted. The recombinant protein was expressed in yeast cells, purified and submitted to assays of activity that demonstrated its functionality. Thus, the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae can be used as a viable system for protein expression and to produce alcohol simultaneously. The findings of the present study demonstrate the possibility of producing recombinant proteins with biotechnological applications during the ethanol fermentation process.

  4. Final report of the Peña Blanca natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Schön S.; Goldstein, Steven Joel; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Amato, Ronald S.; Anthony, Elizabeth; Cook, Paul; Dobson, Patrick F.; Fayek, Mostafa; French, Diana; Garza, Rodrigo de; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Goodell, Philip C.; Harder, Steven H.; Ku, Teh-Lung; Luo, Shangde; Murrell, Michael Tildon; Norman, Deborah E.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Oliver, Ronald; Pekar-Carpenter, Katrina; Rearick, Michael Sean; Ren, Minghua; Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio; Pineda, Jose Alfredo; Saulnier, George; Tarimala, Sowmitri; Walton, John

    2016-10-04

    The Peña Blanca region, 50 km north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, México, was a target of uranium exploration and mining by the Mexican government. After mining ceased in 1981, researchers became interested in this region as a study area for subsurface uranium migration with relevance to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Many studies related to this concept were conducted at the Nopal I mine site located on a cuesta (hill) of the Sierra Peña Blanca. This site has geologic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geochemical similarities to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a formerly proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), sponsored studies at Nopal I in the 1990s and supported the drilling of three research wells – PB1, PB2, and PB3 – at the site in 2003. Beginning in 2004, the Peña Blanca Natural Analogue Project was undertaken by U.S. DOE, OCRWM to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transport of uranium and its radiogenic daughter products at the Nopal I site.

  5. Demystifying the PeV cascades in IceCube: Less (energy) is more (events)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Ranjan; Beacom, John F.; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Murase, Kohta

    2013-08-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory has detected two cascade events with energies near 1 PeV [A. Ishihara Proceedings of Neutrino 2012 Conference, http://neu2012.kek.jp/index.html; M. Aartsen et al. (IceCube Collaboration) Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 021103 (2013)]. Without invoking new physics, we analyze the source of these neutrinos. We show that atmospheric conventional neutrinos and cosmogenic neutrinos (those produced in the propagation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays) are strongly disfavored. For atmospheric prompt neutrinos or a diffuse background of neutrinos produced in astrophysical objects, the situation is less clear. We show that there is tension with observed data, but that the details depend on the least-known aspects of the IceCube analysis. Very likely, prompt neutrinos are disfavored and astrophysical neutrinos are plausible. We demonstrate that the fastest way to reveal the origin of the observed PeV neutrinos is to search for neutrino cascades in the range below 1 PeV, for which dedicated analyses with high sensitivity have yet to appear, and where many more events could be found.

  6. Understanding the two-photon absorption spectrum of PE2 platinum acetylide complex.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Marcelo G; De Boni, Leonardo; Cooper, Thomas M; Mendonca, Cleber R

    2014-07-31

    Herein, we report on the two-absorption cross-section spectrum of trans-Pt(PBu3)2 (C≡C-C6H4-C≡C-C6H5)2 (PE2) platinum acetylide complex employing the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique. The PE2 complex can be visualized as two branches containing two phenylacetylene units, each one linked by a platinum center, completely transparent in the visible region. Because of this structure, large delocalization of π-electrons allied to the strong intramolecular interaction between the branches is expected. The 2PA absorption spectrum was measured using the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with low repetition rate (1 kHz), in order to obtain the 2PA spectrum without excited-state contributions. Our results reveal that PE2 in dichloromethane solution presents two 2PA allowed bands located at 570 and 710 nm, with cross section of about 320 and 45 GM, respectively. The first one is related to the strong intramolecular interaction between the molecule's branches due to the presence of platinum atom, while the second one is associated with the breaking of symmetry of the chromophore in solution due, most probably to a large twisting angle of the ligand's phenyl rings relative to the Pt core.

  7. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  8. Theory of 2 omega(sub pe) radiation induced by the bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Vinas, A. F.-; Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electomagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2 omega(sub pe), in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. This radiation had its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmiur waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2 omega(sub pe) is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electomagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2 omega(sub pe) quasi-mode propagates in an inhomgeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hense the electomagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism.

  9. Constraints on cosmic ray and PeV neutrino production in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Li, Zhuo

    2017-03-01

    IceCube has detected a cumulative flux of PeV neutrinos, which origin is unknown. Blazars, active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointing to us, are long and widely expected to be one of the strong candidates of high energy neutrino sources. The neutrino production depends strongly on the cosmic ray power of blazar jets, which is largely unknown. The recent null results in stacking searches of neutrinos for several blazar samples by IceCube put upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from these blazars. Here we compute the cosmic ray power and PeV neutrino flux of Fermi-LAT blazars, and find that the upper limits for known blazar sources give stringent constraint on the cosmic ray loading factor of blazar jets (i.e., the ratio of the cosmic ray to bolometric radiation luminosity of blazar jets), ξcr lesssim (2–10)ζ‑1 (with ζ lesssim 1 the remained fraction of cosmic ray energy when propagate into the blazar broad line region) for flat cosmic ray spectrum, and that the cumulative PeV neutrino flux contributed by all-sky blazars is a fraction lesssim (10–50)% of the IceCube detected flux.

  10. Spatial Disrtribution and Evolution of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghakhanlootakanloo, Mojgan; Murphy, Jeremiah W.

    2017-01-01

    Observations show that luminous blue variables (LBVs) are far more dispersed than other massive stars, and Smith & Tombleson (2015) suggested that these large separations are inconsistent with the standard single-star evolution model of LBVs. Instead, they suggest that the large distances are most consistent with some sort of binary evolution. To test these suggestions, we modeled young stellar clusters and their passive dissolution, and we find that, indeed, the single-star evolution model is inconsistent with observations. Most importantly, we find two binary scenario models that are consistent. Our crude models suggest that LBVs are either the result of mergers and are rejuvenated stars, or they are mass gainers and received a kick when the primary star exploded. In the merger scenario, LBVs have more time to disperse because they are the merger of two lesser mass, in which the primary has a mass of about 19 solar masses. In the mass gainer and kick scenario, we find that LBV isolation is consistent with an average kick of 200 km/s. In either scenario, binarity plays a major role in the isolation of LBVs. In addition to constraining the evolution of LBVs, we suggest that careful scrutiny of the spatial distribution of massive stars in general will lead to a greater understanding for the evolution of massive stars.

  11. Massive-Star Nucleosynthesis: Lessons from INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Roland; Lang, Michael; Kretschmer, Karsten; Martin, Pierrick; Ohlendorf, Henrike; Voss, Rasmus

    2010-08-01

    Gamma-ray line observations with INTEGRAL measure decay of unstable isotopes which are ejected from sites of nucleosynthesis. Massive stars are believed to be producers of gamma-ray emitting isotopes 44Ti, 26Al, 60Fe. Measurements with the Ge spectrometer have shown that (1) inner core-collapse supernova ejecta from the Cas A supernova remnant appear to still travel at velocities beyond a few hundred km/sec (2) 26Al synthesis occurs throughout the Galaxy corresponds to a supernova rate from core collapses of about one every 50 years; (3) 60Fe synthesis expected from massive stars is above the constraints from gamma-ray observations; 26Al synthesis in the Cygnus region appears on the high side of predictions from models; 26Al emission from the nearby Sco-Cen group of stars has been identified demonstrates massive-star activity close to the Sun. 26Al gamma-rays have been used to determine a longitude-velocity distribution of the presumably hot tenuous ISM which carries 26Al, which can be compared to molecular-gas star motions to help understand the Galaxy's bar spiral-arm structure. Implications of the above nucleosynthesis constraints suggest that INTEGRAL's observed positron annihilation gamma-rays need a contribution from another source located in the central regions of our Galaxy, and/or positrons may propagate kpc-distances away from their sources before annihilating.

  12. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN NGC 2074

    SciTech Connect

    Fleener, Christine E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Payne, James T.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2010-01-15

    Spitzer observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have revealed a large population of young stellar objects (YSOs), but complementary high-resolution images in the optical or near-IR wavelengths are still needed to resolve the multiplicity and immediate environments of the YSOs. The Hubble Space Telescope imaged the star-forming region NGC 2074 in the LMC during its 100,000th orbit, providing an opportunity to more closely examine the YSOs and their environments in this region. We have studied the 10 YSO candidates identified from Spitzer observations, confirming their nature and determining their physical parameters by modeling their spectral energy distributions. The majority of the YSOs and central stars of ultracompact H II regions in NGC 2074 have masses consistent with spectral types of early B to late O. The co-existence of massive early-type O stars and the less massive YSOs indicates that their formation may have started at a similar time, a few 10{sup 5} yr ago. NGC 2074 provides an opportunity to study the evolution of massive stars at their infancy.

  13. Massive star formation at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, Ilaria

    2004-05-01

    This thesis studies the early phases of massive stars and their impact on the surrounding. The capabilities of continuum radiative transfer (RT) codes to interpret the observations are also investigated. The main results of this work are: 1) Two massive star-forming regions are observed in the infrared. The thermal emission from the ultra-compact H II regions is resolved and the spectral type of the ionizing stars is estimated. The hot cores are not detected thus implying line-of-sight extinction larger than 200 visual magnitude. 2) The first mid-infrared interferometric measurements towards a young massive star resolve thermal emission on scales of 30-50 AU probing the size of the predicted disk. The visibility curve differs from those of intermediate-mass stars. 3) The close vicinity of Θ1C Ori are imaged using the NACO adaptive optics system. The binary proplyd Orion 168-326 and its interaction with the wind from Θ1C Ori are resolved. A proplyd uniquely seen face-on is also identified. 4) Five RT codes are compared in a disk configuration. The solutions provide the first 2D benchmark and serve to test the reliability of other RT codes. The images/visibilities from two RT codes are compared for a distorted disk. The parameter range in which such a distortion is detectable with MIDI is explored.

  14. The feeding and feedback of massive protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael

    2013-07-01

    A model for massive stars is constructed by piecing together evolutionary algorithms for the protostellar structure, the environment, the inflow and the radiation feedback. The framework requires the accretion rate from the clump to be specified. We investigate constant, decelerating and accelerating accretion rate scenarios and consider both hot and cold accretion, identified with spherical free-fall and disk accretion, respectively. We find that accelerated accretion is not favoured on the basis of the often-used diagnostic diagram which correlates the bolometric luminosity and clump mass. Instead, source counts as a function of the bolometric temperature can distinguish the accretion mode. Specifically, accelerated accretion yields a relatively high number of lowtemperatureob jects. On this basis, we demonstrate that evolutionary tracks to fit Herschel Space Telescope data require the generated stars to be three to four times less massive than in previous interpretations. Neither spherical nor disk accretion can explain the high radio luminosities of many protostars. Nevertheless, we discover a solution in which the extreme ultraviolet flux needed to explain the radio emission is produced if the accretion flow is via free-fall on to hot spots covering less than 20% of the surface area. Moreover, the protostar must be compact, and so has formed through cold accretion. This suggest that massive stars form via gas accretion through disks which, in the phase before the star bloats, download their mass via magnetic flux tubes on to the protostar.

  15. On the Formation of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaper, L.; Ellerbroek, L.; Ochsendorf, B.; Bik, A.

    2012-12-01

    The birth process and (early) evolution of massive stars is still poorly understood. Heavy extinction hides their birthplaces from view and the short formation timescale limits the sample of objects to be studied. So far, our physical knowledge of massive YSOs has been derived from near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, revealing populations of young OB-type stars, some still surrounded by a disk, others apparently ‘normal’ main sequence stars powering H II regions. The most important spectral features of OB-type stars are, however, located in the UV and optical range. With the new optical/near-infrared spectrograph X-shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope it is possible to extend the spectral coverage of these massive YSOs into the optical range. Our first results are very promising: the discovery of a jet demonstrates that one of our mYSOs is still actively accreting. Furthermore, the first firm spectral classification of another mYSO results in the precise location on a pre-main-sequence track.

