Kalra, Arun A; Elliott, Debra
Migraine is a common disabling primary headache disorder. Despite the need for a perfect treatment of this debilitating condition, the ideal “cure” eludes us. In 1992, the first triptan was released in the US for use in acute migraine. Triptans are more specific for the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxy triptamine (5-HT) 1 than previously prescribed drugs, such as ergotamines, with fewer side effects. This was an important first step in specific acute migraine therapy. Today however, triptans continue to be underutilized. There remains a concern, among practitioners and patients, about possible cardiovascular safety issues, despite the lack of strong evidence of serious adverse events. In fact, triptans now have a safe track record over more than a decade of use. Other perceived downfalls to use, include cost and variable efficacy. The more we learn about the clinical features and pathophysiology of migraine, the closer we are to finding a satisfactory monotherapy. Until then, recognizing that mixed mechanisms underlie migraine symptoms, rational polytherapy can be useful. Research on the roles of serotonin, calcitonin gene related peptide, glutamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate in the trigeminovascular system holds promise for those searching for the perfect migraine headache cure. PMID:18488069
Patniyot, Irene R; Gelfand, Amy A
We sought to conduct a qualitative systematic review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of available treatments for pediatric patients with migraine or benign primary headache in the emergency department, in an effort to inform future practice. Scopus, Medline, and PubMed databases were searched for randomized controlled trials retrospective reviews, review articles, and case studies discussing migraine or benign primary headache management that were conducted in the emergency room or outpatient acute care setting in pediatric patients (less than 18-years old). Meeting abstracts and cited references within articles were also evaluated. Multiple variables were recorded, including type of treatment, study design, dosing, primary outcome, and side effects. Therapeutic gain was calculated in studies with a placebo arm. Treatments were subjectively assessed based on methodology and number of trials for a particular therapy. Thirty-one studies were included in the final analysis. Of these, 17 were randomized controlled trials, 9 were retrospective reviews, and 5 were prospective chart review studies. One pertained to IV fluids, 2 to nonspecific analgesic use, 5 to dopamine receptor antagonists, 2 to valproic acid, 1 to propofol, 1 to magnesium, 1 to bupivicaine, 13 to triptan medications, and 3 to dihydroergotamine (DHE). Treatments considered effective for acute migraine or benign primary headache in the analgesic category include ibuprofen, and to a lesser degree acetaminophen. Ketorolac was not compared to other NSAIDs, but was found to be less effective than prochlorperazine. Of the phenothiazines, prochlorperazine was considered most effective. Of the triptan medications, almotriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan nasal spray, sumatriptan nasal spray, and combination sumatriptan/naproxen are effective agents for acute treatment. Treatments considered probably effective included IV fluids, chlorpromazine, valproate sodium, injectable sumatriptan, and IV DHE. Treatments
Migraine is one of the most frequent disabling neurological conditions with a major impact on the patient’s quality of life. Migraine has been described as a chronic disorder that characterized with attacks. Attacks are characterized by moderate–severe, often unilateral, pulsating headache attacks, typically lasting 4 to 72 hours. Migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated despite advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. This article reviews management of migraine acute pharmacological treatment. Currently, for the acute treatment of migraine attacks, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and triptans (serotonin 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists) are recommended. Before intake of NSAID and triptans, metoclopramide or domperidone is useful. In very severe attacks, subcutaneous sumatriptan is first choice. The patient should be treated early in the attack, use an adequate dose and formulation of a medication. Ideally, acute therapy should be restricted to no more than 2 to 3 days per week to avoid medication overuse. PMID:28360580
Aukerman, Glen; Knutson, Doug; Miser, William F
As many as 30 million Americans have migraine headaches. The impact on patients and their families can be tremendous, and treatment of migraines can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for family physicians. Abortive treatment options include nonspecific and migraine-specific therapy. Nonspecific therapies include analgesics (aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opiates), adjunctive therapies (antiemetics and sedatives), and other nonspecific medications (intranasal lidocaine or steroids). Migraine-specific abortive therapies include ergotamine and its derivatives, and triptans. Complementary and alternative therapies can also be used to abort the headache or enhance the efficacy of another therapeutic modality. Treatment choices for acute migraine should be based on headache severity, migraine frequency, associated symptoms, and comorbidities.
Göbel, H; Heinze, A
The 'Migraine Intervention Score' (MIS) is a new self-administered scale that can be used to quantify the severity of specific migraine symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine if MIS could be used to improve the efficacy of frovatriptan 2.5 mg in the early treatment of migraine attacks for clinical practice. In this prospective observational study, patients suffering from migraines with or without aura were enrolled and permitted to choose the time of self-medication with frovatriptan 2.5 mg. At the time of intake of medication, patients evaluated the severity of individual migraine symptoms using MIS. The scores for each symptom were then totalled to provide an overall level of symptom severity. A total of 1620 patients completed the treatment of three migraine attacks with frovatriptan. A total of 1518 patients could be analysed with respect to the documented efficacy parameters of the third attack. Patients initiating treatment at low symptom severity levels were compared with those initiating treatment at high symptom severity levels. Time to the achievement of the primary endpoint (headache response) was significantly lower in patients who initiated treatment at low vs. high symptom severity levels (42.06 ± 32.33 vs. 49.25 ± 34.92 min; p = 0.0023). Likewise, patients who initiated treatment at low symptom severity levels achieved complete headache relief more rapidly (79.37 ± 65.33 vs. 96.05 ± 100.85 min; p = 0.0109) and required escape medication less frequently (3.88% vs. 13.73%; p < 0.0001). The initiation of attack treatment with frovatriptan at low severity of migraine symptoms is more effective than starting therapy at higher symptom levels. Together with the low recurrence headache rate, the decreased necessity for escape medication and the low number of tablets needed, these data demonstrate that operationalised intervention with frovatriptan 2.5 mg is a valuable method for improving the treatment of migraine attacks. © 2011
Friedman, Benjamin W; Cabral, Lisa; Adewunmi, Victoria; Solorzano, Clemencia; Esses, David; Bijur, Polly E; Gallagher, E John
Background More than one million patients present to US emergency departments (ED) annually seeking care for acute migraine. Parenteral anti-histamines have long been used in combination with anti-dopaminergics such as metoclopramide to treat acute migraine in the ED. High quality data supporting this practice do not exist. We determined whether administration of diphenhydramine 50mg IV + metoclopramide 10mg IV resulted in greater rates of sustained headache relief than placebo+ metoclopramide 10mg IV. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing two active treatments for acute migraine in an ED. Eligible patients were adults younger than 65 years presenting with an acute moderate or severe headache meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 migraine criteria. Patients were stratified based on presence or absence of allergic symptoms. The primary outcome was sustained headache relief, defined as achieving a headache level of mild or none within two hours of medication administration, and maintaining this level of relief without use of any additional headache medication for 48 hours. Secondary efficacy outcomes include mean improvement on a 0 to 10 verbal scale between baseline and one hour, the frequency with which subjects indicated they would want the same medication the next time they present to the ED with migraine, and the ED throughput time. Sample size calculation using a 2-sided alpha of 0.05, a beta of 0.20 and a 15% difference between study arms determined the need for 374 patients. An interim analysis was conducted when data were available for 200 subjects. Results 420 patients were approached for participation. 208 eligible patients consented to participate and were randomized. At the planned interim analysis, the data safety monitoring committee recommended that the study be halted for futility. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the groups. 14% (29/208) of the sample reported allergic symptoms
May, Lindsay J; Millar, Kelly; Barlow, Karen M; Dicke, Frank
Migraine headache is common in pediatrics and is frequently assessed in emergency departments. Altered cardiac conduction, including prolongation of the QTc interval on electrocardiogram, has been observed in adults during migraine headache and resolves interictally. Prolonged QTc is associated with life-threatening arrhythmia, and many acute and prophylactic therapies for migraine can further prolong the QTc interval. It is the objective of this prospective cohort study to examine whether the QTc interval prolongs significantly during periods of acute migraine headache in children. Patients ages 6 to 17 years presenting to the emergency department with acute migraine headache were recruited prospectively. Exclusion criteria included the use of QTc-prolonging medications and medical illnesses, including cardiovascular abnormalities, infection, or head injury. Paired, one-tailed Student t tests compared QTc intervals with and without headache and evaluated for QTc prolongation of 30 ms or longer during headache. Thirteen patients with migraine (mean age, 11.6 ± 2.6 years) were evaluated. Mean QTc interval during headache was significantly longer than the QTc interval in the absence of headache (437.9 ± 27.7 ms compared with 419.3 ± 29.9 ms; p = 0.04). Three patients (23%) had unequivocal prolongation of the QTc (>460 ms) during the migraine, two of which normalized with headache resolution. The mean increase in QTc during headache did not reach or exceed 30 ms (p = 0.86) CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to illustrate a connection between QTc prolongation and acute migraine headache in children. If confirmed in future studies, children should be monitored for QTc prolongation during the acute treatment of migraine in the emergency department when using medications that can lengthen the QTc interval.
Belvís, Robert; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Kulisevsky, Jaime
About 6% of men and 18% of women suffer migraine attacks. Migraine can induce a great impact in the quality of life of the patient and the costs of medical care and lost productivity can be also high. There are two therapeutic approaches in the treatment of migraine: preventive therapy and acute treatment of migraine attack. Immediate treatment with selective serotonin [5-HT1B/1T] receptor agonists (so-called triptans) is the first-line option in the acute treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. The introduction in early nineties of triptans was a revolution in migraine therapy and evidences about their efficacy are at present irrefutable. At the moment, there are seven marketed molecules: sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan and frovatriptan. Obviously, every molecule has different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic properties and, moreover, some triptans have several formulations: tablets, dissolvable tablets, nasal and injections. The prescription of one of these seven triptans for a specified patient is based in the drug profile: efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Despite there are a lot of published studies using triptans, no clinical trial has analyzed all the molecules at the same time. Other data to take account in the final prescription are clinical characteristics of the migraine attack and patient characteristics: labour aspects, style of life and the patient medical history. We present a state-of-the-art of the triptan selection in treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks.
Nierenburg, Hida Del C; Ailani, Jessica; Malloy, Michele; Siavoshi, Sara; Hu, Nancy N; Yusuf, Nadia
The aim of this systematic review is to identify the efficacy of different categories of treatments for menstrual migraines as found in randomized controlled trials or open label studies with similar efficacy endpoints. Menstrual migraine is very common and approximately 50% of women have increased risk of developing migraines related to the menstrual cycle. Attacks of menstrual migraine are usually more debilitating, of longer duration, more prone to recurrence, and less responsive to acute treatment than nonmenstrual migraine attacks. Search for evidence was done in 4 databases that included PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Eighty-four articles were selected for full text review by 2 separate readers. Thirty-six of the 84 articles were selected for final inclusion. Articles included randomized controlled and open label trials that focused on efficacy of acute and preventative therapies for menstrual migraine. Secondary analyses where excluded because the initial study population was not women with menstrual migraine. After final screening, 11 articles were selected for acute and 25 for preventive treatment of menstrual migraine. These were further subdivided into treatment categories. For acute treatment: triptans, combination therapy, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, and ergot alkaloids. For preventive treatment: triptans, combined therapy, oral contraceptives, estrogen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phytoestrogen, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, dopamine agonist, vitamin, mineral, and nonpharmacological therapy were selected. Overall, triptans had strong evidence for treatment in both acute and short term prevention of menstrual migraine. Based on this literature search, of all categories of treatment for menstrual migraine, triptans have the most extensive research with strong evidence for both acute and preventive treatment of menstrual migraine. Further randomized controlled trials should be performed for other therapies
Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio
Chronic migraine is a disabling condition which affects a considerable proportion of patients. Several risk factors and lifestyle habits contribute to the transformation of migraine into a chronic form. Behavioral treatments, including relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavioral therapy reduce the risk of episodic into chronic migraine transformation, thus restraining the headache-related disability. The rationale of behavioral therapies is that a medical problem should be recognized and thoroughly examined by the patient to be successfully managed. Being aware of factors which precipitate or aggravate migraine allows patients to progressively modulate the frequency and duration of their attacks. Similarly, the acquisition of healthy habits improves the quality of life and the subjective well-being of patients and contributes to breaking the vicious cycle that leads to migraine chronification. The highest level of care is achieved when behavioral therapies are integrated with other treatments, including physical and pharmacological interventions.
Pacheva, I; Ivanov, I
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) - 2004 recognises many migraine variants (different from migraine without aura and migraine with typical aura), but acute confusional migraine (ACM) remains unclassified and most clinicians are not well acquainted with it. The aim of this study was to illustrate ACM in the neuropaediatric practice, to discuss its place in the ICHD-II and to propose diagnostic criteria. A total of 2509 files of newly diagnosed patients, aged 0-18 years, treated as in- and outpatients in the Neuropaediatric Ward at the Plovdiv Medical University Hospital between 2002 and 2006 were screened retrospectively. Their diagnosis was based on detailed medical history, physical and neurological examination, additional functional, imaging and laboratory investigations. Migraine and migraine variants were diagnosed according to ICHD-II, but specific forms (e.g. ACM and Alice in wonderland syndrome) were also included. One hundred and eleven patients met the diagnostic criteria for migraine. Migraine variants comprised 24.3% of all migraine cases. In particular, ACM represented 11.1% of migraine variants or 2.7% of migraine and 0.12% of all paediatric neurological diseases. Here, we report three cases of ACM with analysis of the typical clinical and EEG features, review the literature and propose diagnostic criteria. ACM may present as either the only manifestation of a migraine attack or in the context of other migraine forms. ACM should have its own distinct place in the ICHD-II, may be as a subtype of migraine with complex aura. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tajti, János; Szok, Délia; Tuka, Bernadett; Csáti, Anett; Kuris, Anikó; Majláth, Zsófia; Lukács, Melinda; Vécsei, László
Although migraine is a common, paroxysmal, highly disabling disorder, the primary cause and the pathomechanism of migraine attacks are enigmatic. Experimental results suggest that activation of the trigeminovascular system is crucial in its pathogenesis. This activation leads to the release of vasoactive neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide - CGRP, and substance P - SP) and to neurogenic inflammation, and peripheral and central sensitisation are expressed. Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A), a potent toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, affects the nervous system through specific cleavage of the soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor complex (SNARE), like synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). The result of this multistage process is blockade of the presynaptic release of pain neurotransmitters such as CGRP, SP and glutamate. A pooled analysis of the data from two programmes of Phase 3 Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT 1 and 2) with BoNT-A in chronic migraine demonstrated significant benefit of BoNT-A over placebo with regard to the numbers of headache days and migraine episodes. BoNT-A diminished the frequency of acute headache pain medication intake, and resulted in reductions in headache impact and improvements in scores on the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. The treatments with BoNT-A proved safe and were well tolerated.
Chaibi, Aleksander; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn
Migraine occurs in about 15% of the general population. Migraine is usually managed by medication, but some patients do not tolerate migraine medication due to side effects or prefer to avoid medication for other reasons. Non-pharmacological management is an alternative treatment option. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on manual therapies for migraine. The RCTs suggest that massage therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy might be equally effective as propranolol and topiramate in the prophylactic management of migraine. However, the evaluated RCTs had many methodological shortcomings. Therefore, any firm conclusion will require future, well-conducted RCTs on manual therapies for migraine.
Adam, E I
A compound analgesic/anti-emetic formulation was significantly effective in reducing the severity of acute attacks of migraine, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of 34 patients referred to a migraine clinic. The preparation contained paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg, buclizine hydrochloride 6.25 mg and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate 10 mg. The dosage was two tablets taken as early as possible in the acute attack. No specific factors could be identified which influenced response to treatment. Patients with a long history of migraine (more than 10 years) responded as well as those with a recent onset of the condition.
Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J
The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine
Gaffigan, Matthew E; Bruner, David I; Wason, Courtney; Pritchard, Amy; Frumkin, Kenneth
Emergency Department (ED) headache patients are commonly treated with neuroleptic antiemetics like metoclopramide. Haloperidol has been shown to be effective for migraine treatment. Our study compared the use of metoclopramide vs. haloperidol to treat ED migraine patients. A prospective, double-blinded, randomized control trial of 64 adults aged 18-50 years with migraine headache and no recognized risks for QT-prolongation. Haloperidol 5 mg or metoclopramide 10 mg was given intravenously after 25 mg diphenhydramine. Pain, nausea, restlessness (akathisia), and sedation were assessed with 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS) at baseline and every 20 min, to a maximum of 80 min. The need for rescue medications, side effects, and subject satisfaction were recorded. QTc intervals were measured prior to and after treatment. Follow-up calls after 48 h assessed satisfaction and recurrent or persistent symptoms. Thirty-one subjects received haloperidol, 33 metoclopramide. The groups were similar on all VAS measurements, side effects, and in their satisfaction with therapy. Pain relief averaged 53 mm VAS over both groups, with equal times to maximum improvement. Subjects receiving haloperidol required rescue medication significantly less often (3% vs. 24%, p < 0.02). Mean QTcs were equal and normal in the two groups and did not change after treatment. In telephone follow-up, 90% of subjects contacted were "happy with the medication" they had received, with haloperidol-treated subjects experiencing more restlessness (43% vs. 10%). Intravenous haloperidol is as safe and effective as metoclopramide for the ED treatment of migraine headaches, with less frequent need for rescue medications. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Seng, Elizabeth K; Robbins, Matthew S; Nicholson, Robert A
Objective To examine the influence of acute migraine medication adherence on migraine disability and acute medication satisfaction. Methods Adults with migraine completed three months of daily electronic diaries assessing headache symptoms, acute medication taken, acute medication satisfaction, and daily migraine disability. Repeated measures mixed-effects models examined the effect of initial medication type [migraine-specific medication (MSM) vs. over-the-counter analgesic (OTC) vs. an opiate/barbiturate], the severity of pain at dosing, and their interaction with daily migraine disability and satisfaction with acute medication. Results Participants (N = 337; 92.5% female; 91.1% Caucasian, non-Hispanic; 84.0% with episodic migraine) recorded 29,722 diary days. Participants took acute medication on 96.5% of 8090 migraine days. MSM was most frequently taken first (58%), followed by OTC (29.9%) and an opiate/barbiturate (12.1%). Acute medication was most frequently taken when pain was mild (41.2%), followed by moderate (37.7%) and severe pain (11.4%). Initially dosing with MSM while pain was mild was associated with the lowest daily disability [medication × pain at dosing F (4, 6336.12) = 58.73, p < .001] and highest acute medication satisfaction [medication × pain at dosing F (4, 3867.36) = 24.00, p < .001]. Conclusion Using an MSM (triptan or ergot) first was associated with the lowest migraine disability and highest acute medication satisfaction.
Lipton, Richard B; Munjal, Sagar; Buse, Dawn C; Fanning, Kristina M; Bennett, Alix; Reed, Michael L
Pain freedom at 2 hours and sustained pain response at 24 hours are important outcomes of acute migraine therapy. Some studies have examined rates and predictors of successful treatment outcomes for single attacks in clinical trials. However, little is known about predictors of typical response to acute treatment over multiple attacks in the population. To identify sociodemographic features, headache characteristics, comorbidities and treatment-related factors that predict acute treatment success or failure at 2 hours and 24 hours post dose in a US population sample of persons with episodic migraine. Eligible respondents completed the 2006 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey, met criteria for episodic migraine, reported the use of acute treatment for migraine and answered questions on acute treatment outcomes from the Migraine Treatment Optimization Questionnaire (mTOQ). One question focused on 2 hour pain free (2hPF) response and the other focused on pain relief at 2 hours and 24 hours (24hPR). For each question, responses were considered adequate if they were achieved "half the time or more" and inadequate if they were achieved "never," "rarely," or "less than half the time." Models were run to identify predictors of outcomes in relation to usual acute treatment: (1) Inadequate 2hPF response; (2) Inadequate 24hPR response; and (3) Inadequate 24 hour Sustained Pain Freedom (24hSPF), which was a conditional analysis of pain freedom at 24 hours among those who initially had an adequate pain freedom response at 2 hours. Binary logistic regression models were used to separately predict each of the 3 outcomes adjusting for covariates. Potential predictor variables were analyzed independently and variables that did not contribute significantly to outcome prediction were trimmed. The retained variables were entered into a final multivariable binary logistic regression that included age, sex, and the covariates that survived the trimming process. Odds
Sheftell, Fred D; Tepper, Stewart J
It would be ideal if clinical decisions regarding acute migraine treatment could be made on the basis of three parameters: a critical appraisal of available scientific evidence, clinical experience (including knowledge of the individual patient and his/her attack characteristics), and, of course, patient preferences. Patients are likely to prefer agents that offer rapid relief, pain-free status within 2 hours, no recurrence or need for rescue medication, extended time to recurrence (if present), consistency of therapeutic effect over multiple attacks, oral administration. good tolerability, safety, and minimal drug interactions. Fortunately, a number of specific therapies now are available which place these objectives within the patient's reach. Ongoing barriers to optimal migraine care include underrecognition, underconsultation, undertreatment, restrictions imposed by insurance companies, and exaggerated concerns regarding the safety of the triptans. Overcoming these barriers is likely to prove a more important contribution to patient care than endeavoring to establish the relative merits of one triptan over another. We have described in detail a number of strategies for improving recognition and treatment of migraine. Many headache specialists now believe that recurrent episodes of disabling headache, with a stable pattern over years, should be viewed as migraine until proven otherwise. In the end, this may represent the most useful paradigm in the primary care setting, where time is of the essence. Studies to validate this approach are needed. Acute treatment intervention that is based on scientific evidence, clinical experience, and patients' needs and desires will provide better outcomes than those presently obtained. Preliminary evidence favors early intervention with oral triptans, and randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, ideally employing a crossover design, are required to confirm this. The US Consortium's evidence
ketorolac vs intravenous prochlorperazine for the treatment of migraine headaches. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:573-576. 3. Tanen DA, Miller S, French T...double-blind trial of prochlorperazine versus ketorolac . Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:256- 262. 5. Kabbouche MA, Vockell AB, LeCates SL, et al
Rosenstock, Harvey A.; And Others
The case of a nine-year-old boy suffering from psycosomatic migraine headaches is discussed. The main article presents the case study and discusses the family systems approach which was successfully used in therapy. The following discussion deals with the psychosomatic personality. (HMV)
Rosenstock, Harvey A.; And Others
The case of a nine-year-old boy suffering from psycosomatic migraine headaches is discussed. The main article presents the case study and discusses the family systems approach which was successfully used in therapy. The following discussion deals with the psychosomatic personality. (HMV)
Leung, Stephanie; Bulloch, Blake; Young, Christine; Yonker, Marcy; Hostetler, Mark
To compare outcomes of pediatric migraine patients treated in an emergency department (ED) before and after implementation of a standardized combination intravenous therapy regimen aimed toward improving and standardizing abortive migraine therapy. In a pediatric ED, migraines represent 8-18% of all headache visits. Despite this large number, no standard treatment for acute migraine therapy currently exists. The study utilized a retrospective chart review of patients seeking acute migraine treatment at a tertiary care, pediatric ED from August 2006 to March 2010. Inclusion criteria were pediatric migraine patients as defined by International Headache Society guidelines. The comparison population received various migraine therapies based on attending practice preference. After October 2008, patients received standardized intravenous combination therapy involving a normal saline fluid bolus, ketorolac, prochlorperazine, and diphenhydramine. Occasionally, metoclopramide was substituted during prochlorperazine shortages. Reduction in headache pain score was the primary outcome. Secondary outcome measures included length of ED stay, hospital admission rate, and ED readmission rate within 48 hours. The study yielded 87 patients who received standardized combination therapy and 165 comparison patients. No significant difference in patient characteristics existed when evaluating patient demographics, outpatient medication use, and initial headache pain score. When compared with the non-standardized therapy population, the combination therapy patients revealed significant reductions in pain score (decrease of 5.3 vs. 6.9, difference -1.6, 95% confidence interval -2.2 to -0.8, P < .001), length of ED stay (5.3 vs. 4.4 hours, difference 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.6, P = .008), and hospital admission rate (32% vs. 3%, P < .001) without changes in ED return rate (7% vs. 2%, P = .148). Standardized combination therapy is effective for acute pediatric
Giuliano, Christopher; Smalligan, Roger D; Mitchon, Greg; Chua, Matt
Patients with migraine headaches are commonly encountered by clinicians both in the clinic and in the emergency department. Migraines impose a significant financial burden on patients, caregivers, and society. Up to 49% of patients treated acutely for migraine headache will have a recurrence within 72 hours. Recurrence of migraines is dependent on a number of factors, including the choice of abortive agent, age, sex, and initial severity of the migraine. Dexamethasone has been proposed and studied as a medication that may decrease the frequency of such recurrences of migraine headaches in affected patients. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid that has been proposed to prevent recurrence of migraines through its prevention of neurogenic inflammation. Initial trials, with less-than-ideal methodology, showed large decreases in the number of patients experiencing recurrent migraines. Later randomized controlled trials revealed mixed results, with subsequent meta-analyses showing an overall benefit in the prevention of recurrence of migraines. These meta-analyses suggest that dexamethasone will prevent recurrence in about 10% of patients, although trials that used higher doses of dexamethasone and followed patients for ≥ 72 hours showed a larger benefit. Very few adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials following a single dose of dexamethasone. Given the benign side effect profile and wide tolerability to a single high dose of dexamethasone, it appears to be a safe and modestly effective addition to standard migraine abortive therapy for the prevention of migraine recurrence. Dexamethasone should not be used in patients with non-migraine headaches or contraindications to steroids. Further studies should help delineate if dexamethasone can be tailored to specific patient populations and hence enhance its therapeutic effectiveness.
