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Sample records for acute mental status

  1. Mental status testing

    MedlinePlus

    Mental status exam; Neurocognitive testing; Dementia-mental status testing ... A health care provider will ask a number of questions. The test can be ... cognitive assessment (MoCA). The following may be tested: ...

  2. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  3. Acute mental status change as the presenting feature of adrenal insufficiency in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sara; Raj, Shekar; Eugster, Erica; Sanchez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (AI) in children usually presents with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Here, we report an unusual case of a 15 year old girl who presented with acute mental status change and was ultimately diagnosed with AI due to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II (APS2). Central nervous system imaging revealed a cerebral infarction. To our knowledge, the constellation of APS2, stroke and acute mental status change has not been previously reported. We review the literature with regard to the presentation of AI as well as the association between vasculitis and APS2. PMID:24259239

  4. Standardized mental status assessment of sports concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrea, M

    2001-07-01

    Neurocognitive status is often considered the domain of neurologic functioning most sensitive to change following concussion, but the effects are often subtle and difficult to detect on routine clinical examination. Recent efforts have focused on the development of brief, standardized methods of mental status assessment for use by sports medicine clinicians to quantify the acute neurocognitive effects of concussion and objectively track postinjury recovery. Research has demonstrated the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of these measures in detecting concussion in athletes and providing empirical data for consideration in the context of other examination findings, neuropsychologic test data, and neuroimaging results. Standardized measures of mental status and other postconcussive symptoms are valuable tools to assist clinicians in the assessment and management of concussion, but should not be used as a replacement for medical evaluation or viewed as a stand-alone means for determining readiness to return to competition after injury.

  5. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans. PMID:27416644

  6. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  7. Altered Mental Status in Older Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wilber, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Altered mental status is a common chief complaint among older emergency department (ED) patients. Acute changes in mental status are more concerning and are usually secondary to delirium, stupor, and coma. These forms of acute brain dysfunction are commonly precipitated by an underlying medical illness that can be potentially life-threatening and are associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes. Though stupor and coma are easily identifiable, the clinical presentation of delirium can be subtle and is often missed without actively screening for it. For patients with acute brain dysfunction, the ED evaluation should focus on searching for the underlying etiology. Infection is one of the most common precipitants of delirium, but multiple etiologies may exist concurrently. PMID:23177603

  8. Antacids, Altered Mental Status, and Milk-Alkali Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Simon C.; Dellinger, Bonnie B.; Jennings, Katie; Scott, Lancer A.

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of milk-alkali syndrome decreased rapidly after the development of histamine-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease; however, the availability and overconsumption of antacids and calcium supplements can still place patients at risk (D. P. Beall et al., 2006). Here we describe a patient who presented with altered mental status, hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and acute renal failure in the context of ingesting large amounts of antacids to control dyspepsia. PMID:23431478

  9. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  10. The challenge of change in acute mental health services: measuring staff perceptions of barriers to change and their relationship to job status and satisfaction using a new measure (VOCALISE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. Methods All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). Results VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: ‘confidence,’ ‘de-motivation’ and ‘powerlessness.’ Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. Conclusions VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to

  11. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemia causing relapsing altered mental status

    PubMed Central

    Khatiwada, Binod; Holbrook, Christopher; Ekeh, Ifeoma Sylvia; Uzoka, Chukwuemeka; Ikwu, Isaac; Upadhyay, Bishwas

    2015-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is a recognized cause of encephalopathy. However, it is commonly seen in patients with liver disease. The clinical entity of noncirrhotic hyperammonemia is now being increasingly recognized. We report a man who presented to our hospital with relapsing altered mental status later diagnosed as noncirrhotic hyperammonemia. PMID:26424945

  12. The language of compassion in acute mental health care.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne; Harvey, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    In this article we examine the language of compassion in acute mental health care in the United Kingdom. Compassion is commonly defined as being sensitive to the suffering of others and showing a commitment to relieve it, yet we know little about how this is demonstrated in health professional language and how it is situated in the context of acute mental health care services. We report on a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of 20 acute mental health practitioner interview narratives about compassion and find a striking depletion in the use of "compassionate mentality" words, despite the topic focus. The language used by these practitioners placed more emphasis on time pressures, care processes, and organizational tensions in a way that might compromise best practice and point to the emergence of a "production-line mentality."

  13. A service user-initiated project investigating the attitudes of mental health staff towards clients and services in an acute mental health unit.

    PubMed

    Tyson, P J

    2013-04-01

    Mental Health Service Users (MHSU) are becoming increasingly recognized as very valuable contributors to the research process. The current study originated from the idea of a group of MHSU within a service user and carer research group. They wanted to investigate the attitudes of mental health staff towards clients in an acute mental health setting, as well as their attitudes towards certain aspects of service. An amended version of the 'Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale' was sent to nursing and allied staff at an acute psychiatric unit within the Gloucestershire 2gether NHS Foundation Trust. Fifty-seven of the 200 anonymous questionnaires were returned. Generally positive opinions of MHSU were obtained, but there were divided opinions on questions regarding the aetiology of mental health problems (e.g. social vs. genetic determinants). Opinions on aspects of the admissions process, therapeutic aspects of care, the use of medication and the use of control and restraint techniques were also obtained. Demographic variables of staff age, status and years of experience in mental health were found to be associated with attitudes and opinions. This MHSU-initiated study has extended the literature on mental health staff attitudes towards clients and services in an acute mental health setting. This study is split into two parts, Part A is focused on the process of involving MHSU in this project, Part B is concerned with the empirical investigation.

  14. Mental status tests and the capacity for self-care.

    PubMed

    Winograd, C H

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that self-care capacity can be predicted by tests of mental functioning, the performances of patients in a long-term care institution on a Self-Care Scale were compared with their scores on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and a Mental Competence Scale. The Self-Care Scale measures ability to perform activities of daily living; the SPMSQ assesses memory, orientation, and calculation; and the Mental Competence Scale measures ability to respond sensibly to interview questions and to judge the environment. Many people who had poor scores on the SPMSQ were able to perform activities of daily living in the nursing home setting, but none whose scores on the Mental Competence Scale were fair or poor were independent in activities of daily living. Despite the fact that both the Self-Care Scale and the Mental Competence Scale are still in the developmental stages, the author concludes that the SPMSQ is not an adequate predictor of capacity for self-care. Moreover, the ability to respond appropriately to an interview may be more relevant for daily functioning than are tests of mental status. The three methods of assessment used in this study measure distinct yet complementary components of functioning that need to be considered in evaluating a mentally impaired elderly person. PMID:6690576

  15. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  16. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  17. Stabilizing and Managing Patients with Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Odiari, Ebelechukwu A; Sekhon, Navdeep; Han, Jin Y; David, Elizabeth H

    2015-11-01

    Present in all patient populations, altered mental status (AMS) is a common, but nonspecific emergency department (ED) presentation that can signify serious underlying pathology. Delirium is a more defined mental status change caused by another medical condition that carries a high morbidity and mortality if missed. However, ED physicians miss the condition in more than 50% of cases. The ED physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for delirium, because if missed in the ED, delirium is more likely to be missed on the floors as well. Management of delirium is directed toward treating the underlying course.

  18. [Legal status of persons with mental illness in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Aleksandar A

    2004-01-01

    In this study, legal status of the mentally ill has been discussed in the context of Serbian legislation. The topics covered are the following: 1) the admission of persons with mental illness to psychiatric institution, 2) general (legal) competence, 3) marital relations of persons with mental illness, 4) legal definitions of sanity and security measures of medical character. Serbia still has no general law on mental health which would be in accordance with European standards, and the existing legislation which deals with the rights of persons with mental illness is, to a large extent, incomplete and obsolete. The author appeals for passing the law on mental health which should: a) follow modern trends in psychiatry concerning the protection of human rights with the basic goal to protect society and mentally ill persons, b) to protect the professional and moral integrity of psychiatrists, c) to provide ethically and professionally acceptable authorization for the use of force, if necessary, in order to prevent criminal acts and/or self-injuries in patients suffering from severe psychical disorders, d) to conceptualize forensic psychiatric treatment (the security measures, corrective psychiatry) and the programs of rehabilitation as an integral part of the community mental health protection system.

  19. Mental Status Change in the Elderly: Recognizing and Treating Delirium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morency, Catherine Reilly

    1990-01-01

    Discusses delirium and how it differs from other types of mental status changes seen in the elderly and what interventions are most appropriate in affected individuals. Presents data from a study regarding nursing assessment of patients with delirium and outlines an educational model. (JOW)

  20. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network

    PubMed Central

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Galinsky, Adam D.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in ‘mentalizing’ or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. PMID:22289808

  1. [Changes of immune status in acute pancreatitis and its correction].

    PubMed

    Avakimyan, S V; Zhane, D A; Gedzyaun, R V

    2015-01-01

    Changes of immune status were studied in patients with acute pancreatitis. The presence of expressed secondary immunodeficiency was determined in patients with acute destructive pancreatitis. The Ronkoleykin immunomodulator was used to correct the immune status. The authors obtained the posi- tive results. An application of Ronkoleykin immunomodulator allowed decrease of the postoperative lethality with a high degree of reliability (p < 0.01).

  2. Chapter 14: Acute severe asthma (status asthmaticus).

    PubMed

    Shah, Rachna; Saltoun, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Acute severe asthma, formerly known as status asthmaticus, is defined as severe asthma unresponsive to repeated courses of beta-agonist therapy such as inhaled albuterol, levalbuterol, or subcutaneous epinephrine. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate recognition and treatment. Oral or parenteral corticosteroids should be administered to all patients with acute severe asthma as early as possible because clinical benefits may not occur for a minimum of 6-12 hours. Approximately 50% of episodes are attributable to upper respiratory infections, and other causes include medical nonadherence, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory exposure in aspirin-allergic patients, allergen exposure (especially pets) in severely atopic individuals, irritant inhalation (smoke, paint, etc.), exercise, and insufficient use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids. The patient history should be focused on acute severe asthma including current use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, number of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, intensive-care unit admissions and intubations, the frequency of albuterol use, the presence of nighttime symptoms, exercise intolerance, current medications or illicit drug use, exposure to allergens, and other significant medical conditions. Severe airflow obstruction may be predicted by accessory muscle use, pulsus paradoxus, refusal to recline below 30°, a pulse >120 beats/min, and decreased breath sounds. Physicians' subjective assessments of airway obstruction are often inaccurate. More objective measures of airway obstruction via peak flow (or forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and pulse oximetry before oxygen administration usually are helpful. Pulse oximetry values >90% are less commonly associated with problems although CO(2) retention and a low Pao(2) may be missed. PMID:22794687

  3. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  4. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions. PMID:8231701

  5. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions.

  6. ACUTE MENTAL STRESS AND HEMOSTASIS: WHEN PHYSIOLOGY BECOMES VASCULAR HARM

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the sympathoadrenal medullary system activates both the coagulation and fibrinolysis system resulting in net hypercoagulability. The evolutionary interpretation of this physiology is that stress-hypercoagulability protects a healthy organism from excess bleeding should injury occur in fight-or-flight situations. In turn, acute mental stress, negative emotions and psychological trauma also are triggering factors of atherothrombotic events and possibly of venous thromboembolism. Individuals with pre-existent atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial anticoagulant function are the most vulnerable to experience onset of acute coronary events within two hours of intense emotions. A range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress and negative affect) might critically intensify and prolong stress-induced hypercoagulability. In contrast, several pharmacological compounds, dietary flavanoids, and positive affect mitigate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Studies are needed to investigate whether attenuation of stress-hypercoagulability through medications and biobehavioral interventions reduce the risk of thrombotic incidents in at-risk populations. PMID:25861135

  7. Homeless mentally disordered defendants: competency to stand trial and mental status findings.

    PubMed

    Martell, D A; Rosner, R; Harmon, R B

    1994-01-01

    This study examines relationships between homelessness and findings of incompetency to stand trial in a sample of mentally disordered offenders. All 263 defendants referred for competency evaluation over a six-month period by the Criminal and Supreme Courts in Manhattan were studied. Each defendant was evaluated by two forensic psychiatrists using a structured interview protocol. After removing "false-positive" referrals, 42 percent of the mentally disordered defendants referred to this setting were found to have been homeless at the time of their instant offense, making them more than 40 times more likely to be homeless than the general population and 21 times more likely to be homeless than the rest of the city's mentally ill population. Homeless mentally disordered defendants were significantly more likely to be found incompetent to stand trial than domiciled defendants (p < .007) but also presented with significantly higher levels of psychopathology. Examination of mental status findings revealed that homeless defendants were more likely to be psychotic, including a higher incidence of formal thought disorder and ideas of reference. The relationship between homelessness and incompetency seems to be mediated by psychotic symptoms, suggesting that these defendants are not being found incompetent because they are homeless, but that homeless defendants are more likely to be psychotic and to exhibit a greater degree of psychopathology. The clinical and public policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Early Identification of Mental Health Problems in Schools: The Status of Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Jessica Mass; Saka, Noa; Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    When embedded within a continuum of mental health services including both prevention and treatment, school-based mental health identification programs can promote improved academic and mental health functioning among students. This article describes the scientific status of assessment instrumentation that may be used for early mental health…

  9. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated

  10. Pilot Mental Workload with Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the mental workload associated with using this predictive information has not been ascertained. The study described here attempted to measure mental workload. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to a parameter alert range (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+45 minutes) were tested to determine their effects on subjects mental workload. Subjective workload ratings increased with increasing predictive information (whether a parameter was changing abnormally or the time for a parameter to reach an alert range). Subjective situation awareness decreased with more predictive information but it became greater with increasing initial times to a parameter alert range. Also, subjective focus changed depending on the type of predictive information. Lastly, skin temperature fluctuated less as the initial time to a parameter alert range increased.

  11. Challenges in acute care of people with co-morbid mental illness.

    PubMed

    Giandinoto, Jo-Ann; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    Acute secondary care settings are complex environments that offer a range of challenges for healthcare staff. These challenges can be exacerbated when patients present with a co-morbid mental illness. This article is a systematic review of the literature that has investigated the challenges imposed on health professionals working in acute secondary care settings where they care for patients who experience co-morbid physical and mental illnesses. A systematic search of the bibliographic databases was conducted and a total of 25 articles were included in this review. A number of challenges were identified including experience of fear, negative attitudes, poor mental health literacy, being positive and optimistic in providing care as a profession and environmental factors. Health professionals working in acute secondary care settings require organisational support and training in mental health care. Acute secondary care environments conducive to providing holistic care to patients experiencing mental illness co-morbidity are required.

  12. A Java speech implementation of the Mini Mental Status Exam.

    PubMed

    Wang, S S; Starren, J

    1999-01-01

    The Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) is a simple, widely used, verbally administered test to assess cognitive function. The Java Speech Application Programming Interface (JSAPI) is a new, cross-platform interface for both speech recognition and speech synthesis in the Java environment. To evaluate the suitability of the JSAPI for interactive, patient interview applications, a JSAPI implementation of the MMSE was developed. The MMSE contains questions that vary in structure in order to assess different cognitive functions. This question variability provided an excellent test-bed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of JSAPI. The application is based on Java platform 2 and a JSAPI interface to the IBM ViaVoice recognition engine. Design and implementations issues are discussed. Preliminary usability studies demonstrate that an automated MMSE maybe a useful screening tool for cognitive disorders and changes.

  13. [Pharmacotherapeutical possibilities in mental disorders: current status in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Mihajlović, Goran; Borovčanin, Milica; Simič-Vukomanovič, Ivana

    2011-12-01

    The new therapeutical approaches have direct implications on living in order to accomplish remission, stop further progression of illnesses or improve the quality of life. The life expectancy has been increased up to 10 years in the last 55 years, probably owing to the innovative drugs. The innovative drugs application in our everyday clinical practice should be analyzed, related to economical aspects and to the transitional status of a country, but also in the context of fears and misconceptions of therapists. The cost of therapy is not equal to the cost of prescribed drugs, however it also includes direct and indirect costs and medical and nonmedical burden. Countries in our region spend 4-7.3% of the total budget for antipsychotic drugs, while the costs in Serbia are about 1.5%. The new antipsychotics and the new formulations of the available antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia are pharmacoeconomically justified. On the other side, the substance abuse needs other strategies, including new substitution treatments. In our country only methadone maintenance therapy is available. It is necessary to provide adequate legislation to improve the process of drug registration. In the European Union it takes from 0 to 400 days for a drug to be registered, but in Serbia the process last longerthan 3 years. Important laws approved in 2006 and 2009, are only a part of the destigmatiazation of patients with mental disorders. Treatment guidelines also help in resolving these issues. Taking all of the above into consideration, the treatment of mental disorders with innovative drugs is financially justified, but still unreachable for patients in Serbia. The voice of the professionals should be heard in these matters in order to provide the adequate treatment of people with mental health problems.

  14. Mental Status Changes after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Grace; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Orav, E. John; Antin, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The growing numbers of survivors of innovative cancer treatments such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) often report subsequent cognitive difficulties. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare neurocognitive changes in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after allogeneic HSCT or other therapies. Methods Prospective cohort study employing serial evaluations of attention, concentration, memory, mood and quality of life in a consecutive sample of 106 eligible patients with CML (n=91) or MDS (n=15) at enrollment, and then 12 and 18 months after HSCT or other therapy. Results The three evaluations were completed by 98%, 95%, and 89% of surviving participants, respectively. Among all patients, there was significant improvement in memory over 18 months. For example, the 45 people receiving HSCT (42 with CML, 3 with MDS) compared favorably to those who had other treatment on most measures of neuropsychological function, except they had improved mental health (p=.034), worse physical function (p=.049), and more difficulty with coordination and fine motor speed bilaterally (dominant, p=.005, and non-dominant hands, p=.0019). CML patients overall had improved phonemic fluency (p=.014). Conclusions Time and diagnosis may be important factors when assessing neurocognitive and other changes. Complaints about “chemobrain” following HSCT merit further study, as deficits may actually pre-date initiation of treatment and then subsequently improve. Study results could reassure prospective HSCT recipients since it compares favorably to other treatments when mental status side effects are considered. PMID:19551887

  15. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  16. Children in classrooms: peer status, status distribution and mental well-being.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Viveca

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on social relations in school classes and their importance for mental well-being in middle childhood in a Scottish city. The aspect of social relations under study is peer status and both the individual's own status position and the status distribution of the school class as a whole was considered. The number of children analysed was 13,932 and the number of school classes 524. The results show a clear association at individual level: the higher the status position the more uncommon is malaise. This is true both when malaise is reported by the teacher and by a parent, for both boys and girls and irrespective of the number of friends. The association was also generally present within school. It exists regardless of grade, type of school and class size. Furthermore, a minority of the classes had a more compressed status distribution and here malaise was less common in all status positions. This was especially the case when the school class did not contain marginalized children. Consequently, that some children are marginalized in the group indicates problematic conditions for the persons in question but also for the other group members.

  17. The economic status of parents with serious mental illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, A; Nicholson, J; Meara, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents with serious mental illness may be vulnerable to financial insecurity, making successful parenting especially difficult. We explored relationships among parenting, serious mental illness and economic status in a nationally representative sample. Methods The sample included all working-age participants from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. We compared economic status by parenthood status and mental illness severity. Results Rates of employment were low for parents with serious mental illness (38% full-time and 17% part-time among mothers; 60% full-time and 9% part-time among fathers) compared to parents with no mental illness (50% full-time and 19% part-time among mothers; 85% full-time and 5% part-time among fathers). Mothers and fathers with serious mental illness were twice as likely to fall below the US Census poverty threshold than their peers without mental illness. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Parents with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed than those without mental illnesses and are highly likely to be living in poverty. Reducing poverty by helping parents with serious mental illness achieve better jobs and education is likely to translate into family stability and better outcomes. PMID:25000119

  18. Mental status in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Banyra, Oleg; Ivanenko, Olha; Nikitin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic prostatitis is a widespread urological disease with a lengthy course and a propensity to frequent recurrences. Adequate response to anti–inflammatory therapy is lacking in a high percentage of patients, which causes them to seek medical advice from different doctors. Thus, the physicians are challenged to look for other reasons causing the pathological symptoms. Material and methods We have reviewed the patients with treatment–resistant chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) from the perspective of psychosomatic medicine. For the evaluation of primary mental status and treatment control we used standard approved questionnaires. All 337 CBP patients initially underwent therapy aimed at pathogen eradication. If psychopathological symptoms were evident and dominated over urological ones, the patients were referred to psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Results The frequency of concomitant psychosomatic disorders (PSD) in patients with CBP was 28.2% and neurotic disorders – 26.4%. Adequate multimodal anti–inflammatory therapy followed by a few sessions of psychotherapy decreased the manifestations of PSD in 30.5%, neurotic disorders in 51.7%, and premature ejaculation in 60.5% of patients with CBP. The addition of pharmacotherapy to psychotherapy is effective in treatment–resistant cases. However, after multimodal treatment, 31.5% of pts. with PSD and 13.5% of pts. with neurotic disorders still remain treatment–resistant and required in–depth long–term psychiatric care. Conclusions A significant portion of CBP patients were diagnosed with neurotic, psychosomatic, and/or depressive disorders. Antibacterial and anti–inflammatory therapy, when followed by appropriate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, significantly decrease the manifestations of mental disorders in CBP patients. PMID:24579003

  19. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  20. School-Based Mental Health Program Evaluation: Children's School Outcomes and Acute Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…

  1. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  2. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  3. Standardized Mental Status Testing on the Sideline After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of concussion on mental status are often difficult to assess on routine clinical examination. I investigated the efficacy of standardized mental status testing on the sport sideline to detect abnormalities that result from concussion and provide an objective measure of postinjury cognitive recovery. DESIGN AND SETTING: All subjects underwent a standardized preseason baseline mental status evaluation. Standardized testing of injured and uninjured control subjects was repeated on the sideline immediately after concussion and 48 hours after injury. SUBJECTS: Sixty-three high school and collegiate football players with concussion and 55 uninjured control subjects were studied. MEASUREMENTS: The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) was administered to evaluate neurocognitive functioning and neurologic status. RESULTS: Immediately after concussion, injured subjects performed significantly below preinjury baseline and below uninjured controls on the SAC. Measurable deficits in orientation, concentration, and memory were evident immediately after concussion. A decline in SAC score at time of injury was 95% sensitive and 76% specific in accurately classifying injured and uninjured subjects on the sideline. Injured subjects demonstrated significant improvements in SAC score 48 hours after injury. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized mental status testing can be a valuable tool to assist the sports medicine clinician in detecting the immediate effects of concussion on mental status, tracking resolution of immediate postconcussive mental status abnormalities, and making more informed decisions on return to play after injury.

  4. Mental health status of infertile couples based on treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Aminian, Amir Hossein; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal Ardakani, Najmeh; Fallahzadeh, Hosein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment. Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially. PMID:24639785

  5. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05) and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05). Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05). These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161

  6. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness.

  7. Community mental health care worldwide: current status and further developments

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265

  8. Marital Status and Occupational Success Among Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, John H.; Spray, S. Lee

    1970-01-01

    Concludes that personal relations, professional experiences and occupational success form a network of relationships which integrate the occupational and nonoccupational roles of highly specialized practitioners. Part of a Study of Careers in the Mental Health Field, supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH-09192 and directed by…

  9. College students' responses to mental health status updates on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Koff, Rosalind N; Moreno, Megan A

    2013-01-01

    Facebook is widely used by the college population, and previous research has shown that mental health references on Facebook are common. Focus groups of college students were held to determine their views of mental health references seen in their peers' Facebook profiles. Students' views of mental health references varied from being serious calls for help, to being jokes or attention-seeking behavior. Responses to mental health references depended on the participants' offline relationship with the poster. Students would contact close friends through a phone call or in-person conversation, but would not approach acquaintances. The prevalence of mental health references on Facebook, and the awareness of these references by college students, may present opportunities for future peer intervention efforts. PMID:23301569

  10. Legal status of the mentally disabled person in South African law.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, H; Fick, G; Els, C

    1995-01-01

    Mental illness or insanity has a dramatic influence on a person's legal status. A person's status determines his or her competencies such as legal capacity, capacity to act, accountability and capacity to litigate. A mentally ill person is incapable of performing juristic acts; he or she is not capable of becoming a party to legal proceedings; is virtually incapable of committing a crime or being liable for a delict; etc. However, not all mentally ill persons are precluded from performing legal acts or, for that matter, giving valid consent to medical treatment. The reason being that status is factually determined according to the degree to which the mental illness is present at the time when the mentally ill person participates in the legal traffic. The measure of capability depends on the patient's intellectual and volitional capacities that will decide whether the patient can validly contract, litigate or consent to medical treatment. More specifically medical research of a non-therapeutic nature can only be carried out on mental patients who are capable of consenting thereto. This article endeavours to touch upon the different aspects of the mentally ill person's legal status.

  11. Practical legal and ethical considerations for the provision of acute disaster mental health services.

    PubMed

    Call, John A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jenuwine, Michael J; Flynn, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Mental health professionals who provide emergency psychosocial assistance in the immediate aftermath of disasters do so in the midst of crisis and chaos. Common roles undertaken by disaster mental health professionals include treating existing conditions of disaster survivors and providing psychosocial support to front line responders and those acutely affected. Other roles include participating in multidisciplinary health care teams as well as monitoring and supporting team members' mental health. When, in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, mental health professionals provide such assistance, they may take on legal and ethical responsibilities that they are not fully aware of or do not fully comprehend. Unfortunately, not much has been written about these obligations, and professional organizations have provided little guidance. Thus, the purpose of the present article is to outline and discuss an analysis framework and suggest recommendations that mental health professionals can use to help guide their actions during the chaos immediate post disaster.

  12. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  13. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months. PMID:27007683

  14. Infant Mental Development and Neurological Status, Family Socio-Economic Status, and Intelligence at Age Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireton, Harold; And Others

    The relationship of infant mental development (Bayley Mental Scale, eight months) to four year Binet IQ was explored in the context of the study sample's neurological and socioeconomic characteristics for a sample of 536 full-term children. The Minnesota sample was approximately normal or average in terms of infant mental scores, infant…

  15. Mental and social health during and after acute emergencies: emerging consensus?

    PubMed Central

    van Ommeren, Mark; Saxena, Shekhar; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2005-01-01

    Mental health care programmes during and after acute emergencies in resource-poor countries have been considered controversial. There is no agreement on the public health value of the post-traumatic stress disorder concept and no agreement on the appropriateness of vertical (separate) trauma-focused services. A range of social and mental health intervention strategies and principles seem, however, to have the broad support of expert opinion. Despite continuing debate, there is emerging agreement on what entails good public health practice in respect of mental health. In terms of early interventions, this agreement is exemplified by the recent inclusion of a "mental and social aspects of health" standard in the Sphere handbook's revision on minimal standards in disaster response. This affirmation of emerging agreement is important and should give clear messages to health planners. PMID:15682252

  16. Acute mental health service delivery to Indigenous women: What is known?

    PubMed

    Bradley, Pat; Dunn, Sandra; Lowell, Anne; Nagel, Tricia

    2015-12-01

    The Australian College of Mental Health Nurses directs that mental health nurses must 'enable cultural safety in practice, taking into account age, gender, spirituality, ethnicity and health values'. The present study is a review of the existing literature undertaken in order to identify current knowledge and knowledge gaps regarding the experience of Indigenous women in acute mental health inpatient facilities. In particular, studies that identified environments and practices promoting the development of culturally-safe healing spaces for Indigenous women, and studies that identified women's experience of seclusion, were sought. The results showed that there is little literature directly relevant to Indigenous women's experiences of inpatient mental health units in Australia. The present study consolidates existing knowledge and knowledge gaps, and advances the argument for gender-disaggregated future research. Implications for professional practice and service development are also noted.

  17. [Correction of the mental status during ketamine anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Shpilenia, L S; Zobin, M L

    1987-03-01

    Possibilities of pharmacological correction of the patient's mental state while performing Ketamin anesthesia were studied. The optimal results were obtained by the complex of Seduxen prior to and Pyracetam after anesthesia. It considerably reduced the frequency and degree of hallucinative--illusional disturbances and simultaneously markedly accelerated the restoration of the disturbed consciousness.

  18. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  19. Differential changes in platelet reactivity induced by acute physical compared to persistent mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Katharina; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Kandler, Christina; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Malik, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Semenitz, Barbara; Humpel, Christian; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also contain adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory compounds, as well as most of the serotonin outside the central nervous system. Dysbalance in the serotonin pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Thus, changes in platelet aggregation and content of bioactive compounds are of interest when investigating physiological stress-related mental processes as well as stress-related psychiatric diseases such as depression. In the present study, a characterization of platelet reactivity in acute physical and persistent mental stress was performed (aggregation, serotonin and serotonin 2A-receptor, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9), platelet/endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). Acute physical stress increased platelet aggregability while leaving platelet content of bioactive compounds unchanged. Persistent mental stress led to changes in platelet content of bioactive compounds and serotonin 2A-receptor only. The values of most bioactive compounds correlated with each other. Acute physical and persistent mental stress influences platelets through distinct pathways, leading to differential changes in aggregability and content of bioactive compounds. PMID:26192713

  20. Altered Mental Status in a Child With an Unwitnessed Fall: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fleurat, Michelle R; Zaia, Brita E

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of altered mental status in a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department after presumed head trauma. A computed tomography head was conducted and its findings were normal, and the boy was discharged home. He returned the next day with persistent altered mental status and was found to have an abnormal MR brain suggestive of embolic strokes. An echocardiogram revealed a large atrial mass that was later confirmed by pathology to be an atrial myxoma. This is a unique and, to our knowledge, unreported presentation of a known but rare disease process in a pediatric patient. PMID:27253357

  1. Current status of yoga in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area. PMID:27067548

  2. [Cortical amaurosis and status epilepticus with acute porphyria].

    PubMed

    Wessels, T; Blaes, F; Röttger, C; Hügens, M; Hüge, S; Jauss, M

    2005-08-01

    The most common neurologic manifestations of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) are autonomic visceral neuropathy, peripheral motor neuropathy, and CNS dysfunctions including seizures and neuropsychiatric disturbances. In rare instances, however, AIP patients have presented with acute cortical blindness. We present a 20-year-old woman who suffered her first attack of AIP. Following 1 week of abdominal pain, she was transferred from a surgical department because of sudden visual loss and deterioration of consciousness. On admission, she developed several generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral DWI lesions occipitally and in the left anterior circulation. Cerebrospinal fluid, MR angiography, and duplex ultrasound were normal. On the following day, sedation and intubation became necessary because of a generalized status epilepticus. Analysis of porphyrinogens in blood, urine and stool showed significantly elevated values. Intravenous therapy with häm-arginate was initiated and antiepileptic therapy was changed to gagabentine. Under this therapeutical regime she remained stable and extubation was possible 48 h later. PMID:15791420

  3. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  4. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status in Mentally Retarded Children and Adolescents: A Study from North Western India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Manju; Bhargava, Rachna; Benipal, Ramandeep; Luthra, Neena; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Jasbinder; Chavan, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dietary habits and nutritional status of mentally retarded (MR) and normal (NG) subjects and to examine the relationship between the dietary habits and nutritional status and the level of mental retardation in the MR group. Method: A case control design was utilized: 117 MR (random sampling) and 100 NG (quota sampling)…

  5. Serious mental illness and acute hospital readmission in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R; Morgan, Daniel J; Comer, Angela C; Harris, Anthony D; Furuno, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. The authors hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary care facility from 2005 to 2009. SMI was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26 878 eligible admissions, the prevalence of SMI was 6% and the incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population.

  6. Serious mental illness and acute hospital readmission in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Goldberg, Richard; Langenberg, Patricia; Day, Hannah R; Morgan, Daniel J; Comer, Angela C; Harris, Anthony D; Furuno, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Patients with serious mental illness (SMI), particularly those with other chronic illnesses, may be vulnerable to unplanned hospital readmission. The authors hypothesized that SMI would be associated with increased 30-day hospital readmission in a cohort of adult patients with comorbid diabetes admitted to a tertiary care facility from 2005 to 2009. SMI was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis codes for schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, manic, or major depressive disorders, or other psychosis. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission to the index hospital. Among 26 878 eligible admissions, the prevalence of SMI was 6% and the incidence of 30-day hospital admission was 16%. Among patients aged <35 years, SMI was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17, 0.91). However, among patients ≥35 years, SMI was not significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.86, 1.42). SMI may not be associated with increased odds of 30-day hospital readmission in this population. PMID:22539798

  7. Mental health status in children exposed to tsunami.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, L; Kannan, G K; Daniel, S J

    2006-12-01

    As a vulnerable group, children are more prone to experiencing trauma and its sequelae. After the Asian tsunami we set out to evaluate the effect of exposure to the tsunami nearly one year after the event and to explore the family history of psychopathology on the mental health of children. This community-based study of 230 children was conducted in Srinivasapuram, a coastal village in Tamil Nadu. A youth self-report form (YSR) of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), exposure to the tsunami, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and family history of psychopathology were assessed. The severity of exposure to the tsunami correlated with anxiety and somatic domains of the DSM IV and PTSD symptoms. Family history of psychopathology correlated with affective and somatic symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that family psychopathology influenced affective problems (R2 = 0.071 (n = 199), F = 15.13, p = 0.00) while exposure to the tsunami influenced anxiety problems (R2 = 0.046 (n = 208), F = 9.91, p = 0.002). The findings from this study reveal that targeted specialized mental health services are needed for children with severe exposure to the tsunami and positive family history of psychopathology.

  8. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  9. Chronic Mental Patients after Deinstitutionalization: Trends in Living Independence and Vocational Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Marianne; And Others

    Many studies have followed the living and work situations of discharged mental patients in the community. To add to this knowledge base, a study of 52 chronic inpatients was conducted over a 3 1/2 year period to examine the effects of deinstitutionalization on the living situations and vocational status of long-hospitalized patients. The patients…

  10. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jan Martin, Ed.

    Brief reports on the status of approximately 75 ongoing or recently decided court cases in states of relevance to the mentally retarded are provided. Cases cover the following issues: commitment, community living and services, criminal law, discrimination, guardianship, institutions and deinstitutionalization, medical/legal issues, parental rights…

  11. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease: Mental Status Examination versus Caregiver Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Benjamin; Buswell, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    To examine possible reasons for conflicting prevalence data on psychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease, compared results of mental status examination by physician with questionnaire completed by caregivers in eliciting 12 different psychiatric symptoms. Found agreement only on categories suggesting agitation. Formal examination showed more…

  12. Mental health nurses' perceptions of good work in an acute setting.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-10-01

    Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery.

  13. Mental health status of the Hmong Americans in 2011: three decades revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee, Serge; Chang, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the Hmong in America and encompasses their mental health status for the past 35 years. Since their mass arrival to the United States in 1975, limited research has been compiled to track the specific mental health issues that affect this collective community alone. Major chronological research findings were compiled for this article and specific findings concerning the Hmong and their mental health issues were compared to findings for other Southeast Asian groups. In conclusion, the findings of this article indicate that the Hmong still have higher rates of being diagnosed with depression, the lowest help-seeking behaviors in utilizing Western medicine, and the lowest arithmetic average of "happiness" scaled on an assessment tool. The purpose of this article is to better steer future research projects that entail tracking and differentiating the specific mental health domains of the Hmong.