  16. Observational constraints on massive-star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina

    1997-07-01

    Massive stars are important constitutents of galaxies and are increasingly used as probes of galaxy evolution out to high redshifts. Yet, a very basic problem remains in understanding the distribution of massive stars across the Hertzsprung- Russell Diagram. This is known as the problem of the blue-to- red supergiant ratios in galaxies of different metallicities, a very sensitive indicator of the evolutionary paths that massive stars in different chemical environments appear to follow. Observations suggest a trend that the numbers of red supergiants increase with decreasing metallicity, but stellar- evolution models predict the opposite. We discuss various limitations of ground-based observations which have so far restricted accurate star counts to a few, nearby galaxies. We then argue that the HST archive contains a perfect set of photometric data to determine number counts of red supergiants in galaxies out to 5 Mpc. We propose to analyze WFPC2 observations in F555W {V} and F814W {I} filters to derive color-magnitude diagrams and complete luminosity functions of the red supergiant populations in 6 galaxies spanning a factor of 60 in metallicity. This systematic approach will put the functional form of the blue-to-red supergiant ratio with metallicity on firm observational footing.

  17. Mass Lost from the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Kerstin

    2004-02-01

    The structure and evolution of galaxies is noticeably influenced by the energy input of very massive stars. They are not only the supply of heavier elements, they also influence the distribution and structure of the interstellar medium through their strong stellar winds and supernova explosions. Losing more than 50% of their ZAMS-mass during their life, stars more massive than ~ 50 M⊙ substantially contribute to the mass and energy input which can drive large scale outflows from galaxies. In this presentation I will mainly concentrate on a short but violent phase of mass loss of the most massive stars, known as Luminous Blue Variables. In only a few thousand years a large amount of mass is released (in some cases several solar masses), forming a nebula around the LBV. Besides of a general overview of the LBVs special concern will be given to the nebula around eta Carinae for which new results from CHANDRA observations show the shocks emitting in the X-ray band. Finally I will briefly address the question of the role of LBV type stars in the early phase of galaxy formation and in connection with the first stars formed.

  18. Cosmology in general massive gravity theories

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@aquila.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w{sub eff} has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w{sub eff} from -1. Taking into account current limits on w{sub eff} and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w{sub eff} form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory.

  19. Massive graph visualization : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Brian Neil; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2007-10-01

    Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techniques that are effective on small to medium sized graphs (tens of thousands of nodes), there is a void in the research for visualizing massive graphs containing millions of nodes. Sandia is one of the few entities in the world that has the means and motivation to handle data on such a massive scale. For example, homeland security generates graphs from prolific media sources such as television, telephone, and the Internet. The purpose of this project is to provide the groundwork for visualizing such massive graphs. The research provides for two major feature gaps: a parallel, interactive visualization framework and scalable algorithms to make the framework usable to a practical application. Both the frameworks and algorithms are designed to run on distributed parallel computers, which are already available at Sandia. Some features are integrated into the ThreatView{trademark} application and future work will integrate further parallel algorithms.

  20. Single-wavelength two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (SW2PE-STED) superresolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Paolo; Harke, Benjamin; Galiani, Silvia; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new class of two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) optical microscope. In this work, we show the opportunity to perform superresolved fluorescence imaging, exciting and stimulating the emission of a fluorophore by means of a single wavelength. We show that a widely used red-emitting fluorophore, ATTO647N, can be two-photon excited at a wavelength allowing both 2PE and STED using the very same laser source. This fact opens the possibility to perform 2PE microscopy at four to five times STED-improved resolution, while exploiting the intrinsic advantages of nonlinear excitation. PMID:22493221

  1. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B. R.; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific. PMID:26891364

  2. 23 CFR 661.25 - What does a complete application package for PE consist of and how does the project receive funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does a complete application package for PE consist... PROGRAM § 661.25 What does a complete application package for PE consist of and how does the project receive funding? (a) A complete application package for PE consists of the following: the...

  3. 23 CFR 661.25 - What does a complete application package for PE consist of and how does the project receive funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What does a complete application package for PE consist... PROGRAM § 661.25 What does a complete application package for PE consist of and how does the project receive funding? (a) A complete application package for PE consists of the following: the...

  4. Case with a Nonreassuring Fetal Status Induced by Massive Hematemesis due to Mallory-Weiss Tear That Required Emergency Cesarean Section at 38 Weeks' Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takashi; Wagata, Maiko; Konno, Hiroko; Ito, Takahiro; Torii, Yuichi; Murakoshi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of Mallory-Weiss tear with massive hematemesis at 38 weeks' gestation. A 35-year-old woman presented with epigastralgia followed by massive hematemesis. An emergency endoscopy indicated active pulsatile bleeding at the esophagocardial junction. Although an emergency endoscopic hemostasis was successful, late decelerations without acceleration on cardiotocogram were observed. Therefore, the patient underwent emergency cesarean section, along with blood transfusion, following the endoscopic hemostasis. The hemoglobin level just before the operation was 5.1 g/dL. We suspected that massive hematemesis induced maternal acute anemia and hypovolemia, which resulted in a nonreassuring fetal status. Hence, urgent endoscopic hemostasis, adequate blood transfusion, and emergency cesarean section were needed. Mallory-Weiss tear during the third trimester may have a possibility of massive hematemesis and urgent blood transfusion, emergency endoscopic hemostasis, and emergency cesarean section may be needed. PMID:26881157

  5. Hydrodynamical simulations of realistic massive cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, David J.; Henson, Monique A.; Kay, Scott T.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Bahe, Yannick M.; Eagle Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters are seeded by density fluctuations in the early Universe and grow via hierarchical collapse to become the most massive virialised objects we observed today. They are powerful probes that study both cosmology and astrophysical processes. Their internal structure at the current epoch is the result of a non-trivial interplay between gravitational collapse and the energy fed into the intra-cluster medium (ICM) by star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN). These processes shape the ICM during its formation at high redshift, but current observations of galaxy clusters are limited to z<0.5. The resolution and sensitivity of textit{Athena+} will allow it to study galaxy clusters in unprecedented detail. It will constrain cluster properties, such as its entropy, temperature and gas fraction, out to z˜2, enabling it to investigate the progenitors of today's massive clusters and observing the evolution of the properties of the ICM for the first time. Athena+ will produce a significant change in our understanding of the formation of galaxy clusters. Recently the theoretical modelling of clusters has advanced significantly and issues, such as the 'cooling catastophea', have been overcome by including feedback from star formation and AGN. We present the MAssive ClusterS and Intercluster Structures (MACSIS) project. The MACSIS project is a representative sample of 390 of galaxy clusters, with M_{FOF} > 10(15} M_{⊙) , re-simulated using the cosmo-OWLS model (Le Brun et al. 2014, McCarthy et al. in prep.) to extend it to the most massive and rarest objects. We demonstrate that this sample reproduces the scaling relations, with intrinsic scatter, observed with current instruments at low redshift. Under the hierarchical paradigm, the progenitors of these systems will be the first objects to collapse at high redshift and we examine to z=2 how the scaling relations of these massive objects evolve with redshift. Finally, we investigate methods of defining a

  6. Energy flow in the cryptophyte PE545 antenna is directed by bilin pigment conformation.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Carles; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Kongsted, Jacob; Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; van Grondelle, Rienk; Scholes, Gregory D; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2013-04-25

    Structure-based calculations are combined with quantitative modeling of spectra and energy transfer dynamics to detemine the energy transfer scheme of the PE545 principal light-harvesting antenna of the cryptomonad Rhodomonas CS24. We use a recently developed quantum-mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method that allows us to account for pigment-protein interactions at atomic detail in site energies, transition dipole moments, and electronic couplings. In addition, conformational flexibility of the pigment-protein complex is accounted for through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that conformational disorder largely smoothes the large energetic differences predicted from the crystal structure between the pseudosymmetric pairs PEB50/61C-PEB50/61D and PEB82C-PEB82D. Moreover, we find that, in contrast to chlorophyll-based photosynthetic complexes, pigment composition and conformation play a major role in defining the energy ladder in the PE545 complex, rather than specific pigment-protein interactions. This is explained by the remarkable conformational flexibility of the eight bilin pigments in PE545, characterized by a quasi-linear arrangement of four pyrrole units. The MD-QM/MM site energies allow us to reproduce the main features of the spectra, and minor adjustments of the energies of the three red-most pigments DBV19A, DBV19B, and PEB82D allow us to model the spectra of PE545 with a similar quality compared to our original model (model E from Novoderezhkin et al. Biophys. J.2010, 99, 344), which was extracted from the spectral and kinetic fit. Moreover, the fit of the transient absorption kinetics is even better in the new structure-based model. The largest difference between our previous and present results is that the MD-QM/MM calculations predict a much smaller gap between the PEB50/61C and PEB50/61D sites, in better accord with chemical intuition. We conclude that the current adjusted MD-QM/MM energies are more reliable in order to explore the

  7. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  8. Pulmonary embolism: treatment of the acute episode.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Franco; Roncon, Loris; Greco, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    The prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is mainly related to the clinical presentation and circulatory state of the patient: the therapeutic strategy is consequently different, ranging from an aggressive treatment in patients in life-threatening clinical conditions to a "stabilization" treatment in those hemodynamically stable. Since the majority of PE patients are clinically stable, a well conducted anticoagulant therapy, either with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparins together with a vitamin K antagonist, is sufficient to stop thrombus extension, to minimize the risk of recurrent embolism and prevent mortality. In about 15-20% of cases presenting with clinical instability of variable severity, prompt intravenous thrombolysis with a short-acting compound often represents a life-saving treatment and should be the first-line approach. In normotensive patients with right ventricular dysfunction at echocardiography, who represent about 30% of PE patients, the debate regarding the optimal therapy is still open and further studies are required to document a clinically relevant improvement in the benefit-risk ratio of thrombolytic agents over heparin alone: young people, with a very low risk of bleeding and a concomitant reduction of cardiopulmonary reserve might be the best candidates to systemic thrombolysis. In any case such patients should be admitted to an intensive care unit to monitor the clinical status for at least 48-72 hours and detect signs of possible hemodynamic worsening. Mechanical thrombectomy, either percutaneous or surgical, are ancillary procedures and should be reserved to a minority of highly compromised patients who are unable to receive thrombolysis.

  9. Transverse Instability of Line Solitary Waves in Massive Dirac Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Shimabukuro, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    Working in the context of localized modes in periodic potentials, we consider two systems of the massive Dirac equations in two spatial dimensions. The first system, a generalized massive Thirring model, is derived for the periodic stripe potentials. The second one, a generalized massive Gross-Neveu equation, is derived for the hexagonal potentials. In both cases, we prove analytically that the line solitary waves are spectrally unstable with respect to periodic transverse perturbations of large periods. The spectral instability is induced by the spatial translation for the generalized massive Thirring model and by the gauge rotation for the generalized massive Gross-Neveu model. We also observe numerically that the spectral instability holds for the transverse perturbations of any period in the generalized massive Thirring model and exhibits a finite threshold on the period of the transverse perturbations in the generalized massive Gross-Neveu model.

  10. Effect of plasma exchange on hepatocyte oxidative stress, mitochondria function, and apoptosis in patients with acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wanxin; Huang, Zhongying; Wang, Yufang; Bo, Hong; Fu, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is an uncommon but clinically severe hepatopathy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis may be its key pathogenesis. Traditional therapy is inadequate for patients with severe conditions so the application of plasma exchange (PE) has been attempted. The present study aims to determine whether or not PE can lessen injuries to hepatocytes by ameliorating ROS and mitochondrial functions. Thirteen patients with AFLP were included in the experimental group, while fifteen patients made up the case-control group. PE was applied to patients in the PE group once a day for 1-3 days. Cultured hepatocytes were treated with serum or replacement fluid from patients and controls, respectively. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3, caspase-9, and apoptosis of hepatocytes were measured. The clinical details and prognoses were also assessed. Patients in the experimental group had shorter durations of hepatic function recovery, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and hospitalization than those in the case-control group, although both groups showed the same mortality. PE could induce the production of SOD, inhibit the production of malondialdehyde, and recover MMP. The upregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression, as well as increase in apoptosis rate in the AFLP group, could be inhibited by PE. Moreover, PE also appeared to have a dose-dependent effect. PE protects hepatocytes by reducing damage to the mitochondria caused by oxidative stress; thus, it could be beneficial in the treatment of patients with severe AFLP and induce liver function recovery.