Kostic, Mark A; Gutierrez, Francisco J; Rieg, Thomas S; Moore, Tammy S; Gendron, Richard T
Intravenous (IV) prochlorperazine with diphenhydramine is superior to subcutaneous sumatriptan in the treatment of migraine patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, after providing written informed consent, patients presenting to the ED with a chief complaint of migraine received a 500-mL bolus of IV saline solution and either 10 mg prochlorperazine with 12.5 mg diphenhydramine IV plus saline solution placebo subcutaneously or saline solution placebo IV plus 6 mg sumatriptan subcutaneously. Pain intensity was assessed with 100-mm visual analog scales (visual analog scale at baseline and every 20 minutes for 80 minutes). The primary outcome was change in pain intensity from baseline to 80 minutes or time of ED discharge if subjects remained in the ED for fewer than 80 minutes after treatment. Sedation and nausea were assessed every 20 minutes with visual analog scale scales, and subjects were contacted within 72 hours to assess headache recurrence. Sixty-eight subjects entered the trial, with complete data for 66 subjects. Baseline pain scores were similar for the prochlorperazine/diphenhydramine and sumatriptan groups (76 versus 71 mm). Mean reductions in pain intensity at 80 minutes or time of ED discharge were 73 mm for the prochlorperazine/diphenhydramine group and 50 mm for those receiving sumatriptan (mean difference 23 mm; 95% confidence interval 11 to 36 mm). Sedation, nausea, and headache recurrence rates were similar. IV prochlorperazine with diphenhydramine is superior to subcutaneous sumatriptan in the treatment of migraine. Copyright 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Waung, Maggie W; Akerman, Simon; Wakefield, Mark; Keywood, Charlotte; Goadsby, Peter J
Many patients suffering from migraine gain little relief from existing treatments partly because many existing acute and preventive therapies used in migraine have been adopted from other neurologic conditions such as depression or epilepsy. Here, we present data supporting a new migraine-specific target, the mGlu5 receptor. We studied the effect of mGlu5 blockade using ADX10059, on neuronal firing in the trigeminocervical complex (TCC) and durovascular effects of nociceptive trigeminovascular activation in the anesthetized rat. The clinical potential of the mGlu5 mechanism was tested with ADX10059 orally in a double-blind placebo-controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. The negative allosteric mGlu5 modulator ADX10059 attenuated dural vasodilator responses to meningeal stimulation in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to naratriptan, while the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 had no effect. ADX10059 reduced responses of trigeminocervical neurons to dural stimulation, most strikingly affecting their spontaneous firing rate. Immunostaining identified mGlu5 and not mGlu1a receptors in the TCC. The primary efficacy endpoint for the clinical trial, 2 h pain free, demonstrated a significant effect of ADX10059 375 mg, 17%, versus placebo, 5%. No serious adverse events were reported at the primary dose, with transient dizziness being the most common treatment-emergent event at 48%. Our findings provide preclinical and clinical proof of concept establishing mGlu5 as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of migraine. Although ADX10059 is unsuitable as a therapeutic candidate, because of hepatoxicity detected in a subsequent study, the data open a new direction for migraine research and therapy.
Lee, Mi Ji; Choi, Hyun Ah; Choi, Hanna; Chung, Chin-Sang
Caffeine has both excitatory and vasoconstrictive effects on central nervous system. Caffeine use might be associated with development and chronification of migraine. We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine cessation on the acute treatment of migraine. We prospectively recruited migraine patients who consumed caffeine drinks daily and instructed them to discontinue their caffeine intake. Triptans were prescribed for acute treatment. Patients were followed up after at least two weeks after screening and evaluated the efficacy of acute treatment with the migraine assessment of current therapy (Migraine-ACT) questionnaire. Excellent efficacy was defined as Migraine-ACT score of 4. Chronic migraine, body mass index, allodynia, depression, anxiety, antiemetic use, and use of prophylactic medication were included in the multivariate analysis if the univariate p < 0.2. Among 108 patients included, 36 completely discontinued their caffeine intake (abstinence group). The efficacy of acute treatment was assessed at median 34.5 days (interquartile range, 28-89) after the screening. Twenty-six patients (72.2 %) in the abstinence group and 29 (40.3 %) in the non-abstinence group reported an excellent efficacy (p = 0.002). The abstinence group also showed a trend toward greater reduction of headache impact test-6 (HIT-6) scores (p = 0.085). Caffeine abstinence was independently associated with an excellent efficacy of acute treatment (multivariate odds ratio, 3.2; 95 % confidence interval, 1.2-8.4; p = 0.018) after controlling for covariates. Caffeine abstinence is associated with better efficacy of acute migraine treatment. Our uncontrolled study results encourage a further confirmatory study on this issue.
Seemungal, Barry; Kaski, Diego; Lopez-Escamez, Jose Antonio
Vestibular migraine is the most common cause of acute episodic vestibular symptoms after benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In contrast, Ménière's disease is an uncommon disorder. For both conditions, early and accurate diagnosis (or its exclusion) enables the correct management of patients with acute episodic vestibular symptoms. Long-term management of migraine requires changes in lifestyle to avoid triggers of migraine and/or prophylactic drugs if attacks become too frequent. The long-term management of Ménière's disease also involves lifestyle changes (low salt diet), medications (betahistine, steroids), and ablative therapy applied to the diseased ear (eg, intratympanic gentamicin).
Cohen, Steven P; Chaudhry, Hira
Migraine is a common and debilitating condition affecting approximately nearly one in four women in the USA and Europe. Episodic attacks can be associated with a number of symptoms, with nausea and/or vomiting being among the most frequent and distressing. Sumatriptan is widely used for acute treatment of migraine and is available in several formulations. The efficacy of oral sumatriptan is well-established. However, patients who experience migraine-associated nausea and/or vomiting can have difficulty swallowing tablets and may delay taking anti-migraine medication. In addition, absorption of oral sumatriptan can be reduced by migraine-associated gastroparesis. Non-oral formulations of sumatriptan are recommended for patients with nausea and/or vomiting, but their use may be limited by adverse effects and patient acceptance. A new transdermal formulation of sumatriptan has recently become available in the USA for acute treatment of migraine in adults. In this article, we review the properties of the sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal patch and discuss the evidence to support its use in clinical practice.
Elkind, Arthur H; MacGregor, E Anne
Frovatriptan is a 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist that belongs to the triptan therapeutic class. Relative to other triptans, frovatriptan has a long half-life (26 h) and a low incidence of migraine recurrence (17%). Frovatriptan is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura, and has a relatively good safety and tolerability profile. Recent studies have also shown that a 6-day regimen of frovatriptan scheduled during the perimenstrual period significantly reduced the incidence and severity of menstrual migraine (MM; attacks that regularly start day -2 to +3 relative to menses). Prevention may be important because MM attacks have been characterized as being of longer duration, more severe and more refractory to treatment than non-MM attacks.
Cady, Roger K; Schreiber, Curtis P; Beach, Mary E; Hart, Carolyn C
Treatment of migraine headaches is often delayed due to assessing the potential severity of an evolving headache or anticipating unwanted consequences from prescription medication. Studies have demonstrated improved pain-free response when prescription treatments are taken during the mild headache phase of a migraine. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an OTC product, GelStat Migraine, when taken in the early, mild pain phase of migraine. An open-label study enrolling 30 subjects, male and female, with a one-year history of migraine meeting IHS diagnostic criteria with or without aura, 2-8 migraines per month and < or = 15 headache days per month. Inclusion required having migraines that consistently started at mild and worsened to moderate or severe, if untreated, in at least 75% of attacks. Subjects also had to be able to distinguish migraine from non-migraine headaches and reliably identify migraine early in the course of an attack. One headache was treated in the mild pain phase with GelStat Migraine, a combination of feverfew and ginger. 29 evaluable subjects completed the study, all treating at mild pain. Two hours after treatment, 48% were pain-free with 34% reporting a headache of only mild severity. 29% reported a recurrence within 24 hours. Side effects were minimal and not serious. 59% of subjects were satisfied with Gelstat Migraine therapy and 41% preferred GelStat Migraine or felt it was equal to their pre-study medication. GelStat Migraine is effective as a first line abortive treatment for migraine when initiated early during the mild headache phase.
Holroyd, Kenneth A; Cottrell, Constance K; O'Donnell, Francis J; Cordingley, Gary E; Drew, Jana B; Carlson, Bruce W; Himawan, Lina
To determine if the addition of preventive drug treatment (β blocker), brief behavioural migraine management, or their combination improves the outcome of optimised acute treatment in the management of frequent migraine. Randomised placebo controlled trial over 16 months from July 2001 to November 2005. Two outpatient sites in Ohio, USA. 232 adults (mean age 38 years; 79% female) with diagnosis of migraine with or without aura according to International Headache Society classification of headache disorders criteria, who recorded at least three migraines with disability per 30 days (mean 5.5 migraines/30 days), during an optimised run-in of acute treatment. Addition of one of four preventive treatments to optimised acute treatment: β blocker (n=53), matched placebo (n=55), behavioural migraine management plus placebo (n=55), or behavioural migraine management plus β blocker (n=69). The primary outcome was change in migraines/30 days; secondary outcomes included change in migraine days/30 days and change in migraine specific quality of life scores. Mixed model analysis showed statistically significant (P≤0.05) differences in outcomes among the four added treatments for both the primary outcome (migraines/30 days) and the two secondary outcomes (change in migraine days/30 days and change in migraine specific quality of life scores). The addition of combined β blocker and behavioural migraine management (-3.3 migraines/30 days, 95% confidence interval -3.2 to -3.5), but not the addition of β blocker alone (-2.1 migraines/30 days, -1.9 to -2.2) or behavioural migraine management alone (-2.2 migraines migraines/30 days, -2.0 to -2.4), improved outcomes compared with optimised acute treatment alone (-2.1 migraines/30 days, -1.9 to -2.2). For a clinically significant (≥50% reduction) in migraines/30 days, the number needed to treat for optimised acute treatment plus combined β blocker and behavioural migraine management was 3.1 compared with optimised acute
Cottrell, Constance K; O’Donnell, Francis J; Cordingley, Gary E; Drew, Jana B; Carlson, Bruce W; Himawan, Lina
Objective To determine if the addition of preventive drug treatment (β blocker), brief behavioural migraine management, or their combination improves the outcome of optimised acute treatment in the management of frequent migraine. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial over 16 months from July 2001 to November 2005. Setting Two outpatient sites in Ohio, USA. Participants 232 adults (mean age 38 years; 79% female) with diagnosis of migraine with or without aura according to International Headache Society classification of headache disorders criteria, who recorded at least three migraines with disability per 30 days (mean 5.5 migraines/30 days), during an optimised run-in of acute treatment. Interventions Addition of one of four preventive treatments to optimised acute treatment: β blocker (n=53), matched placebo (n=55), behavioural migraine management plus placebo (n=55), or behavioural migraine management plus β blocker (n=69). Main outcome measure The primary outcome was change in migraines/30 days; secondary outcomes included change in migraine days/30 days and change in migraine specific quality of life scores. Results Mixed model analysis showed statistically significant (P≤0.05) differences in outcomes among the four added treatments for both the primary outcome (migraines/30 days) and the two secondary outcomes (change in migraine days/30 days and change in migraine specific quality of life scores). The addition of combined β blocker and behavioural migraine management (−3.3 migraines/30 days, 95% confidence interval −3.2 to −3.5), but not the addition of β blocker alone (−2.1 migraines/30 days, −1.9 to −2.2) or behavioural migraine management alone (−2.2 migraines migraines/30 days, −2.0 to −2.4), improved outcomes compared with optimised acute treatment alone (−2.1 migraines/30 days, −1.9 to −2.2). For a clinically significant (≥50% reduction) in migraines/30 days, the number needed to treat for optimised acute treatment
Martelletti, Paolo; Farinelli, Ivano; Steiner, Timothy J
The World Health Organization (WHO) placed migraine 19th among all causes of disability (12th in women) measured in years of healthy life lost to disability (YLD). The importance of headache disorders, particularly of the primary forms, is established by their distribution worldwide, their duration (the majority being life-long conditions) and their imposition of both disability and life-style restrictions among large numbers of people. For these reasons, headache disorders should represent a public-health priority. In the Emergency Department (ED), as elsewhere, migraine is often under-diagnosed-and under-treated when it is diagnosed. The result is likely to be failure of treatment. Particular attention to diagnosis is needed in ED patients with acute headache, since there is a higher probability of secondary headache due to underlying pathologies. According to European principles of management, acute migraine treatment generally is stepwise. Of the two main steps, the first relies on symptomatic medication, preferably NSAIDs with or without antiemetics. The second step uses specific therapies, usually triptans. Modifications to routine practice are appropriate in the ED. Parenteral administration of symptomatic therapies is a preferred first choice, whilst immediate resort to triptans may be appropriate, and achieve better outcomes, in patients with severe headache and diagnostic confirmation of migraine.
Buse, Dawn C; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael L; Kori, Shashi H; Cunanan, Cedric M; Adams, Aubrey Manack; Lipton, Richard B
Though triptans are the most widely used acute treatments for migraine, response to treatment is sometimes suboptimal. Triptan therapy is often augmented by the addition of other acute treatments. The benefits of this practice have not been examined in large-scale, real-world observational studies. To assess changes in headache-related disability associated with adding additional acute treatments to a triptan regimen by category of added treatment including: a second triptan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids or barbiturates. Subjects were participants in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study, a longitudinal, US population-based study of individuals with "severe" headache. Respondents who met International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 beta criteria for migraine were on triptan therapy per respondent self-report, used the same triptan, and provided headache-related disability data for at least 2 consecutive years. Subjects were divided based on headache days per month into 3 groups: low-frequency episodic migraine (LFEM, 0-4), moderate-frequency episodic migraine (MFEM, 5-9), and high-frequency episodic migraine/chronic migraine (HFEM/CM, ≥ 10 headache days per month). HFEM and CM were combined into a single group for analyses because of sample size limitations. Patterns of acute treatment for migraine were monitored from one year to the next over the following couplets of years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009). The first eligible couplet was analyzed for each respondent. Medication regimens studied included: (1) maintaining current triptan use (consistent group); (2) adding a different triptan; (3) adding an NSAID; or (4) adding a combination analgesic containing opioids or barbiturates. We assessed change in Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score from the first to the second year of a couplet, contrasting scores of participants with consistent use with those who added an acute treatment to
Blumenfeld, Alyssa E; Victorio, M Cristina; Berenson, Frank R
Migraines are a common paroxysmal disorder that may present with a multitude of neurologic symptoms. Migraines have been re-categorized in the most recent edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. In this article, we review the literature on hemiplegic migraines, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, migraine with brainstem aura, retinal migraine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, and acute confusional migraine. We also discuss the principal clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options for these disorders.
Lewis, Donald W; Kellstein, David; Dahl, Georg; Burke, Bonnie; Frank, L M; Toor, S; Northam, R S; White, L W; Lawson, L
To compare the efficacy of a single over-the-counter dose (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) of children's ibuprofen suspension vs. placebo for the acute treatment of pediatric migraine. Migraine occurs in 4% of young children. There is a paucity of controlled clinical research in the treatment of childhood migraine and there are currently no approved drugs in the USA for treatment of migraine in children < or = 12 years of age. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a single OTC dose of ibuprofen suspension for the acute treatment of childhood migraine. Prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, randomized study of children 6-12 yrs with migraine (I.H.S.-R 1997) treating 1 attack with a 7.5 mg/kg liq. ibuprofen vs matching placebo. Efficacy measures: (1). Headache severity based upon a 4 pt scale (severe, mod., mild, no headache) at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes post dose, and (2). nausea, vomiting, and photo/phonophobia at 120 min. The 1 degrees endpoint was cumulative % of responders (severe or mod. headache reduced to mild or none) by 120 minutes. Secondary endpoints were headache recurrence within 4-24 hours and need for rescue medicines within 4 hours. 138 enrolled; 84 treated/completed diary. 45 active agent, 39 placebo. The 2 groups were comparable (active: placebo) - Ages: 9: 9.1, gender boy/girl - 1.25: 1.6, and diagnosis: migraine w/o aura - 86%: 79%. Concomitant use of prophylactic Rx: 24%: 10% (Table 3). Nausea was eliminated in 60% of the ibuprofen treated patients and 39% of the placebo group (p<0.001). Vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia had marginal, but not statistically significant, decreases at 2 hours. A striking gender difference was noted (Table 4): No AE's were reported. Children's ibuprofen suspension at an OTC dose of 7.5 mg/kg is an effective and well-tolerated agent for pain relief in the acute treatment of childhood migraine, particularly in boys. There is a striking difference in gender
... my period. Could they be related to my menstrual cycle? More than half of migraines in women occur ... times of the month as well. How the menstrual cycle and migraine are linked is still unclear. We ...
Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas
Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.
Fritsche, G; Kröner-Herwig, B; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Haag, G
This review summarizes the various forms of behavioral treatment of migraine which could demonstrate empirical efficacy. The main unimodal kinds of treatment are thermal and electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training and progressive muscle relaxation. The various relaxation techniques do not differ in their efficacy in treating migraine. On average a reduction in migraine frequency of 35-45 % is achieved. The mean effect sizes (ES) of various biofeedback techniques are between 0.4 and 0.6. Cognitive-behavioral treatment is applied as a multimodal treatment and on average achieves an improvement in migraine activity by 39 % and an ES of 0.54. All behavioral procedures can be used in combination or as an alternative to drug prophylaxis with comparable success. A combination of pharmacological and behavioral treatment can achieve additional success. There is strong evidence for the clinically significant efficacy of all forms of behavioral treatment in childhood and adolescence. There are no signs of differential indications.
Edvinsson, Lars; Villalón, Carlos M; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette
Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent unilateral headaches accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. Current theories suggest that the initiation of a migraine attack involves a primary event in the central nervous system (CNS), probably involving a combination of genetic changes in ion channels and environmental changes, which renders the individual more sensitive to environmental factors; this may, in turn, result in a wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD) when the attack is initiated. Genetically, migraine is a complex familial disorder in which the severity and the susceptibility of individuals are most likely governed by several genes that vary between families. Early PET studies have suggested the involvement of a migraine active region in the brainstem. Migraine headache is associated with trigeminal nerve activation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the trigeminovascular system. Administration of triptans (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists) causes the headache to subside and the levels of CGRP to normalize. Moreover, administration of CGRP receptor antagonists aborts the headache. Recent immunohistochemical and pharmacological results suggest that the trigeminal system has receptors for CGRP; further, 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors, which inhibit the action of CGRP in pain transmission when activated, have been demonstrated. This offers an explanation for the treatment response. The present review provides an updated analysis of the basic mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of migraine and the various pharmacological approaches (including 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists, CGRP receptor antagonists and glutamate receptor antagonists) that have shown efficacy for the acute treatment of this disorder.
Episodic migraine is a common debilitating condition with significant worldwide impact. An effective management plan must include acute treatment to relieve the pain and potential disability associated with the attacks and may also include preventative treatments with an aim of decreasing attack frequency and severity in the longer term. Acute treatments must be limited to a maximum of 2-3 days a week to prevent medication overuse headache and focus on simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Preventative treatments are numerous and should be considered when migraine attacks are frequent and or disabling, acute medication is failing, in special circumstances such as hemiplegic migraines or if the patient requests them. All preventative medications must be given at therapeutic doses for at least 6-8 weeks before an adequate trial can be judged ineffective. The most important factor in choosing drugs is the patient and the clinical features of their attack and treatment should be tailored to these. Relative co-morbidities will influence drug choice, as will the side effect profile and the efficacy of the drug. First line preventative drugs include ß-blockers, amitriptyline and anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate and valproate. Drugs with lower efficacy or poorer side effect profiles include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin and herbal medicines. PMID:23024562
Episodic migraine is a common debilitating condition with significant worldwide impact. An effective management plan must include acute treatment to relieve the pain and potential disability associated with the attacks and may also include preventative treatments with an aim of decreasing attack frequency and severity in the longer term. Acute treatments must be limited to a maximum of 2-3 days a week to prevent medication overuse headache and focus on simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Preventative treatments are numerous and should be considered when migraine attacks are frequent and or disabling, acute medication is failing, in special circumstances such as hemiplegic migraines or if the patient requests them. All preventative medications must be given at therapeutic doses for at least 6-8 weeks before an adequate trial can be judged ineffective. The most important factor in choosing drugs is the patient and the clinical features of their attack and treatment should be tailored to these. Relative co-morbidities will influence drug choice, as will the side effect profile and the efficacy of the drug. First line preventative drugs include ß-blockers, amitriptyline and anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate and valproate. Drugs with lower efficacy or poorer side effect profiles include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin and herbal medicines.