  14. A patient with altered mental status and possible seizure reveals an atypical aortic dissection upon workup.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Olufolahan J; Dhindsa, Harinder S; Loyd, Joshua W

    2014-05-01

    Aortic dissection occurs when a tear occurs in the inner muscle wall lining of the aorta, allowing blood to split the muscle layers of the aortic wall apart. It is classically characterized by pain that starts in the upper chest, which then radiates to the upper back and is tearing or ripping in quality. Our objective is to present a case followed by a brief literature review of aortic dissection and uncommon but important features that may be demonstrated. In this report, we present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was transported to the emergency department with an acute episode of altered mental status, presenting as a possible stroke with possible seizures. The patient's only complaint was mild low back pain. Physical examination revealed disorientation to time with no other neurologic deficits or abnormal findings. Results from initial noncontrast head computed tomography, chest radiograph, and laboratory studies were all normal, except for an elevated D-dimer and serum creatinine. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a type A aortic dissection. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room where the aortic valve and a portion of the ascending aorta were replaced. The patient did well and was discharged from the hospital 5 days later without any permanent sequalae. Aortic dissection is both rare and life threatening and may present with atypical signs. It is important to note that patients may show no signs of typical features or may even display other symptoms based on other branches from the aorta that have been occluded. PMID:24360026

  15. The validity of the repeatable battery of neuropsychological status in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Wilde, M C

    2006-12-01

    The construct validity of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was investigated in a sample of 210 acute ischemic stroke patients seen on an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Intercorrelations between the six index scores were found to be relatively consistent with previously published work. A principal components analysis yielded a two-factor (Language/Verbal Memory and Visuospatial/Visual Memory) solution that accounted for 61% of the variance. Correlations generated between the resulting factor scores, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWA), the Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFD), Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE) Complex Ideational Material Test (CIM), the presence of neglect as determined by Line Bisection Test performance, and the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) supported the validity of these factors. A comparison of the obtained factor scores in a subgroup of 111 left and right hemispheric stroke patients showed that the left hemispheric stroke patients performed more poorly on the Language/Verbal Memory factor score than did right hemispheric stroke patients while the converse was true for the Visuospatial/Visual Memory factor score. Implications for the construct validity of the RBANS and its use and interpretation in clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:16980256

  16. Mental health response to acute stress following wilderness disaster.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Amanda R

    2010-12-01

    Expedition physicians should be prepared to respond to traumatic stress disorders following wilderness disasters. Stress disorder symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoiding stimuli associated with the traumatic event, and increased physical arousal. These symptoms can also be seen in healthy individuals, and should only lead to disorder diagnosis when they cause distress or impairment. Treatment options for stress disorders include observation, psychological interventions, and medication. Approximately half of those with diagnosable stress disorders will return to nondiagnosable status over time without therapeutic intervention. Psychological interventions with empirical support concentrate on providing either noninvasive support in the short term, such as psychological first aid (PFA), or more long-term controlled re-experiencing of the precipitating trauma, such as many exposure-based therapies. Exposure-based treatments can result in temporary increases in symptoms before long-term gains are realized, so they are not recommended for wilderness settings. Medications to treat stress disorders include benzodiazepines, propranolol, and antidepressant medications. Benzodiazepines are often carried in wilderness first aid kits, but they provide very limited stress disorder symptom relief. Propranolol is being explored as a method of preventing traumatic stress disorders, but the data are not currently conclusive. Antidepressant medications are a good long-term strategy for stress disorder treatment, but they are of limited utility in wilderness settings as they are unlikely to be included in expedition medical kits and require approximately 4 weeks of administration for symptom reduction. Recommendations for wilderness treatment of stress disorders focus on increasing knowledge of stress disorder diagnosis and PFA.

  17. Outpatient mental health service use by older adults after acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Proctor, Enola; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study described outpatient mental health service used by elderly patients discharged from acute inpatient psychiatric treatment for depression, assessed services barriers, and identified factors related to the use of outpatient mental health services. The sample consisted of 199 elderly patients discharged home from a geropsychiatric unit of an urban midwestern hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with use of various mental health services. Almost three quarters of the elderly patients saw a psychiatrist within 6 weeks postdischarge, but few used other outpatient mental health services. The most frequently reported barriers to use included (1) cost of services, (2) personal belief that depression would improve on its own, and (3) lack of awareness of available services. The use of various outpatient services was differentially related to predisposing, need, and enabling factors. Female patients, those residing in rural areas, and those who wanted to solve their problems on their own were less likely to use outpatient mental health services. Patients who reported greater levels of functional impairment, resided in rural areas, and perceived that getting services required too much time were less likely to see a psychiatrist in the postacute period. African American patients were more likely than whites to use day treatment programs. This may be related to the fact that most day treatment centers were located in areas where the majority of residents were African Americans.

  18. Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

    1990-01-01

    Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

  19. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  20. Relationships of Mental Disorders and Weight Status in the Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jin-Yeong; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between weight status and mental disorders, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. A total of nationally representative 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 yr was interviewed in face-to-face household survey. Response rate was 81.7%. Mental disorders were diagnosed using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). The subjects reported their heights and weights. After adjusting for age and gender, the lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had a significant association with only the underweight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.38). The association between underweight and depressive disorder was the strongest for subjects with a high education level (OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.2-2.56), subjects with a married/cohabiting status (OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.17-3.22) and smokers (OR, 2.58, 95% CI, 1.33-4.98). There was no significant association between obesity and depressive disorder in Korea. But there was a significant association between the underweight group and depressive disorder. The relationship between obesity and mental disorder in a Korean population was different from that in a Western population. These results suggest that the differences of traditional cultures and races might have an important effect on the associations between the weight status and mental disorders. PMID:21218038

  1. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.

  2. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event. PMID:24558696

  3. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  4. Mental health status of municipal solid waste incinerator workers compared with local government office workers.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Kazuyuki

    2006-10-01

    Recently in Japan dioxin problem of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) became social issue. The news spread all around Japan and induced fear that workers at incinerators would suffer from cancer or other serious illness induced by the exposure to dioxins. Authors were interested in the effect of this stressful event occurred to the workers and intended to evaluate mental health status of MSWI workers compared with office workers. Subjects were male workers from two MSWI plants and a local government office; 20 government office workers who were engaging in health administration and 55 MSWI workers. Subjects were interviewed about their age, educational carrier, and working schedule. POMS and GHQ30 were used to evaluate mood status of subjects. There were differences in mood state between the two occupational groups. POMS showed that Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Fatigue levels were high in the health administration worker group. GHQ30 showed that General Illness, Social Dysfunction, and Anxiety and Dysphoria state were deviated to abnormal in the health administration worker group. General mental health status evaluated by GHQ30 score was also deviated to abnormal in the office worker group. Our results showed that mental health status of health administration workers was less healthy compared with MSWI workers. This meant that the stress of MSWI workers enhanced by the fear that they might have been exposed to dioxin did not exceed the stress the health administration workers usually had suffered from.

  5. Ready, aim fire! Mental health nurses under siege in acute inpatient facilities.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2013-04-01

    It has been clearly acknowledged and well-documented that physical, emotional, and psychological violence is a central theme and an expected workplace hazard for registered nurses working in acute inpatient mental health care facilities. Limited research, however, has focused on how registered nurses have been able to cope within this environment and adequately protect themselves from harm. A critical feminist research project recently explored the lived experience of 13 Australian, female, registered nurses working in a busy metropolitan acute inpatient mental health care facility. "Fear" was exposed as the precursor to violence and aggression, both "fear as experienced by the nurse" and "fear as experienced by the patient." The participants reported experiencing a sense of fear when they could not accurately or confidently anticipate a patient response or reaction. They identified this relationship with fear as being "part of the job" and part of the unpredictable nature of caring for people experiencing complex distortions in thinking and behavior. The participants believed, however, that additional workplace pressures complicated the therapeutic environment, resulting in a distraction from patient care and observation. This distraction could lead to nurse-patient miscommunication and the potential for violence. This article discusses a major theme to emerge from this study, "Better the devil you know!" The theme highlights how mental health nurses cope with violence and why they choose to continue working in this complex care environment. PMID:23566191

  6. EEG recovery enhanced by acute aerobic exercise after performing mental task with listening to unpleasant sound.

    PubMed

    Nishifuji, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigated response of electroencephalogram (EEG) to aerobic exercise with low intensity after performing mental task with listening to acoustic stimuli in order to measure a recovery effect of the acute exercise on the EEG. The mean amplitude of the alpha wave (8-13 Hz) was significantly reduced during performing mental arithmetic and/or listening to 5 KHz unpleasant tone. In particular, the mean reduction rate of the amplitude was more than 20 % in the low-frequency range of the alpha wave (8-10 Hz) under both stressors. On the other hand, the alpha wave was fixed after an acute exercise of 20 min; the mean amplitude of the alpha wave exceeded 30 % of spontaneous level prior to stressed conditions in the low-frequency range but unchanged in the high-frequency range. Response of the theta wave was similar to the low-alpha wave, while beta and gamma waves showed no significant change in response to the stressors and exercise. The observation indicates that the acute exercise with low intensity may be responsible for the rapid recovery and enhancement of the alpha wave in the low-frequency range and theta wave.

  7. Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: multiple minority status adolescents and mental health.

    PubMed

    Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974

  8. Pathological Gamblers Respond Equally Well to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Regardless of Other Mental Health Treatment Status

    PubMed Central

    Champine, Robey B.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Data consistently demonstrate comorbidity between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders. This study compares severity of gambling and psychosocial problems and gambling treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (N = 231) based on their self-reported mental health treatment utilization. As expected, participants currently receiving mental health treatment demonstrated the most psychiatric problems, and those with no mental health treatment the least. Although preferred gambling activity differed according to mental health treatment status, severity of gambling problems and gambling treatment outcomes did not. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy was efficacious in reducing gambling problems irrespective of mental health treatment utilization. PMID:20958852

  9. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  10. Greater cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress are associated with poor subsequent cardiovascular risk status: a meta-analysis of prospective evidence.

    PubMed

    Chida, Yoichi; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    An increasing number of studies has tested whether greater cardiovascular responses to acute mental stress predict future cardiovascular disease, but results have been variable. This review aimed quantitatively to evaluate the association between cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress and subsequent cardiovascular risk status in prospective cohort studies. We searched general bibliographic databases, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed, up to December 2009. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. There were 169 associations (36 articles) of stress reactivity and 30 associations (5 articles) of poststress recovery in relation to future cardiovascular risk status, including elevated blood pressure, hypertension, left ventricular mass, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiac events. The overall meta-analyses showed that greater reactivity to and poor recovery from stress were associated longitudinally with poor cardiovascular status (r=0.091 [95% CI: 0.050 to 0.132], P<0.001, and r=0.096 [95% CI: 0.058 to 0.134], P<0.001, respectively). These findings were supported by more conservative analyses of aggregate effects and by subgroup analyses of the methodologically strong associations. Notably, incident hypertension and increased carotid intima-media thickness were more consistently predicted by greater stress reactivity and poor stress recovery, respectively, whereas both factors were associated with higher future systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis suggests that greater responsivity to acute mental stress has an adverse effect on future cardiovascular risk status, supporting the use of methods of managing stress responsivity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Quality of life and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients in a Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Syed, Emdadul H; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Ahsan, Habibul; Jimba, Masamine

    2012-09-01

    Contamination of groundwater by inorganic arsenic is one of the major public-health problems in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients and (b) to identify the factors associated with the QOL. Of 1,456 individuals, 521 (35.78%) were selected as case and control participants, using a systematic random-sampling method. The selection criteria for cases (n=259) included presence of at least one of the following: melanosis, leucomelanosis on at least 10% of the body, or keratosis on the hands or feet. Control (nonpatient) participants (n=262) were selected from the same villages by matching age (±5 years) and gender. The Bangladeshi version of the WHOQOL-BREF was used for assessing the QOL, and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) was used for assessing the general mental health status. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the WHOQOL-BREF and SRQ scores between the patients and the non-patients were compared. The mean scores of QOL were significantly lower in the patients than those in the non-patients of both the sexes. Moreover, the mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients (mean score for males=8.4 and females=10.3) showed greater disturbances than those of the non-patients (mean score for males=5.2 and females=6.1) of both the sexes. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors potentially contributing to the lower QOL scores included: being an arsenic-affected patient, having lower age, and having lower annual income. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the QOL and mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients were significantly lower than those of the non-patients in Bangladesh. Appropriate interventions are necessary to improve the well-being of the patients.

  12. Do You Hear Voices? Problems in Assessment of Mental Status in Deaf Persons with Severe Language Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Neil

    2007-01-01

    When mental health clinicians perform mental status examinations, they examine the language patterns of patients because abnormal language patterns, sometimes referred to as language dysfluency, may indicate a thought disorder. Performing such examinations with deaf patients is a far more complex task, especially with traditionally underserved…

  13. The Relationship of Depression to Work Status during the Acute Period of Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Joanne; Rasch, John

    1988-01-01

    Investigated relationship of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores to employment status and time since injury among persons with acute low back pain. Work status was unrelated to BDI scores. Participants 5 to 6 months post-injury scored higher than participants l month post-injury; participants working 5 to 6 months post-injury scored higher than…

  14. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Esmaeili, Alirez; Dortaj, Fariborz; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status. PMID:26316753

  15. The acute hepatic porphyrias: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Siegesmund, Marko; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Anne-Moniek; Poblete-Gutiérrez, Pamela; Frank, Jorge

    2010-10-01

    The porphyrias are predominantly inherited metabolic disorders, which result from a specific deficiency of one of the eight enzymes along the pathway of haem biosynthesis. Historically, they have been classified into hepatic and erythropoietic forms, based on the primary site of expression of the prevailing dysfunctional enzyme. From a clinical point of view, however, it is more convenient to subdivide them into acute and non-acute porphyrias, thereby primarily considering the potential occurrence of life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. Unrecognised or untreated, such an acute porphyric attack is associated with a significant mortality of up to 10%. The acute hepatic porphyrias comprise acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Making a precise diagnosis may be difficult because the different types of porphyrias may show overlapping clinical and biochemical characteristics. To date, the therapeutic possibilities are limited and mainly symptomatic. In this overview we report on what is currently known about pathogenesis, clinic, diagnostics, and therapy of the acute hepatic porphyrias. We further point out actual and future challenges in the management of these diseases.

  16. Mental health status, aggression, and poor driving distinguish traffic offenders from non-offenders but health status predicts driving behavior in both groups

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646

  17. The relationship between racial identity status attitudes, racism-related coping, and mental health among Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Jessica; Carter, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    To date, few studies have examined how different strategies for coping with racism affect the mental health of Black Americans, and none have explored how racial identity status attitudes and racism-related coping affect mental health. This study sought to examine the relationship between racial identity status attitudes, the specific strategies used by Black Americans to cope with racism, and mental health outcomes. Participants were 233 Black adults, and cluster analysis identified four cluster groups that differed significantly with respect to the patterns of racial identity attitudes and racism-related coping strategies employed. Although the groups did not differ significantly in well-being, the group with predominantly high Internalization status attitudes and that used primarily Empowered Resistance racism-related coping strategies had the least psychological symptoms. Implications for mental health and research are discussed.

  18. Gender differences in pre-event health status of young patients with acute myocardial infarction: A VIRGO study analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Smolderen, Kim G; Strait, Kelly M; Beltrame, John F; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

    2015-01-01

    Aims We assessed gender differences in pre-event health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) in young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and whether or not this association persists following sequential adjustment for important covariates. We also evaluated the interaction between gender and prior coronary artery disease (CAD), given that aggressive symptom control is a cornerstone of care in those with known coronary disease. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (2,349 women) aged 18–55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals (2008–2012). Clinical/health status information was obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. Pre-event health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), EuroQoL [EQ-5D)] and disease-specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. T-test/chi-square and multivariable linear/logistic regression analysis was utilized, sequentially adjusting for covariates. Women had more co-morbidities and significantly lower generic mean health scores than men [SF-12 physical health =43±12 vs. 46±11 and mental health= 44±13 vs. 48±11]; EQ-5D utility index=0.7±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.2, and visual analog scale=63±22 vs. 67±20, P<0.0001 for all. Their disease-specific health status was also worse, with more angina [SAQ angina frequency=83±22 vs. 87±18], worse physical function [physical limitation=78±27 vs. 87±21] and poorer quality of life [55±25 vs. 60±22, P<0.0001 for all]. In multivariable analysis, the association between female gender and worse generic physical/mental health persisted, as well as worse disease-specific physical limitation and quality of life. The interaction between gender and prior CAD was not significant in any of the health status outcomes. Conclusion Young women have worse pre-event health status as compared with men, regardless of their CAD history. While future studies of gender differences should adjust for baseline health

  19. Influence of weight status on physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Oudghiri, Dia Eddine; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Fernández, María Del Mar; Aranda, Pilar; Aparicio, Virginia Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a lack of information about fitness and other health indicators in women from countries such as Morocco. This study aims to explore the association of weight status with physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women. Methods 151 women (45-65 years) from the North of Morocco were analyzed by standardized field-based fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility and balance. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and plasma fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were also measured. Results Blood pressure (P=0.001), plasma triglycerides (P=0.041) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001) increased as weight status increased. Levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body flexibility (both, P<0.001), static balance (P<0.05) and dynamic balance (P<0.01) decreased as weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed differences mainly between normal-weight and overweight vs. obese groups. No differences between groups were observed on quality of life. Conclusion Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied population. PMID:27303571

  20. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants. PMID:21394472

  1. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE) analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50) and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12). Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49) and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69), and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83). Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Longitudinal

  2. Nurses' perception about a DVD module on 'mental status examination demonstration'.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Lalitha, K; Thennarasu, K; Nagarajaiah; Ramachandra

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based multimedia can improve learning and retention of learnt material A video recorded DVD module on role play of mental status examination was visualised by 226 nursing students and 133 nursing teachers. Their opinion of the DVD on various parameters such as audibility, visibility, clarity, methodical, organisation of content, following the principles of psychiatric interview, symptom elicitation, therapist behaviour, therapist communication skill and ease in understanding revealed that the DVD module was of high quality and could be used as a teaching tool PMID:24683759

  3. Quality of Life and Mental Health Status of Arsenic-affected Patients in a Bangladeshi Population

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Emdadul H.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by inorganic arsenic is one of the major public-health problems in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients and (b) to identify the factors associated with the QOL. Of 1,456 individuals, 521 (35.78%) were selected as case and control participants, using a systematic random-sampling method. The selection criteria for cases (n=259) included presence of at least one of the following: melanosis, leucomelanosis on at least 10% of the body, or keratosis on the hands or feet. Control (non-patient) participants (n=262) were selected from the same villages by matching age (±5 years) and gender. The Bangladeshi version of the WHOQOL-BREF was used for assessing the QOL, and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) was used for assessing the general mental health status. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the WHOQOL-BREF and SRQ scores between the patients and the non-patients were compared. The mean scores of QOL were significantly lower in the patients than those in the non-patients of both the sexes. Moreover, the mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients (mean score for males=8.4 and females=10.3) showed greater disturbances than those of the non-patients (mean score for males=5.2 and females=6.1) of both the sexes. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors potentially contributing to the lower QOL scores included: being an arsenic-affected patient, having lower age, and having lower annual income. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the QOL and mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients were significantly lower than those of the non-patients in Bangladesh. Appropriate interventions are necessary to improve the well-being of the patients. PMID:23082628

  4. Baseline Assessment of Campus-Wide General Health Status and Mental Health: Opportunity for Tailored Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Awareness Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…

  5. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor

  6. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor

  7. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  8. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research. PMID:26967029

  9. Trauma exposure and refugee status as predictors of mental health outcomes in treatment-seeking refugees.

    PubMed

    Knipscheer, Jeroen W; Sleijpen, Marieke; Mooren, Trudy; Ter Heide, F Jackie June; van der Aa, Niels

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method This study aimed to identify predictors of symptom severity for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in asylum seekers and refugees referred to a specialised mental health centre. Trauma exposure (number and domain of event), refugee status and severity of PTSD and depression were assessed in 688 refugees. Results Symptom severity of PTSD and depression was significantly associated with lack of refugee status and accumulation of traumatic events. Four domains of traumatic events (human rights abuse, lack of necessities, traumatic loss, and separation from others) were not uniquely associated with symptom severity. All factors taken together explained 11% of variance in PTSD and depression. Clinical implications To account for multiple predictors of symptom severity including multiple traumatic events, treatment for traumatised refugees may need to be multimodal and enable the processing of multiple traumatic memories within a reasonable time-frame.

  10. Trauma exposure and refugee status as predictors of mental health outcomes in treatment-seeking refugees

    PubMed Central

    Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Sleijpen, Marieke; Mooren, Trudy; ter Heide, F. Jackie June; van der Aa, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method This study aimed to identify predictors of symptom severity for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in asylum seekers and refugees referred to a specialised mental health centre. Trauma exposure (number and domain of event), refugee status and severity of PTSD and depression were assessed in 688 refugees. Results Symptom severity of PTSD and depression was significantly associated with lack of refugee status and accumulation of traumatic events. Four domains of traumatic events (human rights abuse, lack of necessities, traumatic loss, and separation from others) were not uniquely associated with symptom severity. All factors taken together explained 11% of variance in PTSD and depression. Clinical implications To account for multiple predictors of symptom severity including multiple traumatic events, treatment for traumatised refugees may need to be multimodal and enable the processing of multiple traumatic memories within a reasonable time-frame. PMID:26755950

  11. Acute Pain Medicine in the United States: A Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Patrick; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Boezaart, Andre P.; Carr, Daniel B.; Clark, Laura L.; Herring, Andrew A.; Kent, Michael; Mackey, Sean; Mariano, Edward R.; Polomano, Rosemary C.; Reisfield, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus indicates that a comprehensive, multimodal, holistic approach is foundational to the practice of acute pain medicine (APM), but lack of uniform, evidence-based clinical pathways leads to undesirable variability throughout U. S. healthcare systems. Acute pain studies are inconsistently synthesized to guide educational programs. Advanced practice techniques involving regional anesthesia assume the presence of a physician-led, multidisciplinary acute pain service, which is often unavailable or inconsistently applied. This heterogeneity of educational and organizational standards may result in unnecessary patient pain and escalation of healthcare costs. Methods A multidisciplinary panel was nominated through the Acute Pain Medicine Shared Interest Group (APMSIG) of the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). The panel met in Chicago, Illinois, in July 2014, to identify gaps and set priorities in APM research and education. Results The panel identified 3 areas of critical need: 1) an open-source acute pain data registry and clinical support tool to inform clinical decision making and resource allocation and to enhance research efforts; 2) a strong professional APM identity as an accredited subspecialty; and 3) educational goals targeted toward third-party payers, hospital administrators, and other key stakeholders to convey the importance of APM. Conclusion This report is the first step in a 3-year initiative aimed at creating conditions and incentives for the optimal provision of APM services to facilitate and enhance the quality of patient recovery after surgery, illness, or trauma. The ultimate goal is to reduce the conversion of acute pain to the debilitating disease of chronic pain. PMID:26535424

  12. Physical and mental health status of Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.

  13. A Pilot Physical Activity Initiative to Improve Mental Health Status amongst Iranian Institutionalized Older People

    PubMed Central

    Matlabi, Hossein; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Amiri, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practi­cability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and mus­cle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to measure mental health status be­fore and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations. PMID:25097839

  14. Life in acute mental health settings: experiences and perceptions of service users and nurses.

    PubMed

    Rose, D; Evans, J; Laker, C; Wykes, T

    2015-02-01

    Background. Acute psychiatric provision in the UK today as well as globally has many critics including service users and nurses. Method. Four focus groups, each meeting twice, were held separately for service users and nurses. The analysis was not purely inductive but driven by concerns with the social position of marginalised groups - both patients and staff. Results. The main themes were nurse/patient interaction and coercion. Service users and nurses conceptualised these differently. Service users found nurses inaccessible and uncaring, whereas nurses also felt powerless because their working life was dominated by administration. Nurses saw coercive situations as a reasonable response to factors 'internal' to the patient whereas for service users they were driven to extreme behaviour by the environment of the ward and coercive interventions were unnecessary and heavy handed. Conclusion. This study sheds new light on living and working in acute mental health settings today by comparing the perceptions of service users and nurses and deploying service user and nurse researchers. The intention is to promote better practice by providing a window on the perceptions of both groups. PMID:24330951

  15. Mental Health Status and Quality of Life in Undiagnosed Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Mental health and quality of life (QoL) are important issues for patients with glaucoma because visual impairment can be related to those. Analysis of mental health status or QoL in undiagnosed glaucoma patients can be free of the bias caused by awareness of the disease itself. In this study, the association between mental health status or QoL and undiagnosed glaucoma, along with the effects of visual acuity or visual field damage was investigated. Among individuals in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V (2010–2012), subjects 40 years or older were included. KNHANES is a cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage, probability sampling survey. The KNHANES includes questionnaires to assess psychological health, including depression, sleep duration, psychological stress, and suicidal ideations. To evaluate QoL, the KNHANES includes the EuroQoL, which is composed of a health-status descriptive system (EuroQol 5-dimension, EQ-5D) and the EQ visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). The proportion of people reporting symptoms of “some or severe problems” in all 5 dimensions of the EuroQoL-5 instrument, including anxiety/depression, was higher in the glaucoma group than in the nonglaucoma group. The subjective health status reported by the EQ-VAS was lower in the subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma. Suicidal ideation was greater in subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (P = 0.005). After adjustment for demographic factors, glaucoma subjects were more likely than those without glaucoma to have some or severe problems with anxiety/depression (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–2.49). Worse best corrected visual acuity was associated with more problems with a lower EQ-5D score in glaucoma subjects. Individuals who had undiagnosed glaucoma were more depressed than those without glaucoma. QoL can be affected by glaucoma

  16. [Mental status and work capacity of crewmen at the Salute-6 space flight base].

    PubMed

    Miasnikov, V I

    1983-01-01

    The psychic status and work capacity of prime crewmembers of missions 1 and 5 onboard Salyut-6 were investigated, using objective (scope, time and quality of the work performed) and subjective (fatigue, mood variation, complaints) parameters. Based on these parameters, it was possible to identify several stages in the dynamics of the psychic status and work capacity: stage of acute adaptation, stage of complete compensation (2-3 or 4 months), stage of incomplete compensation (3 or 4-5 months), and stage of final "breakaway" (last month). These stages reflect the process of psychic and professional adaptation to space flight. The process of adaptation is strongly affected by the rational work-rest cycle, in which the sleep period coincides with that associated with Moscow time, and events of psychological support. The results show that crewmembers may well adapt and work in space flight for a long time.

  17. Current status of mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Yilmaz, Hasan; Pellaton, Alain; Slater, Lee-Anne; Krings, Timo; Lovblad, Karl-Olof

    2015-02-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a morbid and disabling medical condition with a significant social and economic impact throughout the world. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has been the first line treatment for patients presenting up to 4.5 hours after symptom onset for many years. Endovascular stroke treatment has been used successfully as rescue therapy after failed IVT; in patients with contraindications to rtPA or presenting outside the 4.5-hour window. The effectiveness of IVT is high for distal thrombi but significantly lower for proximal occlusions. Endovascular treatment has been revolutionized by the evolution from intra-arterial thrombolysis and first generation mechanical devices to the current generation of stent retrievers and aspiration systems with large bore catheters. These devices have been associated with excellent revascularization, improved clinical outcomes, shorter procedure times and reduced device and procedure related complications. We report the current literature, clinical standards and perspectives on mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings.

  19. Mobile Virtual Learning Object for the Assessment of Acute Pain as a Learning Tool to Assess Acute Pain in Nursing: An Analysis of the Mental Workload

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The inclusion of new technologies in education has motivated the development of studies on mental workload. These technologies are now being used in the teaching and learning process. The analysis enables identification of factors intervening in this workload as well as planning of overload prevention for educational activities using these technologies. Objective To analyze the mental workload of an educational intervention with the Mobile Virtual Learning Object for the Assessment of Acute Pain in adults and newborns, according to the NASA Task Load Index criteria. Methods A methodological study with data collected from 5 nurses and 75 students, from November of 2013 to February of 2014. Results The highest students’ and specialists’ means were in the dimensions of “Mental demand” (57.20 ± 22.27; 51 ± 29.45) and “Performance” (58.47 ± 24.19; 73 ± 28.85). The specialists’ mental workload index was higher (50.20 ± 7.28) when compared with students’ (47.87 ± 16.85) on a scale from 0 to 100 (P=.557). Conclusions The instrument allowed for the assessment of mental workload after an online educational intervention with a mobile learning virtual object. An excessive overload was not identified among participants. Assessing mental workload from the use of educational technologies at the end of a task is a key to their applicability, with the aim of providing a more effective, stimulating, and long-lasting experience of the learning process. PMID:27731849

  20. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  1. Acute myeloid leukemia in children: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Taga, Takashi; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Souichi

    2016-02-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for 25% of pediatric leukemia and affects approximately 180 patients annually in Japan. The treatment outcome for pediatric AML has improved through advances in chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), supportive care, and optimal risk stratification. Currently, clinical pediatric AML studies are conducted separately according to the AML subtypes: de novo AML, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and myeloid leukemia with Down syndrome (ML-DS). Children with de novo AML are treated mainly with anthracyclines and cytarabine, in some cases with HSCT, and the overall survival (OS) rate now approaches 70%. Children with APL are treated with an all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-combined regimen with an 80-90% OS. Children with ML-DS are treated with a less intensive regimen compared with non-DS patients, and the OS is approximately 80%. HSCT in first remission is restricted to children with high-risk de novo AML only. To further improve outcomes, it will be necessary to combine more accurate risk stratification strategies using molecular genetic analysis with assessment of minimum residual disease, and the introduction of new drugs in international collaborative clinical trials. PMID:26645706

  2. Acute kidney injury in pregnancy-current status.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Anjali; Santos, Jolina; Linde, Brian; Anis, Kisra

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PR-AKI) causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Management of PR-AKI warrants a thorough understanding of the physiologic adaptations in the kidney and the urinary tract. Categorization of etiologies of PR-AKI is similar to that of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the nonpregnant population. The causes differ between developed and developing countries, with thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) being common in the former and septic abortion and puerperal sepsis in the latter. The incidence of PR-AKI is reported to be on a decline, but there is no consensus on the exact definition of the condition. The physiologic changes in pregnancy make diagnosis of PR-AKI difficult. Newer biomarkers are being studied extensively but are not yet available for clinical use. Early and accurate diagnosis is necessary to improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Timely identification of "at-risk" individuals and treatment of underlying conditions such as sepsis, preeclampsia, and TMAs remain the cornerstone of management. Questions regarding renal replacement therapy such as modality, optimal prescription, and timing of initiation in PR-AKI remain unclear. There is a need to systematically explore these variables to improve care of women with PR-AKI. PMID:23928385

  3. Longitudinal evaluation of dementia of the Alzheimer type: a comparison of 3 standardized mental status examinations.

    PubMed

    Salmon, D P; Thal, L J; Butters, N; Heindel, W C

    1990-08-01

    We administered 3 commonly employed tests of mental status (the Information-Memory-Concentration test [IMC], the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], and the Dementia Rating Scale [DRS]) to 92 patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type. The 3 tests were readministered to 55 of the patients (2-year subgroup) approximately 1 year later, and administered a 3rd time to 20 of the patients (3-year subgroup) approximately 2 years after their initial assessment. In all cases, scores on the 3 tests were highly correlated with each other. Examination of the annual rate of change (ARC) in score for the 2-year subgroup revealed an average decline of -3.24 error points on the IMC, 2.81 points on the MMSE, and 11.38 points on the DRS. Of the 3 tests, only the DRS evidenced greater sensitivity to change with increasing dementia severity. In the 3-year subgroup, the ARC between years 1 and 2 was not correlated with ARC between years 2 and 3 for any of the 3 tests. This finding suggests that a patient's rate of progression in 1 year may bear little relationship to future rate of decline. PMID:2381530

  4. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health.

  6. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  7. Educating Mental Health Clinicians About Sensory Modulation to Enhance Clinical Practice in a Youth Acute Inpatient Mental Health Unit: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Julie; McKenna, Brian; Jackson, Brian; Hitch, Danielle; Benitez, Jessica; McLennan, Cathy; Furness, Trentham

    2016-07-01

    There is an emergence of literature describing effective sensory modulation (SM) interventions to de-escalate violence and aggression among mental health inpatients. However, the evidence is limited to adult settings, with the effect of SM in youth acute settings unknown. Yet, before SM may be used as a de-escalation intervention in youth acute settings, multidisciplinary staff need to be educated about and supported in the clinical application of SM. In the current study, an online SM education package was developed to assist mental health staff understand SM. This was blended with action learning sets (ALS), small group experiential opportunities consisting staff and consumers to learn about SM resources, and the support of SM trained nurses. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of this SM education intervention in (a) transferring knowledge of SM to staff, and (b) translating this knowledge into practice in a youth acute inpatient mental health unit. A mixed methods research design with an 11-item pre- and post-education questionnaire was used along with three-month follow-up focus groups. The SM education improved understanding about SM (all 11-items p ≤ 0.004, r ≥ 0.47). Three-months after SM education, four themes evident in the focus group data emerged about the practice and process of SM; (1) translating of learning into practice, (2) SM in practice, (3) perceptions of SM benefits, and (4) limitations of SM. A blended SM education process enhanced clinical practice in the unit, yet participants were mindful of limitations of SM in situations of distress or escalating agitation. PMID:27253182

  8. Mental health status among Burmese adolescent students living in boarding houses in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12–18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants’ mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants’ mental health status. Results In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Conclusions Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand’s Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized

  9. The Autism Mental Status Exam: Sensitivity and Specificity Using DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Verbally Fluent Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…

  10. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…

  11. 49 CFR 1515.7 - Procedures for waiver of criminal offenses, immigration status, or mental capacity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...

  12. 49 CFR 1515.7 - Procedures for waiver of criminal offenses, immigration status, or mental capacity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...

  13. 49 CFR 1515.7 - Procedures for waiver of criminal offenses, immigration status, or mental capacity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...

  14. 49 CFR 1515.7 - Procedures for waiver of criminal offenses, immigration status, or mental capacity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...

  15. 49 CFR 1515.7 - Procedures for waiver of criminal offenses, immigration status, or mental capacity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HME or TWIC who has a disqualifying criminal offense described in 49 CFR 1572.103(a)(5) through (a)(12... temporary protected status as described in 49 CFR 1572.105 and who requests a waiver. (iii) An applicant applying for an HME or TWIC who lacks mental capacity as described in 49 CFR 1572.109 and who requests...