  11. ESTIMATING PERSON-CENTERED TREATMENT (PeT) EFFECTS USING INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES: AN APPLICATION TO EVALUATING PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENTS

    PubMed Central

    BASU, ANIRBAN

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper builds on the methods of local instrumental variables developed by Heckman and Vytlacil (1999, 2001, 2005) to estimate person-centered treatment (PeT) effects that are conditioned on the person’s observed characteristics and averaged over the potential conditional distribution of unobserved characteristics that lead them to their observed treatment choices. PeT effects are more individualized than conditional treatment effects from a randomized setting with the same observed characteristics. PeT effects can be easily aggregated to construct any of the mean treatment effect parameters and, more importantly, are well suited to comprehend individual-level treatment effect heterogeneity. The paper presents the theory behind PeT effects, and applies it to study the variation in individual-level comparative effects of prostate cancer treatments on overall survival and costs. PMID:25620844

  12. PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells expressing mouse DEC205/CD205.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Gyu; Rodriguez, Anthony; Steinman, Ralph M

    2012-10-31

    DEC205/CD205, an endocytic receptor of C-type multilectin, is expressed highly in dendritic cells (DCs). DEC205 was shown to efficiently deliver vaccine antigens in surrogate ligands to the antigen processing and presentation machinery of DCs, which resulted in the development of DC-targeted vaccines employing anti-DC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During our studies to characterize a variety of anti-DC mAbs including anti-DEC205 by flow cytometric analysis, we discovered that a secondary anti-immunoglobulin antibody conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bound strongly to the cells expressing mouse DEC205 (mDEC205) without incubation of a primary anti-mDEC205 mAb. In the present study we demonstrate that various antibodies and streptavidin conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bind to the mDEC205-expressing cells including CHO, KIT6, and HEK293 cells. The interaction between the PE-Cy5.5 conjugates and the cells expressing mDEC205 appears distinctive, since none of the PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells that express human DEC205 on surface. Besides, only PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind strongly to mDEC205-expressing cells; PerCP-Cy5.5, APC-Cy5.5, and Cy5.5 conjugates bind weakly; PE, PE-Cy5, Cy5, FITC, or Alexa488 conjugates do not bind to mDEC205-expressing cells. Therefore the use of PE-Cy5.5 conjugates, widely utilized in multicolor flow cytometry, requires precaution against nonspecific binding to mDEC205-positive cells.

  13. Autophagy competes for a common phosphatidylethanolamine pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Zbinden, Caroline; dos Santos, Aline Xavier da Silveira; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; van der Vaart, Aniek; Hofmann, Kay; Reggiori, Fulvio; Riezman, Howard; Kraft, Claudine; Peter, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated pathway that selectively degrades cellular constituents such as protein aggregates and excessive or damaged organelles. This transport route is characterized by engulfment of the targeted cargo by autophagosomes. The formation of these double-membrane vesicles requires the covalent conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, the origin of PE and the regulation of lipid flux required for autophagy remain poorly understood. Using a genetic screen, we found that the temperature-sensitive growth and intracellular membrane organization defects of mcd4-174 and mcd4-P301L mutants are suppressed by deletion of essential autophagy genes such as ATG1 or ATG7. MCD4 encodes an ethanolamine phosphate transferase that uses PE as a precursor for an essential step in the synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor used to link a subset of plasma membrane proteins to lipid bilayers. Similar to the deletion of CHO2, a gene encoding the enzyme converting PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC), deletion of ATG7 was able to restore lipidation and plasma membrane localization of the GPI-anchored protein Gas1 and normal organization of intracellular membranes. Conversely, overexpression of Cho2 was lethal in mcd4-174 cells grown at restrictive temperature. Quantitative lipid analysis revealed that PE levels are substantially reduced in the mcd4-174 mutant but can be restored by deletion of ATG7 or CHO2. Taken together, these data suggest that autophagy competes for a common PE pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways such as the GPI anchor and PC synthesis, highlighting the possible interplay between these pathways and the existence of signals that may coordinate PE flux.

  14. A Rare Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis in a Child: Isovaleric Acidemia with Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Elif; Cebi, Alper Han; Kaya, Gulay; Karaguzel, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatic attacks is a rare clinical condition (2-5% of all acute pancreatis) in children and is mainly idiopathic in most cases. Sometimes it may be associated with congenital anomalies, metabolic diseases or hereditary conditions. Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is a rare autosomal recessive amino acid metabolism disorder associated with isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency presenting the clinical findings such metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, hyperammonemia, ketonemia, hypoglycemia, “the odor of sweaty feet,” abdominal pain, vomiting, feeding intolerance, shock and coma. Recurrent acute pancreatitis associated with IVA have been rarely reported. Herein; we report a child who admitted with recurrent acute pancreatic attacks and had the final diagnosis of IVA. Mutation analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation of (p.E117K [c.349G>A]) in the IVA gene. Organic acidemias must kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatic attacks in children.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  16. Development and anti-listerial activity of PE-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Gao, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Yang, Wenge; Xie, Yuanhong

    2016-12-18

    In recent years, bacteriocin as a natural antimicrobial compound, provides enormous promise to be used in food safety preservation. In this work, the polyethylene(PE)-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1, a typical IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BM-1, were developed and characterized. The results showed that polyethylene (PE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) films soaked in plantaricin BM-1 solution had obvious antimicrobial activities aganist Listeria monocytogenes And the volume of plantaricin BM-1 solution absorbed by PE, LDPE and HDPE films continued to increase and reached the maximum during exposure for up to 10, 6 and 16 hours, respectively. And the maximum absorption volumes of plantaricin BM-1 solution had no significant difference (p>0.05) between the PE, LDPE and HDPE films. When soaking in water, the release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from active PE, LDPE and HDPE films reached the maximum potency at 16, 12 and 20 hours respectively. And the maximum release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from PE and LDPE active films were dramatically more than the HDPE active film (p<0.05). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of active films incorporating plantaricin BM-1 maintained stability for at least 120 days against L. monocytogenes stored at 25°C, which suggest a potential application of the biological preservative films on the control of foodborne pathogens L. monocytogenes.

  17. The isopeptidase inhibitor 2cPE triggers proteotoxic stress and ATM activation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Tomasella, Andrea; Picco, Raffaella; Ciotti, Sonia; Sgorbissa, Andrea; Bianchi, Elisa; Manfredini, Rossella; Benedetti, Fabio; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Trentin, Livio; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Delia, Domenico; Brancolini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Relapse after treatment is a common and unresolved problem for patients suffering of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here we investigated the ability of the isopeptidase inhibitor 2cPE to trigger apoptosis in leukemia cells in comparison with bortezomib, another inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Both inhibitors trigger apoptosis in CLL B cells and gene expression profiles studies denoted how a substantial part of genes up-regulated by these compounds are elements of adaptive responses, aimed to sustain cell survival. 2cPE treatment elicits the up-regulation of chaperones, proteasomal subunits and elements of the anti-oxidant response. Selective inhibition of these responses augments apoptosis in response to 2cPE treatment. We have also observed that the product of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) is activated in 2cPE treated cells. Stimulation of ATM signaling is possibly dependent on the alteration of the redox homeostasis. Importantly ATM inhibition, mutations or down-modulation increase cell death in response to 2cPE. Overall this work suggests that 2cPE could offer new opportunities for the treatment of B-CLL. PMID:27259251

  18. Molecular Outflows from Newly Formed Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-12-01

    We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the hcopj, sioj, water 6_{16}-5_{23} maser, and methanol 7_{0}-6_{1} A^{+} maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (ifive, ieight, inine, iten), while itwo is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M_⊙ and momenta >300 M_⊙ km/s. They have mass outflow rates (3-6)×10^{-4} M_⊙ yr^{-1}, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect hcop and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The hcop spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect water maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz methanol maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 water and 6 methanol maser sources are new discoveries. iseven shows high-velocity (>30 kms) water maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow %L_{bol} with F_{m}, L_{m}, and dot{M}_{out} in the bolometric luminosity range of 10^{-1}-10^6 lsol, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.

  19. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Colpi, M.; Dotti, M.; Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  20. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to 'Dieulafoy's vascular malformation' of the jejunum: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Goins, W. A.; Chatman, D. M.; Kaviani, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Dieulafoy reported three cases of massive gastric hemorrhage due to a dilated submucosal artery in 1898, and since then, more than 100 cases of this gastric vascular malformation have been reported in the literature. These same pathologic lesions are even a rarer occurrence in the small bowel. This article reports a 38-year-old hypotensive male who presented to the hospital after an acute onset of massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage; superior mesenteric angiography demonstrated an actively bleeding lesion in a proximal jejunal branch. Intraoperative small bowel endoscopy via an enterotomy demonstrated a 4 mm bleeding submucosal lesion 30 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. A literature review revealed six other cases of Dieulafoy's vascular malformation that occurred in the small bowel, with the lesions located in the proximal jejunum between 15 cm and 45 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. The cause of these lesions is unknown. This case demonstrates the importance of preoperative angiography and intraoperative endoscopy when massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage is suspected to be from a small bowel source. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7473854

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS18 enhances the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis via altering host macrophage cytokine profiling and attenuating the cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenmin; Deng, Wanyan; Zeng, Jie; Ren, Sai; Ali, Md Kaisar; Gu, Yinzhong; Li, Yangyuling; Xie, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE family proteins, named after the presence of conserved PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) domains at N-terminal, are prevalent in M. tuberculosis genome. The function of most PE/PPE family proteins remains elusive. To characterize the function of PE_PGRS18, the encoding gene was heterologously expressed in M. smegmatis, a nonpathogenic mycobacterium. The recombinant PE_PGRS18 is cell wall associated. M. smegmatis PE_PGRS18 recombinant showed differential response to stresses and altered the production of host cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40 and IL-10, as well as enhanced survival within macrophages largely via attenuating the apoptosis of macrophages. In summary, the study firstly unveiled the role of PE_PGRS18 in physiology and pathogenesis of mycobacterium.

  2. Spontaneous Massive Adrenal Hemorrhage: A Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anshuman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Small focal hemorrhage may present subclinically, but massive hemorrhage may lead to rapid cardiovascular collapse and ultimately death if not diagnosed appropriately and treated quickly. Most cases reported in the literature have been treated conservatively. In an event of increasing hemorrhage during conservative management, it may be tricky to intervene surgically because of the hematoma around the gland. Here we describe a case where we managed a large spontaneous AH by a combination of angioembolization and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. PMID:27579389

  3. Towards Realistic Modeling of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, O.; Li, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation are rapidly advancing towards smaller scales. Current models can now resolve giant molecular clouds in galaxies and predict basic properties of star clusters forming within them. I will describe new theoretical simulations of the formation of the Milky Way throughout cosmic time, with the adaptive mesh refinement code ART. However, many challenges - physical and numerical - still remain. I will discuss how observations of massive star clusters and star forming regions can help us overcome some of them. Video of the talk is available at https://goo.gl/ZoZOfX

  4. New Cosmological Solutions in Massive Gravity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, S. S. A.; Pereira, S. H.; Mendonça, E. L.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present some new cosmological solutions in massive gravity theory. Some homogeneous and isotropic solutions correctly describe accelerated evolutions for the universe. The study was realized considering a specific form to the fiducial metric and found different functions and constant parameters of the theory that guarantee the conservation of the energy momentum tensor. Several accelerating cosmologies were found, all of them reproducing a cosmological constant term proportional to the graviton mass, with a de Sitter type solution for the scale factor. We have also verified that when the fiducial metric is close to the physical metric the solutions are absent, except for some specific open cases.