After menarche, women have an increased prevalence of migraine compared to men. There is significant variability in the frequency and severity of migraine throughout the menstrual cycle. Women report migraines occur more frequently during menses, and that those are more severe than other migraines. This creates a unique challenge of effectively treating menstrually related and pure menstrual migraines. As with treatment of other migraines, both abortive and prophylactic treatment regimens are used. Triptans demonstrate efficacy in the abortive management of menstrually related and pure menstrual migraines. For migraines that occur primarily during menses or that are particularly resistant to other therapies, intermittent prophylactic therapies can be used. Naproxen and estrogens have been studied for this use. More recently, triptans have been examined and have shown efficacy for intermittent prophylaxis of menstrual migraine. PMID:20697846
Sullivan, Elizabeth; Bushnell, Cheryl
After menarche, women have an increased prevalence of migraine compared to men. There is significant variability in the frequency and severity of migraine throughout the menstrual cycle. Women report migraines occur more frequently during menses, and that those are more severe than other migraines. This creates a unique challenge of effectively treating menstrually related and pure menstrual migraines. As with treatment of other migraines, both abortive and prophylactic treatment regimens are used. Triptans demonstrate efficacy in the abortive management of menstrually related and pure menstrual migraines. For migraines that occur primarily during menses or that are particularly resistant to other therapies, intermittent prophylactic therapies can be used. Naproxen and estrogens have been studied for this use. More recently, triptans have been examined and have shown efficacy for intermittent prophylaxis of menstrual migraine.
Johnson, E. S.
The concept that migraine results from an initial vasoconstriction due to increased release of noradrenaline from the sympathetic nerves to cranial blood vessels has been reappraised in the light of recently acquired knowledge of the mechanisms of action of drugs used in the treatment of migraine, physiological and pharmacological evidence implicating noradrenaline, and the observations by others that several migraine variants may be associated with some degree of sympathetic overactivity. If the theory is correct, it suggests that both prophylaxis and management of the acute condition should be possible by means of selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism. The use of drugs with potentially dangerous vasoconstrictor properties appears to be unnecessary. The suggestion is made that the increased adrenergic activity might result from changes within the hypothalamus. PMID:26908
Bartleson, J. D.; Krecke, Karl N.; O'Neill, Brian P.; Brown, Paul D.
We report 2 adults with a past history of radiation therapy to the head for malignancy (one with primary B-cell lymphoma confined to the skull and the other with multiple hemangioendotheliomas) who developed episodes consistent with migraine with and without aura. In addition to more typical migraine attacks and beginning many years after their radiation therapy, both patients have experienced infrequent, stereotyped, prolonged, reversible neurologic deficits associated with headache, occasional seizures, and striking, transient, cortical gadolinium enhancement of the posterior cerebral gyri on MRI. Interictal MRI brain scans show stable abnormalities consistent with the patients' previous radiation therapy. The neurologic deficits often progressed over a few days, sometimes lasted weeks, and completely resolved. Electroencephalograms did not show epileptiform activity. Thorough investigation showed no residual or recurrent tumor and no recognized cause for the patients' attacks. We postulate a causal relationship between the patients' remote radiation therapy and their prolonged, strokelike migraine attacks. Radiation-induced vascular changes could provoke the episodes, with or without an underlying migraine diathesis. Recognition of this syndrome can help avoid invasive testing. PMID:12672284
Khan, Sobia; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Knowles, Sandra; Gomes, Tara
Our study aims to examine factors related to access of triptans among multiple stakeholder groups. Triptans are a cornerstone of pain management for the acute treatment of migraine, but actual utilization of triptans is lower than ideal. Initial and continued access to triptans may be an important clinical issue in the acute treatment of migraines, but factors affecting access at the patient, provider, and health-care system levels have not been comprehensively explored. A qualitative study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, between August 2013 and January 2014. Three participant groups were recruited to the qualitative study: (1) migraineurs who have experience accessing triptans; (2) physicians, including primary care physicians (PCPs) and neurologists, who have prescribed triptans; and (3) pharmacists who have dispensed triptans. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured telephone interviews. The framework approach was used for data collection and analysis. Data collected from 19 migraineurs, 6 physicians, and 8 pharmacists were included in the analysis. Study participants discussed various factors that facilitate or hinder access to triptans, which were synthesized into four themes that emerged at the patient, provider, and health-care systems levels: (1) awareness; (2) apathy; (3) advocacy; and (4) affordability. Across all participant groups, awareness of available treatments and coverage policies for those treatments were potential factors relating to timely drug provision. Participants describe apathy in terms of patients' health-seeking behaviors and physicians' lack of concern toward migraine, which were seen as factors that could delay diagnosis and provision of appropriate treatment. Patients engaging in self-advocacy enhanced their ability to seek timely and appropriate provision of triptans at the patient level. At the health-care provider level, pharmacists were identified by patients as advocates for receiving more effective
... be triggered by many things. But the exact chain of events remains unclear. Most medical experts believe ... anxiety Migraines can also be triggered by certain foods. Most common are: Chocolate Dairy foods, especially certain ...
... regular meals. In addition, try to control stress. Exercise regularly. Regular aerobic exercise reduces tension and can help prevent migraines. If your doctor agrees, choose any aerobic exercise you enjoy, including walking, swimming and cycling. Warm ...
Guo, Xinyao; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Yingying; O'Brien, Hope; Kabbouche, Marielle; Horn, Paul; Powers, Scott W; Hershey, Andrew D
Migraine attacks have been shown to interfere with normal function in the brain such as motor or sensory function. However, to date, there has been no clinical neurophysiology study focusing on the motor function in children with migraine during headache attacks. To investigate the motor function in children with migraine, twenty-six children with acute migraine, meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria and age- and gender-matched healthy children were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography system. A finger-tapping paradigm was designed to elicit neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex. Children with migraine showed significantly prolonged latency of movement-evoked magnetic fields (MEF) during finger movement compared with the controls. The correlation coefficient of MEF latency and age in children with migraine was significantly different from that in healthy controls. The spectral power of high gamma (65-150 Hz) oscillations during finger movement in the primary motor cortex is also significantly higher in children with migraine than in controls. The alteration of responding latency and aberrant high gamma oscillations suggest that the developmental trajectory of motor function in children with migraine is impaired during migraine attacks and/or developmentally delayed. This finding indicates that childhood migraine may affect the development of brain function and result in long-term problems.
Kirthi, Varo; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine headaches. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 10 March 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using aspirin to treat a discrete migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Thirteen studies (4222 participants) compared aspirin 900 mg or 1000 mg, alone or in combination with metoclopramide 10 mg, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 50 mg or 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes, all active treatments were superior to placebo, with NNTs of 8.1, 4.9 and 6.6 for 2-hour pain-free, 2-hour headache relief, and 24-hour headache relief with aspirin alone versus placebo, and 8.8, 3.3 and 6.2 with aspirin plus metoclopramide versus placebo. Sumatriptan 50 mg did not differ from aspirin alone for 2-hour pain-free and headache relief, while sumatriptan 100 mg was better than the combination of aspirin plus metoclopramide for 2-hour pain-free, but not headache relief; there were no data for 24-hour headache relief. Associated symptoms of nausea, vomiting
Cameron, Chris; Kelly, Shannon; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Murphy, Meghan; Chen, Li; Kotb, Ahmed; Peterson, Joan; Coyle, Doug; Skidmore, Becky; Gomes, Tara; Clifford, Tammy; Wells, George
Although triptans are widely used in the acute management of migraine, there is uncertainty around the comparative efficacy of triptans among each other and vs non-triptan migraine treatments. We conducted systematic reviews and network meta-analyses to compare the relative efficacy of triptans (alone or in combination with other drugs) for acute treatment of migraines compared with other triptan agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), acetaminophen, ergots, opioids, or anti-emetics. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared triptans (alone or in combination with other drugs) with placebo-controlled or active migraine treatments. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were completed independently by multiple reviewers. Outcome data were combined and analyzed using a Bayesian network meta-analysis. For each outcome, odds ratios, relative risks, and absolute probability of response were calculated. A total of 133 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Standard dose triptans relieved headaches within 2 hours in 42 to 76% of patients, and 2-hour sustained freedom from pain was achieved for 18 to 50% of patients. Standard dose triptans provided sustained headache relief at 24 hours in 29 to 50% of patients, and sustained freedom from pain in 18 to 33% of patients. Use of rescue medications ranged from 20 to 34%. For 2-hour headache relief, standard dose triptan achieved better outcomes (42 to 76% response) than ergots (38%); equal or better outcomes than NSAIDs, ASA, and acetaminophen (46 to 52%); and equal or slightly worse outcomes than combination therapy (62 to 80%). Among individual triptans, sumatriptan subcutaneous injection, rizatriptan ODT, zolmitriptan ODT, and eletriptan tablets were associated with the most favorable outcomes. Triptans are effective for migraine relief. Standard dose triptans are associated with better
Yedikardachian, Delphine; Quasthoff, Stefan; Lechner, Anita T; Giuliani, Albrecht; Fazekas, Franz
Migraine is a complex, multifactorial, neurovascular disorder of the brain. Patients frequently have pericranial trigger points, but trigger point (TP) therapy for migraine has not yet been adequately studied. In contrast, lymphatic drainage (LD) has been studied in patients with migraine. The multifactorial origin of migraine suggests using a combination of approaches such as TP therapy and lymphatic drainage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of TP therapy alone and in combination with LD in preventing migraine during treatment period and over an 8‑week period after completion of treatment. A wait list control group served as a control group. Patients completed a headache calendar. The results of this pilot study suggest a beneficial effect for TP alone and TP combined with LD for migraine prophylaxis for 8 weeks after completion of treatment.
MacGregor, E Anne
This issue provides a clinical overview of migraine, focusing on risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.
Callenbach, Petra M C; Pels, Lise P M; Mulder, Paul G H; Linssen, Wim H J P; Gooskens, Rob H J M; van der Zwan, Jan L; Brouwer, Oebele F
About 4-10% of children and adolescents suffer from migraine. In the last few years, several studies have been performed to assess the efficacy and safety of triptans for the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Only sumatriptan nasal spray has been approved for the treatment of acute migraine with or without aura in adolescents aged 12-17 years in Europe. This review describes the results of the studies with sumatriptan nasal spray that have been performed in children and adolescents, including a study performed in the Netherlands.
Orr, Serena L; Friedman, Benjamin W; Christie, Suzanne; Minen, Mia T; Bamford, Cynthia; Kelley, Nancy E; Tepper, Deborah
To provide evidence-based treatment recommendations for adults with acute migraine who require treatment with injectable medication in an emergency department (ED). We addressed two clinically relevant questions: (1) Which injectable medications should be considered first-line treatment for adults who present to an ED with acute migraine? (2) Do parenteral corticosteroids prevent recurrence of migraine in adults discharged from an ED? The American Headache Society convened an expert panel of authors who defined a search strategy and then performed a search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane database and clinical trial registries from inception through 2015. Identified articles were rated using the American Academy of Neurology's risk of bias tool. For each medication, the expert panel determined likelihood of efficacy. Recommendations were created accounting for efficacy, adverse events, availability of alternate therapies, and principles of medication action. The search identified 68 unique randomized controlled trials utilizing 28 injectable medications. Of these, 19 were rated class 1 (low risk of bias), 21 were rated class 2 (higher risk of bias), and 28 were rated class 3 (highest risk of bias). Metoclopramide, prochlorperazine, and sumatriptan each had multiple class 1 studies supporting acute efficacy, as did dexamethasone for prevention of headache recurrence. All other medications had lower levels of evidence. Intravenous metoclopramide and prochlorperazine, and subcutaneous sumatriptan should be offered to eligible adults who present to an ED with acute migraine (Should offer-Level B). Dexamethasone should be offered to these patients to prevent recurrence of headache (Should offer-Level B). Because of lack of evidence demonstrating efficacy and concern about sub-acute or long-term sequelae, injectable morphine and hydromorphone are best avoided as first-line therapy (May avoid-Level C). © 2016 American Headache Society.
Lim, Sue Yin; Brooke, Jonathan; Dineen, Robert; O'Donoghue, Michael
We describe a patient who experienced a prolonged episode of headache, drowsiness, seizure, unilateral weakness, delusion and hallucination due to a stroke-like migraine attack after cranial radiation therapy. Stroke-like migraine attack after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare complication of therapeutic brain irradiation.
Friedman, Benjamin W.; Mulvey, Laura; Esses, David; Solorzano, Clemencia; Paternoster, Joseph; Lipton, Richard B.; Gallagher, E. John
Background Intravenous metoclopramide is effective as primary therapy for acute migraine but the optimal dose of this medication is not yet known. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, dose finding study conducted on patients who presented to our emergency department (ED) meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine without aura. We randomized patients to 10mg, 20mg, or 40mg of intravenous metoclopramide. We co-administered diphenhydramine to all patients to prevent extra-pyramidal side effects. The primary outcome was improvement in pain on an 11 point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) at one hour. Secondary outcomes included sustained pain freedom at 48 hours and adverse effects. Results In this study, 356 patients were randomized. Baseline demographics and headache features were comparable among the groups. At one hour, those who received 10mg improved by a mean of 4.7 NRS points (95%CI: 4.2, 5.2); those who received 20mg improved by 4.9 (95%CI: 4.4, 5.4), and those who received 40mg improved by 5.3(95%CI: 4.8, 5.9). Rates of 48 hour sustained pain freedom in the 10, 20, and 40mg groups were: 16% (95%CI:10,24%), 20% (95%CI:14,28%), and 21% (95%CI:15,29%), respectively. The most commonly occurring adverse event was drowsiness, which impaired function in 17% (95%CI: 13,21%) of the overall study population. Akathisia developed in 33 patients. Both drowsiness and akathisia were evenly distributed across the 3 arms of the study. One month later, no patient had developed tardive dyskinesia. Conclusions 20mg or 40mg of metoclopramide are no better for acute migraine than 10mg of metoclopramide. PMID:21227540
Friedman, Benjamin W; Mulvey, Laura; Esses, David; Solorzano, Clemencia; Paternoster, Joseph; Lipton, Richard B; Gallagher, E John
Intravenous metoclopramide is effective as primary therapy for acute migraine, but the optimal dose of this medication is not yet known. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of 3 different doses of intravenous metoclopramide for the treatment of acute migraine. This was a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding study conducted on patients who presented to our emergency department (ED) meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine without aura. We randomized patients to 10, 20, or 40 mg of intravenous metoclopramide. We coadministered diphenhydramine to all patients to prevent extrapyramidal adverse effects. The primary outcome was improvement in pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale at 1 hour. Secondary outcomes included sustained pain freedom at 48 hours and adverse effects. In this study, 356 patients were randomized. Baseline demographics and headache features were comparable among the groups. At 1 hour, those who received 10 mg of intravenous metoclopramide improved by a mean of 4.7 numeric rating scale points (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2 to 5.2 points); those who received 20 mg improved by 4.9 points (95% CI 4.4 to 5.4 points), and those who received 40 mg improved by 5.3 points (95% CI 4.8 to 5.9 points). Rates of 48-hour sustained pain freedom in the 10-, 20-, and 40-mg groups were 16% (95% CI 10% to 24%), 20% (95% CI 14% to 28%), and 21% (95% CI 15% to 29%), respectively. The most commonly occurring adverse event was drowsiness, which impaired function in 17% (95% CI 13% to 21%) of the overall study population. Akathisia developed in 33 patients. Both drowsiness and akathisia were evenly distributed across the 3 arms of the study. One month later, no patient had developed tardive dyskinesia. Twenty milligrams or 40 mg of metoclopramide is no better for acute migraine than 10 mg of metoclopramide. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All
2000). 3. Rogawski, M. A. Common pathophysiologic mechanisms in migraine and epilepsy . Arch. Neurol 65, 709–714 (2008). 4. D’Ambrosio, R. et al...migraine and epilepsy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: K.C. Brennan M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...SUBTITLE Mechanism and therapy for the shared susceptibility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER to migraine and epilepsy after traumatic brain injury. 5b. GRANT
1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0752 TITLE: Mechanism and Therapy for the Shared Susceptibility to Migraine and Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury...Migraine and Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: k.c.brennan...and mechanisms of increased brain excitability leading to migraine and epilepsy after traumatic brain injury. In the 30 months since this grant was
Pardutz, Arpad; Schoenen, Jean
Migraine is a common disabling neurological disorder with a serious socio-economical burden. By blocking cyclooxygenase nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are involved in the pathophysiology of migraine headaches. Despite the introduction more than a decade ago of a new class of migraine-specific drugs with superior efficacy, the triptans, NSAIDs remain the most commonly used therapies for the migraine attack. This is in part due to their wide availability as over-the-counter drugs and their pharmaco-economic advantages, but also to a favorable efficacy/side effect profile at least in attacks of mild and moderate intensity. We summarize here both the experimental data showing that NSAIDs are able to influence several pathophysiological facets of the migraine headache and the clinical studies providing evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of various subclasses of NSAIDs in migraine therapy. Taken together these data indicate that there are several targets for NSAIDs in migraine pathophysiology and that on the spectrum of clinical potency acetaminophen is at the lower end while ibuprofen is among the most effective drugs. Acetaminophen and aspirin excluded, comparative trials between the other NSAIDs are missing. Since evidence-based criteria are scarce, the selection of an NSAID should take into account proof and degree of efficacy, rapid GI absorption, gastric ulcer risk and previous experience of each individual patient. If selected and prescribed wisely, NSAIDs are precious, safe and cost-efficient drugs for the treatment of migraine attacks. PMID:27713337
Israel, Heike; Neeb, Lars
More than 20 years have passed without the launch of a new substance class for acute migraine therapy. Triptans were the latest class of substances which successfully passed all developmental stages with a significant antimigraine efficacy and a sufficient safety profile. New drugs with a better adverse event profile and at least similar efficacy are needed for migraine subjects who cannot tolerate triptans for attack treatment. Lasmiditan is a novel highly specific 5-HT1F receptor agonist currently in clinical trials for acute migraine therapy and devoid of vasoconstriction in coronary arteries as determined in a surrogate assay. In both phase II randomized, placebo-controlled trials in acute migraine the primary endpoint was met. For the intravenous formulation a clear dose-dependent effect on headaches could be determined. Lasmiditan tablets in doses of 50–400 mg show significant headache relief after 2 hours compared with placebo and improved accompanying symptoms. This substance is chemically clearly different from other antimigraine drugs, which is also reflected by its dose-dependent adverse event profile chiefly including dizziness, vertigo, paresthesia and fatigue. Adverse events are usually linked to the central nervous system. Future phase III clinical trials with an active triptan comparator or in a preferential trial design will allow a better comparison of lasmiditan and triptans. They will also determine whether lasmiditan will become available to the migraine patient. PMID:25584073
Irimia, Pablo; Carmona-Abellán, Mar; Martínez-Vila, Eduardo
Chronic migraine is a common disabling condition. Severe migraine attacks should be treated with triptans, but these agents are contraindicated in patients with vascular problems and may not be effective or tolerated in around one third of the patients. New acute migraine therapies without vasoconstrictive activity and triptan-specific side effects are emerging. For the prophylaxis of chronic migraine, only topiramate and OnabotulinumtoxinA have been shown to be effective in placebo-controlled randomized trials, so novel therapeutic strategies are needed. The growing understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic migraine will contribute to the identification of new treatment targets.
Derry, Sheena; Rabbie, Roy; Moore, R Andrew
Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Diclofenac is an established analgesic, and new formulations using the potassium or epolamine salts, which can be dissolved in water, have been developed for rapid absorption, which may be beneficial in acute migraine. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce the nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists for studies through 27 September 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using self administered diclofenac to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Five studies (1356 participants) compared oral diclofenac with placebo, and one also compared it with sumatriptan; none combined diclofenac with a self administered antiemetic. Four studies treated attacks with single doses of medication, and two allowed an optional second dose for inadequate response. Only two studies, with three active treatment arms, provided data for pooled analysis of primary outcomes. For single doses of diclofenac
Bennett, Michael H; French, Christopher; Schnabel, Alexander; Wasiak, Jason; Kranke, Peter; Weibel, Stephanie
Migraine and cluster headaches are severe and disabling. Migraine affects up to 18% of women, while cluster headaches are much less common (0.2% of the population). A number of acute and prophylactic therapies are available. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the therapeutic administration of 100% oxygen at environmental pressures greater than one atmosphere, while normobaric oxygen therapy (NBOT) is oxygen administered at one atmosphere. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3, 2008 under the title 'Normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen for migraine and cluster headache'. To examine the efficacy and safety of normobaric oxygen therapy (NBOT) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment and prevention of migraine and cluster headache. We updated searches of the following databases up to 15 June 2015: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL. For the original review we searched the following databases up to May 2008: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, DORCTIHM, and reference lists from relevant articles. We handsearched relevant journals and contacted researchers to identify trials. Randomised controlled trials comparing HBOT or NBOT with one another, other active therapies, placebo (sham) interventions, or no treatment in participants with migraine or cluster headache. Three review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. In this update, we included 11 trials with 209 participants. Five trials (103 participants) compared HBOT versus sham therapy for acute migraine, three trials compared NBOT to sham therapy or ergotamine tartrate for cluster headache (145 participants), two trials evaluated HBOT for cluster headache (29 participants), and one trial (56 participants) compared NBOT to sham for a mixed group of headache. The risk of bias varied considerably across these trials but in general trial quality was poor to moderate. One trial may not
Zhang, Lv-Ming; Yu, Sheng-Yuan
Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder in the neurologic clinics whose mechanisms have been explored for several years. The aura has been considered to be attributed to cortical spreading depression (CSD) and dysfunction of the trigeminovascular system is the key factor that has been considered in the pathogenesis of migraine pain. Moreover, three genes (CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A) have come from studies performed in individuals with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a monogenic form of migraine with aura. Therapies targeting on the neuropeptids and genes may be helpful in the precision medicine of migraineurs. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have demonstrated efficacy in the acute specific treatment of migraine attacks. Therefore, ongoing and future efforts to find new vulnerabilities of migraine, unravel the complexity of drug therapy, and perform biomarker-driven clinical trials are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with migraine. PMID:27127758
Visens, Laura S
Migraine is a very common condition that has a significant socioeconomic impact. Based on the most recent reports from the World Health Organization, its diagnosis and treatment are far from being optimal. Specialists have made great efforts to classify headaches, including migraines, in order to have a useful diagnostic tool and to guide treatment. On the other hand, advances made in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of migraines, new treatment options were developed. These new options include onabotulinum toxin A and topiramate. The prompt detection of migraine disorders and an appropriate treatment, both symptomatic and preventive, are key to relieve the personal, familiar, and social burden with special focus on chronic migraine.
Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of paracetamol (acetaminophen), alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 4 October 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered paracetamol to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Ten studies (2769 participants, 4062 attacks) compared paracetamol 1000 mg, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes paracetamol was superior to placebo, with NNTs of 12, 5.2 and 5.0 for 2-hour pain-free and 1- and 2-hour headache relief, respectively, when medication was taken for moderate to severe pain. Nausea, photophobia and phonophobia were reduced more with paracetamol than with placebo at 2 hours (NNTs of 7 to 11); more individuals were free of any functional disability at 2 hours with paracetamol (NNT 10); and fewer participants needed rescue medication over 6 hours (NNT 6). Paracetamol 1000 mg plus metoclopramide 10 mg was not significantly different from oral sumatriptan
Guidotti, Mario; Barrilà, Caterina; Leva, Serena; De Piazza, Claudio; Omboni, Stefano
Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females) suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine) to 10 (severe migraine) and use of rescue medication. The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-5.9]) than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1-6.4], P< 0.05 versus frovatriptan) or no therapy (6.6 [6.2-7.0], P< 0.01 versus frovatriptan). The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5-2.3]) versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0-4.2], P< 0.001) and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4-5.8], P< 0.001) and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P< 0.05) lower on frovatriptan (12.5%) than on naproxen sodium (31.3%) or no therapy (56.3%). This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.
Guidotti, Mario; Barrilà, Caterina; Leva, Serena; De Piazza, Claudio; Omboni, Stefano
Background Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study. Methods Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females) suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine) to 10 (severe migraine) and use of rescue medication. Results The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8–5.9]) than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P< 0.05 versus frovatriptan) or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P< 0.01 versus frovatriptan). The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3]) versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P< 0.001) and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P< 0.001) and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P< 0.05) lower on frovatriptan (12.5%) than on naproxen sodium (31.3%) or no therapy (56.3%). Conclusion This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine. PMID:23355779
Chan, Steven; Kurowski, Brad; Byczkowski, Terri; Timm, Nathan
More than 3.8 million children sustain traumatic brain injuries annually. Treatment of posttraumatic headache (PTH) in the emergency department (ED) is variable, and benefits are unclear. The objective of the study is to determine if intravenous migraine therapy reduces pain scores in children with PTH and factors associated with improved response. This was a retrospective study of children, 8 to 21 years old, presenting to a tertiary pediatric ED with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and PTH from November 2009 to June 2013. Inclusion criteria were mTBI (defined by diagnosis codes) within 14 days of ED visit, headache, and administration of one or more intravenous medications: ketorolac, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, and ondansetron. Primary outcome was treatment success defined by greater than or equal to 50% pain score reduction during ED visit. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine predictors of treatment success: age, sex, migraine or mTBI history, time since injury, ED head computed tomographic (CT) imaging, and pretreatment with oral analgesics. A total of 254 patients were included. Mean age was 13.8 years, 51% were female, 80% were white, mean time since injury was 2 days, and 114 patients had negative head CTs. Eighty-six percent of patients had treatment success with 52% experiencing complete resolution of headache. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who had a head CT were less likely to respond (80% vs 91%; P = .008). Intravenous migraine therapy reduces PTH pain scores for children presenting within 14 days after mTBI. Further prospective work is needed to determine long-term benefits of acute PTH treatment in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coppola, Gianluca; Di Renzo, Antonio; Tinelli, Emanuele; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Scapeccia, Marco; Parisi, Vincenzo; Serrao, Mariano; Evangelista, Maurizio; Ambrosini, Anna; Colonnese, Claudio; Schoenen, Jean; Pierelli, Francesco
Background Previous functional MRI studies have revealed that ongoing clinical pain in different chronic pain syndromes is directly correlated to the connectivity strength of the resting default mode network (DMN) with the insula. Here, we investigated seed-based resting state DMN-insula connectivity during acute migraine headaches. Methods Thirteen migraine without aura patients (MI) underwent 3 T MRI scans during the initial six hours of a spontaneous migraine attack, and were compared to a group of 19 healthy volunteers (HV). We evaluated headache intensity with a visual analogue scale and collected seed-based MRI resting state data in the four core regions of the DMN: Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), as well as in bilateral insula. Results Compared to HV, MI patients showed stronger functional connectivity between MPFC and PCC, and between MPFC and bilateral insula. During migraine attacks, the strength of MPFC-to-insula connectivity was negatively correlated with pain intensity. Conclusion We show that greater subjective intensity of pain during a migraine attack is associated with proportionally weaker DMN-insula connectivity. This is at variance with other chronic extra-cephalic pain disorders where the opposite was found, and may thus be a hallmark of acute migraine head pain.
Misra, U; Jose, M; Kalita, J
Background: Rofecoxib is a potent cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor with a long duration of action. Its role in migraine has not been systematically evaluated. Aim: To study the efficacy of rofecoxib in migraine. Method: In a randomised placebo controlled trial rofecoxib 25 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, and placebo were compared regarding their efficacy in relieving acute migraine attack. Migraine patients with 2–6 attacks per month were recruited. Headache severity, functional disability, and severity of associated symptoms were graded on a 0–3 scale. The primary endpoint was pain relief at two hours. Relief of associated symptoms and sustained pain relief for 24 hours were also noted. Result: One hundred and twenty four patients were randomised into rofecoxib (42), ibuprofen (40), and placebo (42) groups. One hundred and one patients were followed up: 33 on rofecoxib, 35 ibuprofen, and 33 placebo. Patients' ages ranged from 16–62 (mean 31.4) years, and 83 were females. Pain relief at two hours was noted in 45.5% on rofecoxib, 55.6% on ibuprofen, and 9.1% in the placebo group. The associated symptoms at two hours were reduced in 39.4% on rofecoxib, 50% on ibuprofen, and 9.1% in the placebo group. Sustained 24 hour pain relief was noted in 36.4% on rofecoxib, 41% on ibuprofen, and 6.1% in the placebo group. In the ibuprofen group, five patients had abdominal pain but there were no side effects in those on rofecoxib or in the control group. Both rofecoxib and ibuprofen were significantly effective in relieving pain, associated symptoms at two hours, and in sustained pain relief. There was no significant difference between rofecoxib and ibuprofen in aborting acute migraine attacks. Conclusions: Both ibuprofen and rofecoxib were superior to placebo in aborting an acute migraine attack, and there was no significant difference in their efficacy in an acute migraine attack. PMID:15579612
Xiang, Jing; deGrauw, Xinyao; Korostenskaja, Milena; Korman, Abraham M.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.
To quantitatively assess cortical dysfunction in pediatric migraine, 31 adolescents with acute migraine and age- and gender-matched controls were studied using a magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at a sampling rate of 6,000 Hz. Neuromagnetic brain activation was elicited by a finger-tapping task. The spectral and spatial signatures of magnetoencephalography data in 5 to 2,884 Hz were analyzed using Morlet wavelet and beamformers. Compared with controls, 31 migraine subjects during their headache attack phases (ictal) showed significantly prolonged latencies of neuromagnetic activation in 5 to 30 Hz, increased spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz, and a higher likelihood of neuromagnetic activation in the supplementary motor area, the occipital and ipsilateral sensorimotor cortices, in 2,200 to 2,800 Hz. Of the 31 migraine subjects, 16 migraine subjects during their headache-free phases (interictal) showed that there were no significant differences between interictal and control MEG data except that interictal spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz was significantly decreased. The results demonstrated that migraine subjects had significantly aberrant ictal brain activation, which can normalize interictally. The spread of abnormal ictal brain activation in both low- and high-frequency ranges triggered by movements may play a key role in the cascade of migraine attacks. Perspective This is the first study focusing on the spectral and spatial signatures of cortical dysfunction in adolescents with migraine using MEG signals in a frequency range of 5 to 2,884 Hz. This analyzing aberrant brain activation may be important for developing new therapeutic interventions for migraine in the future. PMID:23792072
Harmon, Tomia Palmer
Migraine headache is a neurologic disorder that occurs in 18% of women and 6% of men. Adults and children with mild to moderate migraine headaches seeking acute therapy should be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of the efficacy, cost, and decreased side effects. Some children and adults require preventive therapy (those with headaches lasting >12 h, those patients with >4 headaches in 1 month, those with headaches that affect their ability to function). Studies have shown that early treatment with large doses of medication work well for the treatment of moderate to severe migraine headache.
Aurora, Sheena K; Brin, Mitchell F
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem. Without longitudinal studies, it is unclear whether these changes may represent a continuum of individual progression and/or are reversible. Furthermore, chronic migraine is associated with larger impairments in cortical processing of sensory stimuli when compared with episodic migraine, possibly caused by more pronounced cortical hyperexcitability. Progressive changes in nociceptive thresholds and subsequent central sensitization due to recurrent migraine attacks in vulnerable individuals contribute to the chronic migraine state. This may result in changes to baseline neurologic function between headache attacks, evident in both electrophysiological and functional imaging research. Patients experiencing migraine chronification may report increased non-headache pain, fatigue, psychiatric disorders (eg, depression, anxiety), gastrointestinal complaints, and other somatic conditions associated with their long-term experience with migraine pain. Recent research provides a foundation for differentiating episodic and chronic migraine based on neurophysiologic and neuroimaging tools. In this literature review, we consider these findings in the context of models designed to explain the physiology and progression of episodic migraine into chronic migraine, and consider treatment of chronic migraine in susceptible individuals. Advances in pharmacotherapy provide
Colman, Ian; Brown, Michael D; Innes, Grant D; Grafstein, Eric; Roberts, Ted E; Rowe, Brian H
Objective To assess the evidence from controlled trials on the efficacy and tolerability of parenteral metoclopramide for acute migraine in adults. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, conference proceedings, clinical practice guidelines, and other sources. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of parenteral metoclopramide for acute migraine in adults. Results We reviewed 596 potentially relevant abstracts and found 13 eligible trials totalling 655 adults. In studies comparing metoclopramide with placebo, metoclopramide was more likely to provide significant reduction in migraine pain (odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 7.68). Used as the only agent, metoclopramide showed mixed effectiveness when compared with other single agents. Heterogeneity of studies for combination treatment prevented statistical pooling. Treatments that did include metoclopramide were as, or more, effective than comparison treatments for pain, nausea, and relapse outcomes reported in all studies. Conclusions Metoclopramide is an effective treatment for migraine headache and may be effective when combined with other treatments. Given its non-narcotic and antiemetic properties, metoclopramide should be considered a primary agent in the treatment of acute migraines in emergency departments. PMID:15550401
Grossman, Tracy B; Robbins, Matthew S; Govindappagari, Shravya; Dayal, Ashlesha K
To describe labor and delivery outcomes in pregnant patients presenting to the hospital setting with an acute severe migraine headache attack earlier in the same gestation. We retrospectively reviewed pregnancy and delivery records from a database of consecutive inpatient neurology consultations for acute headache in pregnant women over a 5 year period. We identified 86 pregnant women with acute migraine. The mean age was 29.3 (±6.4) years. Nearly half had migraine with aura (35/86 [40.7%]), 12.8% (12/86) had chronic migraine, and 31.4% (27/86) presented in status migrainosus. Complication rates included 54.7%([41/75], 95% CI 29.87, 52.13) for at least one adverse outcome, 28.0% ([21/75], 95% CI 11.78, 30.22) for preterm delivery, 21.3% ([16/75], 95% CI 7.7, 24.3) for preeclampsia, 30.6% ([23/75] 95% CI 13.48, 32.52) for cesarean delivery, and 18.7% ([14/75] 95% CI 6.15, 21.85) for low birthweight. Pregnant women seeking treatment for acute migraine headache experienced a higher rate of preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and low birthweight but a lower rate of cesarean delivery than the local and general populations. More than half (54.7% [41/75] 95% CI 29.87, 52.13) of the study patients experienced some type of adverse birth outcome, suggesting that pregnancies in migraine patients presenting to an acute care setting may benefit from more intense surveillance. © 2017 American Headache Society.
Rabbie, Roy; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers do not seek professional help, relying instead on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce symptoms commonly associated with migraine headaches. Objectives To determine efficacy and tolerability of ibuprofen, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 22 April 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered ibuprofen to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and number needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Nine studies (4373 participants, 5223 attacks) compared ibuprofen with placebo or other active comparators; none combined ibuprofen with a self-administered antiemetic. All studies treated attacks with single doses of medication. For ibuprofen 400 mg versus placebo, NNTs for 2-hour pain-free (26% versus 12% with placebo), 2-hour headache relief (57% versus 25%) and 24-hour sustained headache relief (45% versus 19%) were 7.2, 3.2 and 4.0, respectively. For ibuprofen 200 mg versus placebo, NNTs for 2-hour pain-free (20% versus 10%) and 2-hour headache relief (52% versus 37%) were 9.7 and 6.3, respectively. The higher dose was significantly better for 2-hour headache relief than the lower dose. Soluble formulations of ibuprofen 400 mg were better than standard tablets for 1-hour, but not 2-hour headache relief
Mathur, Vani A.; Moayedi, Massieh; Keaser, Michael L.; Khan, Shariq A.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.
Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful), we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds nor in pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients did have aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Brain imaging showed that, compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain vs. mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS); bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA) and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula, associated with indices
D’Amico, Domenico; Tepper, Stewart J
Migraine is a chronic neurological condition with episodic exacerbations. Migraine is highly prevalent, and associated with significant pain, disability, and diminished quality of life. Migraine management is an important health care issue. Migraine management includes avoidance of trigger factors, lifestyle modifications, non-pharmacological therapies, and medications. Pharmacological treatment is traditionally divided into acute or symptomatic treatment, and preventive treatment or prophylaxis. Many migraine patients can be treated using only acute treatment. Patients with severe and/or frequent migraines require long-term preventive therapy. Prophylaxis requires daily administration of anti-migraine compounds with potential adverse events or contraindications, and may also interfere with other concurrent conditions and treatments. These problems may induce patients to reject the idea of a preventive treatment, leading to poor patient adherence. This paper reviews the main factors influencing patient acceptance of anti-migraine prophylaxis, providing practical suggestions to enhance patient willingness to accept pharmacological anti-migraine preventive therapy. We also provide information about the main clinical characteristics of migraine, and their negative consequences. The circumstances warranting prophylaxis in migraine patients as well as the main characteristics of the compounds currently used in migraine prophylaxis will also be briefly discussed, focusing on those aspects which can enhance patient acceptance and adherence. PMID:19337456
Ardicli, Didem; Gocmen, Rahsan; Oguz, Kader K; Varan, Ali; Yalnizoglu, Dilek
Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare complication of cranial radiotherapy characterized by migraine-like headache and transient neurological deficits with typical gyriform enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Potential underlying mechanisms are endothelial damage or dysfunction, vascular instability, vasospasm and, neuronal dysfunction.We report an 11-year-old girl with a primary diagnosis of medulloblastoma presented with acute-onset severe headache and left-sided weakness, 20 months after completing cranial radiotherapy. MRI demonstrated unilateral cortical swelling and concomitant leptomeningeal, gyral contrast enhancement, and MR perfusion imaging showed increased cortical perfusion in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously over several days.SMART syndrome appears to be a reversible, long-term complication of cranial radiotherapy. So far, a limited number of pediatric patients with SMART syndrome have been reported. Prompt recognition of clinical signs and radiological imaging of SMART syndrome may help prevent unnecessary interventions and initiate appropriate diagnostic workup and management.
Markowitz, Shira Y; Robbins, Matthew S; Cascella, Clair; Sheikh, Huma U; Grosberg, Brian M
Topiramate is an anticonvulsant medication that is widely used for migraine prophylaxis. Hypohidrosis and hyperthermia are 2 rare adverse effects of topiramate treatment, which have mainly occurred in pediatric epilepsy patients. Herein, we describe the first case of reversible hypohidrosis in an adult patient treated with topiramate for chronic migraine.
Caruana, Giorgia; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Boschi, Elena; Pio Grieco, Michele; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Raposio, Edoardo
The aim of this study is to prove the therapeutic effectiveness of nerve decompression, performed endoscopically for frontal migraine and by open surgery for occipital migraine. Twenty patients were enrolled and underwent surgery for endoscopic resection of the glabellar muscle group, including the corrugator supercilii, depressor supercilii, and procerus muscles, while the occipital decompression was performed in open surgery through decompression of occipital nerves from occipital, semispinalis capitis, trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Every patient was diagnosed with: migraine without aura, chronic tensiontype headache and new daily persistent headache, refractory to medical management. Analyzing the answers given by the patients to validated questionnaires, 9 referred alleviation of migraine symptoms (45%), 8 described elimination of their migraine headaches (40%) while 3 didn't report any improvement. Our data confirmed the results of previous studies, pointing out the effectiveness of trigeminal branches and occipital nerves (trigger points) decompression from the surrounding muscles. Moreover, our technique has the same results but it's less invasive and has less collateral effects. Our results highlight migraine surgery as an effective treatment for patients with migraine headaches who do not tolerate or do not wish to continue medical interventions. Endoscopic surgery, Headache migraine.
Reed, Ken L; Will, Kelly R; Conidi, Frank; Bulger, Robert
Hemiplegic migraine is a particularly severe form of the disease that often evolves to a debilitating chronic illness that is resistant to commonly available therapies. Peripheral neurostimulation has been found to be a beneficial therapy for some patients among several diagnostic classes of migraine, but its potential has not been specifically evaluated for hemiplegic migraine. Four patients with hemiplegic migraine were treated with concordant, combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation over periods ranging 6-92 months. The clinical indicators followed included assessments of headache frequency and severity, frequency of hemiplegic episodes, functional impairment, medication usage, and patient satisfaction. All reported a positive therapeutic response, as their average headache frequency decreased by 92% (30 to 2.5 headache days/month); Visual Analog Score by 44% (9.5 to 5.3); frequency of hemiplegic episodes by 96% (7.5 to 0.25 hemiplegic episodes/month); headache medication usage by 96% (6 to 0.25 daily medications); and Migraine Disability Assessment score by 98% (249 to 6). All were satisfied and would recommend the therapy, and all preferred combined occipital-supraorbital neurostimulation to occipital neurostimulation alone. Concordant combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation may provide effective therapy for both the pain and motor aura in some patients with hemiplegic migraine. © 2015 The Authors. Neuromodulation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.
Will, Kelly R.; Conidi, Frank; Bulger, Robert
Introduction Hemiplegic migraine is a particularly severe form of the disease that often evolves to a debilitating chronic illness that is resistant to commonly available therapies. Peripheral neurostimulation has been found to be a beneficial therapy for some patients among several diagnostic classes of migraine, but its potential has not been specifically evaluated for hemiplegic migraine. Materials and Methods Four patients with hemiplegic migraine were treated with concordant, combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation over periods ranging 6–92 months. The clinical indicators followed included assessments of headache frequency and severity, frequency of hemiplegic episodes, functional impairment, medication usage, and patient satisfaction. Results All reported a positive therapeutic response, as their average headache frequency decreased by 92% (30 to 2.5 headache days/month); Visual Analog Score by 44% (9.5 to 5.3); frequency of hemiplegic episodes by 96% (7.5 to 0.25 hemiplegic episodes/month); headache medication usage by 96% (6 to 0.25 daily medications); and Migraine Disability Assessment score by 98% (249 to 6). All were satisfied and would recommend the therapy, and all preferred combined occipital–supraorbital neurostimulation to occipital neurostimulation alone. Conclusions Concordant combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation may provide effective therapy for both the pain and motor aura in some patients with hemiplegic migraine. PMID:25688595
Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn
Introduction Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). Method and analysis According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT. Participants will be randomised into one of three groups: CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of the intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is migraine frequency, while migraine duration, migraine intensity, headache index (frequency x duration x intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end points. Primary analysis will assess a change in migraine frequency from baseline to the end of the intervention and follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Owing to two group comparisons, p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end points and analyses, a p value below 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The RCT will follow the clinical trial guidelines from the International Headache Society. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services have approved the project. Procedure will be conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki. The results will be published at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01741714. PMID:26586317
Migraine, according to the criteria of the International Headache Society, occurs in about 5 to 10% of children and adolescents. Pediatric migraine can cause a significant impact on quality of life. As stated by the American Academy of Neurology and Child Neurology Society's migraine guidelines, situations for prophylaxis consideration include recurring migraines that significantly interfere with daily activities, despite acute therapy; frequent headaches; contraindication, overuse, or failure of acute therapy; adverse reactions to acute therapy; cost of acute and preventive therapies; patient preferences; and presence of uncommon migraine conditions. Preventive therapy may be warranted in as many as 30% of young patients with migraine seen in tertiary headache centers. Headache related disability can be measured by scoring systems such as the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. Numerous medications have been studied to prevent migraines in children, including antihistamines, antidepressants, and antihypertensive agents. However, few high quality clinical trials actually demonstrate efficacy in this population. Recently, many studies dealt with the use of antiepileptic drugs in this indication but there is a paucity of placebo controlled studies. Both topiramate (TPM) and divalproex sodium have been studied in a randomized-controlled study. Only TPM showed efficacy, though, clearly, further controlled trials are needed to confirm these data. Besides unproven efficacy, adverse effects of valproic acid, such as weight gain, somnolence, and alopecia may limit its use. Additional studies are warranted before recommending levetiracetam (LVT), zonisamide (ZNS) and gabapentin (GBP) agents for migraine prophylaxis in children and adolescents.
Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Kienle, Gunver S; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Rivoir, Andreas; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut
Anthroposophic treatment for migraine is provided by physicians and includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 45 consecutive adult outpatients (89% women) starting anthroposophic treatment for migraine under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Average Migraine Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10, primary outcome), Symptom Score (patient rating, 0-10), and quality of life (SF-36); main follow-up time point was after six months. The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (67% of patients), eurythmy therapy (38%), art therapy (18%), and rhythmical massage therapy (13%). Median therapy duration was 105 days. In months 0-6, conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications were used by 14% (n=5/36) of evaluable patients. From baseline to six-month follow-up, physician-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 3.14 points (95% confidence interval 2.40-3.87, p<0.001); patient-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 2.82 points (2.05-3.64, p<0.001); and Symptom Score improved by 2.32 points (1.68-2.95, p<0.001). In addition, three SF-36 scales (Social Functioning, Bodily Pain, Vitality), the SF-36 Physical Component summary measure, and the SF-36 Health Change item improved significantly. All improvements were maintained at last follow-up after 24 months. Patients not using conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications had improvements similar to the whole cohort. Patients with migraine under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that anthroposophic therapies may be useful in the long-term care of patients with migraine.
Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Kienle, Gunver S; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Rivoir, Andreas; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut
Background and Methods: Anthroposophic treatment for migraine is provided by physicians and includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 45 consecutive adult outpatients (89% women) starting anthroposophic treatment for migraine under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Average Migraine Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10, primary outcome), Symptom Score (patient rating, 0-10), and quality of life (SF-36); main follow-up time point was after six months. Results: The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (67% of patients), eurythmy therapy (38%), art therapy (18%), and rhythmical massage therapy (13%). Median therapy duration was 105 days. In months 0-6, conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications were used by 14% (n=5/36) of evaluable patients. From baseline to six-month follow-up, physician-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 3.14 points (95% confidence interval 2.40-3.87, p<0.001); patient-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 2.82 points (2.05-3.64, p<0.001); and Symptom Score improved by 2.32 points (1.68-2.95, p<0.001). In addition, three SF-36 scales (Social Functioning, Bodily Pain, Vitality), the SF-36 Physical Component summary measure, and the SF-36 Health Change item improved significantly. All improvements were maintained at last follow-up after 24 months. Patients not using conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications had improvements similar to the whole cohort. Conclusions: Patients with migraine under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that anthroposophic therapies may be useful in the long-term care of patients with migraine. PMID:21673981
Firoozabadi, Mohammad Dehghani; Navabzadeh, Maryam; Roudsari, Mohammad Khodashenas; Zahmatkash, Mohsen
Background: Migraine headaches are the most common acute and recurrent headaches. Current treatment of a migraine headache consists of multiple medications for control and prevention of recurrent attacks. Global emergence of alternative medicine led us to examine the efficacy of cupping therapy plus serkangabin syrup in the treatment of migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, open-label, comparative efficacy trial. We randomly assigned patients with migraine into cupping therapy plus serkangabin group (30 patients) and conventional treatment group (30 patients). An investigator assessed the severity of headache, frequency of attacks in a week and duration of attacks per hour in 5 visits (at the end of 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months). Generalized estimating equations approach was used to analyze repeated measures data to compare outcomes in both groups. Results: Average age for cupping therapy group and conventional treatment group were 31.7 (±7.6) and 32.6 (±12.7) years, respectively (P = 0.45). After treatment for 2 weeks; and 1, 3 and 6 months, severity of headache (P = 0.80), frequency of migraine attacks (P = 0.63) and duration of attacks per hours (P = 0.48) were similar in conventional and cupping groups but these symptoms were decreased in each group during the study (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between cupping plus serkangabin therapy and conventional treatment in the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine. The alternative therapy may be used in cases of drug intolerance, no medication response, and in primary care. PMID:25709653
Rapoport, Alan; Ryan, Robert; Goldstein, Jerome; Keywood, Charlotte
To determine the optimum dose of frovatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine. Frovatriptan is a new triptan developed for the acute treatment of migraine. The dose-response characteristics and safety of frovatriptan have been investigated across a broad range of doses from 0.5 to 40 mg. Two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trials, with a total of 1453 patients, were performed to determine the optimal dose of the 5-HT(B/1D)agonist, frovatriptan, for the acute treatment of migraine. The dose ranges studied were 2.5 to 40 mg in the high-dose study and 0.5 to 5 mg in the low-dose study. At 2 hours postdosing for initial moderate or severe headache (International Headache Society grades 2 or 3), there was an approximate two-fold difference in the proportion of patients taking frovatriptan doses of 2.5 to 40 mg with mild or no headache compared to placebo. Frovatriptan doses of 0.5 mg and 1 mg were not more effective than placebo at 2 hours postdose, and 2.5 mg was identified as the lowest effective dose for the relief of migraine and accompanying symptoms. Above 2.5 mg, no dose-response relationship was observed for any efficacy parameters. There was an increase in the incidence of adverse events from 10 mg and above, but the vast majority were rated as mild in severity and did not impact upon tolerability in a significant manner. Frovatriptan was well tolerated throughout the dose range of 0.5 to 40 mg. The 2.5-mg dose confers the optimal balance of efficacy and tolerability for the acute treatment of migraine.
Pradhan, Amynah A; Smith, Monique L; McGuire, Brenna; Tarash, Igal; Evans, Christopher J; Charles, Andrew
Chronic migraine is a disabling condition that affects hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. The development of novel migraine treatments has been slow, in part as a result of a lack of predicative animal models. We have developed a new model of chronic migraine involving the use of nitroglycerin (NTG), a known migraine trigger in humans. Chronic intermittent administration of NTG to mice resulted in acute mechanical hyperalgesia with each exposure as well as a progressive and sustained basal hyperalgesia. This chronic basal hyperalgesia occurred in a dose-dependent fashion and persisted for days after cessation of NTG administration. NTG-evoked hyperalgesia was exacerbated by the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil, also a human migraine trigger, consistent with nitric oxide as a primary mediator of this hyperalgesia. The acute but not the chronic basal hyperalgesia was significantly reduced by the acute migraine therapy sumatriptan, whereas both the acute and chronic hyperalgesia was significantly attenuated by the migraine preventive therapy topiramate. Chronic NTG-induced hyperalgesia is a mouse model that may be useful for the study of mechanisms underlying progression of migraine from an episodic to a chronic disorder, and for the identification and characterization of novel acute and preventive migraine therapies.
Khoury, Chaouki K; Couch, James R
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including naproxen and naproxen sodium, are effective yet nonspecific analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, which work for a variety of pain and inflammatory syndromes, including migraine. In migraine, their analgesic effect helps relieve the headache, while their anti-inflammatory effect decreases the neurogenic inflammation in the trigeminal ganglion. This is the hypothesized mechanism by which they prevent the development of central sensitization. Triptans, including sumatriptan, work early in the migraine process at the trigeminovascular unit as agonists of the serotonin receptors (5-HT receptors) 1B and 1D. They block vasoconstriction and block transmission of signals to the trigeminal nucleus and thus prevent peripheral sensitization. Therefore, combining these two drugs is an attractive modality for the abortive treatment of migraine. Sumatriptan–naproxen fixed combination tablet (Treximet® [sumatriptan–naproxen]) proves to be an effective and well tolerated drug that combines these two mechanisms; yet is far from being the ultimate in migraine abortive therapy, and further research remains essential. PMID:20368903
Goldstein, Jerome; Keywood, C
To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine. Frovatriptan has a distinctive pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile compared with sumatriptan. A previous study has shown that frovatriptan doses of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg are equally effective in relieving headache with no evidence of a dose-response relationship. The incidence of adverse events tended to increase with doses of 10 mg and above. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial. Patients (n=635) took a single oral dose of placebo or frovatriptan, 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 mg, at the onset of a moderate or severe migraine headache and recorded headache intensity, functional impairment, and migraine-associated symptoms over 24 hours. Frovatriptan 2.5 mg produced clinically and statistically significant headache relief 2 hours post-dose, whereas the effect of lower doses was not significantly different from that of placebo at that time point. The 2.5-mg dose also produced significant symptom relief and improvement in functional impairment. All doses of frovatriptan were well tolerated, and the majority of adverse events were of mild or moderate severity. It is concluded that the 2.5-mg dose of frovatriptan offers optimal efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute migraine. Higher doses do not appear to confer greater efficacy and are associated with an increased incidence of adverse effects.
Goadsby, P J; Grosberg, B M; Mauskop, A; Cady, R; Simmons, K A
We sought to assess a novel, noninvasive, portable vagal nerve stimulator (nVNS) for acute treatment of migraine. Participants with migraine with or without aura were eligible for an open-label, single-arm, multiple-attack study. Up to four migraine attacks were treated with two 90-second doses, at 15-minute intervals delivered to the right cervical branch of the vagus nerve within a six-week time period. Subjects were asked to self-treat at moderate or severe pain, or after 20 minutes of mild pain. Of 30 enrolled patients (25 females, five males, median age 39), two treated no attacks, and one treated aura only, leaving a Full Analysis Set of 27 treating 80 attacks with pain. An adverse event was reported in 13 patients, notably: neck twitching (n = 1), raspy voice (n = 1) and redness at the device site (n = 1). No unanticipated, serious or severe adverse events were reported. The pain-free rate at two hours was four of 19 (21%) for the first treated attack with a moderate or severe headache at baseline. For all moderate or severe attacks at baseline, the pain-free rate was 12/54 (22%). nVNS may be an effective and well-tolerated acute treatment for migraine in certain patients. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Rao, Aruna S.; Gelaye, Bizu; Kurth, Tobias; Dash, Paul D.; Nitchie, Haley; Peterlin, B. Lee
Objective To compare the efficacy of ketorolac nasal spray (NS) vs placebo and sumatriptan NS for the acute treatment of migraine. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-comparator, crossover study. Adult migraineurs were randomized to ketorolac NS 31.5 mg, sumatriptan NS 20 mg, or placebo to treat three moderate to severe migraine attacks and switched treatments with each attack. Patients seeking headache care at a headache center or in response to community advertisement were recruited. Adult participants with episodic migraine who experienced ≥2 migraine attacks per month were eligible for the Ketorolac vs Sumatriptan vs Placebo Nasal Spray migraine study. Participants were randomized to treatment arms by a research pharmacist, in a 1:1:1 ratio using computer-generated lists. The primary outcome was 2-hour pain relief. Secondary outcomes included 2-hour pain freedom and absence of migraine associated symptoms, and 24-hour sustained pain relief and pain freedom. Results Of the 72 randomized participants, 54 (75%) treated at least one attack and 49 (68%) completed all three treatments, for a total of 152 treated migraine attacks. Both ketorolac NS (72.5%, P < .001) and sumatriptan NS (69.4%, P=.001) were more effective than placebo (38.3%) for 2-hour pain relief and 2-hour pain freedom (ketorolac: 43.1%, P=.004; sumatriptan: 36.7%, P=.046; placebo: 18.4%). Ketorolac NS, but not sumatriptan NS, was more effective than placebo in 2-hour absence of nausea. Both ketorolac NS and sumatriptan NS were more effective than placebo for 24-hour sustained pain relief (ketorolac: 49%, P < .001; sumatriptan: 31%, P=.01, placebo: 20%). Only ketorolac NS was superior to placebo for 24-hour (ketorolac: 35.3%, P=.003; sumatriptan: 22.4%, P=.18, placebo: 12.2%) sustained pain freedom. Nasal burning and dysgeusia were the most common adverse effects for active treatments. Conclusions This study supports that ketorolac NS is superior to placebo and that it
Rao, Aruna S; Gelaye, Bizu; Kurth, Tobias; Dash, Paul D; Nitchie, Haley; Peterlin, B Lee
To compare the efficacy of ketorolac nasal spray (NS) vs. placebo and sumatriptan NS for the acute treatment of migraine. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-comparator, crossover study. Adult migraineurs were randomized to ketorolac NS 31.5 mg, sumatriptan NS 20 mg, or placebo to treat three moderate to severe migraine attacks and switched treatments with each attack. Patients seeking headache care at a headache center or in response to community advertisement were recruited. Adult participants with episodic migraine who experienced ≥2 migraine attacks per month were eligible for the Ketorolac vs. Sumatriptan vs. Placebo Nasal Spray migraine study. Participants were randomized to treatment arms by a research pharmacist, in a 1:1:1 ratio using computer-generated lists. The primary outcome was 2-hour pain relief. Secondary outcomes included 2-hour pain freedom and absence of migraine associated symptoms, and 24-hour sustained pain relief and pain freedom. Of the 72 randomized participants, 54 (75%) treated at least one attack and 49 (68%) completed all three treatments, for a total of 152 treated migraine attacks. Both ketorolac NS (72.5%, P < .001) and sumatriptan NS (69.4%, P = .001) were more effective than placebo (38.3%) for 2-hour pain relief and 2-hour pain freedom (ketorolac: 43.1%, P = .004; sumatriptan: 36.7%, P = .046; placebo: 18.4%). Ketorolac NS, but not sumatriptan NS, was more effective than placebo in 2-hour absence of nausea. Both ketorolac NS and sumatriptan NS were more effective than placebo for 24-hour sustained pain relief (ketorolac: 49%, P < .001; sumatriptan: 31%, P = .01, placebo: 20%). Only ketorolac NS was superior to placebo for 24-hour (ketorolac: 35.3%, P = .003; sumatriptan: 22.4%, P = .18, placebo: 12.2%) sustained pain freedom. Nasal burning and dysgeusia were the most common adverse effects for active treatments. This study supports that ketorolac NS is superior to placebo and
Buse, Dawn C.; Rupnow, Marcia F. T.; Lipton, Richard B.
Migraine can be characterized as a chronic disorder with episodic attacks and the potential for progression to chronic migraine. We conducted a PubMed literature search (January 1, 1970 through May 31, 2008) for studies on the impact of migraine, including disability, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), comorbidities, and instruments used by health care professionals to treat patients with migraine. Numerous studies have shown that migraine substantially impairs a person's functions during attacks and diminishes HRQoL during and between attacks. Despite its impact, migraine remains underestimated, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Several tools are available to help physicians assess the impact of migraine on the daily activities and HRQoL of their patients, such as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and the Headache Impact Test. Improving communication during the office visit through active listening, use of open-ended questions, and use of the “ask-tell-ask” strategy can also help in assessing migraine-related impairment. Together, these tools and communication techniques can lead to a more complete assessment of how migraine affects patients' lives and can aid in the development of the optimal treatment plan for each patient. Both pharmacotherapy (acute and preventive treatment strategies) and nonpharmacological therapies play important roles in the management of migraine. PMID:19411439
The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2006 (ICHD-2R) gives a definition which requires 15 or more headache days per month over the past 3months with at least eight headache days per month that meet criteria for migraine without aura or that responds to migraine specific treatment. Approximately 2% of the global population suffers of chronic migraine (CM). Frequency of headache and degree of disability distinguish CM from episodic migraine (EM). There is a high frequency of medication overuse. The treatment depends on evaluation with education, lifestyle modifications, and trigger management, behavioral and pharmacologic therapies.
Papandreou, Ourania; Soldatou, Alexandra; Tsitsika, Artemis; Kariyannis, Catherine; Papandreou, Thalia; Zachariadi, Asimina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P
To examine the role of glia-derived S100beta protein and to evaluate its use as a biochemical marker in childhood acute recurrent headache. Twenty-five patients with acute recurrent headache (according to International Headache Society criteria) from our department's Headache Clinic were studied. Blood samples for measurement of serum S100beta were drawn: (1) < or = 3-hour post pain attack from our patients and (2) from 23 healthy controls. Of the 25 patients evaluated, 15 suffered from migraine and 10 from tension-type headache (TTH). Statistical analysis of the mean values of S100beta levels demonstrated a significant elevation in children with migraine headache, with values higher than those of both children with TTH and controls (P = .001). Our data suggest a direct relation between childhood migraine attacks and increased production of glial S100beta protein. Serum S100beta determination may be a useful biochemical marker for migraine in acute recurrent headache in childhood.
Cuadrado, María L; Aledo-Serrano, Ángel; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Fernández, Cristina; Orviz, Aida; Arias, José A
Background Presently, there is no evidence to guide the acute treatment of migraine aura. We aimed to describe the effect of greater occipital nerve (GON) anaesthetic block as a symptomatic treatment for long-lasting (prolonged or persistent) migraine aura. Methods Patients who presented with migraine aura lasting > 2 hours were consecutively recruited during one year at the Headache Unit and the Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital. All patients underwent a bilateral GON block with bupivacaine 0.5%. Patients were followed up for 24 hours. Results A total of 22 auras were treated in 18 patients. Auras consisted of visual ( n = 13), visual and sensory ( n = 4) or sensory symptoms alone ( n = 5). Eleven episodes met diagnostic criteria for persistent aura (>1 week) without infarction. The response was complete without early recurrence in 11 cases (50%), complete with recurrence in < 24 hours in two cases (9.1%), and partial with ≥ 50% improvement in six cases (27.3%). Complete responses without recurrence were more common in cases with prolonged auras lasting < 1 week than in those with persistent auras (72.7% vs. 27.3%; p = 0.033). Conclusions GON block could be an effective symptomatic treatment for prolonged or persistent migraine aura. Randomised controlled trials are still required to confirm these results.
Matarese, Christine A; Mack, Kenneth J
Migraine is common in adolescents. It can significantly reduce quality of life, may contribute to significant school absences, and disrupt social activities. This article will address the clinical presentation, natural history, types, evaluation, diagnosis and prognosis of migraine. Common adolescent lifestyle factors such as stress, irregular mealtimes, and sleep deprivation may exacerbate migraines. Management options are discussed including lifestyle modifications, acute and preventative therapies. Features of chronic daily headache including comorbid conditions, management, and outcome are also addressed. PMID:24600258
Kostenius, Catrine; Öhrling, Kerstin
Purpose: The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Method: Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Results: Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, “meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch”. The main theme included four sub-themes, “investing time and energy to feel better”, “relying on the competence of the physical therapist”, “wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual” and “being respected in a trustful relationship”. Conclusions: The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. PMID:23311671
Mann, John D; Faurot, Keturah R; Wilkinson, Laurel; Curtis, Peter; Coeytaux, Remy R; Suchindran, Chirayath; Gaylord, Susan A
Background Migraine affects approximately 20% of the population. Conventional care for migraine is suboptimal; overuse of medications for the treatment of episodic migraines is a risk factor for developing chronic daily headache. The study of non-pharmaceutical approaches for prevention of migraine headaches is therefore warranted. Craniosacral therapy (CST) is a popular non-pharmacological approach to the treatment or prevention of migraine headaches for which there is limited evidence of safety and efficacy. In this paper, we describe an ongoing feasibility study to assess the safety and efficacy of CST in the treatment of migraine, using a rigorous and innovative randomized controlled study design involving low-strength static magnets (LSSM) as an attention control intervention. Methods The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that, compared to those receiving usual care plus a treatment with low-strength static magnets (attention-control complementary therapy), subjects receiving usual medical care plus CST will demonstrate significant improvement in: quality-of-life as measured by the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6); reduced frequency of migraine; and a perception of clinical benefit. Criteria for inclusion are either gender, age > 11, English or Spanish speaking, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) criteria for migraine with or without aura, a headache frequency of 5 to 15 per month over at least two years. After an 8 week baseline phase, eligible subjects are randomized to either CST or an attention control intervention, low strength static magnets (LSSM). To evaluate possible therapist bias, videotaped encounters are analyzed to assess for any systematic group differences in interactions with subjects. Results 169 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of which 109 were eligible for the study. Five did not qualify during the baseline phase because of inadequate headache frequency. Nineteen have withdrawn from the
Sonal Sekhar, M.; Sasidharan, Shalini; Joseph, Siby; Kumar, Anand
Migraine is one of the common causes of severe and recurring headache. It may be difficult to manage in primary care settings, where it is under diagnosed and medically treated. Migraine can occur in children as well as in adults and it is three times more common in women than in men. Migraine in children is different from adults in various ways. Migraine management depends on the various factors like duration and severity of pain, associated symptoms, degree of disability, and initial response to treatment. The therapy of children and adolescents with migraines includes treatment modalities for acute attacks, prophylactic medications when the attacks are frequent, and biobehavioural modes of treatment to aid long-term management of the disorder. The long lasting outcome of childhood headaches and progression into adult headaches remains largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that adult migraine may represent a progressive disorder. In children, the progressive nature is uncertain and further investigations into longitudinal outcome and phenotypic changes in childhood headaches have yet to be recognized. Even though paediatric and adult migraines seem to be slightly different from one another, but not enough to categorize either as sole. PMID:23960771
Bigal, M E; Bordini, C A; Speciali, J G
Acute headache is a very frequent symptom, responsible for significant demand at primary care units and emergency rooms. In such sets in Brazil, metamizol is easily found but, on the other hand, neither ergotics nor triptans are available. The aim of this study is to compare intravenous metamizol with placebo in the acute treatment of migraine with aura, migraine without aura and episodic tension-type headache. Fifty-four migraine with aura patients, 95 migraine without aura patients and 30 tension-type headache patients were treated with metamizol. Ninety patients (30 migraine with aura, 30 migraine without aura and 30 tension-type headache patients) received placebo. Pain intensity, nausea, aura, photo- and phonophobia were investigated at 30 min and 60 min after the administration of the drug. Significant improvement of pain after 30 min and 60 min post-dosage was achieved from metamizol groups compared with placebo groups. Significant improvement of all other symptoms was achieved after 60 min post-dosage. Side-effects were mild and with small incidence. Metamizol is an effective, safe and low price drug. It may be regarded as a good alternative drug for the treatment of common acute primary headaches.
Silberstein, Stephen; McDonald, Susan A; Goldstein, Jerome; Aurora, Sheena; Lener, Shelly E; White, Jonathan; Runken, Michael C; Saiers, Jane; Derosier, Frederick; Lipton, Richard B
Probable migraine is a common, disabling migraine subtype fulfilling all but one of the diagnostic criteria for migraine. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium for the acute treatment of probable migraine without aura. Patients treated a headache of probable migraine without aura when pain was moderate or severe with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium ( N = 222 intent-to-treat (ITT)) or placebo ( N = 221 ITT/complete case analysis (a) ) in this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Sumatriptan/naproxen sodium was more effective than placebo with respect to the co-primary efficacy endpoints two-hour pain-free response (29% sumatriptan/naproxen sodium vs 11% placebo, P < 0.001) and two- to 24-hour sustained pain-free response (24% sumatriptan/naproxen sodium vs 9% placebo, P < 0.001). Sumatriptan/naproxen sodium was significantly more effective than placebo with respect to the secondary efficacy endpoints of pain-free response four hours postdose ( P < 0.001), pain-free response maintained one to two hours postdose ( P = 0.034) and two to four hours postdose ( P < 0.001), headache relief four hours postdose ( P < 0.001), headache relief maintained two to four hours postdose ( P = 0.015), sustained headache relief two through 24 hours postdose ( P = 0.002), and rescue medication use ( P < 0.001); but not productivity scores. The most common adverse events were dizziness (4% sumatriptan/naproxen sodium,<1% placebo), dry mouth (2% sumatriptan/naproxen sodium, <1% placebo), and nausea (2% sumatriptan/naproxen sodium, <1% placebo). Sumatriptan/naproxen sodium is effective in the acute treatment of probable migraine as demonstrated by higher rates of freedom from pain and restoration of function.
Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Subcutaneous administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using subcutaneous sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Thirty-five studies (9365 participants) compared subcutaneous sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 6 mg dose. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 6 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 2.9, 2.3, 2.2, and 2.1 for pain-free at one and two hours, and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively, and 6.1 for sustained pain-free at 24 hours. Results for the 4 mg and 8 mg doses were similar to the 6 mg dose, with 6 mg significantly better than 4 mg only for pain-free at one hour, and 8 mg significantly better than 6 mg only for headache relief at one hour. There was no evidence of increased migraine relief if a second dose of sumatriptan 6
Allais, Gianni; Rolando, Sara; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Benedetto, Chiara
Frovatriptan is a triptan characterized by a high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and a long half-life contributing to a more sustained and prolonged action than other triptans. Dexketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a relatively short half-life and rapid onset of action, blocking the action of cyclo-oxygenase, which is involved in prostaglandins' production, thus reducing inflammation and pain. Both drugs have been successfully employed as monotherapies for the treatment of acute migraine attacks. The combination of these two drugs (frovatriptan 2.5 mg plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg) has been tested in migraine sufferers, showing a rapid and good initial efficacy, with 2-h pain free rates of 51%, and a high persistence in the 48-h following the onset of pain: recurrence occurred in only 29% of attacks and sustained pain free rates were 43% at 24- and 33% at 48-h.
Gómez-Cibeira, Emilio; Calleja-Castaño, Patricia; Gonzalez de la Aleja, Jesus; Sierra-Hidalgo, Fernando; Ruiz Morales, Juan; Salvador-Alvarez, Elena; Ramos-Gonzalez, Ana
A 41-year-old male presented with an acute onset of headache, confusion, seizures, and unilateral focal neurological deficit 25 years after receiving whole-brain radiation therapy to treat a cerebellar medulloblastoma. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a thick unilateral parieto-occipital cortical contrast enhancement. A diagnosis of "Stroke-like Migraine Attacks after Radiation Therapy" (SMART) syndrome was made. Here, we describe the brain MR spectroscopy findings of SMART, showing a decrease in N-acetyl-aspartate and increased levels of creatine and choline, corresponding with neuronal destruction or transient neuronal impairment with mild nonspecific gliosis. The absence of a lactate peak suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, vasospasm or ischemic mechanisms were not involved.