  16. Were the mental health benefits of a housing mobility intervention larger for adolescents in higher socioeconomic status families?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Schmidt, Nicole; Glymour, M. Maria; Rehkopf, David H.; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Moving to Opportunity (MTO) was a social experiment to test how relocation to lower poverty neighborhoods influences low-income families. Using adolescent data from 4–7 year evaluations (aged 12–19, n=2829), we applied gender-stratified intent-to-treat and adherence-adjusted linear regression models, to test effect modification of MTO intervention effects on adolescent mental health. Low parental education, welfare receipt, unemployment and never-married status were not significant effect modifiers. Tailoring mobility interventions by these characteristics may not be necessary to alter impact on adolescent mental health. Because parental enrollment in school and teen parent status adversely modified MTO intervention effects on youth mental health, post-move services that increase guidance and supervision of adolescents may help support post-move adjustment. PMID:23792412

  17. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused. PMID:24779763

  18. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused.

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  20. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Kajantie, Eero; Phillips, David I W

    2006-02-01

    Whether one is male or female is one of the most important determinants of human health. While males are more susceptible to cardiovascular and infectious disease, they are outnumbered by women for many autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Recently, individual differences in the physiological response to stress have emerged as a potentially important risk factor for these disorders. This raises the possibility that sex differences in prevalence of disease could at least in part be explained by sex differences in the nature of the physiological response to stress. In a psychophysiological laboratory, the autonomic nervous system response can be provoked by many different stressors including physical, mental and psychosocial tasks, while the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response seems to be more specific to a psychosocial challenge incorporating ego involvement. The responses of both systems to different psychosocial challenges have been subject to extensive research, although in respect of sex differences the HPAA response has probably been more systematically studied. In this review, we focus on sex differences in HPAA and autonomic nervous system responses to acute psychosocial stress. Although some differences are dependent on the stressor used, the responses of both systems show marked and consistent differences according to sex, with the phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status and pregnancy having marked effects. Between puberty and menopause, adult women usually show lower HPAA and autonomic responses than men of same age. However, the HPAA response is higher in the luteal phase, when for example post stress free cortisol levels approach those of men. After menopause, there is an increase in sympathoadrenal responsiveness, which is attenuated during oral hormone replacement therapy, with most evidence suggesting that HPAA activity shows the same trends. Interestingly, pregnancy is associated with an attenuated response of

  1. Acute restraint stress induces rapid and prolonged changes in erythrocyte and hippocampal redox status.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou; Bradley, Adrian J; Anderson, Stephen T; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2013-11-01

    The onset and consequential changes in reduction-oxidation (redox) status that take place in response to short-term stress have not been well defined. This study utilized erythrocytes and neural tissue from male Wistar rats to demonstrate the rapid redox alterations that occur following an acute restraining stress. Serial blood samples collected from catheterized animals were used to measure prolactin, corticosterone, glucose, general oxidative status, and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios. Restraint increased prolactin concentration by approximately 300% at 30 min and rapidly returned to baseline values by 120 min of stress. Baseline blood glucose and corticosterone increased during stress exposure by approximately 25% and 150% respectively. Over the experimental period, the erythrocytic oxidative status of restrained animals increased by approximately 10% per hour which persisted after stress exposure, while changes in the glutathione redox couple were not observed until 120 min following the onset of stress. Application of restraint stress increased hippocampal oxidative status by approximately 17% while no change was observed in the amygdala. It was concluded that while endocrine and metabolic markers of stress rapidly increase and habituate to stress exposure, redox status continues to change following stress in both peripheral and neural tissue. Studies with longer post-restraint times and the inclusion of several brain regions should further elucidate the consequential redox changes induced by acute restraint stress.

  2. Spirituality in Indian University Students and its Associations with Socioeconomic Status, Religious Background, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience.

  3. Spirituality in Indian University Students and its Associations with Socioeconomic Status, Religious Background, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience. PMID:26920414

  4. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  5. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    PubMed

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.)

  6. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures. PMID:26441786

  7. Associations between sleep habits and mental health status and suicidality in a longitudinal survey of monozygotic twin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matamura, Misato; Tochigi, Mamoru; Usami, Satoshi; Yonehara, Hiromi; Fukushima, Masako; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2014-06-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that there is a relationship between sleep habits, such as sleep duration, bedtime and bedtime regularity, and mental health status, including depression and anxiety in adolescents. However, it is still to be clarified whether the relationship is direct cause-and-effect or mediated by the influence of genetic and other traits, i.e. quasi-correlation. To examine this issue, we conducted a twin study using a total of 314 data for monozygotic twins from a longitudinal survey of sleep habits and mental health status conducted in a unified junior and senior high school (grades 7-12), located in Tokyo, Japan. Three-level hierarchical linear model analysis showed that both bedtime and sleep duration had significant associations with the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score, suicidal thoughts and the experience of self-harm behaviours when genetic factors and shared environmental factors, which were completely shared between co-twins, were controlled for. These associations were statistically significant even after controlling for bedtime regularity, which was also associated significantly with the GHQ-12 score. These suggest that the associations between sleep habits and mental health status were still statistically significant after controlling for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors of twins, and that there may be a direct cause-and-effect in the relationship in adolescents. Thus, late bedtime and short sleep duration could predict subsequent development of depression and anxiety, including suicidal or self-injury risk. This suggests that poor mental health status in adolescents might be improved by health education and intervention concerning sleep and lifestyle habits.

  8. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  9. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  10. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  11. Influence of age, previous health status, and severity of acute illness on outcome from intensive care.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, J R; Brun-Buisson, C; Trunet, P; Latournerie, J; Chantereau, S; Rapin, M

    1982-09-01

    Age, previous health status (HS), and severity of acute illness were assessed prospectively on 228 unselected patients admitted over 1 yr to the multidisciplinary ICU, to determine their influence on outcome. One hundred and fifty patients (66%) were discharged from the ICU, but the survival rate fell to 50% at 6 months, and was similar after 1 yr (49%). Over a 6-month period, there was improved HS in survivors which gradually leveled off. Compared to prior HS, the final HS was worsened in 37% of survivors. Three factors were important predictors of late survival: age under 50, good previous HS, and less than two visceral failures. We conclude that evaluation of ICU outcome should provide information on 6-month survival and HS and include important variables as age, previous HS, and severity of acute illness. PMID:7105766

  12. COOP-WONCA charts: a suitable functional status screening instrument in acute low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Andres, E; Temme, M; Raderschatt, B; Szecsenyi, J; Sandholzer, H; Kochen, M M

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional status is considered an important measure of health status in primary care. The COOP-WONCA charts, which comprise six single-item scales, have mainly been used to determine functional ability in chronically ill patients. AIM: A study was carried out to determine whether the charts are able to measure the degree of functional impairment associated with acute illness and the improvement in functional ability accompanying the process of recovery. METHOD: A total of 95 patients presenting with acute low back pain were recruited from 15 single-handed general practices in northern Germany. At presentation and at two-week follow up, these patients completed self-administered questionnaires which included the COOP-WONCA charts. The charts ask patients to use the timescale of the past two weeks when rating their condition. Baseline and follow-up measurements of the charts were compared and correlations of chart scores with patients' measurements of pain intensity on a visual analogue scale, general practitioners' ratings of impairment and patients' measurements of recovery were analysed. RESULTS: Only the chart measuring change in health revealed a deterioration in functional ability associated with the onset of pain and an improvement in functional status at follow up. Two of the other charts indicated a deterioration at follow up. Only the chart measuring change in health was correlated with ratings of pain and impairment at baseline. At follow up, strong correlations were found between general practitioners' assessments of impairment, patients' ratings of pain and patients' ratings of recovery for all scales except for those measuring social activities and daily activities. The patients interpreted the instructions for using the COOP-WONCA charts differently; some included the period of acute back pain while others did not. CONCLUSION: Of the six charts only the change in health chart proved to be a suitable scale for measuring short-term changes

  13. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  14. The Current Status of Mental Health in Schools: A Policy and Practice Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Today's school and community stakeholders are attempting to address complex, multifaceted, and overlapping psychosocial and mental health concerns in diverse, fragmented and at-times marginalized ways. This has led to competition for sparse resources and inadequate results. Enhancing mental health in schools is not an easy task. The bottom line is…

  15. Observing Bullying at School: The Mental Health Implications of Witness Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie; Ashurst, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that…

  16. Mental Health Status: A Comparison of Different Socio-Cultural Environments for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the mental health of the elderly living in three different environments: conventional community housing, subsidized housing, and institutions providing medical care. Mental health variables include autonomy and independence. Results indicated institutions do not appear to have better effects for their inhabitants given similar levels of…

  17. A National Directory of Internships for Mental Health Counselors: Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Daniel Lee; Stuck, Katrina D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a generic national directory of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral internships for human services agencies is described. Agencies represented in the directory include community mental health centers, correctional, mental retardation, rehabilitation, and other types of facilities. Implications of the increase in the numbers of…

  18. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  19. Why do Chinese Canadians not consult mental health services: health status, language or culture?

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.

  20. Current status and future perspectives for psychiatry/mental health research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069

  1. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims – children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression – experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al., 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children’s involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772

  2. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation. PMID:22957970

  3. After abduction: exploring access to reintegration programs and mental health status among young female abductees in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reintegration programs are commonly offered to former combatants and abductees to acquire civilian status and support services to reintegrate into post-conflict society. Among a group of young female abductees in northern Uganda, this study examined access to post-abduction reintegration programming and tested for between group differences in mental health status among young women who had accessed reintegration programming compared to those who self-reintegrated. Methods This cross-sectional study analysed interviews from 129 young women who had previously been abducted by the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Data was collected between June 2011-January 2012. Interviews collected information on abduction-related experiences including age and year of abduction, manner of departure, and reintegration status. Participants were coded as ‘reintegrated’ if they reported ≥1 of the following reintegration programs: traditional cleansing ceremony, received an amnesty certificate, reinsertion package, or had gone to a reception centre. A t-test was used to measure mean differences in depression and anxiety measured by the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) to determine if abductees who participated in a reintegration program had different mental status from those who self-reintegrated. Results From 129 young abductees, 56 (43.4%) had participated in a reintegration program. Participants had been abducted between 1988–2010 for an average length of one year, the median age of abduction was 13 years (IQR:11–14) with escaping (76.6%), being released (15.6%), and rescued (7.0%) being the most common manner of departure from the LRA. Traditional cleansing ceremonies (67.8%) were the most commonly accessed support followed by receiving amnesty (37.5%), going to a reception centre (28.6%) or receiving a reinsertion package (12.5%). Between group comparisons indicated that the mental health status of abductees who accessed ≥1 reintegration program

  4. Farm-Related Concerns and Mental Health Status Among Norwegian Farmers.

    PubMed

    Logstein, Brit

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural sector in Norway has undergone structural changes over the past 50 years. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of concerns about farm economy, work time, and mental complaints among Norwegian farmers. In a sample of single principal owner-operators (n = 2,676), we calculated the unadjusted and adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for concerns about the farm economy, concerns for insufficient time to complete work, and high symptom load of mental complaints. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the associations between farm characteristics, concerns, and mental health. Farmers had a high probability for an increased symptom load of mental complaints. The level of farm income was more strongly associated with economic concerns and mental health concerns when a major part of total household income resulted from farming. The high workload required in farming combined with off-farm supplemental employment was additionally associated with higher levels of time concerns and mental complaints. Norwegian farmers have a relatively high workload both in farming and in off-farm work but are able to make sustainable plans for their individual workload needs. The high individual workload in both these arenas poses a challenge, but was not associated with a greater probability for a high symptom load of mental complaints. PMID:27420178

  5. Gender Differences in the Trajectory of Recovery in Health Status Among Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the VIRGO Study

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P.; Wang, Yongfei; Strait, Kelly M.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Lichtman, Judith H.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the excess risk of mortality in young women (≤55 years) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), little is known about young women’s health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) during the first year of recovery after an AMI. We examined gender differences in health status over time from baseline to 12-months post AMI. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (67% women) aged 18-55 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals. Data were obtained by medical record abstraction/patient interviews at baseline hospitalization, 1- and 12-months post AMI. Health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), and disease specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. We compared health status scores at all three time points, and utilized longitudinal linear mixed effects analyses to examine the independent effect of gender, adjusting for time and selected covariates. Women had significantly lower health status scores than men at each assessment (all P-values <0.0001). Following adjustment for time and all covariates, women had SF-12 physical/mental summary scores that were −0.96 (95% CI: −1.59, −0.32) and −2.36 points lower (95% CI: −2.99, −1.72) than men, as well as worse SAQ physical limitations (−2.44 points lower; 95% CI: −3.53, −1.34), more angina (−1.03 points lower; 95% CI: −1.98, −0.07), and poorer quality of life (−3.51 points lower; 95% CI: −4.80, −2.22) than men. Conclusions Although both genders recover similarly following AMI, women have poorer scores than men on all health status measures; a difference that persisted throughout the entire year after discharge. PMID:25862743

  6. Effect of copper status on acute toxicity of cocaine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Reddy, P.P.; Seung, S.K.; Combs, G.F.; Dulin, A.M.; Danford, D.E. )

    1989-02-09

    Both copper (Cu) nutriture and cocaine (Coc) ingestion have been shown to affect cardiovascular integrity. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine if Cu status affects the acute toxicity of Coc. 20 weanling male rats (45 {plus minus} 5 g) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 1 fed a copper deficient (CuD) (<1ppmCu) and the other a copper supplemented (CuS) diet (ca.6ppm, Cu). After 7 wks, the rats, paired for Cu status, were injected (ip) with Coc-HCl at reported LD{sub 50} doses ranging from 80-90 mg/kg bw. The CuD was established by cardiac hypertrophy, depressed hematocrit, lowered serum, liver and heart Cu compared to the CuS controls. The acute toxicity resulted in tachycardia and hyperactivity followed by ataxia with isolated muscle twitchings and violent grand-mal type seizures. For those animals that died, death was apparently due to respiratory arrest followed by ventricular fibrillation; animals that survived were killed by exsanguination. The severity of toxicity was greater for the CuD rats as evidenced by 100% exhibiting seizures compared to 80% for the CuS group. In addition, the incidence of death was 60% for the CuD group compared to 20% for the CuS rats. Although these results suggest that CuD exacerbates the toxic effects of Coc, it is not established that the effects are specific for this essential nutrient.

  7. Undernutrition, the Acute Phase Response to Infection, and Its Effects on Micronutrient Status Indicators12

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733

  8. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided.

  9. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Jeremy D.; Clark, Sunday; Kang, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS) is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42%) attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001). Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05). They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03), know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01), and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003). Students who participated in a simulation session were more likely

  10. Acute inhibition of neurosteroid estrogen synthesis suppresses status epilepticus in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency for which new treatments are needed. In vitro studies suggest a novel approach to controlling seizures in SE: acute inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the brain. Here, we show in rats that systemic administration of an aromatase (estrogen synthase) inhibitor after seizure onset strongly suppresses both electrographic and behavioral seizures induced by kainic acid (KA). We found that KA-induced SE stimulates synthesis of estradiol (E2) in the hippocampus, a brain region commonly involved in seizures and where E2 is known to acutely promote neural activity. Hippocampal E2 levels were higher in rats experiencing more severe seizures. Consistent with a seizure-promoting effect of hippocampal estrogen synthesis, intra-hippocampal aromatase inhibition also suppressed seizures. These results reveal neurosteroid estrogen synthesis as a previously unknown factor in the escalation of seizures and suggest that acute administration of aromatase inhibitors may be an effective treatment for SE. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12917.001 PMID:27083045

  11. The importance of family factors and generation status: mental health service use among Latino and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Chen, Chih-Nan

    2013-07-01

    The present study utilized data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine ethnic and generational differences in family cultural conflict and family cohesion and how the effects of such family conflict and cohesion on lifetime service use vary by generation status for Latino Americans (n = 2,554) and Asian Americans (n = 2,095). Findings revealed that first-generation Asian Americans reported greater family cultural conflict than their Latino counterparts, but third-generation Latino Americans had higher family conflict than their Asian American counterparts. First-generation Latino and Asian Americans had the highest levels of family cohesion. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that Latino Americans who reported higher family cultural conflict and lower family cohesion were more likely to use mental health services. For Asian Americans, family cultural conflict, but not family cohesion, was associated with service use. Relative to third-generation Asian Americans, second-generation Asian Americans with higher family cultural conflict were more likely to use mental health services. Given that cohesive familial bonds appear to discourage service use on the part of Latino Americans irrespective of generation status, further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which this tendency stems from greater reliance on family support as opposed to the stigma associated with mental health treatment. Mental health providers and treatment programs need to address the role of family cultural conflict in the lives of Asian Americans, particularly second generation, and Latino Americans across generations, because conflictual family ties may motivate help-seeking behaviors and reveal substantial underlying distress.

  12. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Hema, U; Aswathy, M S

    2007-11-01

    A large number of xenobiotics are reported to be potentially hepatotoxic. Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents - proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (3g/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in rat. Aqueous extract of Z. officinale significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and ALP activities were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Antioxidant status in liver such as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a phase II enzyme, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were declined significantly (p<0.01) in the acetaminophen alone treated animals (control group). Hepatic lipid peroxidation was enhanced significantly (p<0.01) in the control group. Administration of single dose of aqueous extract of Z. officinale (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) prior to acetaminophen significantly declines the activities of serum transaminases and ALP. Further the hepatic antioxidant status was enhanced in the Z. officinale plus acetaminophen treated group than the control group. The results of the present study concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity is mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or due to its direct radical scavenging capacity. PMID:17637489

  13. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace.

  14. Longitudinal assessment of nutritional status in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Cuba.

    PubMed

    González, A; Cortina, L; González, P; González, C; García, T; de Svarch, E G

    2004-05-01

    Malnutrition has a deleterious effect on the results of therapy for malignant diseases in childhood. The impact of radiotherapy on growth is well known but the impact of cytotoxic drugs on nutritional status is more controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status of a cohort of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Cuba. The study involved 49 children admitted to a single center and treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-based protocol. Nutritional assessment included measurements of height, weight, body mass index and skin-fold thickness, made at diagnosis, after the intensive phase of treatment and at the end of therapy. Z-scores were used for height and comparison of percentiles for the rest of the variables. All the patients were above the third percentile in all the measurements. There were no statistically significant differences between the results at diagnosis, after intensive therapy and at the end of treatment. Although the sample was small, there was no demonstrable effect of chemotherapy on nutritional status in this Cuban paediatric population, in contrast to that reported in children with ALL in other developing countries.

  15. Socioeconomic status moderates associations among stressful events, mental health, and relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Natalya C; Karney, Benjamin R

    2012-08-01

    Although stressful events and poor mental health predict worse intimate relationships in all segments of society, they may be especially detrimental for poorer couples who lack the financial resources that facilitate successful coping. To examine this hypothesis, associations among stress, mental health, and relationship satisfaction were examined in the Florida Family Formation study, a stratified random sample of more than 2000 Florida residents that included oversamples of low-income participants. As predicted, stressful life events and mental health problems accounted for more variance in relationship satisfaction among poorer than among more affluent individuals. These results suggest that models of relationship satisfaction addressing low-income populations may need to emphasize contextual and individual variables more than models developed in more affluent populations.

  16. Factors associated with mental health status of medical residents: a model-guided study.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sykioti, Panagiota; Niakas, Dimitris; Zis, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Residency is a stressful period in a physician's development, characterized by long work hours, time pressure, and excessive work load, that can exert negative effects on residents' mental health. Job burnout and negative work-home interference may play a major role in residents' mental health problems. The present study used the job demands-resources model as a theoretical framework to examine the way in which job demands (e.g., workload, emotional demands) and job resources (e.g., supervisor support, job autonomy) were associated with residents' mental health. From a pool of 290 medical residents, 264 (91 %) completed the questionnaires. Applying structural equation modeling techniques, the results showed that greater emotional exhaustion (β = -.65, SE = .09, p < .001) and more work-home interference (β = -.26, SE = .10, p < .05) were related to poor mental health. Specific job demands (i.e., high workload) and particular job resources (i.e., low opportunities for professional development and low supervisor support) were related to poor mental health not directly but only indirectly, via emotional exhaustion or work-home interference. Thus, through work-related emotional exhaustion, the impact of work conditions might be transmitted to and interfere with non-work related domains such as family life, as well as with domain-unspecific aspects of well-being, such as mental health and psychological distress. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.

  17. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    PubMed Central

    Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public health Vitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared

  18. [Evaluation of the mental status of high school students and its correction program].

    PubMed

    Proskuriakova, L A

    2011-01-01

    Mental health indicators were studied using the cross-sectional method in students over 3 years of their education (2005-2008). A representative sample comprised 1787 first-to-third-year students from three largest high schools in the city. The regularities of the students' mental changes were defined during education: with the advancing ages of the examinees, the indicators of attention and logical thought increased due to the occurrence of neuroemotional imbalance (the emergence of depression and lower adaptation level; p < or = 0.05). A comprehensive target health protection program for high school students has been elaborated and introduced.

  19. Predictors and course of vocational status, income, and quality of life in people with severe mental illness: a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Nordt, Carlos; Müller, Brigitte; Rössler, Wulf; Lauber, Christoph

    2007-10-01

    Due to high unemployment rates, people with mental illness are at risk of poverty and are deprived of the social and psychological functions of work, such as the provision of social support, structuring of time, and self-esteem, with a negative effect on their perceived quality of life (QoL). Two distinct processes are held responsible for the low work force participation of people with mental illness: 'Social underachievement' and 'social decline'. Social underachievement signifies that, due to early illness onset, the educational attainment of people with mental illness is low and entry to the labor market fails. Social decline, on the other hand, describes the loss of competitive employment after illness onset, followed by prolonged periods of unemployment and difficulties to re-enter the labor market. This study examines how social underachievement and decline are reflected in the course of vocational status, income, and QoL of people with severe mental illness in the years after a psychiatric admission in a naturalistic longitudinal design. A total of 176 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were interviewed during an index hospitalization in two large psychiatric hospitals in Zurich. Follow-up interviews were conducted 12 and 30 months after. Random coefficient models (multilevel models) were used to examine simultaneously the predictors and course of the variables of interest. A low number of psychiatric hospitalizations, a higher educational degree, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and years of work experience predicted a higher vocational status. Vocational status decreased in first-admission participants with prolonged hospitalizations during the follow-up period. Income did not change over time and was positively influenced by a higher age of illness onset, competitive employment, higher education, and not having had a longer hospitalization recently. Subjective QoL significantly improved and was rated higher by people with any

  20. Socioeconomic status and child mental health: the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.

  1. Racism and the physical and mental health status of African Americans: a thirteen year national panel study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J S; Brown, T N; Williams, D R; Torres, M; Sellers, S L; Brown, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper examined the relationships between the experiences and perceptions of racism and the physical and mental health status of African Americans. The study was based upon thirteen year (1979 to 1992), four wave, national panel data (n = 623) from the National Survey of Black Americans. Personal experiences of racism were found to have both adverse and salubrious immediate and cumulative effects on the physical and mental well-being of African Americans. In 1979-80, reports of poor treatment due to race were inversely related to subjective well-being and positively associated with the number of reported physical health problems. Reports of negative racial encounters over the 13-year period were weakly predictive of poor subjective well-being in 1992. A more general measure of racial beliefs, perceiving that whites want to keep blacks down, was found to be related to poorer physical health in 1979-80, better physical health in 1992, and predicted increased psychological distress, as well as, lower levels of subjective well-being in 1992. In conclusion, the authors suggested future research on possible factors contributing to the relationship between racism and health status among African Americans.

  2. Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

  3. Sexuality Education Issues and Students Statused Severely Mentally Impaired Regardless of Additional Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heler, Ann

    This monograph considers issues in the training of sexuality skills in students with severe mental retardation. An introduction stresses the importance of such skills for these students. A profile of 12 common characteristics of this population and a summary of human commonalities precede the body of the guide. Common manifestations of sexuality…

  4. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  5. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul, Ed.; Beck, Ronna Lee, Ed.

    Included in the booklet on mental retardation and the law are reports on 11 new court cases and updated information on 35 court cases reported in previous issues. Court cases cover the following issues: architectural barriers, commitment, criminal law, education, employment, guardianship, protection from harm, sterilization, treatment, and zoning.…

  6. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul

    The document reports on five new cases and updates information on 29 previously reported cases regarding mental retardation and the law. Cases are divided into the following categories: classification, commitment, confidentiality, education, employment, protection from harm, sterilization, treatment, and zoning. Listed separately, by the above…

  7. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Presented by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation are an analysis of architectural barriers and a summary of new state cases, updated information on previously reported cases, and a listing of cases all concerned with the legal rights of the retarded. Architectural barriers are considered in terms of statutory actions and constitutional…

  8. Mental Retardation and the Law: A Report on Status of Current Court Cases. July 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The issue contains reports on seven new court cases regarding mental retardation and the law and updated information on 35 cases previously reported. Cases concern such issues as classification, commitment, education, employment, sterilization, and treatment. Also included is a feature article on the implications of Halderman v Pennhurst State…

  9. Differential Labeling of Mental Illness by Social Status: A New Look at an Old Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2005-01-01

    Whether the higher rates of mental hospitalization and involuntary treatment for marginal social groups are due to differential labeling or simply to the occurrence of higher rates of disorder in these groups remains unresolved. I reexamine this issue with data from the National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) that allow comparisons between…

  10. DNA Methylation Profiles and Their Relationship with Cytogenetic Status in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Sara; Suela, Javier; Valencia, Ana; Fernández, Agustín; Wunderlich, Mark; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Martín-Subero, José Ignacio; Maiques, Alba; Acquadro, Francesco; Rodriguez Perales, Sandra; Calasanz, María José; Roman-Gómez, Jose; Siebert, Reiner; Mulloy, James C.; Cervera, José; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Esteller, Manel; Cigudosa, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant promoter DNA methylation has been shown to play a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathophysiology. However, further studies to discuss the prognostic value and the relationship of the epigenetic signatures with defined genomic rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia are required. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out high-throughput methylation profiling on 116 de novo AML cases and we validated the significant biomarkers in an independent cohort of 244 AML cases. Methylation signatures were associated with the presence of a specific cytogenetic status. In normal karyotype cases, aberrant methylation of the promoter of DBC1 was validated as a predictor of the disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, DBC1 expression was significantly silenced in the aberrantly methylated samples. Patients with chromosome rearrangements showed distinct methylation signatures. To establish the role of fusion proteins in the epigenetic profiles, 20 additional samples of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) transduced with common fusion genes were studied and compared with patient samples carrying the same rearrangements. The presence of MLL rearrangements in HSPC induced the methylation profile observed in the MLL-positive primary samples. In contrast, fusion genes such as AML1/ETO or CBFB/MYH11 failed to reproduce the epigenetic signature observed in the patients. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a comprehensive epigenetic profiling of AML, identifies new clinical markers for cases with a normal karyotype, and reveals relevant biological information related to the role of fusion proteins on the methylation signature. PMID:20808941

  11. Mental Health Status and Quality of Life in Undiagnosed Glaucoma Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee

    2016-05-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Mental health and quality of life (QoL) are important issues for patients with glaucoma because visual impairment can be related to those. Analysis of mental health status or QoL in undiagnosed glaucoma patients can be free of the bias caused by awareness of the disease itself. In this study, the association between mental health status or QoL and undiagnosed glaucoma, along with the effects of visual acuity or visual field damage was investigated. Among individuals in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V (2010-2012), subjects 40 years or older were included. KNHANES is a cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage, probability sampling survey. The KNHANES includes questionnaires to assess psychological health, including depression, sleep duration, psychological stress, and suicidal ideations. To evaluate QoL, the KNHANES includes the EuroQoL, which is composed of a health-status descriptive system (EuroQol 5-dimension, EQ-5D) and the EQ visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). The proportion of people reporting symptoms of "some or severe problems" in all 5 dimensions of the EuroQoL-5 instrument, including anxiety/depression, was higher in the glaucoma group than in the nonglaucoma group. The subjective health status reported by the EQ-VAS was lower in the subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma. Suicidal ideation was greater in subjects with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (P = 0.005). After adjustment for demographic factors, glaucoma subjects were more likely than those without glaucoma to have some or severe problems with anxiety/depression (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.49). Worse best corrected visual acuity was associated with more problems with a lower EQ-5D score in glaucoma subjects. Individuals who had undiagnosed glaucoma were more depressed than those without glaucoma. QoL can be affected by glaucoma, especially in

  12. [Acute edematous encephalopathy presenting with refractory generalized status epilepticus: an autopsy case].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Yamamoto, T; Yasuda, T

    2001-11-01

    A previously healthy, 29-year-old man developed generalized convulsion with disturbed consciousness 3 days after the flu-like symptoms. On the next day, his convulsion evolved into generalized status epilepticus (GSE) that was unresponsive to administration of various anticonvulsants. Then, intravenous anesthetic agents, including midazolam, propofol and vecuronium sodium, were continuously infused. During the following 9 days, despite of high-dose infusion of these anesthetic agents, his GSE could not be suppressed, and complex partial seizure with secondary generalization frequently occurred. The patient was comatose and mechanically ventilated, whereas the brainstem reflexes were preserved. Electroencephalogram revealed a diffuse slowing of the background activity and occasional focal spike and wave complexes with secondary generalization. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Cranial CT scans obtained on day 8 demonstrated brain edema. On day 10, his GSE ceased with abolition of the brainstem reflexes, and he lapsed into brain death resulting from the progressive brain edema. Over the following six days, his systemic circulation gradually worsened, and he died on day 16. On postmortem examination, the brain was markedly edematous and showed the findings consistent with acute anoxic encephalopathy with extensive circulatory stasis. Mild gliosis was observed in the insular cortex, yet no evidence of inflammatory disease was found throughout the brain. This patient was characterized by acutely progressive severe brain edema without inflammatory changes, suggesting that his primary disease was acute toxic encephalopathy presumably induced by viral infection. His GSE was refractory and unresponsive to the intensive treatment with the intravenous anesthetic agents. This case epitomizes the difficulties in controlling refractory seizures in some patients with encephalopathy or encephalitis.

  13. An Assessment of Mental Health Status of Undergraduate Medical Trainees in the University of Calabar, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Afiong; Oku, Oboko; Owoaje, Eme; Monjok, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mental health status of medical students has been proven to be poor compared to their peers in other disciplines and has led to grave personal and professional consequences. This subject has however remained largely unexplored in our medical school. AIM: The study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of mental health of medical students in the University of Calabar, Cross river state, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 451 randomly selected medical students from the pre-clinical and clinical levels of study in the University of Calabar. A self administered questionnaire including the GHQ12 was used to elicit information from the respondents. A score of ≥ 3 suggested poor mental while a score < 3 represented good mental health. Data were summarized using proportions, and χ2 test was used to explore associations between categorical variables. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 23.4 ± 4.3 years, 63.8% were males, 34.8% were from the preclinical and 65.2% from clinical levels of study. Based on the GHQ categorisation, 39.2% had a poor mental health status, compared to 60.8% with good mental health status. The factors significantly associated with poor mental health, were recent experience of mistreatment by trainers or colleagues, perceived inadequate monthly allowance and perception that medical training is stressful (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: With more than a third of undergraduate medical trainees with traits of poor mental health, provision of accessible mental health services/counselling is strongly recommended early in their training. PMID:27275250

  14. Impaired nutritional status during intensive chemotherapy in Russian and Norwegian cohorts with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Per Ole; Ukrainchenko, Ekaterina; Afanasyev, Boris; Hulbekkmo, Kristin; Choukah, Amal; Gulbrandsen, Nina; Wisløff, Finn; Tangen, Jon-Magnus

    2008-10-01

    Intensive chemotherapy is mandatory in curative treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but whether the nutritional status deteriorates during treatment, is unknown. We therefore prospectively examined anthropometric and biochemical nutritional markers during intensive chemotherapy in 26 Russian and 19 Norwegian AML patients during 9 months from diagnosis. Although the body mass index remained unchanged in both cohorts, hand grip strength and triceps skinfold thickness declined (P<0.05) during treatment before normalisation at study end. We detected a similar significant, temporary decrease in albumin, transferrin, testosterone and gonadotrophins in both cohorts. Although the fat-soluble vitamins D and E also displayed such a pattern, vitamin A dropped and remained low throughout the study in both cohorts. The Russian patients reported lower global quality of life, more symptoms and more financial concern than the Norwegians. Our data suggest a catabolic metabolism during intensive chemotherapy for AML, leading to impaired nutritional status, hypofunction of the pituitary-gonadal axis and decreased health-related quality of life.

  15. Levels of bone marrow microvessel density are crucial for evaluating the status of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    SONG, YANQIU; TAN, YAN; LIU, LIBO; WANG, QIAN; ZHU, JING; LIU, MIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of bone marrow microvessel density (BM-MVD) in the evaluation of the status of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The levels of serum and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and BM-MVD in 28 patients with AML, 10 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 10 patients with anemia and 14 patients with AML that achieved complete remission for six months (AML-DFS) subsequent to chemotherapy were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. The levels of serum VEGF in patients with hematological disorders were significantly increased compared with the levels in the healthy controls. The levels of BM VEGF and BM-MVD in AML patients were significantly higher compared with the levels in the patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or anemia. Following chemotherapy, the levels of serum VEGF significantly increased and the levels of BM VEGF decreased in the AML patients, regardless of their therapeutic responses, compared with the levels prior to treatment. By contrast, the levels of BM-MVD in the AML patients were significantly reduced in the patients that completely recovered from AML (AML-DFS group), compared with those in other groups. The present data indicate that the levels of BM-MVD are valuable for evaluating the status of AML. PMID:26171001

  16. Acute arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Alvarez, J A

    1989-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute arsenic poisoning should be considered in any patient presenting with severe gastrointestinal complaints. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and profuse, watery diarrhea. Hypotension, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, mental status changes, electrocardiographic abnormalities, respiratory failure and death can result. Quantitative measurement of 24-hour urinary arsenic excretion is the only reliable laboratory test to confirm arsenic poisoning. Treatment includes gastric emesis or lavage, chelation therapy, electrolyte and fluid replacement, and cardiorespiratory support.

  17. The effect of dietary intake changes on nutritional status in acute leukaemia patients after first induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration.

  18. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients 'opening up', disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power. PMID:24117523

  19. The effect of acute mental stress on limb vasodilation is unrelated to total peripheral resistance.

    PubMed

    Paine, Nicola J; Ring, Christopher; Bosch, Jos A; McIntyre, David; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S

    2013-07-01

    Mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction, with poor vascular responses to stress implicated as a pathway. Vascular stress reactivity can be assessed by different methods, such as total peripheral resistance (TPR) and forearm blood flow (FBF). Little is known about how these vascular assessments are linked. This was examined in two separate studies. Healthy men (Study 1: N = 29, Study 2: N = 23) completed rest and mental arithmetic (Study 1: 8 min, Study 2: 16 min). In both studies, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and FBF increased in response to stress. In Study 1, no changes in TPR were seen, but Study 2 found stress-induced increases in TPR. FBF was not linked to TPR at any time (all ps > .05). It appears that limb vasculature and TPR responses to stress do not give the same information about impairments of the vasculature. These findings are relevant to the interpretation of prior research findings and the design of future studies on stress and vascular responses.