  5. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H

    2012-06-15

    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  6. Massively-Parallel Dislocation Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, W; Bulatov, V V; Pierce, T G; Hiratani, M; Rhee, M; Bartelt, M; Tang, M

    2003-06-18

    Prediction of the plastic strength of single crystals based on the collective dynamics of dislocations has been a challenge for computational materials science for a number of years. The difficulty lies in the inability of the existing dislocation dynamics (DD) codes to handle a sufficiently large number of dislocation lines, in order to be statistically representative and to reproduce experimentally observed microstructures. A new massively-parallel DD code is developed that is capable of modeling million-dislocation systems by employing thousands of processors. We discuss the general aspects of this code that make such large scale simulations possible, as well as a few initial simulation results.

  7. A massive early atmosphere on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Nolan, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of an early greenhouse atmosphere for Triton is presented and the conditions under which it may have been sustained are quantified. The volatile content of primordial Triton is modeled, and tidal heating rates are assessed to set bounds on the available energy. The atmospheric model formalism is presented, and it is shown how a massive atmosphere could have been raised by modest tidal heating fluxes. The implications of the model atmospheres for the atmospheric escape rates, the chemical evolution, and the cratering record are addressed.

  8. A new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    We present a new quasidilaton theory of Poincare invariant massive gravity, based on the recently proposed framework of matter coupling that makes it possible for the kinetic energy of the quasidilaton scalar to couple to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously. We find a scaling-type exact solution that expresses a self-accelerating de Sitter universe, and then analyze linear perturbations around it. It is shown that in a range of parameters all physical degrees of freedom have non-vanishing quadratic kinetic terms and are stable in the subhorizon limit, while the effective Newton's constant for the background is kept positive.

  9. Instability considerations for massive star eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to explain the observed properties of the giant eruptions of 'supernova imposters' such as {eta} Car and P Cyg. This mechanism must be episodic, generate a large amount of energy, and be very deep-seated, in order to lift about 10 solar masses out of the deep gravitational potential well of these massive evolved stars. We suggest that nonradial gravity mode oscillations capable of existing in the core grow slowly to sufficient amplitude to cause an episode of mixing. This mixing generates a burst of nuclear energy deep in the star that is responsible for the observed large mass ejection and bolometric magnitude increase.

  10. The Evolution and Stability of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiode, Joshua Hajime

    Massive stars are the ultimate source for nearly all the elements necessary for life. The first stars forge these elements from the sparse set of ingredients supplied by the Big Bang, and distribute enriched ashes throughout their galactic homes via their winds and explosive deaths. Subsequent generations follow suit, assembling from the enriched ashes of their predecessors. Over the last several decades, the astrophysics community has developed a sophisticated theoretical picture of the evolution of these stars, but it remains an incomplete accounting of the rich set of observations. Using state of the art models of massive stars, I have investigated the internal processes taking place throughout the life-cycles of stars spanning those from the first generation ("Population III") to the present-day ("Population I"). I will argue that early-generation stars were not highly unstable to perturbations, contrary to a host of past investigations, if a correct accounting is made for the viscous effect of convection. For later generations, those with near solar metallicity, I find that this very same convection may excite gravity-mode oscillations that produce observable brightness variations at the stellar surface when the stars are near the main sequence. If confirmed with modern high-precision monitoring experiments, like Kepler and CoRoT, the properties of observed gravity modes in massive stars could provide a direct probe of the poorly constrained physics of gravity mode excitation by convection. Finally, jumping forward in stellar evolutionary time, I propose and explore an entirely new mechanism to explain the giant eruptions observed and inferred to occur during the final phases of massive stellar evolution. This mechanism taps into the vast nuclear fusion luminosity, and accompanying convective luminosity, in the stellar core to excite waves capable of carrying a super-Eddington luminosity out to the stellar envelope. This energy transfer from the core to the

  11. Massive hydrothorax following subclavian vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of central venous catheterization for monitoring of the venous pressure, fluid infusion and hyperalimentation, the literature has been full of serious life-threatening complications. Of these complications is the false positioning of the central venous catheter and subsequent development of pleural effusion. In this report we are describing a case of iatrogenic massive pleural effusion following subclavian vein catheterization necessitating intercostal tube drainage and mechanical ventilation. The case highlights the importance of ensuring adequate positioning of the catheter after insertion through aspiration of venous blood, immediate post insertion X-ray and the utilization of ultrasound guidance in cases with expected difficult catheterization. PMID:21073758

  12. Pattern recognition and massively distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Davies, E Keith; Glick, Meir; Harrison, Karl N; Richards, W Graham

    2002-12-01

    A feature of Peter Kollman's research was his exploitation of the latest computational techniques to devise novel applications of the free energy perturbation method. He would certainly have seized upon the opportunities offered by massively distributed computing. Here we describe the use of over a million personal computers to perform virtual screening of 3.5 billion druglike molecules against protein targets by pharmacophore pattern matching, together with other applications of pattern recognition such as docking ligands without any a priori knowledge about the binding site location.

  13. AIMS: Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.

    2016-11-01

    AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) estimates stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of seismic frequency data and so-called classic constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm; interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modeling consists of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classic spectroscopic constraints.

  14. Drag phenomena from holographic massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Brattan, Daniel K.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the motion of point particles in a strongly coupled field theory with broken translation invariance. We obtain the energy and momentum loss rates and drag coefficients for a class of such particles by solving for the motion of classical strings in holographic massive gravity. At low temperatures compared to the graviton mass the behaviour of the string is controlled by the appearance of an exotic ground state with non-zero entropy at zero temperature. Additionally, we find an upper bound on the diffusion constant for a collection of these particles which is saturated when the mass of the graviton goes to zero.

  15. Coupled Physics Environment (CouPE) library - Design, Implementation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.

    2014-09-30

    Over several years, high fidelity, validated mono-­physics solvers with proven scalability on peta-­scale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-­based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a unified mesh-­data backplane and a flexible coupling-­strategy-­based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. In this report, we present details on the design decisions and developments on CouPE, an acronym that stands for Coupled Physics Environment that orchestrates a coupled physics solver through the interfaces exposed by MOAB array-­based unstructured mesh, both of which are part of SIGMA (Scalable Interfaces for Geometry and Mesh-­Based Applications) toolkit. The SIGMA toolkit contains libraries that enable scalable geometry and unstructured mesh creation and handling in a memory and computationally efficient implementation. The CouPE version being prepared for a full open-­source release along with updated documentation will contain several useful examples that will enable users to start developing their applications natively using the native MOAB mesh and couple their models to existing physics applications to analyze and solve real world problems of interest. An integrated multi-­physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is also being investigated as part of the NEAMS RPL, to tightly couple neutron transport, thermal-­hydraulics and structural mechanics physics under the SHARP framework. This report summarizes the efforts that have been invested in CouPE to bring together several existing physics applications namely PROTEUS (neutron transport code), Nek5000 (computational fluid-dynamics code) and Diablo (structural mechanics code). The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging

  16. Combined blood purification for treating acute fatty liver of pregnancy complicated by acute kidney injury: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan Xin; Huang, Zhong Ying; Chen, Ze Jun; Cui, Tian Lei; Zhang, Ling; Fu, Ping

    2012-06-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI) is serious and life-threatening for the mother. The present study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of combined blood purification treatment (CBPT) in patients with AFLP complicated by AKI. The CBPT involves plasma exchange (PE) combined with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). The subjects were 17 patients with AFLP complicated by AKI. The CBPT was implemented based on the timely termination of pregnancy and general treatment. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, liver ultrasounds, as well as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Glasgow scores were evaluated. The efficacy and adverse reactions of the CBPT were also assessed. The CBPT was smoothly performed without any obvious adverse reaction. After treatment, the clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and liver ultrasonography significantly improved. Therefore, the SOFA scores correspondingly decreased 1 week after treatment [9 (range 5-11) vs. 3 (range 0-10), P = 0.002], and the median was close to normal by the second week. The clearance rate of the total bilirubin in PE was significantly higher than that in CVVH (37.2 vs. 7.9%, P = 0.000). The incidence of acute pulmonary edema in CVVH was less than that in PE (0 vs. 41.2%, P = 0.007). Finally, the maternal mortality was 5.88% (95% CI: 0-29%). Overall, we think that CBPT aids in the recovery of liver and kidney function. Different blood purification methods may be combined to integrate and maximize their advantages to improve the prognoses of patients with serious AFLP.

  17. PePPER: a webserver for prediction of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate prediction of DNA motifs that are targets of RNA polymerases, sigma factors and transcription factors (TFs) in prokaryotes is a difficult mission mainly due to as yet undiscovered features in DNA sequences or structures in promoter regions. Improved prediction and comparison algorithms are currently available for identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and their accompanying TFs and regulon members. Results We here extend the current databases of TFs, TFBSs and regulons with our knowledge on Lactococcus lactis and developed a webserver for prediction, mining and visualization of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons via a novel concept. This new approach includes an all-in-one method of data mining for TFs, TFBSs, promoters, and regulons for any bacterial genome via a user-friendly webserver. We demonstrate the power of this method by mining WalRK regulons in Lactococci and Streptococci and, vice versa, use L. lactis regulon data (CodY) to mine closely related species. Conclusions The PePPER webserver offers, besides the all-in-one analysis method, a toolbox for mining for regulons, promoters and TFBSs and accommodates a new L. lactis regulon database in addition to already existing regulon data. Identification of putative regulons and full annotation of intergenic regions in any bacterial genome on the basis of existing knowledge on a related organism can now be performed by biologists and it can be done for a wide range of regulons. On the basis of the PePPER output, biologist can design experiments to further verify the existence and extent of the proposed regulons. The PePPER webserver is freely accessible at http://pepper.molgenrug.nl. PMID:22747501

  18. Long-term soil moisture variability from a new P-E water budget method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.; Yoon, J.; Mariotti, A.; Swenson, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Basin-scale soil moisture is traditionally estimated using either land-surface model forced by observed meteorological variables or atmospheric moisture convergence from atmospheric analysis and observed runoff. Interannual variability from such methods suffer from major uncertainties due to the sensitivity to small imperfections in the land-surface model or the atmospheric analysis. Here we introduce a novel P-E method in estimating basin-scale soil moisture, or more precisely apparent land water storage (AWS). The key input variables are observed precipitation and runoff, and reconstructed evaporation. We show the results for the tropics using the example of the Amazon basin. The seasonal cycle of diagnosed soil moisture over the Amazon is about 200mm, compares favorably with satellite estimate from the GRACE mission, thus lending confidence both in this method and the usefulness of space gravity based large-scale soil moisture estimate. This is about twice as large as estimates from several traditional methods, suggesting that current models tend to under estimate the soil moisture variability. One of the advantage of the P-E method is to retrive long-term variability of the basin-scale soil moisture (including interannual and decadal time scales), which can provide valuable information to understand climate variability and to predict future climate condition. However, validation on reconstructed evaporation is very difficult due to lack of observation. The interannual variability in AWS in the Amazon basin is about 150mm, also consistent with GRACE data, but much larger than model results. We also apply this P-E method to the midlatitude Mississippi basin and discuss the impact of major 20th century droughts such as the dust bowl period on the long-term soil moisture variability. The results suggest the existence of soil moisture memories on decadal time scales, significantly longer than typically assumed seasonal timescales.