Poolsup, N; Leelasangaluk, V; Jittangtrong, J; Rithlamlert, C; Ratanapantamanee, N; Khanthong, M
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of frovatriptan in acute migraine treatment. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical trials of frovatriptan were systematically identified through electronic searches and historical searches up until February 2005. Studies were included if they were (i) double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trials that evaluated frovatriptan 2.5 mg in acute migraine treatment and (ii) reporting the efficacy data in terms of pain-free, headache response, headache recurrence, or relief of migraine-associated symptoms. Two authors extracted data independently. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. The efficacy was estimated using risk ratio (RR), risk difference, and number needed to treat together with 95% confidence intervals. Five trials involving a total of 2,866 patients were included. Frovatriptan 2.5 mg was more effective than placebo in rendering patient pain-free (RR 3.70, 95% CI 2.59-5.29, P < 0.0001 at 2 h and 2.67, 95% CI 2.21-3.22, P < 0.0001 at 4 h post-dose). It was also superior to placebo in reducing headache severity. The pooled RR was 1.66 (95% CI 1.48-1.88, P < 0.0001) and 1.83 (95% CI 1.66-2.00, P < 0.0001), respectively, at 2 and 4 h after treatment. In those whose headache was relieved at 4 h, the risk of headache recurrence within 24 h was reduced by 26% with frovatriptan (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.93, P = 0.009). Frovatriptan was also superior to placebo in improving symptoms associated with migraine. At 2 h after dosing, frovatriptan reduced the risk of nausea by 14% (95% CI 6-20%, P = 0.0005), photophobia 17% (95% CI 12-22%, P < 0.0001), and phonophobia 14% (95% CI 17-20%, P < 0.0001). The corresponding numbers at 4 h after dosing were 37% (95% CI 30-43%, P < 0.0001), 34% (95% CI 29-39%, P < 0.0001) and 30% (95% CI 23-36%, P < 0.0001), respectively. Frovatriptan caused more adverse events than did placebo (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.62, P = 0.01). The available evidence
Diener, Hans-Christoph; Charles, Andrew; Goadsby, Peter J; Holle, Dagny
The management of patients with migraine is often unsatisfactory because available acute and preventive therapies are either ineffective or poorly tolerated. The acute treatment of migraine attacks has been limited to the use of analgesics, combinations of analgesics with caffeine, ergotamines, and the triptans. Successful new approaches for the treatment of acute migraine target calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT1F) receptors. Other approaches targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) receptor, glutamate, GABAA receptors, or a combination of 5-HT1B/1D receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthesis have been investigated but have not been successful in clinical trials thus far. In migraine prevention, the most promising new approaches are humanised antibodies against CGRP or the CGRP receptor. Non-invasive and invasive neuromodulation approaches also show promise as both acute and preventive therapies, although further studies are needed to define appropriate candidates for these therapies and optimum protocols for their use.
Teggi, R; Gatti, O; Sykopetrites, V; Quaglieri, S; Benazzo, M; Bussi, M
Prophylactic therapy of Ménière's disease (MD) includes betahistine and calcium-blockers (the latter also useful for migraine prevention). The aim of our work was to assess the efficacy of combined therapy with cinnarizine and betahistine in MD subjects both with and without migraine and poorly responsive to betahistine alone. Fifty-two MD subjects were included who were poorly responsive to betahistine during 6 months of follow-up; 29 were migraineurs. Combined therapy was administered with betahistine 48 mg/day and cinnarizine 20 mg BID for 1 month, 20 mg/day for 2 weeks and 20 mg every 2 days for 2 more weeks, and then repeated. Results were collected over 6 months of follow-up. MD subjects with and without migraine demonstrated a decrease in both vertigo spells and migrainous attacks during combined therapy (from 9.4 to 3.8 and from 6.8 to 5.9 in 6 months, respectively, for vertigo spells, while migraine decreased from 3.8 to 1 in 6 months, respectively). A correlation was seen between decrease of vertigo spells and headaches in the sample of MD subjects with migraine. Our data support a proactive role for cinnarizine in preventing vertigo spells, especially in MD patients with migraine.
Gaul, C; Kraya, T; Holle, D; Benkel-Herrenbrück, I; Schara, U; Ebinger, F
Migraine is a frequent primary headache disorder in children and adolescents. Most of the young sufferers of migraine describe typical migraine symptoms but sometimes rare forms of migraine variants and unusual types of migraine occur in children and adolescents. These childhood periodic syndromes are common precursors of migraine. Phenotypes are alternating hemiplegia of childhood, benign paroxysmal torticollis, benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, alternating hemiplegia in childhood, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, cyclic vomiting syndrome, acute confusional migraine and abdominal migraine. © Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Studium des Schmerzes
Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Intranasal administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting, although it is primarily absorbed in the gut, not the nasal mucosa. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using intranasal sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Twelve studies (4755 participants) compared intranasal sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 10 mg and 20 mg doses. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 10 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 7.3, 7.4, and 5.5 for pain-free at two hours, and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively. For sumatriptan 20 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 4.7, 4.9, and 3.5, respectively, for the same outcomes. The 20 mg dose was significantly better than the 10 mg dose for each of these three primary efficacy outcomes. Relief of headache-associated symptoms, including nausea, photophobia, and
Odawara, Miyuki; Hashizume, Masahiro; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Tsuboi, Koji
Biofeedback therapy has been reported to be effective in the treatment of migraine. However, previous studies have assessed its effectiveness using paper-and-pencil diaries, which are not very reliable. The objective of the present pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of using computerized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for evaluating the efficacy of BF treatment for migraine in a randomized controlled trial. The subjects comprised one male and 26 female patients with migraine. They were randomly assigned to either biofeedback or wait-list control groups. Patients were asked to carry a palmtop-type computer to record momentary symptoms for 4 weeks before and after biofeedback treatment. The primary outcome measure was headache intensity. The secondary outcome measures included psychological stress, anxiety, irritation, headache-related disability and the frequency (number of days per month) of migraine attack and of headache of at least moderate intensity (pain rating ≥50). Headache intensity showed significant main effects of period (before vs. after therapy, p = 0.02) and group (biofeedback vs. control groups, p = 0.42) and a significant period × group interaction (p < 0.001). Biofeedback reduced the duration of headaches by 1.9 days, and the frequency of days when headache intensity was ≥50 by 2.4 times. In addition, headache-related disability, psychological stress, depression, anxiety, and irritation were significantly improved. The present study used computerized EMA to show that biofeedback could improve the symptoms of migraine, including psychological stress and headache-related disability.
Armstrong, Amy E; Gillan, Eileen; DiMario, Francis Joseph
SMART syndrome (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) is a rare condition that involves complex migraines with focal neurologic findings in patients following cranial irradiation for central nervous system malignancies. Little is known about the mechanisms behind the disorder, making successful treatment challenging. We report 2 new cases of SMART syndrome in pediatric patients as well as review all documented cases of the syndrome. Each of our 2 pediatric patients suffered multiple episodes. Attacks were characterized by severe headache, visual disturbance, aphasia, and weakness. Recovery occurred over several days to weeks. The data from all documented reports of SMART syndrome indicate a greater prevalence for male gender. An age-dependent pattern of onset was also observed, with a greater variability of syndrome onset in patients who received cranial irradiation at a younger age. SMART appears to be a reversible, recurrent long-term complication of radiation therapy with possible age- and gender-related influences.
Shahrami, Ali; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Sarehbandi, Baharak; Asgarzadeh, Setareh
There is controversy about the efficacy of currently used treatment modalities to alleviate migraine headaches. We aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of magnesium sulfate and combined use of dexamethasone/metoclopramide on relieving acute migraine headache. We randomly divided 70 patients who had been referred to an emergency department, into two equal treatment groups with the two treatment plans, and analyzed pain severity at baseline using a numeric rating scale (NRS). We gave dexamethasone/metoclopramide to one group and magnesium sulfate to the other group, and evaluated pain severity at 20 min and at 1- and 2-h intervals after infusion. Finally, we used repeated-measure and two-way analysis of variance for intra- and inter-group evaluations of pain severity and complications, respectively. We found no significant differences in demographic data and pain severity at baseline (8.2 vs. 8.0) between the two groups (p < 0.05). In the dexamethasone/metoclopramide group, pain severity (mean ± standard deviation) was 7.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.36), 6.0 ± 2.4, and 2.5 ± 2.9 (p < 0.0001) at 20-min, 1-h, and 2-h intervals after treatment, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the baseline values and 1-h and 2-h interval values. Administration of magnesium sulfate was associated with decreased pain severity at the three intervals (5.2 ± 1.7, 2.3 ± 1.9, and 1.3 ± 0.66, respectively), exhibiting significant differences compared to baseline values and the corresponding time intervals in the dexamethasone/metoclopramide group (p < 0.0001). According to the results, magnesium sulfate was a more effective and fast-acting medication compared to a combination of dexamethasone/metoclopramide for the treatment of acute migraine headaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harris, Petra; Loveman, Emma; Clegg, Andy; Easton, Simon; Berry, Neil
Aim: This systematic review aimed to establish if cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can reduce the physical symptoms of chronic headache and migraines in adults. Methods: Evidence from searches of eight databases was systematically sought, appraised and synthesised. Screening of title and abstracts was conducted independently by two reviewers. Full papers were screened, data extracted and quality assessed by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data were synthesised narratively by intervention due to the heterogeneity of the studies. The inclusion criteria specified randomised controlled trials with CBT as an intervention in adults suffering from chronic headaches/migraines not associated with an underlying pathology/medication overuse. CBT was judged on the basis of authors describing the intervention as CBT. The diagnosis of the condition had to be clinician verified. Studies had to include a comparator and employ headache/migraine-specific outcomes such as patient-reported headache days. Results: Out of 1126 screened titles and abstracts and 20 assessed full papers, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. Some studies combined CBT with another intervention, as well as employing varying numbers of comparators. CBT was statistically significantly more effective in improving some headaches-related outcomes in CBT comparisons with waiting lists (three studies), in combination with relaxation compared with relaxation only (three studies) or antidepressant medication (one study), with no statistically significant differences in three studies. Conclusions: The findings of this review were mixed, with some studies providing evidence in support of the suggestion that people experiencing headaches or migraines can benefit from CBT, and that CBT can reduce the physical symptoms of headache and migraines. However, methodology inadequacies in the evidence base make it difficult to draw any meaningful conclusions or to make any recommendations. PMID:26526604
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Frovatriptan (Migard®; Frova®) is an orally administered triptan approved for the acute treatment of adults with migraine, with or without aura. This article reviews the pharmacology of frovatriptan, focusing on its efficacy and tolerability. The precise mechanism of action of frovatriptan is unknown, but is thought to stem from agonism at serotonin 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, resulting in inhibition of intracranial and extracerebral artery vasodilation, along with possible anti-inflammatory and pain inhibiting effects. Frovatriptan appears to be functionally selective for 5-HT receptors in human basilar arteries over coronary arteries, which could translate into a low cardiovascular risk. In contrast to other triptans, frovatriptan has a long terminal elimination half-life in blood of ≈26 hours, which can be expected to be associated with a sustained treatment effect. Oral frovatriptan 2.5 mg was efficacious in patients with moderate to severe migraine attacks; in randomized, double-blind trials the proportion of patients with headache response at 2 hours (primary endpoint) was consistently significantly higher in frovatriptan than placebo groups. Frovatriptan was generally well tolerated in short-term clinical trials and when used over the longer term. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events occurring at a frequency ≥1% higher in frovatriptan than placebo recipients were dizziness, fatigue, headache, paraesthesia, flushing, skeletal pain, hot or cold sensation, dry mouth, chest pain and dyspepsia. In a study in patients with coronary artery disease, or who were at high risk of coronary artery disease, there was no increase over placebo in the occurrence of clinically significant ECG changes or in cardiac rhythm disturbances. In a further trial, frovatriptan administered early in a migraine attack was more efficacious than placebo followed by later administration of frovatriptan as pain progressed. Three crossover trials compared early
Toribio-Díaz, M E; Cuadrado-Pérez, M L; Peláez, A; Aledo-Serrano, Angel; Pedraza, M Isabel; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Guerrero-Peral, Angel L
Migraine may present with cranial autonomic symptoms typical of trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias, thus posing diagnostic difficulties. AIM. To report a series of patients with prominent eyelid oedema associated with migraine. Ten patients attending the headache offices in three hospitals (nine women, one man; age: 26-53 years-old) with recurrent eyelid oedema as a migraine accompaniment. According to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III, beta version), eight patients had migraine without aura, one had migraine with aura, and one had chronic migraine. Eyelid oedema appeared during the most severe headache attacks, and had longer duration than the pain. Pharmacological or systemic causes of the oedema were ruled out in all cases. Other associated autonomic symptoms were conjunctival injection (n = 3), lacrimation (n = 2) and rhinorrhoea (n = 1). Both the pain and the oedema improved with symptomatic and preventive therapies for migraine. Eyelid oedema may occasionally be a migraine accompaniment. It appears in some patients during their most severe migraine attacks, and may improve with the acute and preventive treatment for migraine.
Ghanbari, Ali; Askarzadeh, Saghar; Petramfar, Peyman; Mohamadi, Marzieh
Migraine is one of the most frequent headaches. Cervical myofascial and trigger point disorders are effective factors on accession of this type of headache. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by positional release therapy (PRT) combined with routine medical therapy and routine medical therapy alone in treatment of migraine headache. Forty-four patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT-medical therapy or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. The sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by the use of a digital force gauge (Wagner-FDIX). Cervical range of motion was measured by a goniometer. Both groups showed significant reduction in headache intensity, frequency, duration and tablet count after 4 months follow up. The sensitivity of trigger points and all cervical range of motions significantly increased in PRT-medical group after 4 months follow up; however in medication group except cervical right lateral flexion, right and left rotation the other factors showed no change after 4 months follow up. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache-related variables. Apart from the headache intensity and tablet count, the trends of other factors were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). The combined PRT-medical therapy is more effective than the medical therapy alone. Thus, the combination of PRT and medical therapy is suggested as a treatment choice for patients with migraine headache.
MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun
Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT
Fischer, Marlene; Frank, Florian; Wille, Georg; Klien, Stephanie; Lackner, Peter; Broessner, Gregor
Triptans are recommended as first-line therapy in the acute phase of a migraine attack. We describe patterns of triptan use in a tertiary care headache outpatient clinic, particularly addressing factors that are associated with triptan discontinuation. From December 2009 until August 2012, demographic and clinical data of consecutive patients with migraine were collected. The Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) was used to measure the adverse impact of headaches. Factors associated with triptan discontinuation were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Of 511 migraine patients included, 73.2% (n = 374) were triptan naïve on first consultation. At follow-up, 57.1% of new triptan users (n = 72/126) reported pain-freedom or pain relief after 2 hours, 40.5% (n = 51/126) did not refill their triptan, another 15.1% (n = 19/126) switched to a different type of triptan. Negative response to triptan treatment and substantial or severe headache impact (HIT-6 score ≥56) at first follow-up were associated with triptan discontinuation (OR 0.39 [95% CI 0.20-0.78], P = .007; OR 3.33 [95% CI 1.10-10.03], P = .033). Although triptans have been in clinical use for more than two decades, many migraine sufferers in our study population were found to be triptan naïve on first consultation. The HIT-6 score may be used as an indicator of triptan adherence and help to identify patients at risk for triptan discontinuation. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Tullo, V; Bussone, G; Omboni, S; Barbanti, P; Cortelli, P; Curone, M; Peccarisi, C; Benedetto, C; Pezzola, D; Zava, D; Allais, G
Migraine might be associated with high blood pressure (BP), which can cause more severe and more difficult to treat forms of headache. To evaluate the efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the acute treatment of migraine, in patients classified according to a history of arterial hypertension, enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, crossover, Italian studies. Migraineurs with or without aura were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). After treating up to three episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the alternate treatment for the next 3 months. The present analysis assessed triptan efficacy in 60 subjects with a history of treated or untreated essential arterial hypertension (HT) and in 286 normotensive (NT) subjects. During the study, migraine attacks with aura were significantly more prevalent in HT subjects (21 vs. 13 % NT, p < 0.001). The proportion of pain free at 2 h did not significantly differ between HTs and NTs for either frovatriptan (25 vs. 26 %) or the comparators (33 vs. 32 %). Pain relief was achieved in significantly (p < 0.05) fewer episodes in HT subjects for both frovatriptan (41 vs. 52 % NT) and the comparators (48 vs. 58 %). Relapses at 48 h were similarly low in HTs and NTs with frovatriptan (29 vs. 31 %), while they were significantly (p < 0.05) larger in HTs (62 %) than in NTs (44 %) with comparators. No BP or heart rate increment was observed during the study in HT subjects. No difference in tolerability was reported between HTs and NTs. In conclusion, HT individuals tend to be less responsive than NT migraineurs to triptan therapy. However, frovatriptan, in contrast to other triptans, seems to have a sustained antimigraine effect in both HT and NT patients.
Migraine is a common, disabling disorder, and many patients remain dissatisfied with existing treatments. AVP-825 (ONZETRA® Xsail®) is a Breath Powered® exhalation delivery system for low-dose sumatriptan nasal powder (22 mg) that has been recently approved for use in the treatment of acute migraine with or without aura in adults. AVP-825 takes advantage of unique features of nasal anatomy and physiology to avoid limitations typically seen with other types of intranasal medication delivery. Areas covered: This review provides a summary of the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and tolerability of AVP-825 in clinical studies to date and also provides an overview of the unique aspects of the delivery system. Expert commentary: AVP-825 represents an improvement in nasal delivery of sumatriptan for migraine. PK studies indicate a distinct advantage of AVP-825 over traditional liquid nasal sprays in terms of absorption time, which may underlie the early efficacy observed with AVP-825. It offers the benefits of non-oral medications at a comparatively low sumatriptan dose, without the limitations associated with more invasive approaches. AVP-825 is suitable for use across multiple phases of a migraine attack from use as an early intervention to use in a more advanced migraine with nausea, given the non-oral application.
Newman, Lawrence C; Harper, Samira; Jones, Beverly A; Campbell, John
To examine the effectiveness and tolerability of acute treatment with frovatriptan in women experiencing menstrual migraine (MM) vs. female migraineurs with non-MM. This was an open-label postmarketing surveillance study (n = 7107) conducted in Germany to assess acute treatment with frovatriptan in one to three migraine attacks. This retrospective subanalysis evaluated acute frovatriptan treatment in women who experienced >or=1 MM attack vs. those women with non-MM attacks. Effectiveness and tolerability were graded using a 4-point scale (1 = very good, 2 = good, 3 = satisfactory, 4 = poor). Demographics were similar in MM (n = 1931) and non-MM patients (n = 2080), except that mean age (38.3 vs 45.3 years, respectively) and number of migraine attacks per month were less in the MM group than in the non-MM group (both p < 0.001). Although 98% of women reported that their previous migraines were moderate or severe, only one third in each treatment group previously used triptans. Prestudy medications were rated as good or very good for effectiveness by 20.3% and 19.2% of the MM and non-MM groups, respectively. In contrast, the effectiveness of frovatriptan was rated as very good or good by 92.7% and 90.9% of women in the MM and non-MM groups, respectively. Forty-three percent and 96% of all women rated their previous medication and frovatriptan, respectively, as having good or very good tolerability. Among women rating their previous medication as poor or satisfactory, most (94%) rated frovatriptan as very good or good. Acute frovatriptan treatment improved patient ratings of treatment effectiveness and tolerability in women with migraine associated with menses.
Aurora, Sheena K.; Barrodale, Patricia M.; McDonald, Susan A.; Jakubowski, Moshe; Burstein, Rami
Objective To reexamine the efficacy of terminating migraine headache by administration of sumatriptan during the visual-aura phase of the attack. Background Although the anti-migraine action of triptans is most effective soon after onset of the headache, treatment during the aura phase has been found to be ineffective. Methods Nineteen subjects having migraine with aura were studied using a four-way cross-over, open-label design. Each patient was asked to treat 8 consecutive attacks with 100 mg of sumatriptan RT: three attacks treated at a timing of the patient’s discretion (baseline); one attack treated 4 h after onset of pain (late); two attacks treated within 1 h of onset of pain (early); two attacks treated during the aura phase – before the onset of pain (aura). Pain level and cutaneous allodynia were reported by the patients at the onset of pain, at the time of treatment, and 2 and 24 h after treatment. Results Sumatriptan treatment during the aura preempted the development of headache in 34/38 (89%) attacks. The same patients were rendered pain-free in 30/38 (79%) of attacks treated within 1 h of pain onset, and in 4/19 (21%) of attacks treated 4 h after the onset of pain. The incidence of allodynia at the time of treatment was 2/38 (5%) in attacks treated during aura, 8/38 (21%) in attacks treated early, and 14/19 (74%) in attacks treated late. Conclusion Considering the discrepancy between the present and previous clinical studies, it is worthwhile revisiting the efficacy of pre-emptive triptan therapy during the aura phase of migraine attacks, using larger-scale, three-way, cross-over, placebo-controlled studies. PMID:19438735
Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. It is available for administration by four different routes: oral, subcutaneous, intranasal, and rectal. To summarise evidence from four Cochrane intervention reviews on the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults by four routes of administration (oral, subcutaneous, intranasal, and rectal) compared with both placebo and active comparators. The included reviews were written by the authors of this overview; no additional searching was carried out. All included reviews were conducted according to a standard protocol and reported a standard set of outcomes. From each individual review we extracted results for pain relief at different levels, and adverse events. No additional statistical comparison was undertaken as part of the overview. We focused on the most important findings for doses and routes licensed in North America or Europe (oral 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg; subcutaneous 4 mg, 6 mg; intranasal 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg; rectal 25 mg). Included reviews provided data for 18 different dose and route of administration combinations in 52,236 participants. Data for the primary outcomes sought were generally well reported, and involved adequate numbers of participants to give confidence in the results, except for the rectal route of administration, where numbers were low.Subcutaneous administration was the most effective, with pain reduced from moderate or severe to none by two hours in almost 6 in 10 people (59%) taking 6 mg sumatriptan, compared with approximately 1 in 7 (15%) taking placebo; the number needed to treat (NNT) was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 2.4) with 2522 participants in the analysis. The most commonly used doses of oral, rectal, and intranasal sumatriptan also
Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Rectal administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of rectal sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using rectally administered sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Three studies (866 participants) compared rectally administered sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 12.5 mg and 25 mg doses. For the majority of efficacy outcomes, sumatriptan surpassed placebo. For sumatriptan 12.5 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 5.2 and 3.2 for headache relief at one and two hours, respectively. Results for the 25 mg dose were similar to the 12.5 mg dose, and there were no significant differences between the two doses for any of the outcomes analysed. The NNTs for sumatriptan 25 mg versus placebo were 4.2, 3.2, and 2.4 for pain-free at two hours, headache relief at one hour, and headache relief at two hours, respectively. Relief of functional
Friedman, Benjamin W; Garber, Leonid; Yoon, Andrew; Solorzano, Clemencia; Wollowitz, Andrew; Esses, David; Bijur, Polly E; Gallagher, E John
We compared the efficacy of IV valproate with metoclopramide and with ketorolac in patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) with acute migraine. This was a double-blind comparative efficacy trial. Patients were randomized to 1,000 mg sodium valproate, 10 mg metoclopramide, or 30 mg ketorolac, each administered as an IV drip over 15 minutes. The primary outcome was improvement in headache by 1 hour, measured on a verbal 0 to 10 scale, at baseline and 60 minutes later. Important secondary outcomes included (1) need for rescue medication in the ED, and (2) sustained headache freedom. Three hundred thirty patients were enrolled over 30 months beginning in October 2010. Baseline characteristics were comparable among the 3 arms. On the primary outcome, patients receiving IV valproate improved by a mean of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3, 3.3) on the 0 to 10 scale; those receiving IV metoclopramide improved by 4.7 (95% CI: 4.2, 5.2); and those receiving IV ketorolac improved by 3.9 (95% CI: 3.3, 4.5). On the secondary endpoints, 69% (95% CI: 60%, 78%) of patients receiving valproate required rescue medication, compared with 33% (95% CI: 24%, 42%) of metoclopramide patients and 52% (95% CI: 42%, 63%) of those assigned to ketorolac. Sustained headache freedom was achieved in 4% (95% CI: 0%, 7%) of those randomized to valproate, 11% (95% CI: 5%, 17%) of metoclopramide patients, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 23%) receiving ketorolac. In the metoclopramide arm, 6% (95% CI: 3%, 12%) of patients reported feeling "very restless" after investigational medication administration. Valproate was less efficacious than either metoclopramide or ketorolac. Metoclopramide demonstrated superiority to ketorolac on several endpoints. This study provides Class I evidence that in ED patients with acute migraine, IV valproate is inferior to metoclopramide or ketorolac in improving headache outcomes.