  20. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Harnett, P J; Bowles, N; Coughlan, A

    2009-06-01

    The term 'performance management' has an aversive 'managerial' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an 'image problem'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management 'image problem' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression. PMID:19538599

  1. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Harnett, P J; Bowles, N; Coughlan, A

    2009-06-01

    The term 'performance management' has an aversive 'managerial' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an 'image problem'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management 'image problem' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  2. Socio-economic status and mental disorder--profile of a Nigerian psychiatric inpatient population.

    PubMed

    Ihezue, U H; Kumaraswamy, N; Onuora, A N

    1986-01-01

    A study of the socio-economic and diagnostic profile of psychiatric patients treated at a mental hospital in Nigeria over a period of six months was conducted. Schizophrenia, organic psychosis, and mental sub-normality were found to have been diagnosed more often among under privileged persons from lower socio-economic classes; while affective disorder (manic depression) and neurotic illness were commoner among persons from economically more fortunate higher social classes. Males exceeded females in the cohort and the patients generally exhibited upward social mobility when compared with their parents. Possible socio-cultural factors contributing to the findings have been discussed. A suggestion is made for a more elaborate field work to study the relationship between socio-economic class and psychopathology in a developing country like Nigeria. PMID:3700008

  3. Cultural Predictors of Physical and Mental Health Status among Mexican American Women: A Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Khanh T.; Castro, Felipe González; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    This study, using secondary data analysis, examined a mediation model of acculturation and ethnic pride as predictors of physical and mental health outcomes in a sample of 561 Mexican American women. Factors postulated as mediators were family support and religiosity. Systematic across-group comparison analyses were conducted to examine sources of differences in the mediation model between immigrant and non-immigrant women. The results partially supported the hypothesized mediation model, indicating that family support, but not religiosity, was a significant mediator in the relationship between ethnic pride and mental health problems. In addition, as differences between immigrant and non-immigrant women were observed only in the variables means, but not in the factor loadings or regression paths, the model tested may capture a common psychosocial process that affects these women and their health outcomes. Overall, this study offers important implications for future research and the design of intervention programs for Mexican American women. PMID:19130212

  4. The Current Mental Health Status of Ebola Survivors in Western Africa.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-10-01

    The epidemic of Ebola virus disease has claimed many lives. The impact of this disease is evident in the mental health of the survivors. The mere drafting of policies will not help; rather execution at the ground level is essential. There is an urgent need, to focus on the ways by which the sufferings should be reduced. The present article throws light on this grave problem in Africa. PMID:26557543

  5. Nutritional and mental health status of Afghan refugee children in Peshawar, Pakistan: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, T; Tsutsumi, A; Sato, T; Naqibullah, Z; Wakai, S; Kurita, H

    2005-01-01

    The study sought to ascertain and describe the physical and mental health states of Afghan refugee children after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 in the US and the aerial bombing of Afghanistan that followed. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four refugee camps in Peshawar, Pakistan from February to March 2002, and comparisons among camps were made. A total of 70 males (mean age SD = 9.81 +/- 1.98 years old) and 30 females (7.94 +/- 2.07) answered a self-developed questionnaire on demographic data, traumatic events experience, living environment in the camps, and physical and mental health, through interviews. Anthropometric measures were measured and physical symptoms including anaemia and edema were assessed. Severe malnutrition was not shown and there were no significant differences in most nutritional and physical states among the camps. Nevertheless, in the newer camps more children experienced war related traumatic events. Mental symptoms were prevalent in all camps, though the characteristics of the symptoms differed among the camps. PMID:16425652

  6. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039

  7. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico.

  8. Supported employment for persons with serious mental illness: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R

    2014-06-01

    The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. PMID:24929974

  9. Spousal caregivers' burden: impact of care recipient health problems and mental status.

    PubMed

    Browning, J S; Schwirian, P M

    1994-03-01

    1. Caregiver burden is a three-dimensional concept. It reflects the impact of caregiving on interpersonal relationships; expressions of caregiver anxiety; and the personal impact of the caregiver role. 2. In the study presented, mental impairment had the most significant negative impact on caregiver burden overall, as well as on each of the three components of burden--regardless of an impaired elder's physical problems. 3. Nursing strategies to improve the care of frail elders and their caregivers include the development and implementation of a sensitive discharge assessment and plan; articulation between the hospital-based and community-based nurses; and assessment of the caregiver-care receiver dyad.

  10. The Effect of Religious Belief on the Mental Health Status and Suicide Probability of Women Exposed to Violence.

    PubMed

    Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Gündoğan, Tuğba

    2015-10-01

    It is known that violence against women is an important health problem both in the world and in Turkey (World Health Organization 2005; General Directorate on the Status of Women 2008). Religion is an important factor in preventing suicide and mental disorders by increasing one's ability to cope with events, channeling his/her perspective on life and the future toward a more positive path satisfying people about topics such as the need to be safe, the need for meaning and the reason for creation (Altuntop 2005). Hence, the objective of our study was to determine the effects of religious belief on the mental health status and suicide probabilities of women exposed to violence in Turkey. The study used a descriptive design. The study sample consisted of 135 women who have suffered violence who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Emergency of a State Hospital due to exposed to violence. They entered the study based on their acceptance to the questionnaire. The belief levels of women are based on their own statements and they are all Muslims. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Suicide Probability Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Statistical analyses were used percentage calculation, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test. In conclusion, a negative relationship was determined between the religious belief levels of women exposed to violence in Turkey and their moods and suicide probabilities. Hence, nurses who can stay alone with women for long periods of time can provide advancement in the determination and prevention of suicides decreasing depression via specific methods and overcoming hopelessness. PMID:24833159

  11. Health status, renal function, and quality of life after multiorgan failure and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Faulhaber-Walter, Robert; Scholz, Sebastian; Haller, Herrmann; Kielstein, Jan T; Hafer, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT) study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL). The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital). Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d). One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]). Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™) index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health). Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion Mortality after severe AKI is higher than short-term prospective studies show, and morbidity is significant. Kidney recovery as well as general health remains incomplete. Reduction of QoL is minor, and social rehabilitation is very good. Affectivity is heterogeneous, but most patients experience emotional well-being. In summary, AKI in critically ill patients leads to incomplete rehabilitation but acceptable QoL after 5 years. PMID:27284261

  12. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  13. Immunosuppression status of liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C affects biopsy-proven acute rejection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Man; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Hae Won; Yi, Nam-Joon; Kwon, ChoonHyuck David; Hwang, Shin; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Joh, Jae-Won; Lee, Suk-Koo; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationship between patient survival and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) in liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C remains unclear. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients with and without BPAR and to identify risk factors for BPAR. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 169 HCV-RNA-positive patients who underwent LT at three centers. Results BPAR occurred in 39 (23.1%) of the HCV-RNA-positive recipients after LT. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 92.1%, 90.3%, and 88.5%, respectively, in patients without BPAR, and 75.7%, 63.4%, and 58.9% in patients with BPAR (P<0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that BPAR was associated with the non-use of basiliximab and tacrolimus and the use of cyclosporin in LT recipients with HCV RNA-positive. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the immunosuppression status of HCV-RNA-positive LT recipients should be carefully determined in order to prevent BPAR and to improve patient survival. PMID:27729628

  14. The impact of psychological aggression on women's mental health and behavior: the status of the field.

    PubMed

    Follingstad, Diane R

    2009-07-01

    Potential effects of psychological aggression have been investigated in terms of mental health disorders/symptoms, physical manifestations, personality traits, increases in physical and psychological aggression, and relationship changes and cessation. Probably because of methodological difficulties inherent in assessing this complex phenomenon, even the most commonly assessed outcome variables have produced contradictory results, with the exception of leaving or desiring to leave the psychologically abusive relationship. Some of the significant findings require more corroboration due to the small number of studies addressing them. The relative role of physical abuse in relation to psychological abuse has yet to be disentangled. Mediator/moderator variables are likely extremely important for explaining why particular consequences do not consistently result from psychological aggression. Although the hypothesized consequences/outcomes seem appropriate for further study, the most significant contribution may lie in intensive investigation of long-term, enduring psychological abuse that produces major personality and affective shifts in the recipient.

  15. Oral Microbial and Respiratory Status of Persons with Mental Retardation/Intellectual & Developmental Disability – An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Catherine J.; Haugh, Gilbert S.; Kitchens, Dinah H.; Wallace, Debra L.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of select microorganisms in oral biofilms and to investigate relationships between oral and respiratory status in persons with mental retardation/intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Study Design We conducted a 6-month-long observational cohort study with 63 persons with IDD. Oral examinations, oral sampling, and medical record reviews were performed at baseline and then monthly. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze all baseline oral samples for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Prevotella melaninogenica (P. melaninogenica) and Candida albicans (C. albicans). PCR analyses were also performed on participants’ samples collected in the month prior to being diagnosed with a respiratory infection. Results All subjects had P. melaninogenica detected by PCR in their oral samples. Fifty-five percent (35 of 63) of participants had S. pneumoniae, MRSA and C. albicans in their oral samples at baseline. No dental decay was detected clinically, oral hygiene was fair, and dysphagia was common. During the 6 months of the study, there were 22 respiratory infections (35% of participants) – 12 pneumonias, 7 sinusitis, 1 bronchitis, and 1 upper respiratory tract infection. Participants with microorganisms in their baseline samples were significantly more likely to develop any respiratory infection and those who had poor oral status were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia. Almost 60% of participants who developed respiratory infections had the same microorganism detected in the sample collected in the month prior to infection as had been detected in their baseline sample. Conclusion Potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity and poor oral status significantly increased the risk of developing respiratory infections, including pneumonia, in persons with IDD. The results suggest that

  16. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander; McMillan, Merlin R; Jones, Russell W; Kowalik, Grzegorz T; Steeden, Jennifer A; Deanfield, John E; Pruessner, Jens C; Taylor, Andrew M; Muthurangu, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43) and women (N = 45) with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2) (*)-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1), P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1), P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1) x unit(-1), P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1), P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1), P = 0.02), cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02) and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04) to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  17. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum protein<5.0 g/dl) or a fair nutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  18. Evaluation of mini-mental status examination score after gamma knife radiosurgery as the first radiation treatment for brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Nakazaki, Kiyoshi; Kano, Hideyuki

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores of patients with brain metastases after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) without whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Between January 2009 and June 2011, 119 consecutive patients with new brain metastases were treated with a single session of GKS without WBRT. MMSE scores were determined for all patients before GKS and for surviving patients every 3 months after GKS. We evaluated 76 patients (63.9 %) after GKS. The median pre-GKS MMSE score was 28 (range 3-30). The median age, number of brain metastases, and total volume of brain metastases were 65.5 years (range 40-92 years), 2 (range 1-18), and 4.17 ml (range 0.04-27.0 ml), respectively. The median marginal dose was 22.0 Gy (range 14-24 Gy). Thirty-nine patients (51.3 %) developed new distant lesions. The median MMSE follow-up time was 5.8 months (range 0.9-21.6 months). In 16 of 37 patients (43.2 %) with pre-GKS MMSE scores ≤27, the MMSE scores improved by ≥3 points, whereas 15 of all patients (19.7 %) experienced deteriorations of ≥3 points. The incidences of 3-point drops due to new distant lesions and adverse radiation effects were 2.6 and 1.3 %, respectively. The 12-month rate of 3-point drops of the MMSE score due to these 2 causes was 4.2 % (1 of 24 patients). A larger tumor volume was a better prognostic factor for an improvement. GKS has a mild effect on neurocognitive function. Mental deterioration of patients with large symptomatic metastatic tumors tended to improve after GKS.

  19. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  20. Individuals with hematological malignancies before undergoing chemotherapy present oxidative stress parameters and acute phase proteins correlated with nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Borges, Dayanne da Silva; de Oliveira, Paula Fernanda; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Del Moral, Joanita Angela Gonzaga; Durigon, Giovanna Steffanello; Dias, Bruno Vieira; Vieira, André Guedes; Gaspareto, Patrick; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Hematological malignancies present abnormal blood cells that may have altered functions. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional status, acute phase proteins, parameters of cell's functionality, and oxidative stress of patients with hematological malignancies, providing a representation of these variables at diagnosis, comparisons between leukemias and lymphomas and establishing correlations. Nutritional status, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, phagocytic capacity and superoxide anion production of mononuclear cells, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in plasma were evaluated in 16 untreated subjects. Main diagnosis was acute leukemia (n = 9) and median body mass index (BMI) indicated overweight (25.6 kg/m(2)). Median albumin was below (3.2 g/dL) and CRP above (37.45 mg/L) the reference values. Albumin was inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.53). Most patients were overweight before the beginning of treatment and had a high CRP/albumin ratio, which may indicate a nutrition inflammatory risk. BMI values correlated positively with lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. A strong correlation between catalase activity and lipid peroxidation was found (r = 0.75). Besides the elevated BMI, these patients also have elevated CRP values and unexpected relations between nutritional status and albumin, reinforcing the need for nutritional counseling during the course of chemotherapy, especially considering the correlations between oxidative stress parameters and nutritional status evidenced here.

  1. Community mental health status six months after the Sewol ferry disaster in Ansan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The disaster of the Sewol ferry that sank at sea off Korea’s southern coast of the Yellow Sea on April 16, 2014 was a tragedy that brought grief and despair to the whole country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health effects of this disaster on the community of Ansan, where most victims and survivors resided. METHODS: The self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted 4 to 6 months after the accident using the Korean Community Health Survey system, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey. Subjects were 7,076 adults (≥19 years) living in two victimized communities in Ansan, four control communities from Gyeonggi-do, Jindo and Haenam near the accident site. Depression, stress, somatic symptoms, anxiety, and suicidal ideation were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, respectively. RESULTS: The depression rate among the respondents from Ansan was 11.8%, and 18.4% reported suicidal ideation. Prevalence of other psychiatric disturbances was also higher compared with the other areas. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds ratios (ORs) in depression (1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.04), stress (1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71), somatic symptoms (1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58), anxiety (1.82; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.39), and suicidal ideation (1.33; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.56) compared with Gyeonggi-do. In contrast, the accident areas of Jindo and Haenam showed the lowest prevalence and ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Residents in the victimized area of Ansan had a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disturbances than in the control communities.

  2. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  3. [Mental health care systems and provisions in the immediate and acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: situational and support activities in Miyagi Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which measured 9.0 on the Richter scale, was followed by a huge tsunami that caused catastrophic damage to the area extending from the Tohoku to Kanto regions. It was also accompanied by the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Mental health service provisions were hit equally hard by the disaster, with a wide range of support and relief activities being implemented. This article reviews damage that was inflicted and support activities that were carried out in the mental health field in Miyagi Prefecture in the immediate aftermath and acute phase of the disaster, and also examines future challenges. Almost all mental health institutions in Miyagi Prefecture were affected by the disaster, and experienced difficulties such as feeding inpatients and securing necessary medication. Mental health institutions in the coastal area, in particular, were severely hit. Three hospitals-were seriously damaged by the tsunami, which forced them to make arrangements for the transfer of 300 inpatients. In the aftermath of the earthquake, it became difficult to access medical institutions, and confusion ensued regarding the provision of mental health services. Many municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture were seriously affected by the disaster, and information-gathering was crippled due to the disruption of communication and transport networks. Consequently, the administrative function regarding mental health service provisions was significantly impaired. Through official, private, and academic channels, volunteers in the field of mental health were sent to the affected areas in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. It was very difficult to coordinate these volunteers because of the confusion in gathering-information and in the chain of command for support activities. The number of support teams working in the affected areas peaked one to two months after the earthquake, but it became clear that continuous and long

  4. Do small differences in hydration status affect mood and mental performance?

    PubMed

    Benton, David; Young, Hayley A

    2015-09-01

    Although it has been suggested that many in the general population are dehydrated to the extent that mood and cognition are disrupted, there has been little research investigating mild levels of dehydration. When dehydration reduces body mass by more than 2%, it has been consistently reported that mood is influenced, fatigue is greater, and alertness is lower. In contrast, the effects on cognition have been less consistent. Only a few studies have looked at females and these studies made little attempt to consider hormones that influence kidney functioning. In particular, there has been virtually no attempt to look at changes in hydration status in the range that occurs in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle in a temperate climate. There is a consequent need to study individuals who have lost up to 1% of body mass due to dehydration. While 4 intervention trials have found that the cognition of children improved in response to water consumption, the effects of water consumption on cognition in older adults, another high-risk group, have been largely ignored.

  5. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  6. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is More Predictive of Memory Abilities Than the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these 2 cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (ie, delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after 1 year. Both the MMSE and the mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r's of .41 and .62, respectively) and at 1 year (r's of .36 and .50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R (2) = .45, P < .001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At 1 year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349

  7. Vitamin B12 and folate status in acute geropsychiatric inpatients: affective and cognitive characteristics of a vitamin nondeficient population.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Edman, J S; Marby, D W; Satlin, A; Dreier, T; Liptzin, B; Cole, J O

    1990-01-15

    This chart review study examined the serum vitamin B12 and folate status of 102 geriatric patients newly admitted to a private psychiatric hospital. Only 3.7% were B12 deficient and 1.3% were folate deficient; 4% were anemic. Nevertheless, those with below-median values of both vitamins had significantly lower Mini-Mental State scores than patients higher in one or both vitamins. Patients with "organic psychosis" with a negative family history for psychiatric disorder had significantly lower B12 levels than those with a positive family history. In major depression, folate levels correlated negatively with age at onset of psychiatric illness and length of hospitalization. These data suggest that (1) biochemically interrelated vitamins such as B12 and folate may exert both a separate and a concomitant influence on affect and cognition; (2) poorer vitamin status may contribute to certain geropsychiatric disorders that begin at a later age and lack a familial predisposition.

  8. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma.

  9. Self-perceived Mental Health Status and Uptake of Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hategekimana, Celestin; Karamouzian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH) status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11 386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43) and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71) than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention. PMID:27285514

  10. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  11. Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Dong-Eog; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Broderick, Joseph P; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14,792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14 h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n = 598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization = 6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries.

  12. HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Clements-Nolle, K; Marx, R; Guzman, R; Katz, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study described HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender persons and determined factors associated with HIV. METHODS: We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among male-to-female transgender persons was 35%. African American race (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.82, 11.96), a history of injection drug use (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.56, 4.62), multiple sex partners (adjusted OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.50, 4.62), and low education (adjusted OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.17, 3.68) were independently associated with HIV. Among female-to-male transgender persons, HIV prevalence (2%) and risk behaviors were much lower. Most male-to-female (78%) and female-to-male (83%) transgender persons had seen a medical provider in the past 6 months. Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: High HIV prevalence suggests an urgent need for risk reduction interventions for male-to-female transgender persons. Recent contact with medical providers was observed, suggesting that medical providers could provide an important link to needed prevention, health, and social services. PMID:11392934

  13. Health status of newcomers.

    PubMed

    Matuk, L C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents and discusses findings on the health status of newcomers residing in Windsor, Ontario. The data are part of a larger study, which was based on the Ontario Health Survey's questionnaire. Data were collected from 548 newcomers through home visits, focus groups, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. Descriptive multivariate analyses focused on main areas in newcomers' physical and mental health status and their access to health services. The findings identified that most newcomers do not have acute, life-threatening physical problems or chronic illness. They do not experience major problems with access to health care or activity limitations. Men are happier, more satisfied with their health, and less stressed than women. This study has implications for adoption of sensitive transcultural approaches to promote newcomers' health. Special challenges lie in women's health and mental health.

  14. Acute pulmonary edema associated with naphazoline ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hidetada; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Seki, Tadahiko; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Konobu, Toshifumi; Nishio, Kenji; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    In published reports of naphazoline ingestion, clinical effects are hypertension, bradycardia, pallor, diaphoresis, and respiratory distress. We report three cases of acute pulmonary edema after the intentional ingestion of naphazoline-containing antiseptic first aid liquid. These cases presented with altered mental status, hypertension, bradycardia, and diaphoresis. Chest x-ray on admission revealed acute pulmonary edema. Two cases required mechanical ventilation. All of these clinical effects resolved within 24 hours and the patients were discharged with no sequelae. Since naphazoline stimulates the peripheral alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, we speculate that intense vasoconstriction may have elevated cardiac afterload and left atrial-ventricular blood volume and caused acute pulmonary edema.

  15. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation.

  16. Acute postoperative hydrocephalus following translabyrinthine craniotomy for acoustic neuroma resection.

    PubMed

    Roberson, J B; Brackmann, D E; Hitselberger, W E; House, J W; Lanman, T H

    1995-01-01

    Acute mental status changes following craniotomy for acoustic tumors demand prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid serious morbidity and mortality. Two cases of acute obstructive hydrocephalus complicating the postoperative period following translabyrinthine craniotomy are presented. Diagnosis is made with noncontrast computed tomography scanning. Treatment is rendered at the bedside with placement of a ventriculostomy. Diagnosis and management implications for acoustic tumor patients are discussed. PMID:17170940

  17. Acute Postoperative Hydrocephalus Following Translabyrinthine Craniotomy for Acoustic Neuroma Resection

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Joseph B.; Brackmann, Derald E.; Hitselberger, William E.; House, John W.; Lanman, Todd H.

    1995-01-01

    Acute mental status changes following craniotomy for acoustic tumors demand prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid serious morbidity and mortality. Two cases of acute obstructive hydrocephalus complicating the postoperative period following translabyrinthine craniotomy are presented. Diagnosis is made with noncontrast computed tomography scanning. Treatment is rendered at the bedside with placement of a ventriculostomy. Diagnosis and management implications for acoustic tumor patients are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17170940

  18. Demographic, Mental Health, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking Status Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Paul A.; Yu, Kalvin; Kapadia, Farzana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Young sexual minority men smoke at higher rates relative to heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of smoking in a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who might differ from more general and age-diverse samples of sexual minority individuals and, thus, inform tailored approaches to addressing tobacco use within this population. Methods: Data on smoking status were examined in relation to demographics, mental health, substance use behavior, and psychosocial factors. Using multinomial logistic regression, factors were identified that differentiate current and former smokers from never smokers. Results: In bivariate analysis, smoking status was related to demographic, mental health, substance use, and psychosocial factors. Most significantly, smoking status was associated with school enrollment status, current alcohol and marijuana use, and symptoms of depression. Multivariate modeling revealed that, compared to being a never smoker, the odds of current or former smoking were highest among those currently using either alcohol or marijuana. The odds of both current and former smoking were also higher among those reporting greater levels of gay community affinity. Finally, the odds of being a former smoker were higher for those reporting internalized antihomosexual prejudice. Conclusion: This study identifies several factors related to smoking status in a diverse sample of young sexual minority males. These findings should encourage investigations of smoking disparities among younger MSM to look beyond common smoking risk factors in an attempt to understand etiologies that may be unique to this group. Such findings may indicate multiple points of potential intervention aimed at decreasing cigarette smoking within this vulnerable population. PMID:27158762

  19. Mental health status and diabetes among Whites and Native Americans: is race an effect modifier?

    PubMed

    Sahmoun, Abe E; Markland, Mary J; Helgerson, Steven D

    2007-08-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among patients with diabetes and may have a significant impact on self-management and health outcomes. The prevalence of both depression and diabetes varies by race. We examined whether race is also an effect modifier in the association between mental health rated "not good" and diabetes using the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2002 to 2005. We found that the prevalence of diabetes among Native American respondents was almost double that among Whites. Respondents with at least two weeks of mental health rated "not good" are significantly higher among diabetic patients than among non-diabetic patients. Native Americans (NAs) with at least two weeks of mental health rated "not good" were more likely to have diabetes. This association is stronger in NAs than in Whites. Future research should focus on a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this plausible association between poor mental health and diabetes. PMID:17675716

  20. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period.

  1. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  2. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  3. Current status of gene expression profiling in the diagnosis and management of acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Ulrike; Kohlmann, Alexander; Haferlach, Torsten

    2009-06-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) enables the simultaneous investigation of the expression of tens of thousands of genes and was successfully introduced in leukaemia research a decade ago. Aiming to better understand the diversity of genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), pioneer studies investigated and confirmed the predictability of many cytogenetic and molecular subclasses in AML and ALL. In addition, GEP can define new prognostic subclasses within distinct leukaemia subgroups, as illustrated in AML with normal karyotype. Another approach is the development of treatment-specific sensitivity assays, which might contribute to targeted therapy studies. Finally, GEP might enable the detection of new molecular targets for therapy in patients with acute leukaemia. Meanwhile, large multicentre studies, e.g. the Microarray Innovations in LEukaemia (MILE) study, prepare for a standardised introduction of GEP in leukaemia diagnostic algorithms, aiming to translate this novel methodology into clinical routine for the benefit of patients with the complex disorders of AML and ALL.

  4. Performance Status in Elderly Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Exploring Gene Expression Signatures of Cytokines and Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Nipp, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease that predominantly affects elderly patients. Cytokines and chemokines are major players in the pathogenesis of AML. They regulate the disease course and play a deleterious role in the progression of AML. The geriatric population is particularly vulnerable to these mediators as these cytokines and chemokines are also implicated in the development of frailty, fatigue, and declining cognitive function. It is the combination of these adverse effects of cytokines and chemokines that affect performance status and, in turn, the poor prognosis in this age group. Cytokines and chemokines are emerging as therapeutic targets in AML. Future endeavors to treat AML will likely involve cytokines and chemokines as attempts are made to disrupt the bone marrow environment. By modulating the bone marrow stroma, the goal is to create an environment less favorable to AML cells and more favorable to the effects of chemotherapy against AML. PMID:23783402

  5. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress at rest and in response to acute exercise in judokas and sedentary men.

    PubMed

    El Abed, Kaïs; Rebai, Haitham; Bloomer, Richard J; Trabelsi, Khaled; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Sahnoun, Zouhaier; Hakim, Ahmed; Tabka, Zouhaier

    2011-09-01

    It is well recognized that acute strenuous exercise is accompanied by an increase in free-radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, in addition to changes in blood antioxidant status. Chronic exercise provides protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress by upregulating endogenous antioxidant defense systems. Little is known regarding the protective effect afforded by judo exercise. Therefore, we determined antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and in response to acute exercise in 10 competitive judokas and 10 sedentary subjects after mixed exercise (anaerobic followed by aerobic). The subjects performed a Wingate test, followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Blood samples were taken, by an intravenous catheter, at rest (R), immediately after the physical exercise (P0), and at 5 (P5), 10 (P10), and 20 (P20) minutes postexercise. The measured parameters included the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, in addition to α-tocopherol, and total antioxidant status. Malondialdehyde was measured as a representation of lipid peroxidation. At rest, the judokas had higher values for all antioxidant and oxidative stress markers as compared to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of all parameters except for α-tocopherol increased significantly above resting values for both the judokas and sedentary subjects (p < 0.05) and remained elevated at 20 minutes postexercise. A significant postexercise decrease was observed for α-tocopherol (p < 0.05) at P20 for judokas and at P5 for sedentary subjects. These data indicate that competitive judo athletes have higher endogenous antioxidant protection compared to sedentary subjects. However, both groups of subjects experience an increase in exercise-induced oxidative stress that is not different. PMID:21869626

  6. Mental and Physical Health Status and Alcohol and Drug Use Following Return From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Mark R.; Vogt, Dawne; Glickman, Mark E.; Elwy, A. Rani; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Osei-Bonsu, Princess E.; Martin, James

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined (1) mental and physical health symptoms and functioning in US veterans within 1 year of returning from deployment, and (2) differences by gender, service component (Active, National Guard, other Reserve), service branch (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines), and deployment operation (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OEF/OIF]). Methods. We surveyed a national sample of 596 OEF/OIF veterans, oversampling women to make up 50% of the total, and National Guard and Reserve components to each make up 25%. Weights were applied to account for stratification and nonresponse bias. Results. Mental health functioning was significantly worse compared with the general population; 13.9% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder, 39% for probable alcohol abuse, and 3% for probable drug abuse. Men reported more alcohol and drug use than did women, but there were no gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder or other mental health domains. OIF veterans reported more depression or functioning problems and alcohol and drug use than did OEF veterans. Army and Marine veterans reported worse mental and physical health than did Air Force or Navy veterans. Conclusions. Continuing identification of veterans at risk for mental health and substance use problems is important for evidence-based interventions intended to increase resilience and enhance treatment. PMID:22390605

  7. The influence of insurance status on waiting times in German acute care hospitals: an empirical analysis of new data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate in Germany about the assumption that patients with private health insurance (PHI) benefit from better access to medical care, including shorter waiting times (Lüngen et al. 2008), compared to patients with statutory health insurance (SHI). Problem Existing analyses of the determinants for waiting times in Germany are a) based on patient self-reports and b) do not cover the inpatient sector. This paper aims to fill both gaps by (i) generating new primary data and (ii) analyzing waiting times in German hospitals. Methods We requested individual appointments from 485 hospitals within an experimental study design, allowing us to analyze the impact of PHI versus SHI on waiting times (Asplin et al. 2005). Results In German acute care hospitals patients with PHI have significantly shorter waiting times than patients with SHI. Conclusion Discrimination in waiting times by insurance status does occur in the German acute hospital sector. Since there is very little transparency in treatment quality in Germany, we do not know whether discrimination in waiting times leads to discrimination in the quality of treatment. This is an important issue for future research. PMID:20025744

  8. Association between retinal hemorrhagic pattern and macular perfusion status in eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ooto, Sotaro; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Ayako; Iida, Yuto; Miwa, Yuko; Hata, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study included 63 eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) to evaluate the retinal hemorrhagic patterns at the posterior poles and explore their clinical relevance in macular perfusion differentiation. Retinal hemorrhagic patterns and macular perfusion status were evaluated via fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, respectively. Macular perfusion was judged as nonischemic in 30, ischemic in 28, and undeterminable in 5 among the 63 eyes. Predominant hemorrhagic patterns were flame-shaped in 39 (67.2%) and non-flame-shaped in 19 (32.8%) eyes. All 39 eyes with a flame-shaped hemorrhage showed a nonischemic macula. Of the 19 eyes classified as having a non-flame-shaped hemorrhage, 13 (68.4%) had an ischemic macula and 6 (31.6%) had a nonischemic macula (P < 0.001). Parallelism in eyes with a flame-shaped hemorrhage was higher than in those with a non-flame-shaped hemorrhage (P < 0.001), and in those with a nonischemic macula versus those with an ischemic macula (P < 0.001). The area under the curve for parallelism was 0.975 (P < 0.001), suggesting an accurate diagnostic parameter for macular perfusion differentiation. In conclusion, we objectively evaluated retinal hemorrhagic patterns at the posterior pole in BRVO using the parallelism method, which was useful in differentiating macular perfusion status. PMID:27334338

  9. Relationships between the Nevada brief cognitive assessment instrument and the St. Louis University mental status examination in the assessment of disability applicants.

    PubMed

    Brown, David H; Lawson, Lauren E; McDaniel, William F; Wildman, Robert W

    2012-12-01

    Mental status examinations of individuals applying for disability are most often authorized as "2-hour" evaluations and are to include a complete clinical and employment history, assessment of neurocognitive functions, an estimate of general level of intelligence, psychological and social adjustment, functional abilities, and a complete multipage report of the results. In the interest of meeting these demands we have been using the Nevada brief cognitive assessment instrument (NBCAI) to rapidly estimate verbal intelligence, and we have adopted the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) to investigate neurocognitive functions. Areas of correspondence and differences between these screens are presented along with an explanation of why execution of both screens could be useful in addressing psychological questions concerning disability. The two instruments failed to correlate significantly in a group of patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation likely because this sample was more highly educated and more homogeneous than the sample of disability referrals. For example, although the ages of the samples were close (disability sample mean and standard deviation age: 43.88 and 11.35 years; pre-surgical sample mean and standard deviation age: 46.14 and 2.84 years), they differed considerably in level of education (disability sample mean and standard deviation: 11.03 and 2.15; pre-surgical mean and standard deviation: 15.22 and 2.84). The pre-surgical group had mean performances close to the ceiling levels of both instruments.

  10. Antioxidant status in haemoglobin E carriers after acute and chronic strenuous exercises.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Soogarun, Suphan; Suksom, Daroonwan; Pitaksathienkul, Chatchadaporn; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE), an unstable haemoglobin, is highly susceptible to oxidative damages. We examined how acute or chronic physiological challenge induced by exercise affects antioxidant response in HbE carriers. Two independent studies were conducted in individuals with HbE trait and paired normal Hb. In study 1, sedentary participants were tested in a graded maximal exercise and blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 45 minutes after an acute exercise. Our data showed that erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity failed to recover in HbE carriers after 45 minutes of rest. In study 2, athletes were trained in a 10-week strenuous training and blood samples were collected before and after training period. We found that athletes with HbE carriers showed a larger increase in plasma GPx activity compared to those with normal Hb. These data suggest that HbE carriers could cope with exercise-induced oxidative stress by adjusting endogenous antioxidant markers.

  11. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Radenkovic, Dejan V.; Johnson, Colin D.; Milic, Natasa; Gregoric, Pavle; Ivancevic, Nenad; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Cijan, Vladimir; Antic, Andrija; Bajec, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment. PMID:26839539

  12. [The lesion predilection and the phenomenology of the basic forms of the mental pathology in acute viral neuroinfections].

    PubMed

    Maksutova, E L

    1993-01-01

    Verified material on 246 cases of acute viral encephalitis and meningoencephalitis was studied prospectively. The clinical and psychopathological analysis shown predilection to cerebral affection in formation of a number of psychopathological syndromes reflecting focal insufficiency and related to etiotopic characteristics of the underlying pathological process.

  13. Marital Status, Education, and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mainland China: The INTER-HEART Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of marital status and education on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a large-scale case-control study in China. Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China case-control study. The main outcome measure was first AMI. Incident cases of AMI and control patients with no past history of heart disease were recruited. Controls were matching by age (±5 years) and sex. Marital status was combined into 2 categories: single and not single. Education level was classified into 2 categories: 8 years or less and more than 8 years. Results From 1999 to 2002, we recruited 2909 cases and 2947 controls from 17 cities. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, psychosocial factors, lifestyle, other factors, and mutually for other risk factors, the odds ratio (OR) for AMI associated with being single was 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.18–1.93) overall, 1.19 (0.84–1.68; P = 0.072) in men and 2.00 (1.39–2.86; P < 0.0001) in women. The interaction of sex and marital status was statistically significant (P = 0.045). Compared with a high education level, a low education level increased the risk of AMI (1.45, 1.26–1.67); the odds ratios in men and women were 1.29 (1.09–1.52) and 1.55 (1.16–2.08), respectively. Single women with a low education level had a high risk of AMI (2.95, 1.99–4.37). Conclusions Being single was consistently associated with an increased risk for AMI, particularly in women. In addition, as compared with high education level, low education level was associated with a higher risk of AMI in both men and women. PMID:22245707

  14. Current Status of Infant Mental Health in Day-Care Centres in Japan: An Investigation of Okinawa and Aomori Prefectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…

  15. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  16. Current status of auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation for acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Rela, Mohamed; Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas

    2016-09-01

    Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) is a technique of liver transplantation (LT) where a partial liver graft is implanted in an orthotopic position after leaving behind a part of the native liver. APOLT was previously considered technically challenging with results inferior to orthotopic liver transplantation. Results of this procedure have continued to improve with improving surgical techniques and a better understanding of the natural history of acute liver failure (ALF) and liver regeneration. The procedure is being increasingly accepted as a valid treatment option for ALF-especially in children. This article reviews the historical background to this operation, advances in the technique, and its current place in the management of ALF. Liver Transplantation 22 1265-1274 2016 AASLD. PMID:27357489

  17. Moving beyond supportive care--current status of specific therapies in pediatric acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Symons, Jordan M

    2014-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a significant challenge, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. Therapy for AKI to this point has largely been supportive; specific interventions to treat established AKI have had minimal effect. Review of the pathogenesis of AKI reveals complex, interacting mechanisms, including changes in microcirculation, the immune system, and inflammation, and cell death from both necrosis and apoptosis. Past definitions of AKI have been imprecise; newer methods for AKI identification and classification, including novel biomarkers and improved criteria for defining AKI, may permit earlier intervention with greater potential for success. With improved understanding of pathophysiology and the opportunity for intervention before AKI is fully established, clinicians may be able to move beyond supportive care and improve outcomes.