  19. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Wieder, Ralph; Kim, Jeong-Su; Vicil, Florence; Figueroa, Arturo

    2011-09-01

    Arterial stiffness and hemodynamics may be increased following a bout of resistance exercise. Oral creatine supplementation (Cr) may attenuate cardiovascular responses after exercise via improved anaerobic metabolism. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Cr on hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses after acute isokinetic exercise. Sixteen healthy males (22.6 ± 0.6 year) were randomly assigned to either placebo (Pl, n = 8) or Cr (n = 8) (2 × 5 g/day) for 3 weeks. Brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and leg PWV were measured in the supine position at rest before and after the interventions. After the supplementation period, parameters were also measured 5 min (PE5) and 15 min (PE15) after two sets of leg isokinetic exercise. There was no difference between the groups in resting measurements before and after the supplementation. Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had attenuated (P < 0.05) increases in SBP at PE5 (Pl 14.0 ± 2.5, Cr 5.6 ± 2.3 mmHg), HR at both P5 (Pl 28 ± 4 vs. Cr 16 ± 2 beats/min) and PE15 (Pl 21 ± 3, Cr 11 ± 2 beats/min) and rate pressure product at P5 (Pl 45.8 ± 6.4, Cr 24.8 ± 2.2) and P15 (Pl 34.2 ± 5.0, Cr 15.9 ± 6.0). Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had suppressed increases in baPWV at PE5 (Pl 1.5 ± 0.4, Cr -0.1 ± 0.4 m/s) and PE15 (Pl 1.1 ± 0.2, Cr -0.3 ± 0.3 m/s) and returned SBP to pre-exercise values at PE15 (Pl 10.6 ± 2.8, Cr 2.1 ± 2.6 mmHg). PWV in the exercised leg decreased at PE5 in both groups. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation attenuates the hemodynamic and baPWV responses after acute isokinetic exercise.

  20. Evaluating a moving target: Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project. Demonstration projects, in this context, push the envelope about what is known about effectiveness in novel settings, and turnover of staff and patient populations can present challenges to gathering optimal data. By using P-PE, we built capacity in the environment while expanding possibilities for data collection. Suggestions are made based on our experience. PMID:24860251

  1. Peri-meatal PeIN and urethral SCC: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doiron, P R; du P Menage, H; Freeman, A; Muneer, A; Bunker, C B

    2017-03-10

    A 55-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic lesion adjacent to the urethral meatus of one year's duration (Fig. 1). His medical history was significant for quiescent lung sarcoidosis (treatment never required), asthma and irritable bowel syndrome. His only medication was a budesonide/formoterol inhaler. The plaque had slowly been increasing in size, had not ulcerated or bled and had not impacted sexual or urinary function. Examination did not reveal extension into the urethra. Biopsy revealed undifferentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) III/carcinoma in situ. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia E-mail: laviniah@kth.se

    2015-12-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  3. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  4. Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S

    2016-03-11

    The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01M_{p} is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.

  5. Seismic imaging on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, C.C.; Oldfield, R.A.; Womble, D.E.; Mosher, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    A key to reducing the risks and costs associated with oil and gas exploration is the fast, accurate imaging of complex geologies, such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and overthrust regions in US onshore regions. Pre-stack depth migration generally yields the most accurate images, and one approach to this is to solve the scalar-wave equation using finite differences. Current industry computational capabilities are insufficient for the application of finite-difference, 3-D, prestack, depth-migration algorithms. High performance computers and state-of-the-art algorithms and software are required to meet this need. As part of an ongoing ACTI project funded by the US Department of Energy, the authors have developed a finite-difference, 3-D prestack, depth-migration code for massively parallel computer systems. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that massively parallel computers (thousands of processors) can be used efficiently for seismic imaging, and that sufficient computing power exists (or soon will exist) to make finite-difference, prestack, depth migration practical for oil and gas exploration.

  6. Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2016-03-01

    The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01 Mp is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.

  7. Two cases of asymptomatic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Peedin, Alexis R; Mazepa, Marshall A; Park, Yara A; Weimer, Eric T; Schmitz, John L; Raval, Jay S

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in the immediate postpartum period is critical for the timely administration of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG) prophylaxis to minimize the risk of alloimmunization in D-negative mothers of D-positive newborns. We report a series of two clinically-unsuspected cases of massive FMHs identified at our university medical center. Retrospective records of two cases of massive FMH were investigated using the electronic medical record. After positive fetal bleed screens, flow cytometric analysis for hemoglobin F was performed to quantify the volume of the hemorrhages in both cases. Flow cytometric enumeration with anti-D was also performed in one case. The two patients had 209.5 and 75 mL of fetal blood in circulation, resulting in 8 and 4 doses of RhIG administered, respectively. For the former patient, flow cytometric analysis with anti-D ruled out hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and supported the fetal origin of the red cells. Due to the clinically-silent nature of both hemorrhages, further evaluation of the newborns' blood was not performed. These cases highlight the importance of rapidly obtaining accurate measurements of fetal blood loss via flow cytometric analysis in cases of FMH, particularly in clinically-unsuspected cases, to ensure timely administration of adequate immunoprophylaxis to D-negative mothers.

  8. Knowledge Discovery from Massive Healthcare Claims Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Schryver, Jack C

    2013-01-01

    The role of big data in addressing the needs of the present healthcare system in US and rest of the world has been echoed by government, private, and academic sectors. There has been a growing emphasis to explore the promise of big data analytics in tapping the potential of the massive healthcare data emanating from private and government health insurance providers. While the domain implications of such collaboration are well known, this type of data has been explored to a limited extent in the data mining community. The objective of this paper is two fold: first, we introduce the emerging domain of big"healthcare claims data to the KDD community, and second, we describe the success and challenges that we encountered in analyzing this data using state of art analytics for massive data. Specically, we translate the problem of analyzing healthcare data into some of the most well-known analysis problems in the data mining community, social network analysis, text mining, and temporal analysis and higher order feature construction, and describe how advances within each of these areas can be leveraged to understand the domain of healthcare. Each case study illustrates a unique intersection of data mining and healthcare with a common objective of improving the cost-care ratio by mining for opportunities to improve healthcare operations and reducing hat seems to fall under fraud, waste,and abuse.

  9. Linear Time Vertex Partitioning on Massive Graphs.

    PubMed

    Mell, Peter; Harang, Richard; Gueye, Assane

    The problem of optimally removing a set of vertices from a graph to minimize the size of the largest resultant component is known to be NP-complete. Prior work has provided near optimal heuristics with a high time complexity that function on up to hundreds of nodes and less optimal but faster techniques that function on up to thousands of nodes. In this work, we analyze how to perform vertex partitioning on massive graphs of tens of millions of nodes. We use a previously known and very simple heuristic technique: iteratively removing the node of largest degree and all of its edges. This approach has an apparent quadratic complexity since, upon removal of a node and adjoining set of edges, the node degree calculations must be updated prior to choosing the next node. However, we describe a linear time complexity solution using an array whose indices map to node degree and whose values are hash tables indicating the presence or absence of a node at that degree value. This approach also has a linear growth with respect to memory usage which is surprising since we lowered the time complexity from quadratic to linear. We empirically demonstrate linear scalability and linear memory usage on random graphs of up to 15000 nodes. We then demonstrate tractability on massive graphs through execution on a graph with 34 million nodes representing Internet wide router connectivity.

  10. Massive obstetric hemorrhage: Current approach to management.

    PubMed

    Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2016-01-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is defined (among others) as the loss of>2,500ml of blood, and is associated to a need for admission to critical care and/or hysterectomy. The relative hemodilution and high cardiac output found in normal pregnancy allows substantial bleeding before a drop in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit can be identified. Some comorbidities associated with pregnancy can contribute to the occurrence of catastrophic bleeding with consumption coagulopathy, which makes the situation even worse. Optimization, preparation, rational use of resources and protocolization of actions are often useful to improve outcomes in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. Using massive obstetric hemorrhage protocols is useful for facilitating rapid transfusion if needed, and can also be cost-effective. If hypofibrinogenemia during the bleeding episode is identified, early fibrinogen administration can be very useful. Other coagulation factors in addition to fibrinogen may be necessary during postpartum hemorrhage replacement measures in order to effectively correct coagulopathy. A hysterectomy is recommended if the medical and surgical measures prove ineffective.

  11. Probing Massive Star Cluster Formation with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2015-08-01

    Observationally constraining the physical conditions that give rise to massive star clusters has been a long-standing challenge. Now with the ALMA Observatory coming on-line, we can finally begin to probe the birth environments of massive clusters in a variety of galaxies with sufficient angular resolution. In this talk I will give an overview of ALMA observations of galaxies in which candidate proto-super star cluster molecular clouds have been identified. These new data probe the physical conditions that give rise to super star clusters, providing information on their densities, pressures, and temperatures. In particular, the observations indicate that these clouds may be subject to external pressures of P/k > 108 K cm-3, which is consistent with the prevalence of optically observed adolescent super star clusters in interacting galaxy systems and other high pressure environments. ALMA observations also enable an assessement of the molecular cloud chemical abundances in the regions surrounding super star clusters. Molecular clouds associated with existing super star clusters are strongly correlated with HCO+ emission, but appear to have relatively low ratio of CO/HCO+ emission compared to other clouds, indicating that the super star clusters are impacting the molecular abundances in their vicinity.

  12. METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Bieging, J.; Araya, E. D.

    2013-07-01

    We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

  13. Massive Ascites and Pleural Effusion in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Deveer, Ruya; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Kasap, Burcu; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is defined as new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation and complicates approximately 2-8% of all pregnancies. Release of vasoconstrictive agents, endothelial damage, hyperpermeability of the capillaries and microangiopathic haemolysis involves the basic pathophysiology. It has variable clinical presentation. Here, we report a case of severe preeclampsia who developed postpartum massive ascites and pleural effusion. Primigravid patient was admitted to our clinic at 35 weeks of gestation with very high blood pressure. In biochemical analysis, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 401 U/L, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 292 U/L. An emergency caesarean section was performed because of fetal distress. On the 2nd post-operative day, abdominal distension and severe abdominal pain occurred. On the 3rd post-operative day, her abdominal distension increased and Ultrasonography (USG) revealed massive ascites. Abdominal drainage was performed and albumin infusion was administered. On postoperative day 4, she still had abdominal distension and concomitant respiratory distress. Computed Tomography (CT) showed ascites and bilateral pleural effusion. Her complaint regressed on the following days.

  14. Massive Contingency Analysis with High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2009-07-26

    Contingency analysis is a key function in the Energy Management System (EMS) to assess the impact of various combinations of power system component failures based on state estimates. Contingency analysis is also extensively used in power market operation for feasibility test of market solutions. Faster analysis of more cases is required to safely and reliably operate today’s power grids with less marginal and more intermittent renewable energy sources. Enabled by the latest development in the computer industry, high performance computing holds the promise of meet the need in the power industry. This paper investigates the potential of high performance computing for massive contingency analysis. The framework of "N-x" contingency analysis is established and computational load balancing schemes are studied and implemented with high performance computers. Case studies of massive 300,000-contingency-case analysis using the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model are presented to illustrate the application of high performance computing and demonstrate the performance of the framework and computational load balancing schemes.

  15. Linear Time Vertex Partitioning on Massive Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Peter; Harang, Richard; Gueye, Assane

    2016-01-01

    The problem of optimally removing a set of vertices from a graph to minimize the size of the largest resultant component is known to be NP-complete. Prior work has provided near optimal heuristics with a high time complexity that function on up to hundreds of nodes and less optimal but faster techniques that function on up to thousands of nodes. In this work, we analyze how to perform vertex partitioning on massive graphs of tens of millions of nodes. We use a previously known and very simple heuristic technique: iteratively removing the node of largest degree and all of its edges. This approach has an apparent quadratic complexity since, upon removal of a node and adjoining set of edges, the node degree calculations must be updated prior to choosing the next node. However, we describe a linear time complexity solution using an array whose indices map to node degree and whose values are hash tables indicating the presence or absence of a node at that degree value. This approach also has a linear growth with respect to memory usage which is surprising since we lowered the time complexity from quadratic to linear. We empirically demonstrate linear scalability and linear memory usage on random graphs of up to 15000 nodes. We then demonstrate tractability on massive graphs through execution on a graph with 34 million nodes representing Internet wide router connectivity. PMID:27336059

  16. Acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M

    1994-12-01

    Laminitis is an inflammation of the sensitive laminae along the dorsal aspect of the digit and is considered to be a secondary complication of several predisposing or primary factors. Affected horses are usually very lame, have increased digital pulses, are painful to hoof testers along the toe of the foot, and have evidence of downward rotation or distal displacement of the distal phalanx present on radiographs. Treatments for acute laminitis include anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-endotoxin therapy, vasodilators, antithrombotic therapy, corrective trimming and shoeing, and surgical procedures. Treatment regimens are very controversial and the true efficacy of these treatments is unknown. The quality of laminae damage that occurs with laminitis, however, probably has greater influence on the success of treatment and outcome of the horse than the treatment regimen itself.