Spierings, Egilius L H; Keywood, Charlotte
The chronic nature of migraine and the reliance on acute treatment constitute the basis of the present long-term, open-label study. First, assessment of the tolerability and safety of frovatriptan, 2.5-7.5 mg taken orally over 24 hours, for the acute treatment of migraine, repeatedly over a 12-month period. Second, assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of a second, double-blind dose of 2.5-mg frovatriptan, compared with placebo, for nonresponse at 2 hours after treatment of moderate or severe headache with 2.5-mg frovatriptan. With regard to the first attack treated, 173 (36%) of the 486 subjects in the study did not take a second dose at 2 hours for nonresponse. At 2 hours and 4 hours, these "rapid responders" experienced a decrease in headache intensity from moderate or severe to mild or no pain in 84% and 98%, respectively ("headache response"). Six percent of them experienced recurrence of moderate or severe headache within 24 hours following a response at 4 hours and 12% took rescue medication. The response, measured in terms of median time to "complete migraine relief," was maintained over 30 subsequent migraine attacks, treated from attack 2 onwards over the course of 12 months. Frovatriptan provides a remarkably fast and high headache response in a subgroup of more than one-third of migraineurs, with a very low 24-hour headache recurrence and low rescue medication intake.
Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using oral sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Sixty-one studies (37,250 participants) compared oral sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 50 mg and 100 mg doses. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 50 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 6.1, 7.5, and 4.0 for pain-free at two hours and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively. NNTs for sustained pain-free and sustained headache relief during the 24 hours postdose were 9.5 and 6.0, respectively. For sumatriptan 100 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 4.7, 6.8, 3.5, 6.5, and 5.2, respectively, for the same outcomes. Results for the 25 mg dose were similar to the 50 mg dose, while sumatriptan 100 mg was significantly better than 50 mg for pain-free and headache relief at two hours, and for sustained pain-free during 24 hours. Treating early, during
Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Carneiro, Henrique; Barbosa, Jackeline; Jevoux, Carla
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC) and dipyrone (metamizol) have been proven effective to treat acute migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the intravenous formulations of LC and dipyrone in the treatment of severe migraine attacks. Thirty patients (28 women, 2 men), aged 18 to 48 years with migraine according the International Headache Society (IHS) (2004) were studied. The patients were randomized into 2 groups when presenting to an emergency department with a severe migraine attack. The study was single-blind. Headache intensity, nausea, photophobia and side effects were evaluated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after the drug administration. Rectal indomethacin as rescue medication (RM) was available after 2 hours and its use compared between groups. All patients completed the study. At 30 minutes, 0% of the dipyrone group 13% of the LC group were pain free (p=0.46). At 60 and 90 minutes, 2 (13%) and 5 (33%) patients from the dipyrone group and 11 (73%) and 13 (86.7%) patients from the LC group were pain free (p<0.001). At 60 minutes, significantly more patients from the LC group were nausea-free (p<0.001). Regarding photophobia, there were no differences between groups at 60 minutes (p=0.11). The use of RM at 2 hours did not differ among groups (p=0.50). Pain in the site of the injection was reported by more patients of the LC group compared to the dipyrone group (p<0.0001). LC is significantly superior to dipyrone in treating severe migraine attacks. LC promotes significantly more burning at the site of the injection.
Ng, Qin Xiang; Venkatanarayanan, Nandini; Kumar, Lakshmi
Migraine headaches are common in children and adolescents. Current pharmacologic treatment options are limited despite the prevalence and debilitating effects of pediatric migraine. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based practice that focuses on the development of coping strategies and cognitive restructuring to alter the pain experience. Till date, no meta-analysis has been done to examine the use of CBT in pediatric migraine. Using the keywords (cognitive behavioral therapy OR cognitive behavior therapy OR cognitive behavioral therapy OR cognitive behavior therapy OR CBT) AND (headache OR migraine), a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 3841 articles published in English between 1 Jan 1980 and 1 May 2016. Full articles were also reviewed for references of interest. After data extraction, 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis well-support the clinical role of CBT in the management of pediatric migraine. The pooled odds ratios of clinically significant improvement, that is, 50% or greater headache activity reduction post-treatment and at follow-up (3 months or later) were OR 9.11 (95% CI: 5.01 to 16.58, P < .001) and OR 9.18 (95% CI: 5.69 to 14.81, P < .001) respectively, demonstrating significant clinical improvement with CBT as compared with wait-list control, placebo, or standard medication. Furthermore, the clinical improvement was stable, even at a 1-year follow-up as evident in some of the studies. There is good evidence that CBT is beneficial to children suffering from migraine, and may also augment the efficacy of standard medications such as amitriptyline. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Law, Simon; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in October 2013 on 'Sumatriptan plus naproxen for acute migraine attacks in adults'.Migraine is a common disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services, and society. It affects two to three times more women than men, and is most common in the age range 30 to 50 years. Effective abortive treatments include the triptan and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory classes of drugs. These drugs have different mechanisms of action and combining them may provide better relief. Sumatriptan plus naproxen is now available in combination form for the acute treatment of migraine. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan plus naproxen, administered together as separate tablets or taken as a fixed-dose combination tablet, compared with placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via The Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO) to 28 October 2015, MEDLINE (via Ovid) from 1946 to 28 October 2015, and EMBASE (via Ovid) from 1974 to 28 October 2015, and two online databases (www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com and www.clinicaltrials.gov). We also searched the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm, using sumatriptan plus naproxen to treat a migraine headache episode. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate risk ratio and numbers needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) or for an additional harmful outcome (NNH) compared with placebo or a different active treatment. For this update we identified one new study (43 participants), but it did not contribute any data for analysis. The review
Diener, Hans-Christoph; Agosti, Reto; Allais, Gianni; Bergmans, Paul; Bussone, Gennaro; Davies, Brendan; Ertas, Mustafa; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Reuter, Uwe; Sánchez Del Río, Margarita; Schoenen, Jean; Schwalen, Susanne; van Oene, Joop
Use of preventive therapy for migraine is often recommended for only 6-9 months, but no randomised, placebo-controlled trials have investigated migraine frequency after the end of prophylaxis. We assessed the effects of discontinuation of topiramate after a treatment period of 6 months. 818 patients who have migraines were enrolled from 88 clinics in 21 countries. After a 4-8-week lead-in period, patients received topiramate in a 26-week open-label phase. Daily dose was increased from 25 mg to 100 mg in steps of 25 mg every week; the dose could be adjusted further in the range 50-200 mg/day, but was stable for the final 4 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to continue this dose or switch to placebo for a 26-week double-blind phase. The primary endpoint was the difference in number of days with migraine during the last 4 weeks of the double-blind phase compared with the last 4 weeks of the open-label phase. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2005-000321-29. 559 patients (68.3%) completed the open-label phase; 514 entered the double-blind phase and were assigned to topiramate (n=255) or placebo (n=259). The mean increase in number of migraine days was greater in the placebo group (1.19 days in 4 weeks, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66; p<0.0001) than in the topiramate group (0.10, -0.36 to 0.56; p=0.5756; mean difference between groups -1.09, -1.75 to -0.43; p=0.0011) [corrected] Patients in the placebo group had a greater number of days on acute medication than did those in the topiramate group (mean difference between groups -0.95, -1.49 to -0.41; p=0.0007). Quality of life, as assessed by the MIDAS questionnaire, fell in the placebo group but remained stable in the topiramate group. Patients were more satisfied with the efficacy of topiramate than with that of placebo, whereas satisfaction with tolerability was similar in both treatment groups. Sustained benefit was reported after discontinuation of topiramate, although number
Chaibi, A; Benth, J Š; Tuchin, P J; Russell, M B
To investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs. This was a prospective three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 17 months duration including 104 migraineurs with at least one migraine attack per month. The RCT was conducted at Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Active treatment consisted of CSMT, whereas placebo was a sham push manoeuvre of the lateral edge of the scapula and/or the gluteal region. The control group continued their usual pharmacological management. The RCT consisted of a 1-month run-in, 3 months intervention and outcome measures at the end of the intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. The primary end-point was the number of migraine days per month, whereas secondary end-points were migraine duration, migraine intensity and headache index, and medicine consumption. Migraine days were significantly reduced within all three groups from baseline to post-treatment (P < 0.001). The effect continued in the CSMT and placebo group at all follow-up time points, whereas the control group returned to baseline. The reduction in migraine days was not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.025 for interaction). Migraine duration and headache index were reduced significantly more in the CSMT than the control group towards the end of follow-up (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04 for interaction, respectively). Adverse events were few, mild and transient. Blinding was strongly sustained throughout the RCT. It is possible to conduct a manual-therapy RCT with concealed placebo. The effect of CSMT observed in our study is probably due to a placebo response. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.
Pinkerman, Brenda; Holroyd, Kenneth
We compared migraine features and acute therapy response in menstrually-related migraines (MRMs) and non-menstrually-related migraines (NMRMs). Women with frequent, disabling migraines were prospectively diagnosed with MRM according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II; N = 107) criteria using a daily electronic headache dairy. Participants received individualized acute therapy while free of prophylactic migraine medications. Repeated measures logistic regression revealed MRMs were longer (23.4 vs. 16.1 hours, odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.02) and more likely associated with disability (85.6% vs. 75.6%, OR = 1.82, CI 1.27, 2.58) than NMRMs. MRMs were also less responsive to acute therapy (two-hour pain-free response = 6.7% vs. 13.4%, OR = .45, CI .26, .80) and reoccurred more frequently within 24 hours after a four-hour pain-free response (36.0% vs. 19.6%, OR = 2.12, CI 1.27, 3.53) than NMRMs. These results support the proposed ICHD-II classification of MRMs and suggest that MRMs may require a treatment approach different from that for NMRMs.
Hesami, Omid; Hosseini, Seyedeh Simindokht; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa; Moghaddam, Nahid Beladi; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Mokhtari, Sara; Fakhraee, Shahrzad
Introduction Topiramate, a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide, is an antiepileptic drug which is administered in the control of migraine. It is reported to cause various ocular side effects such as visual field defect and myopic shift. To investigate the alterations in refractive error, properties of the cornea and changes in the anterior chamber in patients that receive Topiramate for migraine control. Materials and Methods This is a hospital-based, non-interventional, observational study that is conducted at Imam Hossein Hospital, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology, in collaboration with the department of Ophthalmology. Thirty three consecutive patients with the diagnosis of migraine that were candidate for Topiramate therapy were recruited. Patients with history of ocular trauma or surgery, keratoconus, glaucoma, congenital ocular malformations and any history of unexplained visual loss were excluded. After thorough ophthalmic examination, all the patients underwent central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement, and Pentacam imaging (Scheimpflug camera) at the baseline. Various parameters were extracted and used for analysis. Anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber angle (ACA) measurement was performed. These measurements were repeated on day 30th and 90th after the initiation of Topiramate therapy. According to the normality tests, parameters with normal distribution were analysed using the repeated measures test and the remaining parameters (with non-normal distribution) were analysed using the non-parametric k-sample test. A p-value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant, according to Bonferroni post hoc correction. Results There were 66 eyes of 33 patients under the diagnosis of migrainous headache, that Topiramate was initiated for headache control, included in the study. The mean value of refractive error had a statistically significant myopic change, from −0
Ashina, Messoud; Hansen, Jakob Møller; Olesen, Jes
In vitro studies have contributed to the characterization of receptors in cranial blood vessels and the identification of new possible anti-migraine agents. In vivo animal models enable the study of vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, peptide release and genetic predisposition and thus have provided leads in the search for migraine mechanisms. All animal-based results must, however, be validated in human studies because so far no animal models can predict the efficacy of new therapies for migraine. Given the nature of migraine attacks, fully reversible and treatable, the headache- or migraine-provoking property of naturally occurring signaling molecules can be tested in a human model. If such an endogenous substance can provoke migraine in human patients, then it is likely, although not certain, that blocking its effect will be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. To this end, a human in vivo model of experimental headache and migraine in humans has been developed. Human models of migraine offer unique possibilities to study mechanisms responsible for migraine and to explore the mechanisms of action of existing and future anti-migraine drugs. The human model has played an important role in translational migraine research leading to the identification of three new principally different targets in the treatment of acute migraine attacks and has been used to examine other endogenous signaling molecules as well as genetic susceptibility factors. New additions to the model, such as advanced neuroimaging, may lead to a better understanding of the complex events that constitute a migraine attack, and better and more targeted ways of intervention.
Kawaguchi, Tatsushi; Spencer, Doran B; Mochizuki, Manabu
Acute retinal necrosis is a progressive necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV). The mainstay of its treatment is antiviral therapy against these pathogenic organisms, such as intravenous acyclovir or oral valacyclovir. Systemic and topical corticosteroids together with antiviral therapy are used as an anti-inflammatory treatment to minimize damages to the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels. Because the majority of severe cases of the disease show occlusive retinal vasculitis, a low dosage of aspirin is used as anti-thrombotic treatment. Vitreo-retinal surgery is useful to repair rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, one of the main late-stage complications. Moreover, recent articles have reported some encouraging results of prophylactic vitrectomy before rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurs. The efficacy of laser photocoagulation to prevent the development or extension of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is controversial. Despite these treatments, the visual prognosis of acute retinal necrosis is still poor, in particular VZV-induced acute retinal necrosis.
Ramón, César; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Pascual, Julio
There is no available biomarker for any of the primary headaches, including migraine. As demonstrated in jugular blood, during a migraine attack, trigeminal activation releases several neuropeptides, very especially calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which gives rise to the typical throbbing migraine pain. Here, we review the current evidence for measurement of peripheral CGRP levels as a potential biomarker for trigemino-vascular activation in migraine. Several studies, including a limited number of migraine patients, have shown increased peripheral CGRP levels during migraine attacks. The maximum increase in plasma CGRP levels was reached within 2 h of the onset of the attacks and can be reverted by triptans. In addition, CGRP levels measured in peripheral blood outside migraine attacks and in the absence of symptomatic medication have been shown to be increased in chronic migraine patients. Increased CGRP levels were able to predict the response to onabotulinumtoxinA treatment and were reduced 1 month after onabotulinumtypeA therapy. Although CGRP data must be confirmed and expanded in future studies and specificity of CGRP levels should be studied in entities able to resemble migraine, it seems that peripheral CGRP levels are a good biomarker of acute migraine and somewhat specific and sensitive interictally in chronic migraine.
Donnet, Anne; Lantéri-Minet, Michel; Géraud, Gilles; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Demarquay, Geneviève; Giraud, Pierric; Lucas, Christian; Valade, Dominique
Migraine is a common and frequently disabling condition. Nevertheless, many migraine sufferers do not consult for migraine, are not medically followed up and self-treat the attacks. "Tour de France of migraine" consisted of free-access conferences held in six large towns in France following a wide public information campaign. This sensitization campaign aimed at providing participants with educational information on migraine disease and on current therapies. Headache sufferers were then invited to respond to two consecutive questionnaires delivered at the end of the conferences and 3 months later to assess the influence of the information delivered on their migraine management. Tour de France of migraine recruited mainly severe migraine sufferers, most of whom had already consulted and were medically followed up. However, migraine management was often suboptimal in these subjects since most of them found their acute treatment of attacks ineffective and only few of them received a prophylactic treatment. Three months after the conferences, more than half of respondents had consulted for headaches. There was a significant improvement in migraine-related disability, as reflected by a significant decrease in mean Headache Impact Test 6-item score, which might have been related to the higher proportion of subjects receiving a prophylactic treatment of migraine. The Tour de France of migraine campaign revealed the difficulty in sensitizing migraine sufferers towards the necessity of being medically followed up. Mainly patients with severe migraine attended the conferences and derived clinical benefit from the educational program. Other strategies should be developed to reach a wider population of migraine sufferers.
Ramanathan, Ramnath Santosh; Sreedher, Gayathri; Malhotra, Konark; Guduru, Zain; Agarwal, Deeksha; Flaherty, Mary; Leichliter, Timothy; Rana, Sandeep
Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia. She presented 6 weeks later with aphasia. Her MRI brain revealed similar contrast-enhancing cortical lesion but on the left side. Repeat CSF studies was again negative other than elevated protein. She was treated conservatively and recovered completely within a week. Before diagnosing SMART syndrome, it is important to rule out tumor recurrence, encephalitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and stroke. Typically the condition is self-limiting, and gradually resolves. PMID:27570398
Ramanathan, Ramnath Santosh; Sreedher, Gayathri; Malhotra, Konark; Guduru, Zain; Agarwal, Deeksha; Flaherty, Mary; Leichliter, Timothy; Rana, Sandeep
Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia. She presented 6 weeks later with aphasia. Her MRI brain revealed similar contrast-enhancing cortical lesion but on the left side. Repeat CSF studies was again negative other than elevated protein. She was treated conservatively and recovered completely within a week. Before diagnosing SMART syndrome, it is important to rule out tumor recurrence, encephalitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and stroke. Typically the condition is self-limiting, and gradually resolves.
Allais, Gianni; Tullo, Vincenzo; Cortelli, Pietro; Barbanti, Piero; Valguarnera, Fabio; Sette, Giuliano; D'Onofrio, Florindo; Curone, Marcella; Zava, Dario; Pezzola, Deborha; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Frediani, Fabio; Bussone, Gennaro; Benedetto, Chiara
Early triptan use after headache onset may help improve the efficacy of acute migraine treatment. This may be particularly the case when triptan therapy is combined with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The objective of this is to assess whether the combination of frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 and FroDex37.5) is superior to frovatriptan 2.5 mg alone (Frova) in the acute treatment of migraine attacks in patients who took the drug within 30 min from the onset of pain (early use) or after (late use). A total of 314 subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura were randomized into a double-blind, multicenter, parallel group, pilot study to Frova, FroDex25 or FroDex37.5 and were required to treat at least one migraine attack. In the present post hoc analysis, traditional migraine endpoints were compared across study drugs for subgroups of the 279 patients of the full analysis set according to early (n = 172) or late (n = 107) drug use. The proportion of patients pain free at 2 h in the early drug use subgroup was 33 % with Frova, 50 % with FroDex25 and 51 % with FroDex37.5 mg (p = NS combinations vs. monotherapy), while in the late drug use subgroup was 22, 51 and 50 % (p < 0.05 FroDex25 and FroDex37.5 vs. Frova), respectively. Pain-free episodes at 4 h were 54 % for early and 34 % for late use of Frova, 71 and 57 % with FroDex25 and 74 and 68 % with FroDex37.5 (p < 0.05 for early and p < 0.01 for late use vs. Frova). The proportion of sustained pain free at 24 h was 26 % under Frova, 43 % under FroDex25 mg and 40 % under FroDex37.5 mg (p = NS FroDex25 or 37.5 vs. Frova) in the early drug intake subgroup, while it was 19 % under Frova, 43 % under FroDex25 mg and 45 % under FroDex37.5 mg (p < 0.05 FroDex25 and FroDex37.5 vs. Frova) in the late drug intake subgroup. Risk of relapse at 48 h was similar (p = NS) among study drug groups (Frova: 25 %, FroDex25: 21 %, and FroDex37.5: 37 %) for the early as well as for the
Powers, Scott W; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M; Allen, Janelle R; LeCates, Susan L; Slater, Shalonda K; Zafar, Marium; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Shenk, Chad E; Rausch, Joseph R; Hershey, Andrew D
Early, safe, effective, and durable evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with chronic migraine do not exist. To determine the benefits of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) when combined with amitriptyline vs headache education plus amitriptyline. A randomized clinical trial of 135 youth (79% female) aged 10 to 17 years diagnosed with chronic migraine (≥15 days with headache/month) and a Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score (PedMIDAS) greater than 20 points were assigned to the CBT plus amitriptyline group (n = 64) or the headache education plus amitriptyline group (n = 71). The study was conducted in the Headache Center at Cincinnati Children's Hospital between October 2006 and September 2012; 129 completed 20-week follow-up and 124 completed 12-month follow-up. Ten CBT vs 10 headache education sessions involving equivalent time and therapist attention. Each group received 1 mg/kg/d of amitriptyline and a 20-week end point visit. In addition, follow-up visits were conducted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary end point was days with headache and the secondary end point was PedMIDAS (disability score range: 0-240 points; 0-10 for little to none, 11-30 for mild, 31-50 for moderate, >50 for severe); both end points were determined at 20 weeks. Durability was examined over the 12-month follow-up period. Clinical significance was measured by a 50% or greater reduction in days with headache and a disability score in the mild to none range (<20 points). At baseline, there were a mean (SD) of 21 (5) days with headache per 28 days and the mean (SD) PedMIDAS was 68 (32) points. At the 20-week end point, days with headache were reduced by 11.5 for the CBT plus amitriptyline group vs 6.8 for the headache education plus amitriptyline group (difference, 4.7 [95% CI, 1.7-7.7] days; P = .002). The PedMIDAS decreased by 52.7 points for the CBT group vs 38.6 points for the headache education group (difference, 14.1 [95% CI, 3
Powers, Scott W.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M.; Allen, Janelle R.; LeCates, Susan L.; Slater, Shalonda K.; Zafar, Marium; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Shenk, Chad E.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Hershey, Andrew D.