  18. Sex Differences in Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Young Survivors of an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Viola; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Nye, Jonathon A.; Pimple, Pratik; Salerno, Amy; D'Marco, Luis; Karohl, Cristina; Bremner, J. Douglas; Raggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emotional stress may disproportionally affect young women with ischemic heart disease. We sought to examine whether mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI), but not exercise-induced ischemia, is more common in young women with previous myocardial infarction (MI) than men. Methods We studied 98 post-MI patients (49 women and 49 men) aged 38-60 years. Women and men were matched for age, MI type, and months since MI. Patients underwent [99mTc]sestamibi perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress, and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Perfusion defect scores were obtained with observer-independent software. A summed difference score (SDS), the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify ischemia under both stress conditions. Results Women aged 50 or younger, but not older women, showed a more adverse psychosocial profile than age-matched men, but did not differ for conventional risk factors and tended to have less angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). Compared with age-matched men, women aged 50 or younger exhibited a higher SDS with mental stress (3.1 vs. 1.5, p=0.029) and had twice the rate of MSIMI (SDS ≥3), 52% vs. 25%, while ischemia with physical stress did not differ (36% vs 25%). In older patients there were no sex differences in MSIMI. The higher prevalence of MSIMI in young women persisted when adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, CAD severity and depression. Conclusions MSIMI post-MI is more common in women aged 50 or younger compared to age-matched men. These sex differences are not observed in post-MI patients who are older than 50 years. PMID:24608039

  19. Association of Body Iron Status with the Risk of Premature Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Pakistani Population

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Mehboobali, Naseema; Tareen, Asal Khan; Yakub, Mohsin; Iqbal, Saleem Perwaiz; Iqbal, Khalida; Haider, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease is very common in Pakistani population. Some of the studies carried out on Western populations have shown a relationship between body iron status as determined by the ratio of concentrations of serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) to ferritin and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In order to investigate whether increased body iron status has any relationship with the risk of premature AMI in Pakistani population, a case-control study was carried out. Methodology/Principal findings In this case-control study, 203 consecutive AMI patients [146 males and 57 females; age range 18–45 years] admitted to the National Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, were enrolled with informed consent. In addition, 205 healthy controls whose gender and age (within 3 years) matched the patients, and who had a similar socio-economic background were recruited. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, sTfR and ferritin and blood lead. It was found that serum concentration of ferritin and blood lead levels were significantly higher in AMI patients compared to their age and gender-matched healthy controls (p value <0.05), while the concentrations of vitamin B12 and HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in AMI patients compared to controls (p value <0.01). The ratio of sTfR to ferritin was significantly lower in AMI patients compared to controls [mean±SD/median (IQR) values 84.7±295/28.9 (38.4) vs 255±836/49.4 (83.8), respectively; p value <0.001]. Compared with the highest quartile of sTfR/ferritin (low body iron status), the OR for the risk of AMI was 3.29(95% CI, 1.54–7.03) for the lowest quartile (quartile 1) when the model was adjusted for vitamin B12 and HDL-cholesterol (p value for trend <0.01). Conclusions/Significance This study shows a positive association between total body iron

  20. Necrotizing acute pancreatitis current status - emerging new strategies in surgical management.

    PubMed

    Sakorafas, George H; Sampanis, Dimitrios; Lappas, Christos; Kokoropoulos, Panayiotis; Mastoraki, Aikaterini; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2012-04-01

    Despite that pancreatic necrosis complicates only 15 % of cases of acute pancreatitis (AP), it is associated with high morbidity and considerable mortality. In an attempt to improve prognosis, many surgical strategies have been described during the last few decades. Currently, necrosectomy remains the cornerstone in the surgical treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis and in selected cases of sterile necrotizing pancreatitis. Following necrosectomy, continuous closed lavage is recommended by many authors, while closed abdominal packing /drainage and repeated planned necrosectomies- commonly using the zipper technique-are also acceptable alternative strategies. Open abdomen (laparostomy) is rarely indicated in carefully selected cases (typically in abdominal compartment syndrome associated with necrotizing AP). During the last decade, minimally invasive techniques (including percutaneous drainage, retroperitoneal endoscopic approach, transgastric endoscopic approach etc) have been extensively studied by some groups not only in the management of pancreatic abscesses and / or pseudocysts, but also as primary methods of treatment of necrotizing AP. Results have been impressive, but experience currently is limited to only a few centers around the world. PMID:22420515

  1. Assessing positive mental health in people with chronic physical health problems: correlations with socio-demographic variables and physical health status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Results Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Conclusions Most people with chronic physical health

  2. Role of infarction artery status in left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, J; Insa, L; Bodí, V; Egea, S; Monmeneu, J V; Chorro, F J; Llácer, A; López Merino, V

    1997-04-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the infarction artery status and left ventricular volumes, independently of regional ventricular dysfunction, at 4-6 weeks after a first myocardial infarction. The study group consisted of 100 patients, of whom 80 received thrombolytic treatment. Coronary and contrast left ventricular angiograms were performed at 36+/-5 days postinfarction. Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were measured. The centerline chord motion method was used to calculate the extent of wall motion abnormality (percentage of chords with hypokinetic motion) and its severity (maximum units of S.D. below the normal wall motion reference). Minimum lumen diameter, patency and collateral flow in the infarction artery were also analyzed. Eight patients (group I) showed occlusion with poor collateral flow in the infarction artery, 22 patients (group II) occlusion with good collateral flow, 38 patients (group III) severe residual stenosis (minimum lumen diameter < or = 1 mm), and 32 patients (group IV) non-severe residual stenosis (minimum lumen diameter > 1 mm). Patients from group I presented greater wall motion abnormality in terms of both extent (P=0.005) and severity (P=0.007), and greater end-diastolic (P=0.07) and end-systolic (P=0.0008) volumes; there were no differences among groups II, III and IV. By stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the extent of wall motion abnormality was the main determinant of end-diastolic (P=0.0001) and end-systolic (P=0.0001) volumes; occlusion with poor collateral flow was also a significant independent factor for end-systolic volume (P=0.03). Total occlusion (including both with and without collaterals) and the minimum lumen diameter did not correlate with end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. We concluded that (A) the extent of regional dysfunction is the primary determinant of left ventricular volumes at 4-6 weeks postinfarction. (B) The status of the infarction artery is a

  3. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), filgrastim) and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim) for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family) in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy) whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets) was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products) in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication. PMID:27153057

  4. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), filgrastim) and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim) for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family) in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy) whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets) was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products) in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication. PMID:27153057

  5. Acute respiratory infections prevent improvement of vitamin A status in young infants supplemented with vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Alvarez, J O; Wahed, M A; Islam, M A; Habte, D; Khaled, M A

    1996-03-01

    At immunization contact, 165 infants 2.5 mo old were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) or placebo. Three doses were given at monthly intervals with each diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and oral polio (DPT/OPV) immunization dose. The diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) morbidity was similar in the vitamin A and placebo groups. However, the duration (days per child-year, mean +/- SD) of ARI was less in the vitamin A group compared with placebo group (27.6 +/- 17.1 vs. 40.8 +/- 22.7; P = 0.005). Fasting retinol concentrations were measured at entry and in 61 infants, the relative dose response (RDR) test was done 1 mo after the third dose of vitamin A. Eighty-five percent of the infants had serum retinol concentration < 0.70 mol/L at entry. After 3 mo the serum retinol levels improved significantly in both groups, and in the vitamin A-supplemented group the serum retinol concentration was significantly better than that in the placebo group (P= 0.02). However, 61% of the infants remained deficient despite vitamin A supplementation. Among vitamin A-supplemented infants only, diarrhea and ARI morbidity during the 3-mo period were compared in children with normal versus children with abnormal RDR at the end of the supplementation period. The ARI episodes were more frequent in the supplemented infants who remained vitamin A deficient at the end of the 3 mo (P = 0.027). Also, the cumulative duration (days, mean +/- SD) of fever and cough was 5.0 +/- 2.8 in the normal versus 11.2 +/- 6.0 in the deficient group (P = 0.04). The results of this study suggest that a large proportion of infants remain vitamin A deficient even after large dose vitamin A supplementation because of frequent respiratory infections, particularly those accompanied by fever. PMID:8598547

  6. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Skishahr, Farnaz; Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Babaei, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  7. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  8. A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitment for acute psychiatric crisis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Stoneking, Beth C; Humphreys, Keith; Sundby, Evan; Bond, Jason

    2008-09-01

    This experiment compared the effectiveness of an unlocked, mental health consumer-managed, crisis residential program (CRP) to a locked, inpatient psychiatric facility (LIPF) for adults civilly committed for severe psychiatric problems. Following screening and informed consent, participants (n = 393) were randomized to the CRP or the LIPF and interviewed at baseline and at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year post admission. Outcomes were costs, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, enrichment, and service satisfaction. Treatment outcomes were compared using hierarchical linear models. Participants in the CRP experienced significantly greater improvement on interviewer-rated and self-reported psychopathology than did participants in the LIPF condition; service satisfaction was dramatically higher in the CRP condition. CRP-style facilities are a viable alternative to psychiatric hospitalization for many individuals facing civil commitment. PMID:18626766

  9. Acute fluid shifts influence the assessment of serum vitamin D status in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent reports have highlighted the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and suggested an association with excess mortality in critically ill patients. Serum vitamin D concentrations in these studies were measured following resuscitation. It is unclear whether aggressive fluid resuscitation independently influences serum vitamin D. Methods Nineteen patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Serum 25(OH)D3, 1α,25(OH)2D3, parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ionised calcium were measured at five defined timepoints: T1 - baseline, T2 - 5 minutes after onset of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (time of maximal fluid effect), T3 - on return to the intensive care unit, T4 - 24 hrs after surgery and T5 - 5 days after surgery. Linear mixed models were used to compare measures at T2-T5 with baseline measures. Results Acute fluid loading resulted in a 35% reduction in 25(OH)D3 (59 ± 16 to 38 ± 14 nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and a 45% reduction in 1α,25(OH)2D3 (99 ± 40 to 54 ± 22 pmol/L P < 0.0001) and i(Ca) (P < 0.01), with elevation in parathyroid hormone (P < 0.0001). Serum 25(OH)D3 returned to baseline only at T5 while 1α,25(OH)2D3 demonstrated an overshoot above baseline at T5 (P < 0.0001). There was a delayed rise in CRP at T4 and T5; this was not associated with a reduction in vitamin D levels at these time points. Conclusions Hemodilution significantly lowers serum 25(OH)D3 and 1α,25(OH)2D3, which may take up to 24 hours to resolve. Moreover, delayed overshoot of 1α,25(OH)2D3 needs consideration. We urge caution in interpreting serum vitamin D in critically ill patients in the context of major resuscitation, and would advocate repeating the measurement once the effects of the resuscitation have abated. PMID:21110839

  10. Comorbidity and performance status in acute myeloid leukemia patients: a nation-wide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Østgård, L S G; Nørgaard, J M; Sengeløv, H; Severinsen, M; Friis, L S; Marcher, C W; Dufva, I H; Nørgaard, M

    2015-03-01

    As the world population ages, the comorbidity burden in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients increases. Evidence on how to integrate comorbidity measures into clinical decision-making is sparse. We determined the prognostic impact of comorbidity and World Health Organization Performance Status (PS) on achievement of complete remission and mortality in all Danish AML patients treated between 2000 and 2012 overall and stratified by age. Comorbidity was measured using a modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index, with separate adjustment for pre-leukemic conditions. Of 2792 patients, 1467 (52.5%) were allocated to intensive therapy. Of these patients, 76% did not have any comorbidities, 19% had one comorbid disease and 6% had two or more comorbidities. Low complete remission rates were associated with poor PS but not with comorbidity. Surprisingly, among all intensive therapy patients, presence of comorbidity was not associated with an increased short-term mortality (adjusted 90 day mortality rate (MR)=1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76-1.48)) and, if any, only a slight increase in long-term mortality (91 day-3 year adjusted MR=1.18 (95%CI=0.97-1.44). Poor PS was strongly associated with an increased short- and long-term mortality (adjusted 90 day MR, PS⩾2=3.43 (95%CI=2.30-5.13); adjusted 91 day-3 year MR=1.35 (95%CI=1.06-1.74)). We propose that more patients with comorbidity may benefit from intensive chemotherapy.

  11. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes: what is the current status and what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Lopez Sendon, Jose Luis; Tubaro, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by plaque erosion or rupture leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the current status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies currently explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio. PMID:25440788

  12. Physical and Mental Health, Cognitive Development, and Health Care Use by Housing Status of Low-Income Young Children in 20 American Cities: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Angela R.; Allison, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the independent effect of homeless and doubled-up episodes on physical and mental health, cognitive development, and health care use among children. Methods. We used data from 4 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, involving a sample of 2631 low-income children in 20 large US cities who have been followed since birth. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression using the hybrid method to include both fixed and random effects. Results. Of the sample, 9.8% experienced homelessness and an additional 23.6% had a doubled-up episode. Housing status had little significant adverse effect on child physical or mental health, cognitive development, or health care use. Conclusions. Family and environmental stressors common to many children in poverty, rather than just homeless and doubled-up episodes, were associated with young children's poor health and cognitive development and high health care use. Practitioners need to identify and respond to parental and family needs for support services in addition to housing assistance to effectively improve the health and development of young children who experience residential instability, particularly those in homeless families. PMID:21551380

  13. Historical perspectives of the role of Spain and Portugal in today's status of psychiatry and mental health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Baca, Enrique; Lázaro, José; Hernández-Clemente, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how the community of Latin-American and Spanish psychiatry represents a solid platform for the so-called 'continental thought' to meet the analytical Anglo-Saxon thought. It reviews what both Latin America and the Spanish and Portuguese languages represent in the American continent; the relation between Spanish psychiatry and Spanish-speaking psychiatry in America during the twentieth century; the reality of psychiatric research and profession in Latin America; the evolution of Spanish psychiatry in the twentieth century from the post civil war diaspora to the beginning of the twenty-first century, and research on mental health in Spain and the foreseeable future.

  14. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  15. Manifestations of Perihepatic Lymph Nodes in Acute Flare of Chronic Hepatitis B: Association with HBeAg Status and with HBeAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yen-Ling; Sun, Chi-Shu; Chung, Kun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Min; Feng, I-Che; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Koay, Lok-Beng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Ho, Chung-Han; Kuo, Hsing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that enlargement of perihepatic lymph nodes may be seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B, particularly during acute flares of CHB. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between the nodal change patterns in CHB patients with acute flare and HBeAg status. Perihepatic lymph node sizes of 87 patients with acute flares of CHB were documented, with a median follow up of 43 months. Patients were separated into 3 groups, HBeAg-positive with HBe seroconversion (group 1), HBeAg-positive without HBe seroconversion (group 2), and HBeAg-negative (group 3). Group 1 has the highest incidence of enlarged lymph nodes (92.3%) compared with group 2 (75.8%) and group 3 (46.8%) (p = 0.003). And if nodal width at acute flare was > 8mm and interval change of nodal width was >3mm, the incidence of HBeAg seroconversion will be 75% (p<0.001). Conclusion Larger perihepatic lymph nodes are seen in CHB acute flare patients with positive HBeAg and the magnitude of nodal width change may predict HBeAg seroconversion at recovery. PMID:25689069

  16. Socioeconomic Status and in-hospital Mortality of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Can Education and Occupation Serve as Preventive Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; De Leon, Antonio Ponce; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Karimi, Abbasali; Sundin, Örjan; Jalali, Arash; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) can greatly affect the clinical outcome of medical problems. We sought to assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to their SES. Methods: All patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center due to 1st-time ACS between March 2004 and August 2011 were assessed. The patients who were illiterate/lowly educated (≤5 years attained education) and were unemployed were considered low-SES patients and those who were employed and had high educational levels (>5 years attained education) were regarded as high-SES patients. Demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and in-hospital medical progress data were recorded. Death during the course of hospitalization was considered the end point, and the impact of SES on in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Results: A total of 6246 hospitalized patients (3290 low SES and 2956 high SES) were included (mean age = 60.3 ± 12.1 years, male = 2772 [44.4%]). Among them, 79 (1.26%) patients died. Univariable analysis showed a significantly higher mortality rate in the low-SES group (1.9% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible cofounders, SES still showed a significant effect on the in-hospital mortality of the ACS patients in that the high-SES patients had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio: 0.304, 95% confidence interval: 0.094–0.980; P = 0.046). Conclusions: This study found that patients with low SES were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality due to the ACS. Furthermore, the results suggest the need for increased availability of jobs as well as improved levels of education as preventive measures to curb the unfolding deaths owing to coronary artery syndrome. PMID:25984286

  17. Influence of perinatal trans fat on behavioral responses and brain oxidative status of adolescent rats acutely exposed to stress.

    PubMed

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Roversi, K; Kuhn, F T; Schuster, A J; Vey, L T; Dias, V T; Barcelos, R C S; Piccolo, J; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2013-09-01

    Because consumption of processed foods has increased in the last decades and so far its potential influence on emotionality and susceptibility to stress is unknown, we studied the influence of different fatty acids (FA) on behavioral and biochemical parameters after acute restrain stress (AS) exposure. Two sequential generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (control group; C-SO), fish oil (FO) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) from pregnancy and during lactation. At 41days of age, half the animals of each supplemented group were exposed to AS and observed in open field and elevated plus maze task, followed by euthanasia for biochemical assessments. The HVF-supplemented group showed higher anxiety-like symptoms per se, while the C-SO and FO groups did not show these behaviors. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF showed locomotor restlessness in the open field, while both C-SO and HVF groups showed anxiety-like symptoms in the elevated plus maze, but this was not observed in the FO group. Biochemical evaluations showed higher lipoperoxidation levels and lower cell viability in cortex in the HVF group. In addition, HVF-treated rats showed reduced catalase activity in striatum and hippocampus, as well as increased generation of reactive species in striatum, while FO was associated with increased cell viability in the hippocampus. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF increased reactive species generation in the brain, decreased cell viability in the cortex and striatum, and decreased catalase activity in the striatum and hippocampus. Taken together, our findings show that the type of FA provided during development and growth over two generations is able to modify the brain oxidative status, which was particularly adversely affected by trans fat. In addition, the harmful influence of chronic consumption of trans fats as observed in this study can enhance emotionality and anxiety parameters resulting from stressful situations of everyday life, which can

  18. Acute effects of different types of oil consumption on endothelial function, oxidative stress status and vascular inflammation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tousoulis, Dimitris; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Antoniades, Charalambos; Giolis, Anastasios; Bouras, George; Gounari, Panagiota; Stefanadi, Elli; Miliou, Antigoni; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of different types of oil may have different effects on cardiovascular risk. The exact role of maize oil, cod liver oil, soya oil and extra virgin olive oil on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated the effect of acute consumption of these types of oil on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy adults. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers were randomised to receive an oral amount of each type of oil or water. Endothelial function was evaluated by gauge-strain plethysmography at baseline and 1, 2 and 3 h after consumption. Oxidative stress status was determined by total lipid peroxides (PEROX), while inflammatory process was estimated by measuring the soluble form of vascular adhesion molecule 1. Serum levels of the two previous markers were measured at baseline and 3 h after oil consumption. Reactive hyperaemia (RH) was significantly decreased after maize oil consumption compared with controls (P < 0.05). However, the consumption of cod liver oil and soya oil induced a significant improvement of RH after 1 h, compared with controls (P < 0.05). There was no significant effect of any type of oil consumption on endothelium-independent dilatation, total lipid PEROX and vascular adhesion molecule 1 serum levels. Consumption of maize oil leads to impaired endothelial function, while soya oil and cod liver oil slightly improve endothelial function. However, all types of oils did not affect inflammatory process and systemic oxidative stress, suggesting that their effect on endothelial function may not be mediated by free radicals bioavailability.

  19. Alteration of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Following Acute Ischemic Injury as a Means to Improve Cellular Energetic Status in Neuroadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Grelli, Kimberly N.; Palubinsky, Amy M.; Kale, A. Cozette; Lizama-Manibusan, Britney N.; Stankowski, Jeannette N.; Milne, Ginger L.; Singer, Robert; McLaughlin, BethAnn

    2013-01-01

    The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzymes were initially identified as essential components of the Krebs cycle. IDH mutations were thought to be incompatible with cell survival. However, 90% of glioblastomas were recently shown to be associated with somatic mutations in these enzymes, indicating a possible role for IDH in promoting cellular survival in hypoxic environments. Our proteomic analysis of rats given 10 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion to induce transient ischemia demonstrates a significant decrease in IDH expression. We have recapitulated this decrease in an in vitro model using primary cortical neurons exposed to acute oxygen and glucose deprivation. Given the role of IDHs in energy metabolism and antioxidant production, we hypothesize that the IDHs may serve as first-line, rapid-response enzymes that regulate survival in environments of energetic or oxidative stress. In order to identify the specific events that regulate IDH enzymes, HT-22 neural cells were subjected to either a selective energetic challenge or a pure oxidative stress. In response to the non-lethal energetic challenge induced by substituting galactose for glucose, we observed increased IDH1, 2, and 3 expression and cessation of cellular proliferation. No change in expression of any IDH isoform was observed when neural cells were subjected to subtoxic oxidative stress via glutathione depletion. Taken together, these data imply that IDH expression rapidly responds to changes in energetic status, but not to oxidative stress. These data also suggest that IDH enzymes respond not only to allosteric modulation, but can also change patterns of expression in response to moderate stress in an effort to maximize ATP production and survival. PMID:23469839

  20. Mental health status and gender as risk factors for onset of physical illness over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Flora I; Smith, Katherine L W; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in understanding the connection between mental illness (MI) and the onset of new physical illnesses among previously physically healthy individuals. Yet the role of gender is often forgotten in research focused on comorbidity of health problems. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the onset of physical illness in a cohort of respondents who met criteria for MI compared with a control cohort without mental health problems. Methods This cohort study, conducted in Ontario, Canada, used a unique linked dataset with information from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and medical records (n=15 902). We used adjusted Cox proportional survival analysis to examine risk of onset of four physical health problems (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, asthma, hypertension and diabetes) for those with and without baseline MI across a 10-year period (2002–2011) among respondents aged 18–74 years. We controlled for socioeconomic and health indicators associated with health. Results The incidence of physical illness in the MI cohort was 28.5% among women and 29.9% among men (p=0.85) relative to controls (23.8% and 24%, respectively; p=0.48). Women in the MI cohort developed secondary physical health problems a year earlier than their male counterparts (p=0.002). Findings from the Cox proportional survival regression showed that women were at 14% reduced risk of developing physical illness, meaning that men were more disadvantaged (HR=0.89, CI 0.80 to 0.98). Those in the MI cohort were at 10 times greater risk of developing a secondary physical illness over the 10-year period (HR=1.10, CI 0.98 to 1.21). There was no significant interaction between gender and MI cohort (HR=1.05, CI 0.85 to 1.27). Conclusions Policy and clinical practice have to be sensitive to these complex-needs patients. Gender-specific treatment and prevention practices can be developed to target those at higher risk of

  1. Cognitive and Language Function in Aphasic Patients Assessed With the Korean Version of Mini-Mental Status Examination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Jeong, Hyun Sun; Moon, Eun Rhan; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical usefulness of the relatively short instrument, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), for testing the association between cognition and language function in subacute post-stroke aphasia patients. Methods Medical charts of 111 post-stroke patients (65 men; age 69.6±10.0 years; 124.6±80.6 days post-onset) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were assessed longitudinally for aphasia using the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) and for cognition using the MMSE-K. Patients were categorized and analyzed according to 3 aphasia-severity clusters. Results All subscales of the K-WAB showed significant improvement in follow-up assessments in all groups (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Only the scores of orientation, language function, and total score of MMSE-K showed significant improvement in all groups (p<0.01). The more severely impaired group showed stronger Pearson correlation coefficients between cognition and language function. Additionally, comparisons between correlation coefficients showed that the association of improvement in orientation with that of fluency and AQ% (aphasia quotient %) was significant in the more severely impaired group. Conclusion Among subacute post-stroke aphasic patients, patients with more severe aphasia showed greater impairments to cognitive function; in addition, recovery of orientation may be related to recovery of language function. PMID:26949682

  2. Comparison of rate of annual change of mental status score in four independent studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Katzman, R; Brown, T; Thal, L J; Fuld, P A; Aronson, M; Butters, N; Klauber, M R; Wiederholt, W; Pay, M; Xiong, R B

    1988-09-01

    Longitudinal studies of subjects with autopsy-proven Alzheimer's disease in one skilled nursing home and of clinically diagnosed cases (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) in three community cohorts are compared with regard to the annual rate of change in the error score of the Blessed information-memory-concentration test (IMC) in which the maximum number of errors possible is 33. The four cohorts differed significantly from each other in regard to age, education, sex, and the degree of dementia as measured by the initial IMC score. Subjects spanned the age range of 52 to 96 years and had 2 to 20 years of education. The rate of change in error score per year was similar whether the initial error score was 0 to 7, 8 to 15, or 16 to 23; however, the rate was reduced when the initial error score was 24 or above, due to a ceiling effect of the test. Among subjects with initial IMC scores less than 24, the annual rate of change varied considerably. However, the mean annual rate of change, 4.4 errors (SD +/- 3.6, SEM +/- 0.3) per year, was independent of residence in a nursing home, location of the study site, and of the patient's sex or education. Of particular importance was the finding that the rate of change in mental test score was independent of age. It can be concluded that the rate of cognitive deterioration in patients with Alzheimer's disease is quite variable among individuals and is independent of the patient's age and whether the patient resides in the community or in a nursing home.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H.X.; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Results: Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70–79 years group and 80–89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). Conclusions: The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China. PMID:26506364

  4. [The effect of endovascular helium-neon laser therapy on the immune status of patients with acute calculous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Siniukhin, V N; Ianenko, E K; Safanov, R M; Khamaganova, E G; Borisik, V I

    1996-01-01

    Cellular immunity was assessed in 48 patients with acute calculous pyelonephritis exposed to intravenous He-Ne laser therapy. It was found that endovascular He-Ne laser therapy in the study regimens corrects immunological abnormalities arising in acute calculous pyelonephritis. PMID:9036617

  5. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  6. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba-Arenas, Sara; Jiménez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; López-López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p < 0.01). Mean number of decayed teeth was higher in SG (3.1) compared to CG (1.8) (p=0.047). Mean number of missing teeth were 25.2 and 16.4 in SG and CG respectively (p<0.05). DMFT scores were higher in SG in all the age groups (p < 0.01). Mean number of teeth per person needing treatment was 3.4 in SG and 1.9 in CG (p= 0.037). The need for restorative dental care was significantly lower in the SG (0.8 teeth per person) than in the CG (1.7 teeth per person) (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Institutionalized psychiatric patients have significantly worse dental status and more dental treatment needs than non-psychiatric patients. Key words:Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia. PMID:23229258

  7. Returning home: forced conscription, reintegration, and mental health status of former abductees of the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick; Stover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    are multiple, ranging from witnessing to being forced to commit violent acts, and compounded by prolonged exposure to violence, often for months or years. Community-based mental health care services and reintegration programs are needed to facilitate the reintegration of former abductees back into their communities. PMID:19445689

  8. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  9. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. PMID:25241113

  10. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.

  11. The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship…

  12. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  13. The Impact of Educational Status on 10-Year (2004-2014) Cardiovascular Disease Prognosis and All-cause Mortality Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome (GREECS) Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Notara, Venetia; Kogias, Yannis; Stravopodis, Petros; Antonoulas, Antonis; Zombolos, Spyros; Mantas, Yannis; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The association between educational status and 10-year risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and all-cause mortality was evaluated. Methods: From October 2003 to September 2004, 2172 consecutive ACS patients from six Greek hospitals were enrolled. In 2013 to 2014, a 10-year follow-up (2004-2014) assessment was performed for 1918 participants (participation rate, 88%). Each patient’s educational status was classified as low (<9 years of school), intermediate (9 to 14 years), or high (>14 years). Results: Overall all-cause mortality was almost twofold higher in the low-education group than in the intermediate-education and high-education groups (40% vs. 22% and 19%, respectively, p<0.001). Additionally, 10-year recurrent ACS events (fatal and non-fatal) were more common in the low-education group than in the intermediate-education and high-education groups (42% vs. 30% and 35%, p<0.001), and no interactions between sex and education on the investigated outcomes were observed. Moreover, patients in the high-education group were more physically active, had a better financial status, and were less likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or ACS than the participants with the least education (p<0.001); however, when those characteristics and lifestyle habits were accounted for, no moderating effects regarding the relationship of educational status with all-cause mortality and ACS events were observed. Conclusions: A U-shaped association may be proposed for the relationship between ACS prognosis and educational status, with participants in the low-education and high-education groups being negatively affected by other factors (e.g., job stress, depression, or loneliness). Public health policies should be aimed at specific social groups to reduce the overall burden of cardiovascular disease morbidity. PMID:27499164

  14. Acute Care For Elders Units Produced Shorter Hospital Stays At Lower Cost While Maintaining Patients’ Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Palmer, Robert M.; Kresevic, Denise M.; Fortinsky, Richard H.; Kowal, Jerome; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Landefeld, C. Seth

    2013-01-01

    Acute Care for Elders Units offer enhanced care for older adults in specially designed hospital units. The care is delivered by interdisciplinary teams, which can include geriatricians, advanced practice nurses, social workers, pharmacists, and physical therapists. In a randomized controlled trial of 1,632 elderly patients, length-of-stay was significantly shorter—6.7 days per patient versus 7.3 days per patient—among those receiving care in the Acute Care for Elders Unit compared to usual care. This difference produced lower total inpatient costs—$9,477 per patient versus $10,451 per patient—while maintaining patients’ functional abilities and not increasing hospital readmission rates. The practices of Acute Care for Elders Units, and the principles they embody, can provide hospitals with effective strategies for lowering costs while preserving quality of care for hospitalized elders. PMID:22665834

  15. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  16. Women, catastrophe and mental health.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Beverley; Taylor, Mel; McAndrew, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of catastrophic experience, its relationship to the range of acute and prolonged stressors to which women may be exposed and the broad impacts on their mental health and well-being. It identifies catastrophe in terms of multiple accumulated stresses including death, loss, victimization, demoralization, shame, stigmatization, helplessness and identity. Catastrophic experiences include personal violence in domestic circumstances of intimate partner abuse, sexual assault and child physical and sexual abuse. Women's experiences of loss through the violent deaths of children and loved ones may also have such enduring impacts. Terrorism victimizes men and women in this way, with the enduring impacts for women in terms of threat of ongoing attacks as well as acute effects and their aftermath. The catastrophes of war, conflict, genocide, sexual exploitation and refugee status differentially affect large numbers of women, directly and through their concerns for the care of their children and loved ones. Ultimate catastrophes such as Hiroshima and the Holocaust are discussed but with recognition of the very large numbers of women currently experiencing catastrophe in ongoing ways that may be silent and unrecognized. This is significant for clinical care and population impacts, and in the losses for women across such contexts.

  17. Analytic and Special Studies Reports; Utilization of Psychiatric Facilities by Children: Current Status, Trends, Implications. Mental Health Statistics, Series B, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Beatrice M.; And Others

    Data are presented concerning the total number of children served in psychiatric facilities and the utilization of specific facilities, including outpatient psychiatric clinics, state and county mental hospitals, private mental hospitals, inpatient psychiatric services of general hospitals, psychiatric day-night services, private psychiatric…

  18. Mental health status of women in Jordan: a comparative study between attendees of governmental and UN relief and works agency's health care centers.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Hamaideh, Shaher; Mudallal, Rula

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in mental health problems between attendees of governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan. Further, predictors of mental health problems based on women's demographic profile were investigated. A convenience sample of 620 women attending governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan was recruited for this purpose. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify differences in mental health, and multiple linear regression was implemented to identify significant predictors of women's mental health problems. Results indicated an absence of significant differences in mental health problems between attendees of the two types of health care centers. Further, among the demographic indicators that were tested, income, spousal violence, and general health were the predictors of at least three different mental health problems in women. This study highlights opportunities for health professionals to decrease women's propensity for mental health problems by addressing these factors when treating women attending primary care centers in different Jordanian towns, villages, and refugee camps.

  19. Social Work and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Meyer, Ed.

    Of special interest for social work students, teachers, and practitioners, the collection of 94 articles presents a broad survey of the field of mental retardation particularly as it relates to social work. The articles indicate both past work and the current status of social work practice with the mentally retarded. Material includes background…

  20. Is the telephone interview for cognitive status a valid alternative in persons who cannot be evaluated by the Mini Mental State Examination?

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Del Lungo, I; Guralnik, J M; Bandinelli, S; Benvenuti, E; Salani, B; Lamponi, M; Ubezio, C; Benvenuti, F; Baroni, A

    1998-08-01

    The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), a widely used tool for first-line assessment of cognitive function, cannot be fully administered to persons with severe visual or upper extremity impairments. This cross-sectional study, which was performed in a sample of patients admitted to the outpatient clinic of the INRCA Geriatric Department "I Fraticini" (Firenze, Italy) and their relatives, evaluated whether the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), a test originally created for telephone screening of cognitive impairment, is a valid alternative for assessment of cognition in persons who cannot provide valid responses to all the MMSE items. Fifteen subjects in each of seven MMSE strata (9-11, 12-14, 15-17, 18-20, 21-23, 24-26, 27-30) were consecutively selected. Inclusion criteria were: age > or = 60 years; Italian as the main language; education > or = 3 years; medical stability; and ability to complete the MMSE. At admission, participants were examined for dementia by an expert clinician according to the DSM IV criteria. Italian versions of the TICS and the MMSE were administered face-to-face by two trained interviewers. The TICS was readministered face-to-face one week later by the same interviewer that had previously administered the test. The TICS showed good test-retest reproducibility. Assessments taken one week apart differed on average by 0.52 +/- 1.9 points (p < 0.01), indicating a systematic improvement. The TICS explained 96% of the variance in the MMSE, and this association was independent of age, gender and education. More than 90% of the cases "screening positive" (i.e., scoring below a certain cut-off) by the TICS, were also identified as "screening positive" when comparable MMSE cut-off scores were used. Using comparable cut-off scores, the sensitivity and specificity of TICS and MMSE in detecting a standard clinical diagnosis of dementia largely overlapped. In persons who cannot be evaluated with the MMSE in its full form, the face

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory reaction in acute lung injury via regulating inflammation and redox status.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianfeng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yingxun; Ma, Chunhua

    2015-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) represents a clinical syndrome that results from complex responses of the lung to a multitude of direct and indirect insults. This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol (EUL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory reaction in ALI. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and EUL (5, and 10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h prior to LPS administration. After 6h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. The findings suggest that the protective mechanism of EUL may be attributed partly to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines through the regulating inflammation and redox status. The results support that use of EUL is beneficial in the treatment of ALI.