  17. Aspergillus coronary embolization causing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M; Trigg, M; de Alarcon, P; Giller, R

    1988-05-01

    An increased frequency of disseminated aspergillosis has been observed in the last decade, mostly occurring in immunocompromised patients including the bone marrow transplant population. Cardiac involvement by Aspergillus remains rare. We report the clinical and postmortem findings of an unusual case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a 7-year-old bone marrow transplant patient with Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries leading to a massive acute myocardial infarction. This case suggests that myocardial injury secondary to disseminated aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in the immunocompromised pediatric patient.

  18. Unnecessary multiple epidural steroid injections delay surgery for massive lumbar disc: Case discussion and review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) in the lumbar spine are not effective over the long-term for resolving “surgical” lesions. Here, we present a patient with a massive L2–L3 lumbar disk herniation whose surgery was delayed for 4 months by multiple unnecessary ESI, resulting in a cauda equina syndrome. Methods: A 54-year-old male acutely developed increased low back and radiating left leg pain in October of 2014. In December of 2014, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a massive central/left sided disk herniation at the L2–L3 level resulting in marked thecal sac and left L2 foraminal and L3 lateral recess root compression. Despite the marked degree of neural compression, pain management treated him with 3 ESI over the next 3 months. Results: At the end of April of 2015, he presented to spine surgeon with a cauda equina syndrome. When the new MRI scan confirmed the previously documented massive central-left sided L2–L3 disk herniation, the patient emergently underwent an L1–L3 laminectomy with central-left sided L2–L3 lateral/foraminal diskectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusions: Pain specialists performed multiple unnecessary lumbar ESI critically delaying spinal surgery for 4 months in this patient with a massive lumbar disk herniation who ultimately developed a cauda equina syndrome. Unfortunately, pain specialists (e.g., radiologists, anesthesiologists, and physiatrists), not specifically trained to perform neurological examinations or spinal surgery, are increasingly mismanaging spinal disease with ESI/variants. It is time for spine surgeons to speak out against this, and “take back” the care of patients with spinal surgical disease. PMID:26425398

  19. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.

  20. Pleural effusion complicating acute peritoneal dialysis in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butani, L; Polinsky, M S; Kaiser, B A; Baluarte, H J

    1998-11-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in children, and one for which treatment with peritoneal dialysis (PD) is often necessary. Between January 1982 and December 1996, 176 children received PD for ARF at St. Christopher's Hospital for Children; 34 (19%) of whom had HUS. Of these 34, 7 (20%) developed pleural effusions (PE) while receiving PD, whereas none of the remaining 142 children with other causes of ARF did so. The mean age of the 7 affected children was 5.2 (range 0.4-17) years; none had heart failure or nephrotic syndrome, nor had any of them undergone thoracic surgery. PE were diagnosed by chest radiograph at an interval of 2 (range 1-3) days after starting PD. Thereafter, 4 (57%) patients were successfully maintained on a modified PD prescription; 2 others were converted to hemodialysis and 1 to continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Although PE are a known complication of PD, none of the patients so treated for non-HUS related ARF developed them. Whether they represent a purely mechanical complication of PD, or are in some way attributable to HUS itself, is not entirely clear. Regardless, when children with HUS require PD, physicians should monitor for the development of this potential complication to minimize the risk of serious respiratory compromise.

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Penicillium expansum PE-12 and its application in molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Qi, Zhen; Wang, Yueyue; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Renyong; Yu, Qingsheng; Chen, Xiangbin; Wang, Huojun; Xiong, Xin; Tang, Kexuan

    2013-03-30

    Lipase produced by Penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. In this work, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was investigated for P. expansum PE-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. As a result, we revealed that the frequency of transformation surpassed 100 transformants/10(5)condida, most of the integrated T-DNA appeared as a single copy at a random position in chromosomal DNA, and all the transformants showed mitotic stability. Facilitated by this newly established method, for the first time, P. expansum PE-12 was genetically engineered to improve the lipase yield, through a homologous expression vector carrying the endogenous lipase gene (PEL) driven by the strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpdA) from Aspergillus nidulans. The highest expression level of the engineered strain reached up to 1700 U/mL, nearly 2-fold of the original industrial strain (900 U/mL). Our reproducible ATMT system has not only revealed the great potential of homologous expression-directed genetic engineering, which is more efficient and specific compared to traditional mutagenesis, but also provided new possibilities and perspectives for any other practical applications of P. expansum-related genetic engineering in the future.

  2. PE-CMOS-based C-mode ultrasound: signal acquisition and time gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Two types of signal acquisition methods using CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS) were studied. The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototypes featuring a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array and an acoustic compound lens were employed to image pork bones with fractures in vitro. We found that the projection-reflection ultrasound prototypes are capable of revealing hairline bone fractures with skin in tact. However, the image characteristics generated from these C-scan prototypes are somewhat different because they were equipped with two different senor array models. The signal acquired by the first sensor model is based on an integrated signal (IS) at a given time interval. But the signal acquired by the second sensor model is based on peak signal (PS) with a time gating function controllable by the user. We found that both systems can detect bone fracture as small as 0.5mm shown as a strip of ultrasound signal. However, images obtained from the IS sensor show more speckles with a greater blooming effect on the fractures. On the other hand, images obtained from the PS sensor show less contrast with less speckles. When the beam position is slightly tilted from the normal direction, the blooming effect of the ultrasound image would become dark on the fracture region with both acquisition modes.

  3. Quantitative ultrasound images generated by a PE-CMOS sensor array: scatter modeling and image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Kula, John; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2007-03-01

    In the projection geometry, the detected ultrasound energy through a soft-tissue is mainly attributed to the attenuated primary intensity and the scatter intensity. In order to extract ultrasound image of attenuated primary beam out of the detected raw data, the scatter component must be carefully quantified for restoring the original image. In this study, we have designed a set of apparatus to modeling the ultrasound scattering in soft-tissue. The employed ultrasound imaging device was a C-Scan (projection) prototype using a 4th generation PE-CMOS sensor array (model I400, by Imperium Inc., Silver Spring, MD) as the detector. Right after the plane wave ultrasound transmitting through a soft-tissue mimicking material (Zerdine, by CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA), a ring aperture is used to collimate the signal before reaching the acoustic lens and the PE-CMOS sensor. Three sets of collimated ring images were acquired and analyzed to obtain the scattering components as a function of the off-center distance. Several pathological specimens and breast phantoms consisting of simulated breast tissue with masses, cysts and microcalcifications were imaged by the same C-Scan imaging prototype. The restoration of these ultrasound images were performed by using a standard deconvolution computation. Our study indicated that the resultant images show shaper edges and detailed features as compared to their unprocessed counterparts.

  4. Projection-reflection ultrasound images using PE-CMOS sensor: a preliminary bone fracture study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the ultrasound reflective image obtained by a CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototype consists of five major components: an unfocused ultrasound transducer, an acoustic beam splitter, an acoustic compound lens, a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array (Model I400, Imperium Inc. Silver Spring, MD), and a readout circuit system. The prototype can image strong reflective materials such as bone and metal. We found this projection-reflection ultrasound prototype is able to reveal hairline bone fractures with and without intact skin and tissue. When compared, the image generated from a conventional B-scan ultrasound on the same bone fracture is less observable. When it is observable with the B-scan system, the fracture or crack on the surface only show one single spot of echo due to its scan geometry. The corresponding image produced from the projection-reflection ultrasound system shows a bright blooming strip on the image clearly indicating the fracture on the surface of the solid material. Speckles of the bone structure are also observed in the new ultrasound prototype. A theoretical analysis is provided to link the signals as well as speckles detected in both systems.

  5. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-08-27

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte-separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4-400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3-38.1 mN∙m(-1). It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations.

  6. Coordinated field study for CaPE: Analysis of energy and water budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Duchon, Claude; Kanemasu, Edward T.; Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William; Laymon, Chip; Luvall, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this hydrologic cycle study are to understand and model (1) surface energy and land-atmosphere water transfer processes, and (2) interactions between convective storms and surface energy fluxes. A surface energy budget measurement campaign was carried out by an interdisciplinary science team during the period July 8 - August 19, 1991 as part of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE) in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral, FL. Among the research themes associated with CaPE is the remote estimation of rainfall. Thus, in addition to surface radiation and energy budget measurements, surface mesonet, special radiosonde, precipitation, high-resolution satellite (SPOT) data, geosynchronous (GOES) and polar orbiting (DMSP SSM/I, OLS; NOAA AVHRR) satellite data, and high altitude airplane data (AMPR, MAMS, HIS) were collected. Initial quality control of the seven surface flux station data sets has begun. Ancillary data sets are being collected and assembled for analysis. Browsing of GOES and radar data has begun to classify days as disturbed/undisturbed to identify the larger scale forcing of the pre-convective environment, convection storms and precipitation. The science analysis plan has been finalized and tasks assigned to various investigators.

  7. A technique for detection of PeV neutrinos using a phased radio array

    SciTech Connect

    Vieregg, A.G.; Bechtol, K.; Romero-Wolf, A. E-mail: bechtol@kicp.uchicago.edu

    2016-02-01

    The detection of high energy neutrinos (10{sup 15}–10{sup 20} eV) is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators and would enable tests of fundamental physics at energy scales that cannot easily be achieved on Earth. In this energy range, there are two expected populations of neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube at lower energies (∼1 PeV) and the predicted cosmogenic flux at higher energies (∼10{sup 18} eV) . Radio detector arrays such as RICE, ANITA, ARA, and ARIANNA exploit the Askaryan effect and the radio transparency of glacial ice, which together enable enormous volumes of ice to be monitored with sparse instrumentation. We describe here the design for a phased radio array that would lower the energy threshold of radio techniques to the PeV scale, allowing measurement of the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube over an extended energy range. Meaningful energy overlap with optical Cherenkov telescopes could be used for energy calibration. The phased radio array design would also provide more efficient coverage of the large effective volume required to discover cosmogenic neutrinos.

  8. Delivery of dopamine transporter tracer (PE2I) through blood brain barrier with ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrière, Sophie; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Bodard, Sylvie; Novell, Anthony; Vergote, Jackie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Thiéry, Jean-Claude; Chalon, Sylvie; Bouakaz, Ayache

    2012-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier plays a major role in controlling the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of ultrasound and microbubbles to increase its delivery through the BBB and by determining the optimal experimental conditions that achieve a transient and safe BBB disruption. First, we established the ultrasound conditions that achieved a transient BBB disruption in rats using a non-permeant marker, Evans blue. Hence SonoVue® (450 μL/kg) and Evans blue (100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered. BBB leakage was obtained using ultrasound insonation through the rat skull at 1.6 MPa, PRF 1 Hz, duty cycle 12%, burst 10 ms during 120 sec. BBB disruption was observed in all treated animals (N=4) by histological analysis. The same experimental conditions were applied to enhance brain uptake of PE2I. Biological samples were analyzed using a scintillation counter apparatus. The results showed 50% and 20% increase of 125I-PE2I uptake in the striatum and cerebral cortex, respectively, in the treated rats (N=5) versus control (N=4). Similar enhancements were observed using SonoVue® at half concentration. This innovative method provides a great potential for intracerebral delivery of molecular ligands that could be used for the therapy of brain diseases.

  9. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; do Egito, Andrea Alves; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points. PMID:26840335

  10. The Lipid domain Phase diagram in a Dipalmitoyl-PC/Docosahaexnoic Acid-PE/Cholesterol System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Lipid domains in bilayer membrane and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are thought to play an important role in cellular activities. In particular, lipids containing docosahaexnoic acid are an interesting class of PUFAs due to their health benefits. In this project, we perform oxidation measurements of DHA-PE to determine the rate of oxidation in combination with antioxidants. A ternary diagram of DPPC/DHA-PE/cholesterol is mapped out to identify phase separation phenomena using atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluorescence microscopy is also used to image lipid domains in a flat bilayer with fluorescent labels. As expected, we observe the phase, shape, and size of lipid domains changes with varying composition. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains changes possibly due to overpacking of cholesterol in domains. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in the bilayer membrane leading towards a better understanding of cell membranes. NSF award # DMR 0852791, ``CAREER: Self-Assembly of Polyunsaturated Lipids and Cholesterol In The Cell Membrane.''

  11. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence—first results from CICLoPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örlü, R.; Fiorini, T.; Segalini, A.; Bellani, G.; Talamelli, A.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×104 are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A2≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A2,w≈A2/2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.

  12. Fuel loading of PeBR for a long operation life on the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) power system could provide 99.3 kW e to a lunar outpost for 66 full power years and is designed for no single point failures. The core of this fast energy spectrum reactor consists of three sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. Each sector has a separate Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) loop for energy conversion and separate water heat-pipes radiator panels for heat rejection. He-Xe (40 g/mole) binary gas mixture serves as the reactor coolant and CBC working fluid. On the lunar surface, the emplaced PeBR below grade is loaded with spherical fuel pellets (1-cm in dia.). It is launched unfueled and the pellets are launched in separate subcritical canisters, one for each core sector. This paper numerically simulates the transient loading of a core sector with fuel pellets on the Moon. The simulation accounts for the dynamic interaction of the pellets during loading and calculates the axial and radial distributions of the volume porosity in the sector. The pellets pack randomly with a volume porosity of 0.39 - 0.41 throughout most of the sector, except near the walls the local porosity is higher. (authors)

  13. Kinetic modeling of the oxidative degradation of additive free PE in bleach disinfected water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikdam, Aïcha; Colin, Xavier; Billon, Noëlle; Minard, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    The chemical interactions between PE and bleach were studied at 60°C in immersion in bleach solutions kept at a free chlorine concentration of 100 ppm and a pH of 5 or 7.2. It was found that the polymer undergoes a severe oxidation from the earliest weeks of exposure, in a superficial layer whose thickness (of about 50-70 µm) is almost independent of the pH value, although the superficial oxidation rate is faster in acidic than in neutral medium. Oxidation leads to the formation and accumulation of a large variety of carbonyl products (mostly ketones and carboxylic acids) and, after a few weeks, to a decrease in the average molar mass due to the large predominance of chain scissions over crosslinking. A scenario was elaborated for explaining such unexpected results. According to this scenario, the non-ionic molecules (Cl2 and ClOH) formed from the disinfectant in the water phase, would migrate deeply into PE and dissociate into highly reactive radicals (Cl• and HO•) in order to initiate a radical chain oxidation. A kinetic model was derived from this scenario for predicting the general trends of the oxidation kinetics and its dependence on environmental factors such as temperature, free chlorine concentration and pH. The validity of this model was successfully checked by comparing the numerical simulations with experimental data.

  14. Hidden Cosmic-Ray Accelerators as an Origin of TeV-PeV Cosmic Neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Guetta, Dafne; Ahlers, Markus

    2016-02-19

    The latest IceCube data suggest that the all-flavor cosmic neutrino flux may be as large as 10^{-7}  GeV cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} around 30 TeV. We show that, if sources of the TeV-PeV neutrinos are transparent to γ rays with respect to two-photon annihilation, strong tensions with the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background measured by Fermi are unavoidable, independently of the production mechanism. We further show that, if the IceCube neutrinos have a photohadronic (pγ) origin, the sources are expected to be opaque to 1-100 GeV γ rays. With these general multimessenger arguments, we find that the latest data suggest a population of cosmic-ray accelerators hidden in GeV-TeV γ rays as a neutrino origin. Searches for x-ray and MeV γ-ray counterparts are encouraged, and TeV-PeV neutrinos themselves will serve as special probes of dense source environments.

  15. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte–separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4–400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3–38.1 mN∙m−1. It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations. PMID:26343636

  16. A technique for detection of PeV neutrinos using a phased radio array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, A. G.; Bechtol, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.

    2016-02-01

    The detection of high energy neutrinos (1015-1020 eV) is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators and would enable tests of fundamental physics at energy scales that cannot easily be achieved on Earth. In this energy range, there are two expected populations of neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube at lower energies (~1 PeV) and the predicted cosmogenic flux at higher energies (~1018 eV) . Radio detector arrays such as RICE, ANITA, ARA, and ARIANNA exploit the Askaryan effect and the radio transparency of glacial ice, which together enable enormous volumes of ice to be monitored with sparse instrumentation. We describe here the design for a phased radio array that would lower the energy threshold of radio techniques to the PeV scale, allowing measurement of the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube over an extended energy range. Meaningful energy overlap with optical Cherenkov telescopes could be used for energy calibration. The phased radio array design would also provide more efficient coverage of the large effective volume required to discover cosmogenic neutrinos.

  17. DETECTING MASSIVE GRAVITONS USING PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kejia; Kramer, Michael; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Price, Richard H.; Wex, Norbert

    2010-10-20

    At the limit of weak static fields, general relativity becomes Newtonian gravity with a potential field that falls off as inverse distance rather than a theory of Yukawa-type fields with a finite range. General relativity also predicts that the speed of disturbances of its waves is c, the vacuum light speed, and is non-dispersive. For these reasons, the graviton, the boson for general relativity, can be considered to be massless. Massive gravitons, however, are features of some alternatives to general relativity. This has motivated experiments and observations that, so far, have been consistent with the zero-mass graviton of general relativity, but further tests will be valuable. A basis for new tests may be the high sensitivity gravitational wave (GW) experiments that are now being performed and the higher sensitivity experiments that are being planned. In these experiments, it should be feasible to detect low levels of dispersion due to non-zero graviton mass. One of the most promising techniques for such a detection may be the pulsar timing program that is sensitive to nano-Hertz GWs. Here, we present some details of such a detection scheme. The pulsar timing response to a GW background with the massive graviton is calculated, and the algorithm to detect the massive graviton is presented. We conclude that, with 90% probability, massless gravitons can be distinguished from gravitons heavier than 3 x 10{sup -22} eV (Compton wavelength {lambda}{sub g} = 4.1 x 10{sup 12} km), if bi-weekly observation of 60 pulsars is performed for 5 years with a pulsar rms timing accuracy of 100 ns. If 60 pulsars are observed for 10 years with the same accuracy, the detectable graviton mass is reduced to 5 x 10{sup -23} eV ({lambda}{sub g} = 2.5 x 10{sup 13} km); for 5 year observations of 100 or 300 pulsars, the sensitivity is respectively 2.5 x 10{sup -22} ({lambda}{sub g} = 5.0 x 10{sup 12} km) and 10{sup -22} eV ({lambda}{sub g} = 1.2 x 10{sup 13} km). Finally, a 10 year

  18. Study of Stellar Clusters Containing Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costado, Teresa; Alfaro, E. J.; Delgado, A. J.; Djupvik, A. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2013-06-01

    Most stars form in clusters, but the percentage of stars born in dense stellar systems is currently matter of controversy and depends very much on the own definition of cluster. The cluster definition and hence the morphologies of individual clusters appear to vary significantly from region to region, as well as with age, which suggests that either, star formation in clusters is not universal and may depend on the local environment, or that all clusters form with the same morphology but early dynamical evolution quickly modifies the structure of the phase space distribution. In addition, young populated clusters containing massive stars are excellent labs for the study of the formation of the massive stellar component of the Galactic disk. Three main scenarios have been proposed for the formation of high-mass stars (M > 7-8 M_{⊙}): a) monolithic collapse of proto-stellar nuclei; b) competitive accretion inside the proto-cluster molecular cloud; and c) coalescence of proto-stellar nuclei and low-mass stars in very dense atmospheres. Both scientific questions: a) cluster formation and b) formation of high mass stars in clusters are intimately connected via the structural description of the phase space distribution of cluster stars and their Mass Function (MF). Models of static clusters with different initial spatial and kinematic distributions show how the spatial distribution dynamically evolves with time, allowing a characterization of their dynamical state from snapshots of their spatial distribution. Four are the main variables (and their distribution with mass and position) needed for a reliable characterization of the cluster dynamical state: a) Mass segregation parameter; b) Mapping of surface density for different ranges of masses; c) Q morphological parameter based on the minimum spanning tree graph and its variation with mass and cluster age, and d) MF of the cluster members. Two years ago, the Stellar System Group of IAA has begun an observational

  19. Exact solutions in 3D new massive gravity.

    PubMed

    Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N

    2011-01-14

    We show that the field equations of new massive gravity (NMG) consist of a massive (tensorial) Klein-Gordon-type equation with a curvature-squared source term and a constraint equation. We also show that, for algebraic type D and N spacetimes, the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) can be thought of as the "square root" of the massive Klein-Gordon-type equation. Using this fact, we establish a simple framework for mapping all types D and N solutions of TMG into NMG. Finally, we present new examples of types D and N solutions to NMG.

  20. Exact Solutions in 3D New Massive Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.

    2011-01-14

    We show that the field equations of new massive gravity (NMG) consist of a massive (tensorial) Klein-Gordon-type equation with a curvature-squared source term and a constraint equation. We also show that, for algebraic type D and N spacetimes, the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) can be thought of as the 'square root' of the massive Klein-Gordon-type equation. Using this fact, we establish a simple framework for mapping all types D and N solutions of TMG into NMG. Finally, we present new examples of types D and N solutions to NMG.

  1. Exact Solutions in 3D New Massive Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the field equations of new massive gravity (NMG) consist of a massive (tensorial) Klein-Gordon-type equation with a curvature-squared source term and a constraint equation. We also show that, for algebraic type D and N spacetimes, the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) can be thought of as the “square root” of the massive Klein-Gordon-type equation. Using this fact, we establish a simple framework for mapping all types D and N solutions of TMG into NMG. Finally, we present new examples of types D and N solutions to NMG.

  2. Gravito-electromagnetic effects of massive rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2015-05-01

    The Einstein field equations in linear post-Newtonian approximation can be written in analogy with electromagnetism, in the so-called gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) formalism. We use this analogy to study the gravitational field of a massive ring: In particular, we consider a continuous mass distribution on Keplerian orbit around a central body, and we work out the gravitational field generated by this mass distribution in the intermediate zone between the central body and the ring, focusing on the gravitomagnetic (GM) component that originates from the rotation of the ring. In doing so, we generalize and complement some previous results that focused on the purely Newtonian effects of the ring (thus neglecting its rotation) or that were applied to the case, of rotating spherical shells. Eventually, we study in some simple cases, the effect of the rotation of the ring, and suggest that, in principle, this approach could be used to infer information about the angular momentum of the ring.

  3. Matrix gravity and massive colored gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.

    2004-10-01

    We formulate a theory of gravity with a matrix-valued complex vierbein based on the SL(2N,C)⊗SL(2N,C) gauge symmetry. The theory is metric independent, and before symmetry breaking all fields are massless. The symmetry is broken spontaneously and all gravitons corresponding to the broken generators acquire masses. If the symmetry is broken to SL(2,C), then the spectrum would correspond to one massless graviton coupled to 2N2-1 massive gravitons. A novel feature is the way the fields corresponding to noncompact generators acquire kinetic energies with correct signs. Equally surprising is the way Yang-Mills gauge fields acquire their correct kinetic energies through the coupling to the nondynamical antisymmetric components of the vierbeins.