  2. Home Foreclosure, Health, and Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Individual, Aggregate, and Contextual Associations

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health. Methods and Findings I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%]) concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations. Conclusions Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits. PMID:25849962

  3. Effect of the co-occurring components from olive oil and thyme extracts on the antioxidant status and its bioavailability in an acute ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to examine whether bioactives in thyme could enhance the antioxidant capacity of phenolics in virgin olive oil and their bioavailability in Wistar rats. After acute oral administration of extracts from olive cake (OE), thyme (TE) or their combination (OTE), blood samples were collected from 0 to 360 min. Plasma antioxidant status was analyzed by DPPH and FRAP in plasma and by SOD, CAT and GPx activities in erythrocytes. Plasma pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites of bioactives in olive oil and thyme were characterized. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was significantly modulated by OE, TE, and OTE in a time-, assay, and extract-dependent manner. OE, TE, and OTE all significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and catalase (CAT) activity was increased. Pharmacokinetic results showed that plasma concentration (Cmax) of the main olive phenolic metabolites in rats fed with OTE were similar to those of OE. These results indicate that an enhanced bioavailability of olive phenolic compounds could occur in the presence of thyme, although any synergistic effect was observed in the antioxidant status when both phenolic extracts were administered. Antioxidant protection by phenolics from olive and thyme against oxidative stress occurs primarily through a direct antioxidant effect and may be related to the phenolic plasmatic metabolites.

  4. MiR-424 and miR-155 deregulated expression in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia: correlation with NPM1 and FLT3 mutation status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA have a central role in normal haematopoiesis and are deregulated in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The purpose of the study was to investigate by qRT-PCR the expression of miRNAs involved in myeloid differentiation (miR-424, miR-155, miR-223, miR-17-5p) in 48 patients with cytogenetically normal AML well characterized for NPM1 and/or FLT3 mutations. Three types of normalization were used for the data validation. Findings We found that miR-424 was down-modulated in AMLs with NPM1mutA regardless of FLT3 status. On the contrary, miR-155 showed up-regulation in patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITD) with or without NPM1 mutations. No significant associations were found by analyzing miR-223 and miR-17-5p in relation to FLT3 and NPM1 status. Conclusions This study supports the view that major genetic subsets of CN-AML are associated with distinct miRNA signatures and suggests that miR-424 and miR-155 deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of CN-AML with NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations, respectively. PMID:22681934

  5. Acute tubular necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the following cases: Decreased mental status Fluid overload Increased potassium level Pericarditis Removal of toxins that ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  6. Disaster-related mental health needs of women and children.

    PubMed

    Corrarino, Jane E

    2008-01-01

    Since the events of September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina, the world has become more acutely aware of disasters and their sequelae, and efforts have been made to improve preparedness-related skills of healthcare professionals. One area that requires more skill building concerns the ability to deal with mental health-related needs. Although the appearance of postdisaster psychological symptoms in adults varies, the incidence of psychopathology in women and children is high after disasters. Children are disproportionately affected by disasters, and their special needs have only recently begun to be understood and considered in disaster-related planning. Categories of psychological effects include distress symptoms, risk behaviors, and psychiatric disorders. These issues require ongoing care, not single interventions. This article describes how maternal child health nurses can develop and use the requisite skills to effectively assist families to optimize their mental health status and prevent sequelae after a disaster.

  7. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian; Friis, Henrik

    2015-10-14

    While prenatal Fe supplementation prevents maternal Fe deficiency and anaemia, it is uncertain whether it improves infant health outcomes, at least when taken by Fe-replete women. Inflammation as well as physiological changes complicates the assessment of Fe status during pregnancy. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), Hb and the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in a cross-sectional study among 738 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of Fe status markers. The mean gestational age was 23 (sd 7) weeks. Serum ferritin values were lower with progressing gestation, from 27% lower during weeks 16-20 of gestation up to 59% lower after 29 weeks of gestation compared with early pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52% of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25% had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47% after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum ferritin < 12 μg/l increased to 33% after adjustment for ACT and CRP. The high proportion of elevated serum sTfR calls for pregnancy-specific cut-offs since increased erythropoiesis is expected in response to increased plasma volume of pregnancy. The present study further underlines the need to adjust for inflammation when serum sTfR and serum ferritin are used to assess Fe status in pregnancy.

  8. Association of Vitamin D Status and Acute Rhinosinusitis: Results From the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ayesha N; Ladha, Karim S; Luong, Amber U; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2015-10-01

    Although vitamin D status may be a modifiable risk factor for various respiratory ailments, limited data exists regarding its role in sinonasal infections. Our goal was to investigate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels with acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in a large, nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. In this cross-sectional study of individuals ≥ 17 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006, we used multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARS, while adjusting for season, demographics (age, sex, race, and poverty-to-income ratio), and clinical data (smoking, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and neutropenia). A total of 3921 individuals were included in our analyses. Median 25OHD level was 22 (interquartile range 16-28) ng/mL. Overall, 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.4-17.7) of participants reported ARS within the 24 hours leading up to their survey participation. After adjusting for season, demographics, and clinical data, 25OHD levels were associated with ARS (odds ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99 per 10 ng/mL). When vitamin D status was dichotomized, 25OHD levels < 20 ng/mL were associated with 33% higher odds of ARS (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.72) compared with levels ≥ 20 ng/mL. Our analyses suggest that 25OHD levels are inversely associated with ARS. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of sinonasal infections. PMID:26447998

  9. The effect of acute dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane exposure on hypermethylation status and down-regulation of p53 and p16INK4a genes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Grażyna; Urbanek-Olejnik, Katarzyna; Liszewska, Monika; Winczura, Alicja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the early effect of acute dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure on the methylation status of the promoter region of two tumor suppressor genes: p53 and p16(INK4a) (p16) in rat liver. We analyzed their transcript and protein expression profiles concurrently with the examination of transcriptional and protein expression levels of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Male Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of DDT (57 mg kg(-1) of body weight) and the methylation status of p53 and p16 genes was examined after 24 h using methylation-sensitive restriction analysis-MSRA. The obtained results indicate that DDT induced alternations in methylation of the promoter region in both p53 and p16 genes. In all the tested samples, the promoter CpG islands of p53 (-261, -179, and -450) were methylated within 100% as compared to control samples (0%). The methylation status of the p16 promoter (-11 and +77) was also altered due to exposure to DDT. Methylated cytosines were detectable in 75% of the tested DNA samples. The Real-time PCR and western blot analyses showed a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of p53, respectively, which was related to the increase in DNA synthesis. These relationships were also observed for mRNA and protein expressions of p16, although to a slighter extent. We also showed that hypermethylation in the promoter region of both tumor suppressor genes was consistent with an increased Dnmt1 mRNA level, and this relationship was further confirmed at the protein level of DNMT1. Concluding, our data suggests that epigenetically mediated changes in gene expression may play an important role in the mechanism of DDT toxicity, including carcinogenic action.

  10. Association of Vitamin D Status and Acute Rhinosinusitis: Results From the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ayesha N; Ladha, Karim S; Luong, Amber U; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2015-10-01

    Although vitamin D status may be a modifiable risk factor for various respiratory ailments, limited data exists regarding its role in sinonasal infections. Our goal was to investigate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels with acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) in a large, nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. In this cross-sectional study of individuals ≥ 17 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006, we used multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARS, while adjusting for season, demographics (age, sex, race, and poverty-to-income ratio), and clinical data (smoking, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and neutropenia). A total of 3921 individuals were included in our analyses. Median 25OHD level was 22 (interquartile range 16-28) ng/mL. Overall, 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.4-17.7) of participants reported ARS within the 24 hours leading up to their survey participation. After adjusting for season, demographics, and clinical data, 25OHD levels were associated with ARS (odds ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99 per 10 ng/mL). When vitamin D status was dichotomized, 25OHD levels < 20 ng/mL were associated with 33% higher odds of ARS (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.72) compared with levels ≥ 20 ng/mL. Our analyses suggest that 25OHD levels are inversely associated with ARS. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of sinonasal infections.

  11. Acute renal toxicity after ingestion of Lava light liquid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Zabaneh, R; Reid, R

    1996-06-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse and seizure disorder presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, increased anion gap acidosis, phenytoin toxicity, and acute kidney failure. The patient had ingested the liquid contents of a Lava light, which contained chlorinated paraffin, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 200), kerosene, and micro-crystalline wax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of the patient's blood produced results consistent with the same analysis of the Lava light contents. After 3 days of declining mental status and worsening kidney function, the patient required hemodialysis. After a prolonged hospitalization, the patient was discharged home with residual renal insufficiency. Although multifactorial, the associated renal toxicity was most probably related to the low molecular weight polyethylene glycol content of the lamp's liquid contents. PMID:8644972

  12. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  13. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus☆

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Suzanne R.; Williams, Tanya J.; Lane, Diane A.; Knudsen, Margarete G.; Pickel, Virginia M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    In the hippocampus, ovarian hormones and sex can alter the trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) and the proportion of DORs that colocalize with the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor. Here, we assessed the effects of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and sex on the phosphorylation of DORs in the rat hippocampus. We first localized an antibody to phosphorylated DOR (pDOR) at the SER363 carboxy-terminal residue, and demonstrated its response to an opioid agonist. By light microscopy, pDOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was located predominantly in CA2/CA3a pyramidal cell apical dendrites and in interneurons in CA1-3 stratum oriens and the dentate hilus. By electron microscopy, pDOR-ir primarily was located in somata and dendrites, associated with endomembranes, or in dendritic spines. pDOR-ir was less frequently found in mossy fibers terminals. Quantitative light microscopy revealed a significant increase in pDOR-ir in the CA2/CA3a region of male rats 1 h following an injection of the opioid agonist morphine (20 mg/kg, I.P). To look at the effects of stress on pDOR, we compared pDOR-ir in males and cycling females after AIS. The level of pDOR-ir in stratum radiatum of CA2/CA3a was increased in control estrus (elevated estrogen and progesterone) females compared to proestrus and diestrus females and males. However, immediately following 30 min of AIS, no significant differences in pDOR levels were seen across estrous cycle phase or sex. These findings suggest that hippocampal levels of phosphorylated DORs vary with estrous cycle phase and that acute stress may dampen the differential effects of hormones on DOR activation in females. PMID:23583481

  14. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Bae, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Wakisaka, Takuya; Matsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Masao; Yasunaga, Koichi

    2014-11-14

    Elevated postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Green tea catechin possesses antidiabetic properties and antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we examined the acute and continuous effects of ingestion of catechin-rich green tea on postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned into the placebo (P, n 11) or green tea (GT, n 11) group. The GT group consumed a catechin-rich green tea (catechins 615 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. The P group consumed a placebo (catechins 92 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. At baseline and after 4 weeks, participants of each group consumed their designated beverages with breakfast and consumed lunch 3 h after breakfast. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose concentrations were 3 % lower in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). Serum concentrations of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites increased after meals (P< 0·05), but no effect of catechin-rich green tea intake was observed. Conversely, serum postprandial thioredoxin concentrations were 5 % higher in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). These findings indicate that an acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose and redox homeostasis in postmenopausal women.

  15. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Suzanne R; Williams, Tanya J; Lane, Diane A; Knudsen, Margarete G; Pickel, Virginia M; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2013-06-26

    In the hippocampus, ovarian hormones and sex can alter the trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) and the proportion of DORs that colocalize with the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor. Here, we assessed the effects of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and sex on the phosphorylation of DORs in the rat hippocampus. We first localized an antibody to phosphorylated DOR (pDOR) at the SER363 carboxy-terminal residue, and demonstrated its response to an opioid agonist. By light microscopy, pDOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was located predominantly in CA2/CA3a pyramidal cell apical dendrites and in interneurons in CA1-3 stratum oriens and the dentate hilus. By electron microscopy, pDOR-ir primarily was located in somata and dendrites, associated with endomembranes, or in dendritic spines. pDOR-ir was less frequently found in mossy fibers terminals. Quantitative light microscopy revealed a significant increase in pDOR-ir in the CA2/CA3a region of male rats 1h following an injection of the opioid agonist morphine (20mg/kg, I.P). To look at the effects of stress on pDOR, we compared pDOR-ir in males and cycling females after AIS. The level of pDOR-ir in stratum radiatum of CA2/CA3a was increased in control estrus (elevated estrogen and progesterone) females compared to proestrus and diestrus females and males. However, immediately following 30min of AIS, no significant differences in pDOR levels were seen across estrous cycle phase or sex. These findings suggest that hippocampal levels of phosphorylated DORs vary with estrous cycle phase and that acute stress may dampen the differential effects of hormones on DOR activation in females. PMID:23583481

  16. Aerobic exercise acutely prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome: the role of shear rate.

    PubMed

    Sales, Allan R K; Fernandes, Igor A; Rocha, Natália G; Costa, Lucas S; Rocha, Helena N M; Mattos, João D M; Vianna, Lauro C; Silva, Bruno M; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2014-04-01

    Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction, which is an important finding for subjects at cardiometabolic risk. Thus, we tested whether aerobic exercise prevents this dysfunction among subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether an increase in shear rate during exercise plays a role in this phenomenon. Subjects with MetS participated in two protocols. In protocol 1 (n = 16), endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects then underwent a mental stress test followed by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions. FMD was assessed again at 30 and 60 min after exercise or rest, with a second mental stress test in between. Mental stress reduced FMD at 30 and 60 min after the rest session (baseline: 7.7 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.5%, and 60 min: 3.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas exercise prevented this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 7.2 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline). Protocol 2 (n = 5) was similar to protocol 1 except that the first period of mental stress was followed by either exercise in which the brachial artery shear rate was attenuated via forearm cuff inflation or exercise without a cuff. Noncuffed exercise prevented the reduction in FMD (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.7%, 30 min: 7.0 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas cuffed exercise failed to prevent this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.6%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.8%, and 60 min: 4.1 ± 0.9%, P < 0.05 vs. baseline). In conclusion, exercise prevented mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction among subjects with MetS, and an increase in shear rate during exercise mediated this effect.

  17. Delivering dementia care differently—evaluating the differences and similarities between a specialist medical and mental health unit and standard acute care wards: a qualitative study of family carers’ perceptions of quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Karen; Foster, Pippa; Whittamore, Kathy H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Harwood, Rowan H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine in depth carers’ views and experiences of the delivery of patient care for people with dementia or delirium in an acute general hospital, in order to evaluate a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit (MMHU) compared with standard hospital wards. This qualitative study complemented the quantitative findings of a randomised controlled trial. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with carers of patients with cognitive impairment admitted to hospital over a 4-month period. Setting A specialist MMHU was developed in an English National Health Service acute hospital aiming to deliver the best-practice care. Specialist mental health staff were integrated with the ward team. All staff received enhanced training in dementia, delirium and person-centred care. A programme of purposeful therapeutic and leisure activities was introduced. The ward environment was optimised to improve patient orientation and independence. A proactive and inclusive approach to family carers was encouraged. Participants 40 carers who had been recruited to a randomised controlled trial comparing the MMHU with standard wards. Results The main themes identified related closely to family carers’ met or unmet expectations and included activities and boredom, staff knowledge, dignity and fundamental care, the ward environment and communication between staff and carers. Carers from MMHU were aware of, and appreciated, improvements relating to activities, the ward environment and staff knowledge and skill in the appropriate management of dementia and delirium. However, communication and engagement of family carers were still perceived as insufficient. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the extent to which the MMHU succeeded in its goal of providing the best-practice care and improving carer experience, and where deficiencies remained. Neither setting was perceived as neither wholly good nor wholly bad; however, greater satisfaction (and less dissatisfaction

  18. Physical and Mental Health Status of Staff Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: Measurement with the 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Sheng-Ru

    2009-01-01

    Little explicit attention has been given to the generic health profile of staff working for people with intellectual disability in institutions. This study aimed to provide a profile of physical and mental health of staff working in disability welfare institutions, and to examine the possible demographic and organizational factors that explain an…

  19. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  20. Breeding status affects the hormonal and metabolic response to acute stress in a long-lived seabird, the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2016-09-15

    Stress responses are suggested to physiologically underlie parental decisions promoting the redirection of behaviour away from offspring care when survival is jeopardized (e.g., when facing a predator). Besides this classical view, the "brood-value hypothesis" suggests that parents' stress responses may be adaptively attenuated to increase fitness, ensuring continued breeding when the relative value of the brood is high. Here, we test the brood-value hypothesis in breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), long-lived seabirds for which the energy commitment to reproduction is high. We subjected birds at different breeding stages (courtship, incubation and chick brooding) to an acute 30-min capture stress and measured their hormonal (corticosterone, CORT) and metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA) responses to stress. We found that CORT responses were markedly attenuated in chick-brooding birds when compared to earlier stages of breeding (courtship and incubation). In addition, NEFA responses appeared to be rapidly attenuated in incubating and brooding birds, but a progressive increase in NEFA plasma levels in courting birds suggested energy mobilization to deal with the threat. Our results support the idea that stress responses may constitute an important life-history mechanism mediating parental reproductive decisions in relation to their expected fitness outcome. PMID:27449343

  1. Acute phase proteins increase with sarcoptic mange status and severity in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838).

    PubMed

    Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Granados, José Enrique; Cerón, José Joaquín; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús María; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting both domestic and wild mammals, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate almost endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Acute phase proteins (APPs) could be an indicator of sarcoptic mange disease and severity in Iberian ibex. Serum samples from 131 healthy and sarcoptic mange-affected Iberian ibexes were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Sierra Nevada Natural Space in southern Spain. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were quantified, and statistically significant differences according to sarcoptic mange disease and severity were assessed. Both AGP and SAA were significantly higher in the sarcoptic mange-affected ibexes than in the healthy ones as well as in the severely affected ibexes as compared to those with less than 50 % of the body surface affected. For the first time, changes in APP are reported in relation to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex. It is also reported for the first time that the intensity of APP increase depends on the severity of sarcoptic mange, which could be related with the pathological secondary amyloidosis, leading to organ dysfunction in severely mange-affected animals. Species and population differences in the increase of APP in response to sarcoptic mange could indicate individual and population differences in the immune capability of each population to deal with mange, population prevalence and mortality being the last indicators of such sensitivity.

  2. Seasonal effect and long-term nutritional status following exit from a Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition program in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Burza, S; Mahajan, R; Marino, E; Sunyoto, T; Shandilya, C; Tabrez, M; Kumar, K; Jha, A; Mathew, P; Salse, N; Casademont, C; Mishra, N K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Children aged 6 months to 5 years completing treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a Médecins Sans Frontières Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) program in Bihar, India, showed high cure rates; however, the program suffered default rates of 38%. This report describes the nutritional status of 1956 children followed up between 3 and 18 months after exiting the program. Subjects/Methods: All children aged 6–59 months discharged as cured with mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ⩾120 mm or who defaulted from the program with MUAC <115 mm were traced at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months (±10 days) before three exit reference dates: first at the end of the food insecure period, second after the 2-month food security and third after the 4-month food security. Results: Overall, 68.7% (n=692) of defaulters and 76.2% (n=1264) of children discharged as cured were traced. Combined rates of non-recovery in children who defaulted with MUAC <115 mm were 41%, 30.1%, 9.9%, 6.1% and 3.6% at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months following exit, respectively. Combined rates of relapse among cured cases (MUAC ⩾120 mm) were 9.1%, 2.9%, 2.1%, 2.8% and 0% at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months following discharge, respectively. Prevalence of undernutrition increased substantially for both groups traced during low food security periods. Odds of death were much higher for children defaulting with MUAC <110 mm when compared with children discharged as cured, who shared the same mortality risk as those defaulting with MUAC 110–<115 mm. Conclusions: Seasonal food security predicted short-term nutritional status after exit, with relapse rates and non-recovery from SAM much higher during food insecurity. Mortality outcomes suggest that a MUAC of 110 mm may be considered an appropriate admission point for SAM treatment programs in this context. PMID:26330147

  3. How porphyrinogenic drugs modeling acute porphyria impair the hormonal status that regulates glucose metabolism. Their relevance in the onset of this disease.

    PubMed

    Matkovic, Laura B; D'Andrea, Florencia; Fornes, Daiana; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C; Mazzetti, Marta B

    2011-11-28

    This work deals with the study of how porphyrinogenic drugs modeling acute porphyrias interfere with the status of carbohydrate-regulating hormones in relation to key glucose enzymes and to porphyria, considering that glucose modulates the development of the disease. Female Wistar rats were treated with 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) using different doses of AIA (100, 250 and 500mg/kg body weight) and a single dose of DDC (50mg DDC/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed 16h after AIA/DDC administration. In the group treated with the highest dose of AIA (group H), hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S) increased more than 300%, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activities were 43% and 46% lower than the controls, respectively, plasmatic insulin levels exceeded normal values by 617%, and plasmatic glucocorticoids (GC) decreased 20%. GC results are related to a decrease in corticosterone (CORT) adrenal production (33%) and a significant reduction in its metabolization by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) (62%). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulated adrenal production 3-fold and drugs did not alter this process. Thus, porphyria-inducing drugs AIA and DDC dramatically altered the status of hormones that regulate carbohydrate metabolism increasing insulin levels and reducing GC production, metabolization and plasmatic levels. In this acute porphyria model, gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic blockages caused by PEPCK and GP depressed activities, respectively, would be mainly a consequence of the negative regulatory action of insulin on these enzymes. GC could also contribute to PEPCK blockage both because they were depressed by the treatment and because they are positive effectors on PEPCK. These disturbances in carbohydrates and their regulation, through ALA-S de-repression, would enhance the porphyria state promoted by the drugs on heme synthesis and destruction

  4. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:27533410

  5. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

  6. Optimizing fluid management in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF): the emerging role of combined measurement of body hydration status and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels.

    PubMed

    Valle, Roberto; Aspromonte, Nadia; Milani, Loredano; Peacock, Frank W; Maisel, Alan S; Santini, Massimo; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-11-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that in patients admitted with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF), achievement of adequate body hydration status with intensive medical therapy, modulated by combined bioelectrical vectorial impedance analysis (BIVA) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement, may contribute to optimize the timing of patient's discharge and to improve clinical outcomes. Three hundred patients admitted for ADHF underwent serial BIVA and BNP measurement. Therapy was titrated to reach a BNP value of <250 pg/ml, whenever possible. Patients were categorized as early responders (rapid BNP fall below 250 pg/ml); late responders (slow BNP fall below 250 pg/ml, after aggressive therapy); and non-responders (BNP persistently >250 pg/ml). Worsening of renal function (WRF) was evaluated during hospitalization. Death and rehospitalization were monitored with a 6-month follow-up. BNP value on discharge of ≤250 pg/ml led to a 25% event rate within 6 months (Group A: 17.4%; Group B: 21%, Chi2; n.s.), whereas a value >250 pg/ml (Group C) was associated with a far higher percentage (37%). At discharge, body hydration was 73.8 ± 3.2% in the total population and 73.2 ± 2.1, 73.5 ± 2.8, 74.1 ± 3.6% in the three groups, respectively. WRF was observed in 22.3% of the total. WRF occurred in 22% in Group A, 32% in Group B, and 20% in Group C (P = n.s.). Our study confirms the hypothesis that combined BNP/BIVA sequential measurements help to achieve adequate fluid balance status in patients with ADHF and can be used to drive a "tailored therapy," allowing clinicians to identify high-risk patients and possibly to reduce the incidence of complications secondary to fluid management strategies.

  7. Energy status, lipid-soluble vitamins, and acute phase proteins in periparturient Holstein and Jersey dairy cows with or without subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rezamand, P; Hoagland, T A; Moyes, K M; Silbart, L K; Andrew, S M

    2007-11-01

    In a retrospective, case-controlled, observational study, associations among indices of negative energy balance, plasma lipid and lipid-soluble vitamin concentrations, plasma acute phase protein status, and occurrence of a new subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) during the periparturient period were determined. Cows were paired based on breed and expected parturition date (EPD) and monitored from the cessation of lactation through wk 8 of the subsequent lactation. A cow was identified as developing a new IMI if the intramammary pathogen isolated postpartum differed from that isolated in wk -9 (relative to EPD). Mean body condition score (BCS) of cows at wk -9 was 3.71 +/- 0.12. Fifteen Holstein and 15 Jersey dairy cows met the study selection criteria. Cows with a new IMI had greater body condition score, body weight, and body weight loss compared with cows that did not develop a new IMI. Prepartum plasma concentrations of beta-carotene were greater for Jersey cows with a new IMI compared with Jersey cows without a new IMI and Holstein cows, regardless of IMI status. However, there was a significant delay in recovery of plasma concentrations of beta-carotene postpartum for Jersey cows with a new IMI compared with Jersey cows without a new IMI. Plasma alpha-tocopherol, albumin, and retinol binding protein concentrations were greater during the periparturient period for cows without a new IMI. Plasma haptoglobin was increased at wk 1 postpartum for cows without a new IMI. Milk protein and lactose percentages and milk urea N were decreased and somatic cell counts were increased in cows identified with a new IMI compared with cows that did not develop a new IMI. Dairy cows with greater tissue energy stores prepartum and reduced plasma proteins, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol had a greater risk for developing a new IMI during the periparturient period.

  8. Severe Acute Malnutrition in Childhood: Hormonal and Metabolic Status at Presentation, Response to Treatment, and Predictors of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Sarah; Mody, Aaloke; Hornik, Christoph; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiyimba, Tonny; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; Bartlett, John; St Peter, John V.; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. To identify and target those at highest risk, there is a critical need to characterize biomarkers that predict complications prior to and during treatment. Methods: We used targeted and nontargeted metabolomic analysis to characterize changes in a broad array of hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and metabolites during treatment of severe childhood malnutrition. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were studied at presentation to Mulago Hospital and during inpatient therapy with milk-based formulas and outpatient supplementation with ready-to-use food. We assessed the relationship between baseline hormone and metabolite levels and subsequent mortality. Results: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in the study; a subset was followed up from inpatient treatment to the outpatient clinic. Inpatient and outpatient therapies increased weight/height z scores and induced striking changes in the levels of fatty acids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammatory cytokines, and various hormones including leptin, insulin, GH, ghrelin, cortisol, IGF-I, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY. A total of 12.2% of the patients died during hospitalization; the major biochemical factor predicting mortality was a low level of leptin (P = .0002), a marker of adipose tissue reserve and a critical modulator of immune function. Conclusions: We have used metabolomic analysis to provide a comprehensive hormonal and metabolic profile of severely malnourished children at presentation and during nutritional rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that fatty acid metabolism plays a central role in the adaptation to acute malnutrition and that low levels of the adipose tissue hormone leptin associate with, and may predict, mortality prior to and during treatment. PMID:24606092

  9. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Keith L; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Pierce, Joseph P; Kelter, David T; Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-08-19

    Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR) are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV) containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR) in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS), males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages) had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals. PMID:22468144

  10. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care.

  11. Economic stress and mental health.

    PubMed

    Butts, H F

    1979-04-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced:1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia.2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability.3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate.4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable.5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector.6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care.7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent.

  12. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  13. Expansion and methylation status at FRAXE can be detected on EcoRI blots used for FRAXA diagnosis: Analysis of four FRAXE families with mild mental retardation in males

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, V.; Bouix, J.C.; Mandel, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The original test for the analysis of the CCG expansion at the FRAXE locus involves Southern blot analysis of HindIII digests. We show that, by using a different probe, the FRAXE mutation can be detected easily on the same EcoRI or EagI+EcoRI blots as are used for detection of FRAXA. Unexpectedly, we found that both the expansion and methylation status can be determined on a single EcoRI digest, because of the presence of a methylation-sensitive EcoRI site very close to the CCG repeat. We thus detected in a series of mentally retarded individuals previously tested for FRAXA expansion a FRAXE proband who led to the identification of a large sibship (7 of 10 children carrying a mutation). We also show that two fragile X families without FRAXA mutation that previously have been described by Oberle et al. have the FRAXE expansion. In another family also ascertained initially by cytogenetic finding of a fragile X site, we performed the combined cytogenetic and molecular prenatal diagnosis of a mutated male fetus. All nine males (>3 years old) in whom we found a methylated mutation had mild mental retardation. Our results suggest that the threshold of repeat length for abnormal methylation and fragile-site expression may be smaller at FRAXE than at FRAXA. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  16. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others

    Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

  17. Acute administration of a small molecule p75NTR ligand does not prevent hippocampal neuron loss nor development of spontaneous seizures after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Grabenstatter, H.L.; Carlsen, J.; Raol, Y.H.; Yang, T.; Hund, D.; Del Angel, Y. Cruz; White, A.M.; Gonzalez, M.I.; Longo, F.M.; Russek, S.J.; Brooks-Kayal, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are initially expressed in a precursor form (e.g., proBDNF) and cleaved to form mature BDNF (mBDNF). Following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), increases in neurotrophins regulate a wide variety of cell signaling pathways including pro-survival and cell-death machinery in a receptor-specific manner. ProBDNF preferentially binds to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), while mBDNF is the major ligand of the tropomyosin related kinase receptor (TrkB). To elucidate a potential role of p75NTR in acute stages of epileptogenesis, rats were injected prior to and at onset of SE with LM11A-31, a small molecule ligand that binds to p75NTR to promote survival signaling and inhibit neuronal cell death. Modulation of early p75NTR signaling and its effects on (1) electrographic SE, (2) SE-induced neurodegeneration, and (3) subsequent spontaneous seizures were examined following LM11A-31 administration. Despite an established neuroprotective effect of LM11A-31 in several animal models of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury), high-dose LM11A-31 administration prior to and at onset of SE did not reduce the intensity of electrographic SE, prevent SE-induced neuronal cell injury, nor inhibit the progression of epileptogenesis. Further studies are required to understand the role of p75NTR activation during epileptogenesis and in seizure-induced cell injury in the hippocampus among other potential cellular pathologies contributing to the onset of spontaneous seizures. Additional studies utilizing more prolonged treatment with LM11A-31 are required to reach a definite conclusion on its potential neuroprotective role in epilepsy. PMID:24801281

  18. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    PubMed Central

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P < 0.05). In response to exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P < 0.05). The MSM group had higher IL-1β at baseline when compared to YSM, although IL-1ra was greater for YSM at baseline (P < 0.05). Finally, the post-exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, smoker’s exhibit elevated MCP-1 and IL-1β that seem to be evident with a longer smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  19. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  20. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  1. Physical activity interventions and children's mental function: An introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Lambourne, Kate; Okumura, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Background This review provides a historical overview of physical activity interventions designed by American educators and an evaluation of research that has assessed the effects of exercise on children's mental function. Method Historical descriptions of the emergence of American physical education doctrine throughout the 20th century were evaluated. Prior reviews of studies that assessed the effects of single acute bouts of exercise and the effects of chronic exercise training on children's mental function were examined and the results of recent studies were summarized. Results Physical activity interventions designed for American children have reflected two competing views: activities should promote physical fitness and activities should promote social, emotional, and intellectual development. Research results indicate that exercise fosters the emergence of children's mental function; particularly executive functioning. The route by which physical activity impacts mental functioning is complex and is likely moderated by several variables, including physical fitness level, health status, and numerous psycho-social factors. Conclusion Physical activity interventions for children should be designed to meet multiple objectives; e.g., optimize physical fitness, promote health-related behaviors that offset obesity, and facilitate mental development. PMID:21420981

  2. Acute confusional state caused by Hashimoto's encephalopathy in a patient with hypothyroidism: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nookala, Vinod; Srivastava, Anupam; Qazizadeh, Salim; Fischman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is an unusual condition associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. This immune-mediated, steroid-dependent entity was first described thirty years ago. In this case report, we discuss the importance of considering this diagnosis in the evaluation of confusion. Case presentation The patient is a 55-year-old African-American woman residing in United States, who was admitted to the hospital with a four-day history of mental status changes. Her past medical history was significant for type II Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Hypothyroidism. There was no reported seizure activity. The patient's vital signs were stable on admission. On examination, the patient was awake, alert, oriented to place and time. Her neurological examination revealed agraphia and dyslexia. Her speech showed lack of fluency and hesitation. Her complete blood count and electrolytes were within normal limits. The patient's brain CT scan did not reveal any significant findings. Her Magnetic Resonance Imaging only revealed mild chronic microangiopathy, which caused by “small vessel disease.” Her Electroencephalogram did not reveal any finding consistent with seizure activity. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis was likewise did not reveal a cause for this patient's acute onset of confusion. In contrast to the above negative finding, this patient's Thyroid stimulating hormone was discovered to be 15 UIU/ml. She was subsequently given 1000 mg of intravenous Methylprednisolone daily for 3 days. This three-day course of high-dose, intravenous steroids resulted complete resolution of the patient's symptoms. She was then discharged on an eleven-day course of oral prednisone 60 mg. Conclusion Hashimoto's Encephalopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute confusional state since it is responsive to steroid therapy and represents a readily reversible cause acute mental status changes. Clues to this diagnosis include elevated antithyroid

  3. Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…

  4. Children's Mental Health: An Urgent Priority for Illinois. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLandeghem, Karen

    The Illinois Children's Mental Health Task Force was convened in 2002 to assess the status of Illinois' mental health system for children from birth to age 18, and to develop short- and long-term recommendations for assuring that all Illinois children have access to coordinated and comprehensive mental health services and programs. This report is…

  5. Mental Health and Help-Seeking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lori A.; Adelman, Howard S.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on survey on mental health status and help-seeking behavior of adolescents of lower SES, ethnic minority backgrounds. Found mental health status was similar to that of nonminorities. Respondents reported low service utilization. Primary providers were school-based sources and medical personnel. Cognitive-affective factors are potential…

  6. Improving acute psychiatric hospital services according to inpatient experiences. A user-led piece of research as a means to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jim; Boyle, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This paper has been undertaken by people with experience with mental health issues and mental health care systems. The aim of the research was to explore psychiatric inpatients' strategies for coping with mental ill health and in what ways acute inpatient psychiatric hospital services are facilitative to the individual attempting recovery. Ten focus groups were facilitated and data were analysed through systematic content analysis. Findings revealed that the main areas of concern for inpatients were: information, communication, relationships, activities, self-help, patient involvement in care treatment plans, and the physical environment. The authors also make a case to improve the status of user-led research as a means to understand the needs of mental health service users. PMID:19148819

  7. The effects of regular consumption of a multiple micronutrient fortified milk beverage on the micronutrient status of school children and on their mental and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thankachan, Prashanth; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Srinivasan, K; Kamath-Jha, Shilpa; Vinoy, Sophie; Misra, Situn; Finnegan, Yvonne; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-02-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in school going children in India and bridging the gap between nutrient intake and requirements is an effective way to combat the deficiencies. This study aimed to test the effect of a multi-micronutrient fortified malt and cocoa based milk beverage on the micronutrient status, cognition, physical performance and nutritional deficiencies of 7-10 years old south Indian children. A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study design was used with normal healthy children from low to middle income families, aged 7-10 years randomly assigned to receive either a multi-micronutrient fortified or an unfortified milk based control drink. The drinks were provided 6 days/week for 5 months. Assessments included anthropometry, blood biochemistry, physical performance and cognition at baseline and endline. The baseline characteristics of the study groups were similar. The changes in body weight and height were similar between the groups at the end of the study. Levels of vitamin B12, red cell folate and vitamin B2 significantly improved in the intervention group, while vitamin D, selenium and body iron showed no difference. The Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin levels of the control group decreased at endline, while those in the intervention group maintained their levels. The serum transferrin receptor levels increased in both the groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency and Vitamin B2 deficiency were significantly lower in the intervention group at endline. Overall improvement in cognitive and physical performance was seen in both the groups at endline, with no significant differences between the groups. The micronutrient fortified milk based drink was efficacious in improving the micronutrient status of Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12 and red cell folate and in preventing a decline in Hb level compared to an unfortified milk based drink. It also reduced anemia and the risk of deficiencies of iron, and B12, in apparently healthy children

  8. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  9. Severe cefepime-induced status epilepticus treated with haemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Suarez-de-la-Rica, A; Hernández-Gancedo, C; López-Tofiño, A; Maseda, E; Gilsanz, F

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity caused by cefepime may occur predominantly in patients with impaired renal function. A case of a cefepime-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is presented. A 65-year-old woman suffered a severe NCSE due to cefepime in the presence of acute renal failure, requiring coma induction with sodium thiopental. A serious interaction between valproic acid (VPA) and meropenem was also produced after changing cefepime to meropenem. Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration was employed to improve cefepime clearance, and the patient progressively regained her previous mental condition. In conclusion, the cefepime dose must be adjusted according to renal function in order to avoid toxicity in patients with renal failure. Electroencephalogram should be considered in cases of acute confusional state in patients receiving cefepime, to achieve early detection of NCSE. Continuous renal replacement therapy may be successfully employed in severe cases in order to accelerate cefepime removal. Likewise, meropenem should not be used concomitantly with VPA.