  4. Computational chaos in massively parallel neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Gulati, Sandeep

    1989-01-01

    A fundamental issue which directly impacts the scalability of current theoretical neural network models to massively parallel embodiments, in both software as well as hardware, is the inherent and unavoidable concurrent asynchronicity of emerging fine-grained computational ensembles and the possible emergence of chaotic manifestations. Previous analyses attributed dynamical instability to the topology of the interconnection matrix, to parasitic components or to propagation delays. However, researchers have observed the existence of emergent computational chaos in a concurrently asynchronous framework, independent of the network topology. Researcher present a methodology enabling the effective asynchronous operation of large-scale neural networks. Necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing concurrent asynchronous convergence are established in terms of contracting operators. Lyapunov exponents are computed formally to characterize the underlying nonlinear dynamics. Simulation results are presented to illustrate network convergence to the correct results, even in the presence of large delays.

  5. Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.

  6. The Massive Star Population in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, Skyler H.

    An increasing number of non-terminal giant eruptions are being observed by modern supernova and transient surveys. Very little is known about the origin of these giant eruptions and their progenitors which are presumably very-massive, evolved stars such as luminous blue variables, hypergiants, and supergiants. Motivated by the small number of progenitors positively associated with these giant eruptions, we have begun a survey of the luminous and evolved massive star populations in several nearby galaxies. We aim to identify the likely progenitors of the giant eruptions, study the spatial variations in the stellar populations, and examine the relationship between massive star populations and their environment. The work presented here is focused on stellar populations in the relatively nearby, giant, spiral galaxy M101 from sixteen archival BVI HST/ACS images. We create a catalog of stars in the direction to M101 with photometric errors < 10% for V < 24.5 and 50% completeness down to V ˜ 26.5 even in regions of high stellar crowding. Using color and magnitude criteria we have identified candidate luminous OB type stars and blue supergiants, yellow supergiants, and red supergiants for future observation. We examine their spatial distributions across the face of M101 and find that the ratio of blue to red supergiants decreases by two orders of magnitude over the radial extent. From our catalog, we derive the star formation history (SFH) for the stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli by fitting the color-magnitude diagrams. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to populations traced by Halpha, far ultraviolet (FUV), and near ultraviolet (NUV) emission, we show that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in Halpha is 15% " 35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of Halpha emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our

  7. Massive Open Online Courses in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education. PMID:24350228

  8. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  9. Mirage simulations of the massiv sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, P.; Perret, V.; Epinat, B.; Bournaud, F.; Contini, T.; Divoy, C.; Garilli, B.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Le Fevre, O.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Moultaka, J.; Pairo, L.; Perez-Montero, E.; Queyrel, J.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.

    2015-02-01

    The MIRAGE sample (Merging & isolated high-redshift AMR galaxies; Perret 2014, PhD dissertation; Perret et al. 2014, AA 562, 1) has been built in order to understand the contribution of the merger processes to the mass assembly in the MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS, Contini et al. 2012, AA 539, 91) sample. It consists of a sample of idealized simulations based on the RAMSES code; the initial conditions were designed to reproduce the physical properties of the most gas-rich young galaxies. The sample is composed of 20 simulations of mergers exploring the initial parameters of mass and orientation of the disks with a spatial resolution reaching 7 parsecs.

  10. Hot, Massive Stars in I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, D.; Malumuth, E.

    2011-01-01

    I Zw 18 is one of the most primitive blue, compact dwarf galaxies. The ionized gas in I Zw 18 has a low oxygen abundance (O approx.1/30 Osun) and nitrogen abundance (N-1/100 Nsun) (Pequignot 2008). We have obtained a far-UV spectrum of the northwest massive star cluster of I Zw 18 using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). The spectrum is compatible with continuous star-formation over the past approx.10 Myr, and a very low metallicity, log Z/Zsun 1.7, although the stellar surface may be enhanced in carbon. Stellar wind lines are very weak, and the edge velocity of wind lines is very low (approx.250 km/s).

  11. Mobil AG scores with massive frac

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    Mobil Oil AG, West Germany, added 20 bcf of natural gas to the field reserves and improved well productivity five-fold through a massive fracture of the Mainsand section of the Upper Rotliegendes formation in Soehlingen field. The frac job was the largest ever in Europe and is felt to be the world's largest in terms of sintered bauxite used. The fracture treatment also showed that it is possible to put 9,000 lb/min of bauxite into a hydraulically formed fracture. This is believed to be a record rate for this high-strength proppant. Mobil engineers feel, however, that Ottawa sand could probably be used, and they may try it if another opportunity presents itself.

  12. Four-dimensional unsubtraction with massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sborlini, Germán F. R.; Driencourt-Mangin, Félix; Rodrigo, Germán

    2016-10-01

    We extend the four-dimensional unsubtraction method, which is based on the loop-tree duality (LTD), to deal with processes involving heavy particles. The method allows to perform the summation over degenerate IR configurations directly at integrand level in such a way that NLO corrections can be implemented directly in four space-time dimensions. We define a general momentum mapping between the real and virtual kinematics that accounts properly for the quasi-collinear configurations, and leads to an smooth massless limit. We illustrate the method first with a scalar toy example, and then analyse the case of the decay of a scalar or vector boson into a pair of massive quarks. The results presented in this paper are suitable for the application of the method to any multipartonic process.

  13. Effect of massive disks on bulge isophotes

    SciTech Connect

    Monet, D.G.; Richstone, D.O.; Schechter, P.L.

    1981-04-15

    Massive disks produce flattened equipotentials. Unless the stars in a galaxy bulge are preferentially hotter in the z direction than in the plane, the isophotes will be at least as flat as the equipotentials. The comparison of two galaxy models having flat rotation curves with the available surface photometry for five external galaxies does not restrict the mass fraction which might reside in the disk. However, star counts in our own Galaxy indicate that unless the disk terminates close to the solar circle, no more than half the mass within that circle lies in the disk. The remaining half must lie either in the bulge or, more probably, in a third dark, round, dynamically distinct component.

  14. Massive neutrinos and invisible axion minimally connected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Stefano; Di Luzio, Luca; Kolešová, Helena; Malinský, Michal

    2015-03-01

    We survey a few minimal scalar extensions of the standard electroweak model that provide a simple setup for massive neutrinos in connection with an invisible axion. The presence of a chiral U (1 ) à la Peccei-Quinn drives the pattern of Majorana neutrino masses while providing a dynamical solution to the strong C P problem and an axion as a dark matter candidate. We paradigmatically apply such a renormalizable framework to type-II seesaw and to two viable models for neutrino oscillations where the neutrino masses arise at one and two loops, respectively. We comment on the naturalness of the effective setups as well as on their implications for vacuum stability and electroweak baryogenesis.

  15. Energetic Supernovae of Very Massive Primordial Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan

    2015-08-01

    Current models of the formation of the first stars in the universe suggest that these stars were very massive, having a typical mass scale of hundreds of solar masses. Some of them would die as pair instability supernovae (PSNe) which might be the biggest explosions of the universe. We present the results from multidimensional numerical studies of PSNe with a new radiation-hydrodynamics code, CASTRO and with realistic nuclear reaction networks. We simulate the fluid instabilities that occur in multiple spatial dimensions and discuss how the resulting mixing affects the explosion, mixing, and nucleosynthesis of these supernovae. Our simulations provide useful predictions for the observational signatures of PSNe, which might soon be examined by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. Massive superstring scatterings in the Regge regime

    SciTech Connect

    He Song; Lee, Jen-Chi; Takahashi, Keijiro; Yang Yi

    2011-03-15

    We calculate four classes of high-energy massive string scattering amplitudes of fermionic string theory at arbitrary mass levels in the Regge regime (RR). We show that all four leading order amplitudes in the RR can be expressed in terms of the Kummer function of the second kind. Based on the summation algorithm of a set of extended signed Stirling number identities, we show that all four ratios calculated previously by the method of decoupling of zero-norm states among scattering amplitudes in the Gross regime can be extracted from this Kummer function in the RR. Finally, we conjecture and give evidence that the existence of these four Gross regime ratios in the RR persists to subleading orders in the Regge expansion of all high-energy fermionic string scattering amplitudes.

  17. Neutrinos and the Deaths of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hix, W. R.; Mezzacappa, A.; Messer, O. E. B.

    2005-06-01

    Observationally categorized as Type II or Ib/c supernovae, core collapse supernovae mark the end of the life of a massive star and the formation of a neutron star or black hole. These explosions are among the most energetic events in the universe, emitting 1046 J of energy, primarily in the form of neutrinos. They play a preeminent role in the cosmic origin of the elements and serve as a principal heating mechanism for the interstellar medium. Numerical simulations of the textbook neutrino-reheating mechanism for core collapse supernovae frequently fail to match the most fundamental observable property: an explosion with roughly 1044 J of kinetic energy. We review recent improvements in the modeling of core collapse supernovae, including improved tracking of the neutrino distribution and better accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the hydrodynamic flows. We also discuss how continued improvements in the treatment of microscopic nuclear and neutrino physics has important macroscopic consequences.

  18. [An unusual case of massive funicular lipoma].

    PubMed

    Masciovecchio, Stefano; Saldutto, Pietro; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Galatioto, Giuseppe Paradiso; Vicentini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Intrascrotal lipomas are benign diseases that originate from adipose tissue inside the scrotal sac or constituting the scrotal wall itself. Paratesticular spermatic cord lipomas are a rare type of intrascrotal lipomas. A 78 years old patient in good health comes to our attention for massive tense-elastic swelling of left hemiscrotum appeared about 3 years ago and slowly increasing. Ultrasound evaluation of the intrascrotal mass showed inhomogeneous images mainly hyperechoic, not infiltrating the ipsilateral testis and scrotal wall. The ultrasonography found a lipomatous lesion with benign characteristics and a surgical excision has been performed. The lipomatous mass removed presented a size equal to 25 cm x 14 cm x 11 cm and a weight of about 490 gr. The microscopic examination of the tissue showed only the presence of mature adipocytes in the absence of cellular atypia, of other cellular types and of vascular abnormalities.

  19. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Stephen

    The formation of stars and star clusters is a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. It is central to modeling stellar populations and understanding galaxy luminosity distributions in cosmological models. Young massive clusters are major components of starburst galaxies, while globular clusters are cornerstones of the cosmic distance scale and represent vital laboratories for studies of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. Yet how these clusters form and how rapidly and efficiently they expel their natal gas remain unclear, as do the consequences of this gas expulsion for cluster structure and survival. Also unclear is how the properties of low-mass clusters, which form from small-scale instabilities in galactic disks and inform much of our understanding of cluster formation and star-formation efficiency, differ from those of more massive clusters, which probably formed in starburst events driven by fast accretion at high redshift, or colliding gas flows in merging galaxies. Modeling cluster formation requires simulating many simultaneous physical processes, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Simulations of galaxies evolving in cosmological contexts usually lack the numerical resolution to simulate star formation in detail. They do not include detailed treatments of important physical effects such as magnetic fields, radiation pressure, ionization, and supernova feedback. Simulations of smaller clusters include these effects, but fall far short of the mass of even single young globular clusters. With major advances in computing power and software, we can now directly address this problem. We propose to model the formation of massive star clusters by integrating the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code into the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) framework, to work with existing stellar-dynamical and stellar evolution modules in AMUSE. All software will be freely distributed on-line, allowing

  20. Massive = 2 supergravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaç, Gökhan; Basanisi, Luca; Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Ozkan, Mehmet; Sezgin, Ergin

    2015-02-01

    There exists two distinct off-shell = 2 supergravities in three dimensions. They are also referred to as = (1, 1) and = (2, 0) supergravities, and they arise from the coupling of the Weyl multiplet to a compensating scalar or vector multiplet, respectively, followed by fixing of conformal symmetries. The = ( p, q) terminology refers to the underlying anti-de Sitter superalgebras OSp(2, p) ⊕ OSp(2, q) with R-symmetry group SO( p) × SO( q). We construct off-shell invariants of these theories up to fourth order in derivatives. As an application of these results, we determine the special combinations of the = (1, 1) invariants that admit anti-de Sitter vacuum solution about which there is a ghost-free massive spin-2 multiplet of propagating modes. We also show that the =(2,0) invariants do not allow such possibility.