  10. 5-oxoproline-induced anion gap metabolic acidosis after an acute acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David T; Bechtel, Laura K; Charlton, Nathan P; Holstege, Christopher P

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic acidosis after acute acetaminophen overdose is typically attributed to either transient lactic acidosis without evidence of hepatic injury or hepatic failure. High levels of the organic acid 5-oxoprolinuria are usually reported in patients with predisposing conditions, such as sepsis, who are treated in a subacute or chronic fashion with acetaminophen. The authors report a case of a 40-year-old woman who developed anion gap metabolic acidosis and somnolence after an acute acetaminophen overdose. Substantial hepatic damage did not occur, which ruled out acetaminophen-induced hepatic insufficiency as a cause of the patient's acidosis or altered mental status. Urinalysis revealed elevated levels of 5-oxoproline, suggesting that the patient's acute acetaminophen overdose was associated with marked anion gap metabolic acidosis due solely to 5-oxoproline without hepatic complications. The acidosis fully resolved with N-acetylcysteine treatment and supportive care including hydration.

  11. Acute lumbosacral plexopathy from gluteal compartment syndrome after drug abuse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Salacha, Andromachi; Tzanos, George

    2013-01-01

    Acute lumbosacral plexus injury from gluteal compartment syndrome is extremely rare. Physicians should be aware of this diagnosis when examining patients with altered mental status, prolonged immobilization, and gluteal muscle compression. This case report presents a patient with acute complete left lumbosacral plexus paralysis and acute renal failure after gluteal compartment syndrome secondary to prolonged immobilization from drug abuse. Clinical examination, imaging of the pelvis, renal function, creatine phosphokinase, and urine myoglobin were indicative of gluteal compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. Electrodiagnostic studies showed complete limb paralysis. Medical treatment and rehabilitation was administered. Renal function recovered within the 1st week; function at the proximal muscles of the left lower limb improved within 6 months, with mild discomfort on sitting at the buttock, foot drop, and sensory deficits at the leg and dorsum of foot.

  12. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  13. Computing machinery and mentality.

    PubMed

    McMullin, B

    1997-06-01

    I reconsider the status of computationalism (or, in a weak sense, functionalism): the claim that being a realization of some (as yet unspecified) class of abstract machine is both necessary and sufficient for having genuine, full-blooded, mentality. This doctrine is now quite widely (though by no means universally) seen as discredited. My position is that, though it is undoubtedly an unsatisfactory (perhaps even repugnant) thesis, the arguments against it are still rather weak. In particular, I critically reassess John Searle's infamous Chinese Room Argument and also some relevant aspects of Karl Popper's theory of the Open Universe. I conclude that the status of computationalism must still be regarded as undecided, and that it may still provide a satisfactory framework for research.

  14. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  15. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    PubMed

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  16. Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency that is commonly encountered by the neurohospitalist. Successful treatment depends upon the recognition of prolonged seizure activity and the acute mobilization of available resources. Pharmacologic treatment regimens have been shown to decrease the time needed for successful control of seizures and have provided for the rapid administration of anticonvulsant medications. Treatment strategies have evolved so that clinicians can administer effective doses of medication by whatever routes of administration are immediately available. Traditional algorithms for the treatment of status epilepticus have used a stepwise approach to the administration of first-, second-, and third-order medications. More recent options have included aggressive anesthetic doses of medications while second-line medications are being titrated. PMID:23983834

  17. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition.

  18. The public sector and mental health parity: time for inclusion.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F.

    1998-12-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, there is an uneasy division of responsibility for financing mental health care. For most illnesses, employer-sponsored health insurance and the large federal health insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid) cover the costs of care. However, most employer-sponsored plans and Medicare provide only limited coverage for treatment of mental illness. A possible cause and result of this limited coverage in mental health is that states, and in some cases local (county) governments, finance a separate system of mental health care. This separate "public mental health system" provides a "safety net" of care for indigent individuals needing mental health care. However, there are potential negative consequences of maintaining separate systems. Continuity of treatment between systems may be impaired, and costs may be higher due to duplicate administrative costs. Maintaining a separate system managed by government may exacerbate the stigma associated with mental illness treatment. Most significantly, since eligibility for care may be linked to poverty status, and since having a serious mental illness may preclude regaining private coverage, maintaining a separate system may contribute to the poverty rate among persons with mental illnesses. AIMS OF THE PAPER: These potential problems have not been widely considered, perhaps because other problems and controversies in mental health care have captured our attention. In particular, controversies over deinstitutionalization in mental health have dominated the policy debate, especially when linked to related problems. These have included conflicts over authority and financial responsibility among federal, state and local governments, sensationalized media coverage of incidents involving people with mental illness, problems with siting community facilities, concern about mental illness among prisoners and the like. However, with the substantial reform of public mental health care in some states and

  19. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health.

  20. Coordination between Child Welfare Agencies and Mental Health Service Providers, Children's Service Use, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yu; Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Interorganizational relationships (IORs) between child welfare agencies and mental health service providers may facilitate mental health treatment access for vulnerable children. This study investigates whether IORs are associated with greater use of mental health services and improvement in mental health status for children served by…

  1. Assessment of acute myocardial infarction: current status and recommendations from the North American society for cardiovascular imaging and the European society of cardiac radiology

    PubMed Central

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bluemke, David; Bremerich, Jens; Esteves, Fabio P.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Gutberlet, Matthias; Hundley, W. Gregory; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Kwong, Raymond K.; Nagel, Eike; Lerakis, Stamatios; Oshinski, John; Paul, Jean-François; Underwood, Richard; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Rees, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of imaging tests that are used in the setting of acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. Each has their strengths and limitations. Experts from the European Society of Cardiac Radiology and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging together with other prominent imagers reviewed the literature. It is clear that there is a definite role for imaging in these patients. While comparative accuracy, convenience and cost have largely guided test decisions in the past, the introduction of newer tests is being held to a higher standard which compares patient outcomes. Multicenter randomized comparative effectiveness trials with outcome measures are required. PMID:20972835

  2. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  3. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals.

  4. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals. PMID:27257434

  5. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus disguising as hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Min; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Ji Hye; Choi, Won Jong; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Byeol A

    2015-04-28

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has become an important issue in modern neurology and epileptology. This is based on difficulty in definitively elucidating the condition and its various clinical phenomena and on our inadequate insight into the intrinsic pathophysiological processes. Despite nonconvulsive status epilepticus being a situation that requires immediate treatment, this disorder may not be appreciated as the cause of mental status impairment. Although the pathophysiology of nonconvulsive status epilepticus remains unknown, this disorder is thought to lead to neuronal damage, so its identification and treatment are important. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. He was initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram.

  6. Effects of long-term androgen replacement therapy on the physical and mental statuses of aging males with late-onset hypogonadism: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial in Japan (EARTH Study)

    PubMed Central

    Konaka, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Orikasa, Hideki; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Takamura, Toshinari; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iijima, Masashi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Androgen replacement therapy (ART) efficacy on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has been widely investigated in Western countries; however, it remains controversial whether ART can improve health and prolong active lifestyles. We prospectively assessed long-term ART effects on the physical and mental statuses of aging men with LOH in Japan. The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life assessed by questionnaires. Secondary endpoints included glycemic control, lipid parameters, blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, muscular strength, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Of the 1637 eligible volunteers, 334 patients > 40 years with LOH were randomly assigned to either the ART (n = 169) or control groups (n = 165). Fifty-two weeks after the initial treatment, ART significantly affected the role physical subdomain of the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) scale (P = 0.0318). ART was also associated with significant decreases in waist circumstance (P = 0.002) and serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.013) and with significant increases in whole-body and leg muscle mass volumes (P = 0.071 and 0.0108, respectively), serum hemoglobin (P < 0.001), IPSS voiding subscore (P = 0.0418), and the second question on IIEF-5 (P = 0.0049). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of severe adverse events. In conclusion, in patients with LOH, long-term ART exerted beneficial effects on Role Physical subdomain of the SF-36 scale, serum TG, waist circumstance, muscle mass volume, voiding subscore of IPSS, and the second question of IIEF-5. We hope our study will contribute to the future development of this area. PMID:25761833

  7. Effects of long-term androgen replacement therapy on the physical and mental statuses of aging males with late-onset hypogonadism: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Japan (EARTH Study).

    PubMed

    Konaka, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Orikasa, Hideki; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Takamura, Toshinari; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Iijima, Masashi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Androgen replacement therapy (ART) efficacy on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has been widely investigated in Western countries; however, it remains controversial whether ART can improve health and prolong active lifestyles. We prospectively assessed long-term ART effects on the physical and mental statuses of aging men with LOH in Japan. The primary endpoint was health-related quality of life assessed by questionnaires. Secondary endpoints included glycemic control, lipid parameters, blood pressure, waist circumference, body composition, muscular strength, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Of the 1637 eligible volunteers, 334 patients > 40 years with LOH were randomly assigned to either the ART (n = 169) or control groups (n = 165). Fifty-two weeks after the initial treatment, ART significantly affected the role physical subdomain of the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) scale (P = 0.0318). ART was also associated with significant decreases in waist circumstance (P = 0.002) and serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.013) and with significant increases in whole-body and leg muscle mass volumes (P = 0.071 and 0.0108, respectively), serum hemoglobin (P < 0.001), IPSS voiding subscore (P = 0.0418), and the second question on IIEF-5 (P = 0.0049). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of severe adverse events. In conclusion, in patients with LOH, long-term ART exerted beneficial effects on Role Physical subdomain of the SF-36 scale, serum TG, waist circumstance, muscle mass volume, voiding subscore of IPSS, and the second question of IIEF-5. We hope our study will contribute to the future development of this area. PMID:25761833

  8. Acute Pseudobulbar Palsy After Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Bo-Ram; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-08-01

    Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction is a rare subtype of stroke caused by occlusion of the artery of Percheron, an uncommon variant originating from one of the posterior cerebral arteries. This type of stroke has several major clinical presentations: altered mental status, behavioral amnestic impairment, aphasia or dysarthria, ocular movement disorders, motor deficits, cerebellar signs, and others. Few cases of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction-related pseudobulbar palsy characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial and tongue weakness have been reported. We report here a rare case of acute severe pseudobulbar palsy as a manifestation of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. PMID:27606284

  9. Acute Pseudobulbar Palsy After Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction is a rare subtype of stroke caused by occlusion of the artery of Percheron, an uncommon variant originating from one of the posterior cerebral arteries. This type of stroke has several major clinical presentations: altered mental status, behavioral amnestic impairment, aphasia or dysarthria, ocular movement disorders, motor deficits, cerebellar signs, and others. Few cases of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction-related pseudobulbar palsy characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial and tongue weakness have been reported. We report here a rare case of acute severe pseudobulbar palsy as a manifestation of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. PMID:27606284

  10. Acute Pseudobulbar Palsy After Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction is a rare subtype of stroke caused by occlusion of the artery of Percheron, an uncommon variant originating from one of the posterior cerebral arteries. This type of stroke has several major clinical presentations: altered mental status, behavioral amnestic impairment, aphasia or dysarthria, ocular movement disorders, motor deficits, cerebellar signs, and others. Few cases of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction-related pseudobulbar palsy characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, and facial and tongue weakness have been reported. We report here a rare case of acute severe pseudobulbar palsy as a manifestation of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction.

  11. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: mental capacity and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    In this series of articles on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) the author now turns to the interrelation between mental capacity and mental disorder and between the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007 [MHA, 2007]) and the Bournewood safeguards. The article explains how the MCA and the MHA are designed to cover distinct situations: the one mental capacity; the other mental disorder and the different definitions are considered. The article also looks at the different principles which apply and the different powers available under each Act. The different forms of protection under each Act are contrasted. Because of criticism of the UK by the European Court of Human Rights in the Bournewood case, amendments have been made by the MHA 2007 to the MCA to provide protection for those incapable of making decisions who suffer from mental disorder and whose best interests require a loss of liberty.

  12. Religion and the morality of mentality.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A B; Rozin, P

    2001-10-01

    Christian doctrine considers mental states important in judging a person's moral status, whereas Jewish doctrine considers them less important. The authors provide evidence from 4 studies that American Jews and Protestants differ in the moral import they attribute to mental states (honoring one's parents, thinking about having a sexual affair, and thinking about harming an animal). Although Protestants and Jews rated the moral status of the actions equally. Protestants rated a target person with inappropriate mental states more negatively than did Jews. These differences in moral judgment were partially mediated by Protestants' beliefs that mental states are controllable and likely to lead to action and were strongly related to agreement with general statements claiming that thoughts are morally relevant. These religious differences were not related to differences in collectivistic (interdependent) and individualistic (independent) tendencies.

  13. Mental development and growth in children with chronic liver disease of early and late onset.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S M; Uauy, R; Kennard, B D; Waller, D A; Benser, M; Andrews, W S

    1988-08-01

    Comparison was made of the mental function and physical growth of 21 children in whom liver disease occurred in the first year of life with 15 patients with late (17 months of age to 12 years of age) manifestation of liver disease. Ages (mean +/- SD) at testing for the two groups was 8 +/- 3 years for the early group and 11 +/- 5 years for the late group. Wechsler verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ scores were lower for the early group (range of mean scores: early, 85 to 86 v late, 96 to 103). Growth measures were significantly different in the two groups. Means +/- SD (percentage of standard) were: length for early group, 92 +/- 9; for late, 99 +/- 7; and head circumference for early, 98 +/- 4; for late, 101 +/- 2. The groups were similar in severity of liver disease and acute nutritional status, however. Patients with intellectual impairment had a longer duration of illness, poor nutritional status, and vitamin E deficiency; 82% of impaired patients were in the early group. The data suggest that liver disease during early life has pernicious effects on intellectual function and linear growth. Careful monitoring of nutritional status of children with early-onset liver disease and aggressive nutritional support beginning at the time of diagnosis may help reduce delays in growth and mental development. PMID:3399290

  14. Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Haiti: Developing Long-Term Mental Health Services After the 2010 Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Legha, Rupinder K; Solages, Martine

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an overview of child and adolescent mental health in Haiti, emphasizing the role of structural violence and the factors shaping child protection. The 2010 Haiti earthquake is discussed as an acute on chronic event that highlighted the lack of pre-existing formal biomedical mental health services and worsened the impact of structural violence. Considerations for long-term, sustainable, culturally relevant child and adolescent mental health care in Haiti are also provided.

  15. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  16. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  17. Impaired cognitive function and mental performance in mild dehydration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M-M G; Morley, J E

    2003-12-01

    Dehydration is a reliable predictor of impaired cognitive status. Objective data, using tests of cortical function, support the deterioration of mental performance in mildly dehydrated younger adults. Dehydration frequently results in delirium as a manifestation of cognitive dysfunction. Although, the occurrence of delirium suggests transient acute global cerebral dysfunction, cognitive impairment may not be completely reversible. Animal studies have identified neuronal mitochondrial damage and glutamate hypertransmission in dehydrated rats. Additional studies have identified an increase in cerebral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with dehydration. Available evidence also implicates NOS as a neurotransmitter in long-term potentiation, rendering this a critical enzyme in facilitating learning and memory. With ageing, a reduction of NOS activity has been identified in the cortex and striatum of rats. The reduction of NOs synthase activity that occurs with ageing may blunt the rise that occurs with dehydration, and possibly interfere with memory processing and cognitive function. Dehydration has been shown to be a reliable predictor of increasing frailty, deteriorating mental performance and poor quality of life. Intervention models directed toward improving outcomes in dehydration must incorporate strategies to enhance prompt recognition of cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  19. Glyphosate poisoning with acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Darshana Sudip; Khot, Rajashree; Joshi, P P; Pandharipande, Madhuri; Nagpure, Keshav

    2014-01-01

    GlySH-surfactant herbicide (GlySH), one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, has been considered as minimally toxic to humans. However, clinical toxicologists occasionally encounter cases of severe systemic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that 'GlySH' is of relatively low oral and acute dermal toxicity. It does not have anticholinesterase effect and no organophosphate-like central nervous system (CNS) effects. The clinical features range from skin and throat irritation to hypotension and death. Severe GlySH-surfactant poisoning is manifested by gastroenteritis, respiratory disturbances, altered mental status, hypotension refractory to the treatment, renal failure, and shock.[1] GlySH intoxication has a case fatality rate 3.2-29.3%. Pulmonary toxicity and renal toxicity seem to be responsible for mortality. Metabolic acidosis, abnormal chest X-ray, arrhythmias, and elevated serum creatinine levels are useful prognostic factors for predicting GlySH mortality.[2] There is no antidote and the mainstay of treatment for systemic toxicity is decontamination and aggressive supportive therapy. We report a case of acute pulmonary edema, which is a rare but severe manifestation of oral GlySH poisoning, where patient survived with aggressive supportive therapy. PMID:25948977

  20. [Mental status of patients with ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Belousov, F V; Tregubov, L Z

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire survey has been performed among 100 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU). Character building of these patients when they were children and adolescents was wring in 80 +/- 4 cases (women) and in 88.6 +/- 3.2 cases (men). Most significant negative factors were undercare, hypercare and living in incomplete family. The Leongard's questionnaire distinguishes various accentuations with prevalence of cycloid, epileptoid, emotive and demonstrative; anxiety scale was low. The Gissen personality questionnaire "Ego" confirmed frequent occurrence among DU patients of emotive, hysteroid, epileptoid features with non-flexible type of reaction. By Luscher's test, anxiety was low or moderate. Overall prevalence of personality disorders totalled 29 +/- 4.5 cases, mostly in women. It was proved experimentally that psychosomatic disorders are realized in target organs. In DU these organs were gastrointestinal (36 +/- 5.7 cases). Similar data about involvement of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were obtained in stress reactions. However, "ulcer personality" was not documented. Support of preferable realization of psychogenic factors action in GIT was obtained with Gissen somatic questionnaire. Operating psychogenic factors and their dynamics were characterized; emotional deprivation was leading. Among psychopathological manifestations, asthenodepressive symptoms prevailed in 76 +/- 4.3 cases. High efficiency of gestalt-psychotherapy and coaxil in the treatment of DU in patients with psychopathological disorders of the neurotic level were found. PMID:15114773

  1. [Mental health care management after the 2011 tsunami disaster in Higashi-Matsushima, Japan].

    PubMed

    Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Ando, Syuntaro; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Tokyo University continues to support mental health care in Higashi-Matsushima City, Miyagi, Japan. We participate in mental care from the acute to the chronic phase. We also provide mental care for children. In this paper, we summarize our activities during the two years since the disaster. We also state our views on management in disaster care.

  2. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  3. Mental Methods in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Choosing mental, written, or calculator procedures is important for children to learn. Children should be encouraged to be flexible and consider alternatives when doing mental calculation. Developing mental skills, symbols and rules, and numbers in context are each considered. (MNS)

  4. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  5. Mothers' mental distress and parenting practices with infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Leiferman, J A; Ollendick, T H; Kunkel, D; Christie, I C

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal mental distress affects parenting practices related to monitoring activities (i.e. daily routines, enrichment activities). The nationally representative sample consisted of 1638 mothers. Maternal mental distress was assessed by the 5-item Mental Health Index (MHI). Logistic regression models were conducted, controlling for covariates (e.g. marital status, education level, etc.). Approximately 14% of the women reported high levels of mental distress and 25% of the women failed to engage in enrichment activities or consistent daily routines with their children. There was a significant adverse relationship between mental distress and routines, with women who were mentally distressed being more likely to not engage in daily routines. There was no significant relationship between mental distress and enrichment activities. Race differentials were evident among these relationships. These findings highlight the prevalence of maternal mental distress and its deleterious effects on select parenting behaviors.

  6. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  7. Two brief measures for assessing mental competence in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tobacyk, J; Dixon, J C; Dixon, J S

    1983-12-01

    Data on a brief mental status schedule (Memory Check) and a behavior rating scale of mental impairment (Functional Behavior Survey) are presented which support the use of these instruments in research and survey work with both community and institutionalized aged. Based on a factorially derived concept of mental competence, the two instruments showed a satisfactory relation to clinical judgment of degree of competence, and also to a composite measure of nine test measures commonly used in assessing mental competence. The sample consisted of 68 community and nursing home residents between the ages of 60 and 80 who ranged from those who were unimpaired to those judged clinically to be grossly mentally impaired.

  8. Prevalence of factors associated with malnutrition among acute geriatric patients in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv Lærum; Brovold, Therese; Bergland, Astrid; Bye, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Data on acute geriatric patients' nutritional status are lacking, and the associations among physical function, sarcopenia, health status and nutritional status are not sufficiently investigated in this population. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) nutritional status and sarcopenia in a group of acute geriatric patients, (2) the association between nutritional status, physical function and sarcopenia in acute geriatric patients, controlling for health status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Two acute geriatric hospital wards in Norway. Participants This study included 120 patients with a mean age of 82.6±8 years. The following inclusion criteria were used: age ≥65 years and admitted to an acute geriatric ward. The exclusion criteria included terminal illness, Mini-Mental State Examination <23, language difficulties or severe aphasia. Main outcome measures Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Physical function was measured using the Barthel activities of daily life index and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the mid-arm muscle circumference, gait speed and grip strength, in accordance with the EWGSOP algorithm. Diseases are organised by organ system classification. Results On the basis of the MNA classification, nearly one in two patients were at risk of malnutrition, while one in four were malnourished. Sarcopenia was present in 30% of the patients. A multivariate linear regression model was estimated and showed significant independent associations between SPPB score (β 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90), sarcopenia (β −3.3, 95% CI −4.9 to −1.7), pulmonary disease (β −2.1, 95% CI −3.7 to −0.46), cancer (β −1.7, 95% CI −3.4 to −0.033) and nutritional status. Conclusions Our study shows a high prevalence of risk of malnutrition, malnutrition and sarcopenia. Further, the results indicate that a low total SPPB score, sarcopenia, cancer

  9. [Intracranial pressure targeted treatment in acute bacterial meningitis increased survival].

    PubMed

    Glimåker, Martin; Johansson, Bibi; Halldorsdottir, Halla; Wanecek, Michael; Elmi-Terander, Adrian; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2014-12-16

    To evaluate the efficacy of intracranial pressure (ICP)-targeted treatment, compared to standard intensive care, in adults with community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) and severely impaired consciousness, a prospectively designed intervention-control comparison study was performed. Included were patients with confirmed ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission. Fifty-two patients, given ICP-targeted treatment at a neuro-intensive care unit, and 53 control cases, treated with conventional intensive care, were included. All patients received intensive care with me-chanical ventilation, sedation, antibiotics and corticosteroids according to current guidelines. ICP-targeted treatment was performed in the intervention group, aiming at ICP 50 mmHg. The mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to controls, 5/52 (10%) versus 16/53 (30%). Furthermore, only 17 patients (32%) in the control group fully recovered, compared to 28 (54%) in the intervention group. Early neuro-intensive care using ICP-targeted therapy reduces mortality and improves the overall outcome in adult patients with ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission.

  10. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p < 0.001) and ADP (66.6 ± 9.1 vs. 64.8 ± 9.0 kg; p = 0.001), reflecting the reduction in body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  11. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bradley J.; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5–7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity. PMID:25391460

  12. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  13. MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERLAIN, IDA

    WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…

  14. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  15. Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. Methods We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. Results Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). Conclusions The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers’ lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically

  16. Comorbidity of Mental Illness and Substance Use in Jail Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales-Portalatin, David

    1995-01-01

    Examines the incidence of substance use and mental illness among jail inmates by analyzing differences and similarities in demographic characteristics and detention status in a sample of 5,785 subjects. Significant associations were found between membership in one of the substance use and/or mental illness categories and variables reflecting…

  17. The Future of Mental Health Services for Deaf People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Luther, Ed.; Trybus, Raymond J., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1976 Orthopsychiatric Workshop on Deafness contains 33 papers on mental health for the deaf. Papers address the following five major topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): current status of mental health services for the deaf (hospital, clinic, and school based programs); federal perspectives (the impact of P. L. 94-142,…

  18. Effects of reproductive status on behavioral and endocrine responses to acute stress in a biparental rodent, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chauke, Miyetani; Malisch, Jessica L.; Robinson, Cymphonee; de Jong, Trynke R.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In several mammalian species, lactating females show blunted neural, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stressors. It is not known whether new fathers also show stress hyporesponsiveness in species in which males provide infant care. To test this possibility, we determined the effects of male and female reproductive status on stress responsiveness in the biparental, monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).Breeding (N=8 females, 8 males), nonbreeding (N=10 females, 10 males) and virgin mice (N=12 females, 9 males) were exposed to a 5-min predator-urine stressor at two time points, corresponding to the early postpartum (5–7 days postpartum) and mid/late postpartum (19–21 days postpartum) phases, and blood samples were collected immediately afterwards. Baseline blood samples were obtained 2 days prior to each stress test. Baseline plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations did not differ among male or female groups. CORT responses to the stressor did not differ among female reproductive groups, and all three groups showed distinct behavioral responses to predator urine. Virgin males tended to increase their CORT response from the first to the second stress test, while breeding and nonbreeding males did not. Moreover, virgin and nonbreeding males showed significant behavioral changes in response to predator urine, whereas breeding males did not. These results suggest that adrenocortical responses to a repeated stressor in male California mice may be modulated by cohabitation with a female, whereas behavioral responses to stress may be blunted by parental status. PMID:21557946

  19. Cognitive interviewing methods for questionnaire pre-testing in homeless persons with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless

  20. Acute obstructive hydrocephalus complicating decompression surgery of the craniovertebral junction

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Junichi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Ryuji; Saito, Nobuhito; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive hydrocephalus has been described as a rare complication following foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation. However, there are few reports of obstructive hydrocephalus after spinal surgery for other pathologies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The authors herein report a 52-year-old female with achondroplasia presenting with an 8-month history of myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at CVJ. She underwent resection of the C1 posterior arch and part of the edge of the occipital bone. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained 1-week after the surgery revealed bilateral infratentorial fluid collection. The patient was first managed conservatively; however, on the 17th day, her consciousness level showed sudden deterioration. Emergency CT demonstrated marked hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. Acute obstructive hydrocephalus can occur late after decompression surgery at the CVJ, and thus should be included in the differential diagnosis of a deteriorating mental status. PMID:27366268

  1. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers. PMID:23954056

  2. The enduring mental health impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Fatih; Auf der Heyde, Tanja; Reissman, Dori; Sharma, Vansh

    2013-09-01

    The authors review the existing literature on the mental health impact of the September 11th attacks and the implications for disaster mental health clinicians and policy makers. The authors discuss the demographic characteristics of those affected and the state of mental health needs and existing mental health delivery services; the nature of the disaster and primary impacts on lives, infrastructure, and socioeconomic factors; the acute aftermath in the days and weeks after the attacks; the persistent mental health impact and evolution of services of the postacute aftermath; and the implications for future disaster mental health practitioners and policy makers.

  3. Mentally ill offenders in prison: the Belgian case.

    PubMed

    Vandevelde, Stijn; Soyez, Veerle; Vander Beken, Tom; De Smet, Stefaan; Boers, Anja; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    According to the EUPRIS-study on mental health in prisons (2007), available data on mental disorders in prison are scarce. Therefore, this study aims at summarizing and discussing the available knowledge on incarcerated mentally ill offenders concerning: (1) the screening and assessment for detecting mental health; (2) the psychiatric expertise in order to evaluate the mental status; and (3) the development and provision of forensic psychiatric treatment and care. These findings will be applied to the current situation in Belgium, which is a particularly interesting case. Belgium is currently facing difficulties concerning a large population of interned mentally ill offenders residing in correctional establishments. Implications with regard to the penal code, general or mental health legislation, screening, assessment, and treatment could deliver interesting viewpoints on how this problem could be tackled more effectively. Therefore, the findings will be discussed with reference to the international scientific and policy debate, focusing on ethical implications.

  4. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. PMID:26040444

  5. Mental Development in Down Syndrome Mosaicism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishler, Karol; Koch, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of the mental status of 30 subjects with Down's Syndrome mosaicism and 30 matched subjects with trisomy 21 Down's Syndrome found that the mean intelligent quotient of the mosaic Down's Syndrome group was significantly higher and that this group showed better verbal abilities and more normal visual-perceptual skills. (Author/DB)

  6. Counseling and Mental Health Care in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawahin, Lamise; Ciftci, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a brief overview of counseling and mental health care in Palestine, including their history and a summary of their current status. Finally, a discussion is presented of future trends in the development of the profession with regard to recent changes in the region.

  7. Foundations of Mental Health Counseling. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.

    The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…

  8. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  9. An Expanded Perspective on Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, E. Wayne; Blau, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on three articles (see records EJ733583, EJ733584, and EJ733585) on the status of children's mental health services in the United States, which appeared in the September 2005 issue of the "American Psychologist." The current authors suggest that, although this series of articles provides important information, the articles fall short in…

  10. The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Aneshensel, C S; Sucoff, C A

    1996-12-01

    Mental health disorders in adolescence are pervasive, often carry into adulthood, and appear to be inversely associated with social status. We examine how structural aspects of neighborhood context, specifically, socioeconomic stratification and racial/ethnic segregation, affect adolescent emotional well-being by shaping subjective perceptions of their neighborhoods. Using a community-based sample of 877 adolescents in Los Angeles County, we find that youth in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods perceive greater ambient hazards such as crime, violence, drug use, and graffiti than those in high SES neighborhoods. The perception of the neighborhood as dangerous, in turn, influences the mental health of adolescents: the more threatening the neighborhood, the more common the symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Social stability and, to a lesser extent, social cohesion, also emerge as contributors to adolescent disorder. This investigation demonstrates that research into the mental health of young people should consider the socioeconomic and demographic environments in which they live.

  11. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  12. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  13. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  14. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers.

    PubMed

    Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Dehghan, Faezeh; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Khansari, Bahareh; Heidari, Bijan; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Emami Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP) is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05). Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05). High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting. PMID:27107527

  15. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, S J

    1992-01-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  16. Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Gold, S J

    1992-09-01

    Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772

  17. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY, PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELLIS, NORMAN R.

    THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…

  18. Mental Health. What Research Says to the Teacher Series Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.; Mitchell, James V., Jr.

    Reasonably good mental health is a necessary precondition to orderly thought and responsible action. In human relationships, the mental health status of teacher and child interact to produce a positive or negative classroom environment. Mental health consists of (1) objective judgment, (2) autonomy, (3) emotional maturity, (4) self-realizing…

  19. [GENES ALLELE STATUS OF ANGIOTENSINCONVERTING ENZYME (I/D) AND ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE (894 G > T) IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Sydorchuk, L P; Ursuliak, Y V

    2015-01-01

    The association of genes polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE (I/D) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS (894 G > T) with acute myocardial infarction (MI) among residents of North Bukovina region was evaluated. II/GG and ID/GG haplotypesre associated with more frequent presence of Q-MI, with localization on anterior wall and primary appearance. ID/TT, or II/TG haplotypes are associated with the presence of a severe re-Q-MI, with localization on the posterior wall. ID/TG variant is associated in 93.7% of cases with Q-MI, regardless of its location and times of occurrence. ID/TG increased relative risk of Q-MI by 2,93 times (OR = 4,79; P = 0,002), which confirmed the severity of the disease and increases the risk of MI inanterior and higher in posterior walls of the left ventricle (OR = 4.31; P = 0.007 and OR = 4.6; P = 0.005, respectively) increases the likelihood of the first Ml by 2.88 times (OR = 4.62; P = 0.003) and its re-occurrence or recurrence--by 2.67 times (OR = 4; P = 0.022). Mutations absence: in haplotypes (II/GG) is a protective factor of Q-MI appearance (OR = 0.19; P = 0.004) and makes the chances for the first MI the lowest in observed population (OR = 0.36; P = 0.045). PMID:27089712

  20. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the regional health care strategic plan: the growing impact of mental disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroto; Frank, Richard G; Nakatani, Yukiko; Fukuda, Yusuke

    2013-07-01

    In April 2013 Japan designated mental disorders as the fifth "priority disease" for national medical services, after cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and diabetes. All prefectures will be required to assess local mental health needs and develop necessary service components. This column provides an overview of the Regional Health Care Strategic Plan in the context of mental health and welfare reforms. The goals of the plan are to alter the balance between institutional and community-based care for patients with severe and persistent mental disorders, integrate general medical and mental health care, and support greater independence for people with mental disorders. It is a political challenge for Japan to reallocate resources to rebalance care services while maintaining free access to care.

  1. Health policy and mental health.

    PubMed

    Dekker, E

    1987-01-01

    Health policy can be described as policy directed at the determinants of health, i.e. biological and environmental factors, lifestyle and the health care system. This type of policy now has become a policy objective in an increasing number of countries. In this article mental health is placed in the broad context of this policy. The central question is: can the mental health field grasp the opportunity of a growing interest in prevention and health promotion in general, as major objectives of health policy? Or will it stay more or less isolated from the mainstream of current developments? Answering this question means looking at the conditions of health policy. For health policy it is required that a definition be given of health problems and "causing" conditions. There should further be available intervention possibilities of a preventive and intersectoral character and also preventive strategies. It is stated that there is enough standardized information on mental health problems and experience with community-based research to let mental health participate in drawing up a community diagnosis. It also appears possible to construct an ecological health status model for mental health. Research on the factors in this model shows a shift in focus from risk populations to risk situations, e.g. unemployment, industrial disability, divorce and isolation. Further it is recognized that the search for causal factors is substituted by that for precipitating factors. Social-demographic factors, taken alone, are not precipitating factors. What matters is the combination of an underdeveloped coping mechanism, little social support, and prolonged stressful conditions or sudden stressful events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10287174

  2. Disentangling associations between poverty at various levels of aggregation and mental health.

    PubMed

    Drukker, Marjan; Gunther, Nicole; van Os, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The present editorial discusses whether socioeconomic status of the individual and of the neighbourhood could be important in prevalence, treatment and prevention of psychiatric morbidity. Previous research showed that patients diagnosed with mental disorders are concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. This could be the result of (1) an association between individual socioeconomic status and mental health, (2) an association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and mental health, or (3) social selection. Research disentangling associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status on the one hand and mental health outcomes on the other, reported that neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with individual mental health over and above individual-level socioeconomic status, indicating deleterious effects for all inhabitants both poor and affluent. In conclusion, subjective mental health outcomes showed stronger evidence for an effect of neighbourhood socioeconomic status than research focussing on treated incidence. Within the group of patients, however, service use was higher in patients living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Social capital was identified as one of the mechanisms whereby neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage may become associated with observed reductions in mental health. After controlling for individual socioeconomic status, there is evidence for an association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and objective as well as subjective mental health in adults. Evidence for such an association in young children is even stronger.

  3. Diagnostic validity of the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI): a self-report screen for ultrahigh risk and acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Maurice A J; Dingemans, Peter M A J; van de Fliert, Reinaud; Becker, Hiske E; Nieman, Dorien H; Linszen, Don

    2010-12-01

    Providers of mental health services need tools to screen for acute psychosis and ultrahigh risk (UHR) for transition to psychosis in help-seeking individuals. In this study, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (ESI) was examined as a screening tool and for its ability to correctly predict diagnostic group membership (e.g., help seeking, mild psychiatric complaints, highly symptomatic mood or anxiety disorder, UHR, acute psychosis). Diagnostic evaluation with established instruments was used for diagnosis in 3 research samples. UHR status was assessed with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms/Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (Miller et al., 1999) and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms Prediction list (Gross, Huber, Klosterkötter, & Linz, 1987; Klosterkötter, Hellmich, Steinmeyer, & Schulze-Lutter, 2001). This study showed that members of different diagnostic groups rate themselves significantly differently on the ESI and its subscales. A new subscale was constructed, the UHR-Psychosis scale, that showed good utility in detecting individuals with interview-diagnosed UHR status and acute psychosis. The scale is also sensitive to the threshold between UHR and acute psychosis. Practical applications of the ESI include use as a diagnostic tool within various settings. PMID:21133552

  4. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hartman, J

    1998-01-01

    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967

  5. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  6. The criminal liability of the mental patient in Jewish law (Halacha).

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Y; Durst, R; Ginath, Y

    1993-01-01

    The legal status of the mentally impaired has been dealt with in Halachic literature since the third century. This article presents four Halachic viewpoints regarding the exemption of the mentally ill patient from legal responsibility in tort and criminal law: lack of mental awareness; lack of free will; lack of judgment; categorial personal status. Halachic legislations with regard to the liability of the insane predate the criteria as applied by modern psychiatry. The similarities between the Halachic and contemporary medicolegal approaches are presented.

  7. The Relationship of Parental Mental Health and Dietary Pattern With Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068

  8. Mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation: challenges to accurate prevalence estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Owens, Pamela L.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this literature review were to assess current challenges to estimating the prevalence of mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation (MR) and to develop recommendations to improve such estimates for this population. METHODS: The authors identified 200 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, government documents, or reports from national and international organizations on the mental health status of people with MR. Based on the study's inclusion criteria, 52 articles were included in the review. RESULTS: Available data reveal inconsistent estimates of the prevalence of mental health disorders among those with MR, but suggest that some mental health conditions are more common among these individuals than in the general population. Two main challenges to identifying accurate prevalence estimates were found: (1) health care providers have difficulty diagnosing mental health conditions among individuals with MR; and (2) methodological limitations of previous research inhibit confidence in study results. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate prevalence estimates are necessary to ensure the availability of appropriate treatment services. To this end, health care providers should receive more training regarding the mental health treatment of individuals with MR. Further, government officials should discuss mechanisms of collecting nationally representative data, and the research community should utilize consistent methods with representative samples when studying mental health conditions in this population. PMID:15219798

  9. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  10. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  11. Social Integration and Mental Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deimling, Gary T.; Harel Zev

    Social support has been found to be positively related to well being in elderly individuals. To examine the effects of social integration (social resources, social interaction, and perceived adequacy of resources), and health, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status (SES) on mental health among urban elderly individuals, 1,727 persons from…

  12. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  13. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = −0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  14. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence.

  15. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  16. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  17. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  18. Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus Management

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Bearden, David; Helbig, Ingo; McGuire, Jennifer; Narula, Sona; Panzer, Jessica A.; Topjian, Alexis; Dlugos, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) describes persistent or recurring seizures without a return to baseline mental status, and is a common neurologic emergency. SE can occur in the context of epilepsy or may be symptomatic of a wide range of underlying etiologies. The clinician’s aim is to rapidly institute care that simultaneously stabilizes the patient medically, identifies and manages any precipitant conditions, and terminates seizures. Seizure management involves “emergent” treatment with benzodiazepines followed by “urgent” therapy with other anti-seizure medications. If seizures persist then refractory SE is diagnosed and management options include additional anti-seizure medications or infusions of midazolam or pentobarbital. This paper reviews the management of pediatric SE and RSE. PMID:25727508

  19. Theories of dual diagnosis in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Matson, J L; Sevin, J A

    1994-02-01

    Dual diagnosis, defined in this instance as the co-occurrence of mental health disorders with mental retardation, has become a major area of clinical practice and research in the past 10 years. Whereas areas such as differential diagnosis, assessment, and prevalence have been major focuses of research, etiologies of dual diagnosis have received less attention. Current etiological theories have practical implications for the treatment and prevention of dual diagnoses and suggest important directions for future research. This article provides a historical review of theory development in the field of dual diagnosis. Current status of etiological theories and future directions are discussed with an aim toward encouraging further study.

  20. [Interpersonal relations in groups of mentally ill and mentally healthy children].

    PubMed

    Rogovin, M S; Polyvianaia, M Iu

    1985-01-01

    Using the sociometric method supplemented by systematic observations, the authors studied the interpersonal relations in children's departments of mental and therapeutic hospitals. The subjective structures of choices were compared with the objectively forming interrelations. Mental patients showed a greater rigidity of these structures which remained unaltered even with the arrival of newcomers, which is explained by a relatively minor role played by such a factor as socialization. The nosological characteristics influenced the sociometric choices only indirectly, with the main structural factors being sex and age. The position of each patient in this structure was altered in parallel with the change in his or her mental status. Unlike the therapeutic department, characteristic of mentally ill patients was the limitation of choices by sex; they also differed by the fact that girls had two types of leaders.

  1. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... adolescents in the United States suffer from serious emotional and mental disorders that cause significant functional impairment in their day-to-day lives at home, in school and with peers. The World Health Organization has ...

  2. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  3. Home care assistants’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health

  4. Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role.

  5. Fostering a culture of engagement: a pilot study of the outcomes of training mental health nurses working in two UK acute admission units in brief solution-focused therapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Hosany, Z; Wellman, N; Lowe, T

    2007-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that there are major concerns about quality of care, ward atmosphere, the nature of nurse-patient interactions and patient outcomes in UK psychiatric acute admission units. Brief solution-focused therapy (SFT) is an approach which aims to shift the focus of interactions in professional care away from the traditional concentration on an individual's problems and weaknesses towards a more proactive identification of their strengths and positive coping mechanisms. This approach relies on a collaborative engagement with patients, in which the nurse or therapist using simple language aims to help the patient construct a plan to ensure their immediate safety while working to identify, focus on and reinforce their strengths and coping mechanisms in the achievement of identified future goals. This paper reports on a pilot study whose principal objective was to determine whether a short training in brief SFT for psychiatric nurses can produce measurable improvements in nurse-patient interactions in two psychiatric acute admission wards. In this study, 36 nurses undertook a 2-day training course in SFT and were followed up 3 months after training. Positive results were obtained on a number of measures indicating that nurses had acquired knowledge and skills and were applying SFT techniques in their clinical work.

  6. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

  7. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  8. Racism and mental health: the African American experience.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Williams-Morris, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of United States-based research on the ways in which racism can affect mental health. It describes changes in racial attitudes over time, the persistence of negative racial stereotypes and the ways in which negative beliefs were incorporated into societal policies and institutions. It then reviews the available scientific evidence that suggests that racism can adversely affect mental health status in at least three ways. First, racism in societal institutions can lead to truncated socioeconomic mobility, differential access to desirable resources, and poor living conditions that can adversely affect mental health. Second, experiences of discrimination can induce physiological and psychological reactions that can lead to adverse changes in mental health status. Third, in race-conscious societies, the acceptance of negative cultural stereotypes can lead to unfavorable self-evaluations that have deleterious effects on psychological well-being. Research directions are outlined.

  9. Hispanic Americans and Mental Health Services: A Comparison of Hispanic, Black, and White Admissions to Selected Mental Health Facilities, 1975. Mental Health Service System Reports. Series CN No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Marilyn J.

    This report compares Hispanic American admissions with white and black admissions to selected mental health facilities in 1975. It focuses on differences and similarities in the use of mental health facilities by the three racial/ethnic groups as related to age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, source of referral, previous psychiatric…

  10. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  11. Maternal mental health: pathways of care for women experiencing mental health issues during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Makregiorgos, Helen; Joubert, Lynette; Epstein, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal mental health has become the focus for policymakers, government, research, the acute health sector, and health practitioners. The aim of this clinical data-mining study ( Epstein, 2010 ) was to undertake a retrospective exploration into the primary mental health and psychosocial issues experienced by women who were pregnant and accessing obstetric care at one of the largest maternity hospitals in Australia. The study also investigated service pathways and gaps. Aboriginal women were overrepresented, demonstrating their ongoing disadvantage, whereas other linguistically and culturally diverse women were underrepresented, suggesting the existence of barriers to service. Although psychosocial factors tend to be underreported ( Buist et al., 2002 ), the findings highlighted the integral rather than peripheral nature of these factors during pregnancy ( Vilder, 2006 ) and suggest the need for change to systems that work to support women's perinatal mental health. PMID:23521388

  12. Maternal mental health: pathways of care for women experiencing mental health issues during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Makregiorgos, Helen; Joubert, Lynette; Epstein, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal mental health has become the focus for policymakers, government, research, the acute health sector, and health practitioners. The aim of this clinical data-mining study ( Epstein, 2010 ) was to undertake a retrospective exploration into the primary mental health and psychosocial issues experienced by women who were pregnant and accessing obstetric care at one of the largest maternity hospitals in Australia. The study also investigated service pathways and gaps. Aboriginal women were overrepresented, demonstrating their ongoing disadvantage, whereas other linguistically and culturally diverse women were underrepresented, suggesting the existence of barriers to service. Although psychosocial factors tend to be underreported ( Buist et al., 2002 ), the findings highlighted the integral rather than peripheral nature of these factors during pregnancy ( Vilder, 2006 ) and suggest the need for change to systems that work to support women's perinatal mental health.

  13. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Vachon, J.; Dykxhoorn, J.; McRae, L.; Jayaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course. PMID:26789022

  14. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Clinical profile of people referred to mental health nurses under the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Tom; Robertson, Samantha

    2013-10-01

    The Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program (MHNIP) was established in Australia during 2007. The program enables mental health nurses to work in partnership with general practitioners (GPs) in the assessment and treatment of people with severe mental health problems. This paper provides insights into the demographic and clinical profile of 403 people enrolled in the MHNIP in the Ipswich area of Queensland. The clinical presentation (illness severity and symptoms) of those referred to the MHNIP is compared to that of: (i) people referred to a related program known as Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS); and (ii) to clients admitted to acute inpatient care in Queensland. While people referred to the MHNIP presented with more severe problems than those referred to ATAPS, they had less severe problems than those admitted to acute inpatient care. The findings indicate that the MHNIP is meeting the needs of people with complex mental and physical health problems. Further evaluation work is required to determine if the findings from this study can be generalized more broadly. At the national level, consideration should be given to the routine collection of clinical, cost, and demographic data to enable the ongoing monitoring of the program.

  16. The Optimal Management of Acute Febrile Encephalopathy in the Aged Patient: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sheybani, Fereshte; Naderi, HamidReza; Sajjadi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    The elderly comprise less than 13 percent of world population. Nonetheless, they represent nearly half of all hospitalized adults. Acute change in mental status from baseline is commonly seen among the elderly even when the main process does not involve the central nervous system. The term “geriatric syndrome” is used to capture those clinical conditions in older people that do not fit into discrete disease categories, including delirium, falls, frailty, dizziness, syncope, and urinary incontinence. Despite the growing number of elderly population, especially those who require hospitalization and the high burden of common infections accompanied by encephalopathy among them, there are several unresolved questions regarding the optimal management they deserve. The questions posed in this systematic review concern the need to rule out CNS infection in all elderly patients presented with fever and altered mental status in the routine management of febrile encephalopathy. In doing so, we sought to identify all potentially relevant articles using searches of web-based databases with no language restriction. Finally, we reviewed 93 research articles that were relevant to each part of our study. No prospective study was found to address how should AFE in the aged be optimally managed. PMID:26989409

  17. The Optimal Management of Acute Febrile Encephalopathy in the Aged Patient: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Fereshte; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Sajjadi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    The elderly comprise less than 13 percent of world population. Nonetheless, they represent nearly half of all hospitalized adults. Acute change in mental status from baseline is commonly seen among the elderly even when the main process does not involve the central nervous system. The term "geriatric syndrome" is used to capture those clinical conditions in older people that do not fit into discrete disease categories, including delirium, falls, frailty, dizziness, syncope, and urinary incontinence. Despite the growing number of elderly population, especially those who require hospitalization and the high burden of common infections accompanied by encephalopathy among them, there are several unresolved questions regarding the optimal management they deserve. The questions posed in this systematic review concern the need to rule out CNS infection in all elderly patients presented with fever and altered mental status in the routine management of febrile encephalopathy. In doing so, we sought to identify all potentially relevant articles using searches of web-based databases with no language restriction. Finally, we reviewed 93 research articles that were relevant to each part of our study. No prospective study was found to address how should AFE in the aged be optimally managed. PMID:26989409

  18. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    PubMed

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  19. Mental imagery as the adaptationist views it.

    PubMed

    Pani, J R

    1996-09-01

    Mental images are one of the more obvious aspects of human conscious experience. Familiar idioms such as "the mind's eye" reflect the high status of the image in metacognition. Theoretically, a defining characteristic of mental images is that they can be analog representations. But this has led to an enduring puzzle in cognitive psychology: How do "mental pictures" fit into a general theory of cognition? Three empirical problems have constituted this puzzle: The incidence of mental images has been unpredictable, innumerable ordinary concepts cannot be depicted, and images typically do not resemble things well. I argue in this paper that theorists have begun to address these problems successfully. I argue further that the critical theoretical framework involves thinking of mental images as information within a cognitive system that is fundamentally adaptive. The main outline of the adaptationist framework was evident in the school of thought known as American Functionalism, but adaptationism has formed a consistent pattern of theorizing across many authors and decades. I briefly describe Functionalism and then present seven basic claims about imagery that were common in the years before the predominance of behaviorism. I then show how these claims have reappeared and been further articulated in modern cognitive psychology. I end with a brief integration of some of the basic elements of an adaptationist theory of imagery.

  20. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  1. Nutritional status of elderly patients during recovery from chest infection and the role of nutritional supplementation assessed by a prospective randomized single-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Ho, S C; Mak, Y T; Law, L K; Cheung, A

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in the nutritional status of elderly patients with chest infection for a period of 3 months after discharge from hospital, including the effects of nutritional supplementation on well-being and functional status as well as on nutritional indices. Eighty-one subjects admitted to an acute medical ward aged 65 years and over with chest infection were recruited consecutively, and randomized to receive supplement (500 ml of Ensure liquid daily) for 1 month, or no supplement, on discharge. Assessment at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months included a questionnaire to determine health, mental and functional status, and anthropometric measurements. Biochemical nutritional status was assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months, and dietary intake (24 h recall method) at 1 and 3 months. During recovery, both supplement and non-supplement groups showed improvement in various measures of well-being and biochemical status. In addition, the former group showed improvement in more anthropometric measurements, in thiamine and pyridoxine status, while the non-supplement group showed a lower level of functional ability after 3 months. Various measures of well-being and biochemical status of the water-soluble vitamins were better in the supplement groups. We conclude that nutritional supplementation may have a role in helping elderly patients to recover from chest infections.

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  3. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  4. The Longitudinal Stability and Dynamics of Group Membership in the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health: Psychosocial Predictors of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ryan M.; Hills, Kimberly J.; Huebner, E. Scott; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal stability and dynamics of group membership within the Greenspoon and Sakflofske's dual-factor model of mental health. This expanded model incorporates information about subjective well-being (SWB), in addition to psychopathological symptoms, to better identify the mental health status and current functioning of…

  5. MENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YOLLES, STANLEY F.; AND OTHERS

    THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTAL HEALTH…

  6. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  7. Developing a Mental Timeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Argues that mental timelines for learning history are analogous to mental mapping for learning geography: both visually represent abstract concepts. Describes the construction of a classroom timeline and activities for fifth- and sixth-grade students that incorporate the use of timelines. Notes reasonable expectations for student progress at this…

  8. Mental scars of racism.

    PubMed

    Leiba, Tony

    The over-representation of black and minority ethnic (BME) people in mental health services may reflect their exposure to overt and covert racism, which acts as a 'chronic stressor'. Mental health professionals can help by building positive relationships with their BME patients.

  9. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  10. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  11. Mental stress in Ireland, 1994-2000: a stochastic dominance approach.

    PubMed

    Madden, David

    2009-10-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being with those people with values below a certain threshold regarded as suffering from mental stress. Comparison of mental stress levels across populations may then be sensitive to the chosen threshold. This paper uses stochastic dominance techniques to show that mental stress fell in Ireland over the 1994-2000 period regardless of the threshold chosen. Decomposition techniques suggest that changes in the proportion unemployed and in the protective effect of income, education and marital status upon mental health were the principal factors underlying this fall.

  12. Healthy mental ageing.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2006-09-01

    Healthy mental ageing may be defined as the absence of the common disabling mental health problems of older people, especially cognitive decline and depression, accompanied by the perception of a positive quality of life. Older people are particularly prone to negative effects on mental health due to poor physical health. Modifiable aspects of lifestyle have been shown to be associated with healthy mental ageing. These include increased physical activity, intellectual stimulation (including education), avoidance of smoking and various aspects of diet. There is reasonably strong evidence that the treatment of hypertension will decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, and moderate alcohol intake may also have some benefits on cognition. These modifiable lifestyle factors may benefit from deliberate individual and population health promotion strategies to maximize mental health in old age, although to date intervention trials have not been performed to support the evidence obtained from observational studies. PMID:16953981

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Szaulińska, Katarzyna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Sikorska, Olga; Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Wichniak, Adam; Śliwiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is estimated to be 3-7.5% in men and 2-3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15-48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21-43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11-18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania. PMID:26688840

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Szaulińska, Katarzyna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Sikorska, Olga; Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Wichniak, Adam; Śliwiński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is estimated to be 3-7.5% in men and 2-3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15-48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21-43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11-18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania.

  15. Mental Health and Mental Illness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Statistics of mental illness in Maryland are provided in the areas of diagnostic distribution of admissions and resident patients, size and nature of patient population, percentage change in daily cost per patient, employee-patient ratios, length of hospitalization, diagnostic treatment trends, patient mortality, and Baltimore's specific problems…

  16. Comparing EndoPAT and BIOPAC measurement of vascular responses to mental stress.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Rebecca E; Felmlee-Devine, M Donna; Brown, Troy E; Lerman, Amir

    2011-06-01

    There are currently no comparison measurements of stress-induced changes in vascular function during acute mental stress tests to measurements made by BIOPAC MP150 systems technology, a standard polygraph device used to detect deception during polygraph examinations in military or law enforcement applications. Vascular responses to reactive hyperaemia and acute mental stress in 25 healthy subjects were measured by both peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT) and a blood pressure cuff attached to a pressure transducer (BIOPAC) and compared. Reactive hyperaemia was performed at baseline and following three acute mental stress tests. There was no difference in vascular reactivity at baseline and following acute mental stress, as measured by EndoPAT or BIOPAC systems (p > 0·05). Mental stress ratios measured by EndoPAT were significantly different than those measured by BIOPAC (p < 0·01). These data suggest that EndoPAT measurements of vascular responses to acute mental stress may be more specific and sensitive than measurements using the BIOPAC system. PMID:21671245

  17. Cervical lung herniation complicating a case of acute asphyxial asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Martchek, Melissa A; Padilla, Benjamin E; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Friedlaender, Eron Y

    2015-04-01

    The abrupt onset of respiratory failure secondary to asthma, known as acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) in adults, is uncommonly reported in children. Here, we report a case of a child with the acute onset of respiratory failure consistent with AAA complicated by the finding of a neck mass during resuscitation. This 11-year-old boy with a history of asthma initially presented in respiratory failure with altered mental status after the complaint of difficulty in breathing minutes before collapsing at home. Initially, his respiratory failure was thought to be secondary to status asthmaticus, and treatment was initiated accordingly. However, a neck mass noted during the resuscitation was cause for concern, and other etiologies for his respiratory failure were considered, including an airway obstructing neck mass. After pediatric surgery and anesthesia consultation for intubation and possible tracheostomy placement, general anesthesia was induced in the operating room with an inhaled anesthetic, with prompt resolution of the bronchspasm and decompression of the neck mass. Review of the imaging and clinical course ultimately yielded a diagnosis of cervical lung herniation as the etiology of his neck mass. We report this case of AAA and cervical lung herniation and a review of the literature of these 2 uncommon phenomena in children. PMID:25831031

  18. Physical activity and mental health: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Paluska, S A; Schwenk, T L

    2000-03-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the management of mild-to-moderate mental health diseases, especially depression and anxiety. Although people with depression tend to be less physically active than non-depressed individuals, increased aerobic exercise or strength training has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms significantly. However, habitual physical activity has not been shown to prevent the onset of depression. Anxiety symptoms and panic disorder also improve with regular exercise, and beneficial effects appear to equal meditation or relaxation. In general, acute anxiety responds better to exercise than chronic anxiety. Studies of older adults and adolescents with depression or anxiety have been limited, but physical activity appears beneficial to these populations as well. Excessive physical activity may lead to overtraining and generate psychological symptoms that mimic depression. Several differing psychological and physiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the effect of physical activity on mental health disorders. Well controlled studies are needed to clarify the mental health benefits of exercise among various populations and to address directly processes underlying the benefits of exercise on mental health.

  19. Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide. They are largely consumed by normal individuals, but their use is even more frequent in psychiatric patients, Thus, patients with schizophrenia tend to abuse all three substances. The interrelationships between depression and alcohol are complex. These drugs can all create dependence, as understood in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Alcohol abuse is clearly deleterious to the brain, provoking acute and chronic mental disorders, ranging from intoxication with impairment of cognition, to delirium tremens, halluosis, and dementia. In contrast, the main health consequences of nicotine, notably cancer and cardiovascular disases, lie outside the realm of psychiatry However, the mes of nicotine dependence and motivation to smoke or quit are of concern to psychiatrists. PMID:22033899

  20. Mental health for nations.

    PubMed

    Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Mental ill health is a universal phenomenon: that is, it is seen across all cultures and societies, even though the presentation may be culture-specific and affected by cultural norms and more. Governments have a moral and ethical duty to develop mental health services which are accessible, appropriate, and non-discriminatory. Equity in funding mental health services is critical. As globally services and their quality vary dramatically, one should be proposing and agreeing on minimum standards of care. In this paper the basic components and minimum standards of care are described. It is imperative that services are non-discriminatory. It is important that governments work with psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, and individuals with mental illness, their families, and carers to plan, develop, and deliver services with adequate funding. Employers and psychological first aid must also be remembered. Services must be geographically accessible. In this endeavour primary care services have a major role to play. Training and clinical decision-making must be part of the change in service delivery. It is imperative that every effort is made to keep the population mentally as well as physically healthy, and people who develop mental illness must have access to evidence-based treatment at the earliest possible opportunity. PMID:27686156

  1. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes.

  2. Expanding disaster mental health response: a conceptual training framework for public health professionals.

    PubMed

    Parker, Cindy L; Barnett, Daniel J; Everly, George S; Links, Jonathan M

    2006-01-01

    The available research literature suggests that in disasters, individuals presenting acutely with psychologically-related complaints tend to outnumber those presenting with physical symptoms directly stemming from the injury-causing agent or event. This acute "mental health surge" can rapidly overwhelm existing community mental health resources, especially in the context of terrorism. Training professionals from outside the traditional mental health workforce in basic psychological crisis intervention may promote more efficient use of mental health services through a gatekeeper process of early intervention and appropriate referrals to mental health specialists. With their experience in patient and client services at the community level, public health professionals represent a cohort well-suited for training in and delivery of acute mental health services in disasters. In this paper, we outline a conceptual model and rationale for training public health professionals in basic crisis-oriented mental health functions (psychological first aid) in order to augment community-based mental health services for affected populations in a disaster. PMID:16703848

  3. Acculturation stress and mental health among the marriage migrant women in Busan, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyuk; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Hyo Young

    2014-05-01

    Our study investigated mental health and associated factors, especially acculturation stress and coping resources, among "marriage migrant" women. Cross-sectional data were collected for 501 marriage migrant women, about 10 % of those living in Busan, South Korea. Acculturation stress, coping resources, sociodemographic factors were examined using structured questionnaires, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered as a measure of mental health. Many factors were related to mental health, especially marital satisfaction. Core cultural shock and self-rated economic status, interpersonal stress, and social support were also significantly related to mental health status. This study highlights the importance of marriage migrant women's mental health in South Korea. To improve their mental health, increased marital satisfaction, social support, resettlement funds, and/or educational programs that foster coping are needed. Additionally, we should encourage establishment of and participation in marriage migrant self-help groups, which can facilitate adaptation to marriage and to Korean culture.

  4. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  5. [Prophecy and mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vishne, Tali; Harary, Eran

    2005-09-01

    It is a well known platitude that a mentally ill person may "think that he is God" or "believes that he is the Messiah". Despite the generalization and shallowness of this attitude, sometimes psychotic patients indeed have delusions with contents of divine revelation, messianic assignments or prophetic power. In this current article we examine the different connections between prophecy and mental condition, especially psychotic. We present sources that combine prophecy and insanity, and also possible psychiatric interpretation of these situations. Finally, we present the attitude of the Rambam to prophecy and the personality characteristics of the prophet, limiting the possibility of the mentally ill patient who pretends to be a prophet.

  6. Evidence in mental health.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Health practitioners wishing to positively improve health outcomes for their clients have access to a unique set of collated tools to guide their practice. Systematic reviews provide guidance in the form of synthesized evidence that can form the basis of decision making as they provide care for their clients. This article describes systematic reviews as a basis for informed decision making by mental health practitioners. The process of systematic review is discussed, examples of existing systematic review topics relevant to mental health are presented, a sample systematic review is described, and gaps and emerging topics for mental health systematic reviews are addressed.

  7. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  8. Systematic reviews of randomised clinical trials examining the effects of psychotherapeutic interventions versus "no intervention" for acute major depressive disorder and a randomised trial examining the effects of "third wave" cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based treatment for acute major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy may be effective treatment options for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. The two modern forms of psychotherapy, "third wave" cognitive therapy and mentalization-based treatment, have both gained some ground as treatments of psychiatric disorders. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for major depressive disorder. We performed two systematic reviews with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses using The Cochrane Collaboration methodology examining the effects of cognitive therapy and psycho-dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder. We developed a thorough treatment protocol for a randomised trial with low risks of bias (systematic error) and low risks of random errors ("play of chance") examining the effects of third wave' cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based treatment for major depressive disorder. We conducted a randomised trial according to good clinical practice examining the effects of "third wave" cognitive therapy versus mentalisation-based treatment for major depressive disorder. The first systematic review included five randomised trials examining the effects of psychodynamic therapy versus "no intervention' for major depressive disorder. Altogether the five trials randomised 365 participants who in each trial received similar antidepressants as co-interventions. All trials had high risk of bias. Four trials assessed "interpersonal psychotherapy" and one trial "short psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy". Both of these interventions are different forms of psychodynamic therapy. Meta-analysis showed that psychodynamic therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) compared with "no intervention" (mean difference -3.01 (95

  9. Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-07-01

    That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy.

  10. Economics of disaster risk, social vulnerability, and mental health resilience.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Peek, Lori; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Hempel, Lynn

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the relationship between exposure to Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita and mental health resilience by vulnerability status, with particular focus on the mental health outcomes of single mothers versus the general public. We advance a measurable notion of mental health resilience to disaster events. We also calculate the economic costs of poor mental health days added by natural disaster exposure. Negative binomial analyses show that hurricane exposure increases the expected count of poor mental health days for all persons by 18.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.44-31.14%), and by 71.88% (95% CI, 39.48-211.82%) for single females with children. Monthly time-series show that single mothers have lower event resilience, experiencing higher added mental stress. Results also show that the count of poor mental health days is sensitive to hurricane intensity, increasing by a factor of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.10) for every billion (U.S.$) dollars of damage added for all exposed persons, and by a factor of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14) for single mothers. We estimate that single mothers, as a group, suffered over $130 million in productivity loss from added postdisaster stress and disability. Results illustrate the measurability of mental health resilience as a two-dimensional concept of resistance capacity and recovery time. Overall, we show that natural disasters regressively tax disadvantaged population strata.

  11. Predictors of Rehospitalization among Elderly Patients admitted to a Rehabilitation Hospital: the Role of Polypharmacy, Functional Status and Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Alessandro; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Vasilevskis, Eduard. E.; Turco, Renato; Guerini, Fabio; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Speciale, Salvatore; Emiliani, Valeria; Gentile, Simona; Schnelle, John; Trabucchi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rehospitalizations for elderly patients are an increasing health care burden. Nonetheless, we have limited information on unplanned rehospitalizations and the related risk factors in elderly patients admitted to in-hospital rehabilitation facilities after an acute hospitalization. Setting In-hospital Rehabilitation and Aged Care Unit Design Retrospective cohort study Participants Elderly patients ≥65 years admitted to an in-hospital rehabilitation hospital after an acute hospitalization between January 2004 and June 2011. Measurements The rate of 30-day unplanned rehospitalization to hospitals was recorded. Risk factors for unplanned rehospitalization were evaluated at rehabilitation admission: age, comorbidity, serum albumin, number of drugs, decline in functional status, delirium, Mini Mental State Examination score, length of stay in the acute hospital. A multivariable Cox proportional regression model was used to identify the effect of the above-mentioned risk factors for time to event within the 30-day follow-up. Results Among 2,735 patients, with a median age of 80 years (Interquartile Range 74–85), 98 (4%) were rehospitalized within 30 days. Independent predictors of 30-day unplanned rehospitalization were the use of 7 or more drugs (Hazard Ratio [HR], 3.94; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.62–9.54; P=.002) and a significant decline in functional status (56 points or more at the Barthel Index) compared to the month prior to hospital admission (HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.35–5.27; P=.005). Additionally, a length of stay in the acute hospital ≥13 days carried a 2 fold higher risk of rehospitalization (HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.39–5.10); P=.003). Conclusions The rate of unplanned rehospitalization was low in this study. Polypharmacy, a significant worsening of functional status compared to the month prior to acute hospital admission and hospital length of stay are important risk factors. PMID:23664484

  12. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  13. Mental Health Comorbidity in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yaghmaie, Pouya; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent data, primarily from Europe, suggest children with atopic dermatitis may be at increased risk of developing mental health disorders. Objective We aimed to quantify the mental health burden associated with pediatric atopic dermatitis in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used analyzing data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health – a survey reporting on the health status of 92,642 non-institutionalized children ages 0-17. The lifetime prevalence of various provider-diagnosed mental health conditions was calculated for those with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Results The odds of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly increased in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic dermatitis controls, OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.54, 2.27) even after controlling for known confounders. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and autism were 1.81 (95% CI 1.33,2.46) , 1.77 (95% CI 1.36, 2.29), 1.87 (1.46, 2.39), and 3.04 (95% CI 2.13, 4.34), respectively, and these estimates were all statistically significant. A clear dose-dependent relationship was observed between the prevalence of a mental health disorder and the reported severity of the skin disease. Conclusions Our data reveal a striking association between mental health disorders and atopic dermatitis in the U.S. pediatric population. The severity of the skin disease alters the strength of the association. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify these associations and to explore underlying mechanisms. Strategies to prevent atopic dermatitis or to aggressively treat early skin inflammation may modify the risk of developing mental health disorders in at-risk children. PMID:23245818

  14. Imagining predictions: mental imagery as mental emulation

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008

  15. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  16. Deploying the Mental Eye.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-10-01

    Three observers performed a task designed to quantify their "pictorial relief" in visual awareness for a photograph of a piece of sculpture. In separate sessions, they were instructed to assume one of two "mental viewpoints." The main objective was to investigate whether human observers have such command. All three observers could redirect their "mental view direction" by up to 20°. These observers experience "paradoxical monocular" stereopsis, whereas a sizable fraction of the population does not. Moreover, they had some experience in assuming various "viewing modes." Whereas one cannot generalize to the population at large, these findings at least prove that it is possible to direct the mental viewpoint actively. This is of importance to the visual arts. For instance, academic drawings require one to be simultaneously aware of a "viewing" (for the drawing) and an "illumination direction" (for the shading). Being able to mentally deploy various vantage points is a crucial step from the "visual field" to the "visual space." PMID:27648221

  17. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk therapy, that helps people change negative thinking styles and behaviors that may contribute to their depression. ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications Science Writing, Press, and Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive ...

  18. Women's Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a group that has the same age, race, religion, cultural background as you, or one that speaks ... mental health problems, like depression or having a history of trauma or abuse. If you or someone ...

  19. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... to other mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder , research has not found differences in rates that ... Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide ...

  20. Mental Mathematics. Teaching Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Lola

    1995-01-01

    Features five activities to nurture "number sense," promote practice in mental calculations, and promote student self-confidence in mathmatical operations. These are "hands-off" exercises that are preparatory to calculator and computer use for math. (ET)