IMPORTANCE Early, safe, effective, and durable evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with chronic migraine do not exist. OBJECTIVE To determine the benefits of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) when combined with amitriptyline vs headache education plus amitriptyline. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial of 135 youth (79% female) aged 10 to 17 years diagnosed with chronic migraine (≥15 days with headache/month) and a Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score (PedMIDAS) greater than 20 points were assigned to the CBT plus amitriptyline group (n = 64) or the headache education plus amitriptyline group (n = 71). The study was conducted in the Headache Center at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital between October 2006 and September 2012; 129 completed 20-week follow-up and 124 completed 12-month follow-up. INTERVENTIONS Ten CBT vs 10 headache education sessions involving equivalent time and therapist attention. Each group received 1 mg/kg/d of amitriptyline and a 20-week end point visit. In addition, follow-up visits were conducted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was days with headache and the secondary end point was PedMIDAS (disability score range: 0–240 points; 0–10 for little to none, 11–30 for mild, 31–50 for moderate, >50 for severe); both end points were determined at 20 weeks. Durability was examined over the 12-month follow-up period. Clinical significance was measured by a 50% or greater reduction in days with headache and a disability score in the mild to none range (<20 points). RESULTS At baseline, there were a mean (SD) of 21 (5) days with headache per 28 days and the mean (SD) PedMIDAS was 68 (32) points. At the 20-week end point, days with headache were reduced by 11.5 for the CBT plus amitriptyline group vs 6.8 for the headache education plus amitriptyline group (difference, 4.7 [95% CI, 1.7–7.7] days; P = .002). The PedMIDAS decreased by 52.7 points
Ruiz, Luigi; Ferrandi, Delfina
Increasing evidence shows that migraine, typically considered as an episodic disease, is a chronic and, in some patients, progressive disorder. Among neuromodulators used for migraine prevention, topiramate has a high level of evidence-based efficacy. Through its wide range of mechanisms of action topiramate increases the activation threshold resulting in neuronal stabilization and thereby reducing cortical neurons hyperexcitability, which is believed to be an important electrophysiological feature underlying the pathogenesis of epilepsy and migraine. Recent studies show that migraineurs have subclinical structural brain changes and persistent alteration of pain perception, in some cases correlated with the duration of the disease and the frequency of attacks that might play a role in the transformation of episodic migraine to chronic forms. An early and prolonged preventive treatment might reduce the risk of such transformation. Recent evidence suggests that topiramate, by reducing migraine frequency and use of acute medication, may prevent the negative progression of migraine. Furthermore, two recently completed multicenter, randomised, placebo-controlled trials have shown that treatment with topiramate 100 mg/day is effective and well tolerated in patients already progressed to chronic migraine and difficult to treat conditions associated with medication-overuse. Topiramate seems to be a preventive treatment, which might be able to act at different levels of the migraine cycle: reduction of frequency in episodic migraine, prevention, and treatment of chronic migraine.
Guidotti, Mario; Ravasio, Roberto
Triptans (serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists) such as frovatriptan have been shown to be highly effective and well tolerated in the treatment of patients with acute migraine. However, the large number of available triptans has led to the issue of how best to decide which triptan should be prescribed at an individual patient level. This review focuses on frovatriptan and highlights parameters that affect oral triptan choice, discusses the results of several open-label clinical and post-marketing surveillance studies of frovatriptan, and compares these naturalistic data with those from similar studies of other oral triptans. Efficacy data obtained from these trials are used to compare costs of treating migraine with frovatriptan and other oral triptans in four European countries. Studies of triptans in migraine have used several outcomes deemed important to patients, including complete pain relief, absence of recurrence, rapid onset of action, no side effects, restoration of functional ability, improvements in quality of life, and cost. In contrast to indirect evidence from some individual randomized, double-blind studies, results from open-label naturalistic studies and a meta-analysis of 31 placebo-controlled efficacy studies suggest that frovatriptan is associated with a lower rate of migraine recurrence than with other triptans in a real-world clinical setting (17% for frovatriptan 2.5 mg vs 23-40% for other triptans in the meta-analysis). It is likely that this may be due to the terminal elimination half-life of this agent (about 26 hours), which is longer than that of other triptans. Naturalistic studies indicate that the long duration of action of frovatriptan appears to confer other benefits such as greater patient satisfaction, with over 90% of patients and doctors rating frovatriptan therapy as 'very good' or 'good'. The cost of treatment with different triptans based on the number of tablets required per episode varies widely in each of the four
Marmura, Michael J
Migraine is a very common medical disorder characterized by attacks of moderate-severe headache, nausea and disability. Topiramate is an effective, popular prophylactic migraine treatment, which is approved for use in adults and adolescents. Due to its multiple mechanisms of action, topiramate has multiple potential safety issues, including systemic and CNS adverse events, which may complicate therapy. This review evaluates common adverse events as seen in the pivotal trials of topiramate for migraine as well as those observed in postmarketing studies. These include weight loss, metabolic acidosis, renal calculi, acute angle closure glaucoma, visual distortions and cognitive slowing. Topiramate use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cleft lip. This review highlights both common and unusual safety issues associated with topiramate use, including important drug interactions and a comparison with other migraine prophylactic agents. Topiramate is highly effective in migraine prophylaxis but clinicians using the drug need to be aware of the potential for bothersome or serious adverse events. When treating with topiramate, use a slow titration to the goal dose of 100 mg or the lowest dose, which helps prevent migraine.
Brown, Jeffrey S; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Neumann, Peter; Friedman, Mark; Menzin, Joseph
A previously published decision-analytic model assessing the clinical and economic consequences of topiramate versus no preventive treatment in migraineurs was updated with new published literature and unpublished clinical trial data. The model captured baseline migraine days, treatment discontinuation, treatment response (i.e., > or = 75%, 50%-74%, and < 50% reduction in migraine frequency), hours of disability, cost of preventive therapy, cost of acute treatment (pharmacy and medical service), and wages. Topiramate was associated with 29 fewer migraine-days and 78 fewer hours of disability per year, compared with no preventive treatment. The incremental cost per migraine-day averted for topiramate versus no preventive treatment was dollar 29 when only direct medical costs were considered and dollar 2 when total costs were included. Model results were sensitive to baseline migraine-days, response probability, and probability of an attack being treated with a triptan. Topiramate may be a cost-effective treatment for the prevention of migraine.
Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.
Wu, Jun; Noxon, Virginia; Lu, Z Kevin
To determine patterns of use, socioeconomic factors, and the impact on total health expenses associated with triptan therapy among patients with migraines. Patients with migraines were identified from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey household component files (2006 to 2011) and were restricted to those who were 18 years or older and had a migraine diagnosis. The major outcome measures were triptan use during the 2-year period and annualized average total and migraine-related health care expenses and medical utilization. Socioeconomic factors associated with triptan use were analyzed by using logistic regression. The impact of triptan use on total and migraine-related health expenses was assessed by linear regression models with log transformations. Among 1961 patients with a migraine diagnosis (representing 45.6 million individuals in the United States for years 2006 to 2011), 501 received triptans to treat acute migraines (representing 13.1 million individuals in the United States, 28.6%). Patients who were females and had higher income and education levels were more likely to receive triptans to treat migraines. Triptan expense accounted for 49.6% of total migraine-related expenses and 21.9% of total all-cause prescription drug expenses respectively. Compared with nontriptan users, the annualized total health expenses increased by 19.7% in triptan users after adjusting for demographic and health-related variables. The study suggested that socioeconomic factors were associated with triptan use in migraineurs. Higher total and migraine-related health expenses were observed in triptan users.
Fuller, G N; Marshall, A; Flint, J; Lewis, S; Wise, R J
A 69 year old man with longstanding migraine with aura had four episodes of psychosis lasting 7-28 days during a 17 year period. During attacks he had formed visual hallucination and delusions, including reduplicative paramnesia. His mother was similarly affected. His EEG showed symmetrical frontal delta waves. The time course and EEG changes are similar to acute confusional migraine. The reduplicative paramnesia suggests a focal non-dominant hemisphere dysfunction. PMID:8482964
Catanese, Luciana; Tarsia, Joseph; Fisher, Marc
The treatment of acute ischemic stroke has undergone dramatic changes recently subsequent to the demonstrated efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) device-based therapy in multiple trials. The selection of patients for both intravenous and IA therapy is based on timely imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and if IA therapy is considered noninvasive, angiography with one of these modalities is necessary to document a large-vessel occlusion amenable for intervention. More advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are available that can be used to identify a small ischemic core and ischemic penumbra, and this information will contribute increasingly in treatment decisions as the therapeutic time window is lengthened. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator remains the mainstay of acute stroke therapy within the initial 4.5 hours after stroke onset, despite the lack of Food and Drug Administration approval in the 3- to 4.5-hour time window. In patients with proximal, large-vessel occlusions, IA device-based treatment should be initiated in patients with small/moderate-sized ischemic cores who can be treated within 6 hours of stroke onset. The organization and implementation of regional stroke care systems will be needed to treat as many eligible patients as expeditiously as possible. Novel treatment paradigms can be envisioned combining neuroprotection with IA device treatment to potentially increase the number of patients who can be treated despite long transport times and to ameliorate the consequences of reperfusion injury. Acute stroke treatment has entered a golden age, and many additional advances can be anticipated. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Capi, Matilde; Curto, Martina; Lionetto, Luana; de Andrés, Fernando; Gentile, Giovanna; Negro, Andrea; Martelletti, Paolo
Migraine is a multifactorial, neurological and disabling disorder, also characterized by several autonomic symptoms. Triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are the first-line treatment option for moderate-to-severe headache attacks. In this paper, we review the recent data on eletriptan clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability, and potential clinically relevant interactions with other drugs. Among triptans, eletriptan shows a consistent and significant clinical efficacy and a good tolerability profile in the treatment of migraine, especially for patients with cardiovascular risk factors without coronary artery disease. It shows the most favorable clinical response, together with sumatriptan injections, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan. Additionally, eletriptan shows the most complex pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile compared with the other triptans. It is metabolized primarily by the CYP3A4 hepatic enzyme and therefore the concomitant administration of CYP3A4-potent inhibitors should be carefully evaluated. A relatively low risk of serotonin syndrome is given by the co-administration with serotoninergic drugs. No clinically relevant interaction has been found with drugs used for migraine prophylactic treatment or other acute drugs, with the exception of ergot derivatives that should not be co-administered with eletriptan. PMID:27582896
amplified by female sex as well as migraine genotype, consistent with what is observed in the clinic. We have published four manuscripts (in Science...evidence of sex - and migraine-gene-specific modulation of post-TBI excitability. •Memantine is protective after ischemic cortical injury – confirmation...amplified by female sex as well as migraine genotype, consistent with what is observed in the clinic. We have published four manuscripts (in Science
Beger, H G; Uhl, W; Berger, D
In patients with proven acute pancreatitis which is not necrotizing conservative therapy leads to a rapid pain release; after sanitation of the basic disease, complete healing is achieved. In case of a biliary pancreatitis with incarcerated gallstones in the papilla an EPT with removal of the choledochal stones is carried out within the first 12 hours after onset of incarceration symptoms; after disappearance of the symptoms of acute pancreatitis an endoscopic or minilap.-cholecystectomy is performed. Conservative therapy leads to a complete cure in patients with minor necroses without any bacterial contamination and without extensive retroperitoneal fatty tissue necroses. Surgery is indicated if a surgical acute abdomen or a sepsis develops, if patients do not respond to maximum intensive care treatment over at least 72 hours, or if organ complications, such as pulmonary/renal insufficiency, cardiocirculatory dysfunction/shock and metabolic disorders grow worse under ICU treatment. The choice procedure against bacterially contaminated necrosis is their careful removal by necrosectomy or débridement. Resectional techniques should be avoided. A third of patients needs reoperation because of extensive inflammatory processes in the retroperitoneum and around the pancreas. Treatment centres report a hospital mortality rate of clearly below 20%.
Reuter, U; Del Rio, M S; Diener, H-C; Allais, G; Davies, B; Gendolla, A; Pfeil, J; Schwalen, S; Schäuble, B; van Oene, J
Data from the Prolonged Migraine Prevention (PROMPT) with Topiramate trial were evaluated post hoc to determine whether topiramate could prevent migraine auras, and whether its efficacy in preventing migraine headaches was similar in patients with (MA; n = 269) and without (MoA; n = 542) aura. Migraines and auras were recorded during prospective baseline, 6-month open-label (OL) topiramate and 6-month double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled phases. In the last 28 OL days, migraines without aura and migraine auras decreased by 43.1% and 54.1%, respectively, in MA patients. MoA patients experienced a 44.3% reduction in migraines. In the DB phase, increases in migraines with placebo vs. topiramate were similar to the full study, but were generally not statistically significant, probably due to lack of power in the subgroup analysis. Similarly, there were no statistically significant changes in number of auras between groups. Thus, topiramate appears to reduce migraine auras in parallel with headache reductions, which are similar in patients with and without aura.
Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...
Balbisi, Ebrahim A
Frovatriptan is an orally active 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonist which binds with high affinity to 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors. Earlier clinical trials demonstrated that frovatriptan 2.5 mg is significantly more effective than placebo in the acute management of migraine and its associated symptoms. More recently, frovatriptan was shown to be effective in the management of menstrual migraine. The incidence of menstrual migraine in subjects receiving frovatriptan 2.5 mg twice daily during the six day perimenstrual period was 41% compared with 67% with placebo. Frovatriptan treatment is generally well tolerated. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dizziness, paresthesia, dry mouth, and fatigue. Pharmacologic studies demonstrated that frovatriptan is cerebroselective. Its selectivity for cerebral vessels lessens the potential for undesirable peripheral effects. Frovatriptan has a terminal deposition half-life of approximately 26 hours, which appears to be independent of age, gender, and renal function. This imparts that frovatriptan may be particularly well suited to patients with prolonged migraines and those who suffer migraine recurrence. Frovatriptan does not alter cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes, as such it is unlikely to affect the metabolism of other drugs. No dosage adjustments are necessary based on age, renal, or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Apart from its efficacy in the acute management of migraine, frovatriptan is an effective agent when used as either acute therapy or as intermittent prophylaxis therapy of menstrual migraines, particularly in women who do not respond to conventional therapies.
Balbisi, Ebrahim A
Frovatriptan is an orally active 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonist which binds with high affinity to 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors. Earlier clinical trials demonstrated that frovatriptan 2.5 mg is significantly more effective than placebo in the acute management of migraine and its associated symptoms. More recently, frovatriptan was shown to be effective in the management of menstrual migraine. The incidence of menstrual migraine in subjects receiving frovatriptan 2.5 mg twice daily during the six day perimenstrual period was 41% compared with 67% with placebo. Frovatriptan treatment is generally well tolerated. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dizziness, paresthesia, dry mouth, and fatigue. Pharmacologic studies demonstrated that frovatriptan is cerebroselective. Its selectivity for cerebral vessels lessens the potential for undesirable peripheral effects. Frovatriptan has a terminal deposition half-life of approximately 26 hours, which appears to be independent of age, gender, and renal function. This imparts that frovatriptan may be particularly well suited to patients with prolonged migraines and those who suffer migraine recurrence. Frovatriptan does not alter cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes, as such it is unlikely to affect the metabolism of other drugs. No dosage adjustments are necessary based on age, renal, or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Apart from its efficacy in the acute management of migraine, frovatriptan is an effective agent when used as either acute therapy or as intermittent prophylaxis therapy of menstrual migraines, particularly in women who do not respond to conventional therapies. PMID:18360605
Tullo, Vincenzo; Allais, Gianni; Curone, Marcella; Ferrari, Michel D; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara; Colombo, Bruno; Zava, Dario; Bussone, Gennaro
Migraine with aura affects ~20-30 % of migraineurs and it is much less common than migraine without aura. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of frovatriptan 2.5 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 mg in the treatment of migraine with aura. Analysis was carried out in a subset of 18 subjects with migraine with aura (HIS criteria) out of the 107 enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. According to the study design, each patient had to treat three episodes of migraine in no more than 3 months with one drug, before switching to the other treatment. The rate of pain-free episodes at 2 h was significantly (p < 0.05) larger under frovatriptan (45.8 %) than under zolmitriptan (16.7 %). Pain free at 4 h, pain relief at 2 and 4 h and recurrent episodes were similar between the two treatments, while sustained pain-free episode was significantly (p < 0.05) more frequent during frovatriptan treatment (33.3 vs. 8.3 % zolmitriptan). Our study suggests that frovatriptan is superior to zolmitriptan in the immediate treatment of patients with migraine with aura, and it is capable of maintaining its acute analgesic effect over 48 h.
Voss, Tiffini; Lipton, Richard B; Dodick, David W; Dupre, Nicole; Ge, Joy Yang; Bachman, Robert; Assaid, Christopher; Aurora, Sheena K; Michelson, David
The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ubrogepant (MK-1602), a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (CGRP-RA), for the acute treatment of migraine. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 834 participants to treat one migraine attack with ubrogepant 1 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. The co-primary endpoints were pain freedom and headache response at two hours. The first primary hypothesis tested the dose-response trend for two-hour pain freedom using a logistic regression model. Subsequent hypotheses tested the effects of each dose on the co-primary endpoints, using a closed sequential testing procedure to control for multiplicity. A total of 527 participants received ubrogepant and 113 received placebo. A positive response trend in the proportion of participants achieving two-hour pain freedom was demonstrated (p < 0.001). Ubrogepant 100 mg was significantly superior to placebo for two-hour pain freedom (25.5% vs 8.9%) but not for two-hour headache response. Per the prespecified multiplicity strategy, this nonsignificant result precluded further formal hypothesis testing, although the 50 mg and 25 mg doses demonstrated nominal significance over placebo for two-hour pain freedom (unadjusted p < 0.05). Overall, adverse events were similar between ubrogepant and placebo. This trial supports ubrogepant's efficacy and provides further evidence that CGRP-RAs are viable options for the acute treatment of migraine. © International Headache Society 2016.
Moore, R A; Derry, C J; Derry, S; Straube, S; McQuay, H J
Fixed-dose combination analgesics are used widely, and available both on prescription and over-the-counter. Combination drugs should provide more analgesia than with any single drug in the combination, but there is no evidence in humans about whether oral combinations have just additive effects, or are synergistic or even subadditive. We suggest that the measured result for the combination would be the summation of the absolute benefit increase (effect of active drug minus effect of placebo) of each component of a combination if effects were (merely) additive, and greater than the sum of the absolute benefits if they were synergistic. We tested measured effects of combination analgesics against the sum of the absolute benefits in acute pain and migraine using meta-analysis where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in the same trials, and verified the result with meta-analyses where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in different trials. Results showed that expected numbers needed to treat (NNT) for additive effects were generally within the 95% confidence interval of measured NNTs. This was true for combinations of paracetamol plus ibuprofen and paracetamol plus opioids in acute pain, and naproxen plus sumatriptan in migraine, but not where efficacy was very low or very high, nor combinations of paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene. There was no evidence of synergy, defined as supra-additive effects.
Jarman, J; Przyborowska, A; Glover, V; Halket, J; Davies, P T; Rose, F C; Sandler, M
Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity, was significantly raised in serial samples collected across a migraine attack compared with collections during attack-free periods and in healthy controls, which did not differ from each other. There was a highly significant correlation in output between isatin, a major fraction of the MAO inhibitory activity, and output of the MAO inhibitory activity itself. However, although there was a tendency towards increased isatin excretion during migraine attacks, it failed to reach statistical significance.
Migraine does not increase the risk for complications of pregnancy for the mother or for the fetus: the incidences of toxemia, miscarriages, abnormal labour, congenital anomalies, and stillbirths are comparable to those of the general population. Several retrospective studies have shown a tendency for migraine to improve with pregnancy. Between 60 and 70% of women either go into remission or improve significantly, mainly during the second and third trimesters. Women with migraine onset at menarche and those with perimenstrual migraine are more likely to go into remission during pregnancy. The migraine type does not seem to be a significant prognostic factor for improvement. However, in the small number of women (4-8%) whose migraines worsen with pregnancy, migraine with aura appears to be overrepresented. In a small number of cases (1.3-16.5%), migraine appears to start with pregnancy, often in the first trimester; these headaches involve a higher proportion of migraine with aura. Management of migraine during pregnancy should first focus on avoiding potential triggers. Consideration should also be given to nonpharmacologic therapies. If pharmacologic treatment becomes necessary, acetaminophen and codeine can be used safely as abortive agents; ASA and NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen) can be used as a second choice, but not for long periods of time, and they should be avoided during the last trimester. For treatment of severe attacks of migraine, chlorpromazine, dimenhydrinate, and diphenhydramine can be used; metoclopramide should be restricted to the third trimester. According to the United States FDA risk categories, meperidine and morphine show no evidence of risk in humans but should not be used at the end of the third trimester. In some refractory cases, dexamethasone or prednisone can be considered. Should prophylactic treatment become indicated, the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (e.g., propranolol) can be used.
Silberstein, Stephen D
Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder that affects one in seven US citizens annually. The burden of migraine is substantial, both in economic terms and for individual patients and their close family members. Initial medical consultations for migraine are usually with a primary care physician (PCP), and it is predominantly managed in a primary care setting; therefore, PCPs need a thorough understanding of migraine and the treatment options. This review provides an overview of the prevalence, symptoms, burden, and diagnosis of migraine with a focus on adults. Important aspects of migraine management, such as medication overuse and chronic migraine, are highlighted and insight is provided into factors for consideration when prescribing acute/abortive treatment for migraine to ensure that individual patients receive optimal pharmaceutical management. The effects of associated symptoms, e.g. nausea/vomiting, on treatment efficacy are pertinent in migraine; however, many therapy options, including alternative delivery systems, are available, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment for an individual patient.
Fumal, Arnaud; Schoenen, Jean
Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective, or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education, for more efficient therapies and for greater support from national health systems. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient’s previous history and present expectations, and the co-morbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. PMID:19337450
Hazard, Elisabeth; Munakata, Julie; Bigal, Marcelo E; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Lipton, Richard B
Migraine is often perceived as a low-impact condition that imposes a limited burden to society and the health-care system. This study reviews the current understanding of the burden of migraine in the U.S., the history of economic understanding of migraine treatment and identifies emergent trends for future studies evaluating clinical and economic outcomes of migraine treatment. This study traced the history of economic articles published on migraine by performing a literature search using PubMed MEDLINE database and ancestral searches of relevant articles. The intention was not to provide an exhaustive review of every article or adjudicate between studies with different findings. Migraine affects millions of individuals worldwide, generally during the most productive years of a person's life. Studies show that migraineurs are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and experience substantial decreases in functioning and productivity, which in turn translates into diminished quality of life for individuals, and financial burdens to both health-care systems and employers. Economic evaluations of migraine therapies have evolved with new clinical developments beginning with cognitive-behavioral therapy, introduction of triptans, concern over medication overuse, and emergence of migraine prophylaxis. Now recent clinical studies suggest that migraine may be a progressive disease with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and long-term neurologic effects. Migraine imposes a substantial burden on patients, families, employers and societies. The economic standards by which migraine and treatment are evaluated have evolved in response to clinical developments. Emerging evidence suggests that migraine is a chronic and progressive disease. If confirmed, approaches to acute and prophylactic treatments and economic evaluations of migraine treatment may require major reconsideration.
Savi, Lidia; Omboni, Stefano; Lisotto, Carlo; Zanchin, Giorgio; Ferrari, Michel D; Zava, Dario; Pinessi, Lorenzo
The objective of this study was to assess patient satisfaction with acute treatment of migraine with frovatriptan or rizatriptan by preference questionnaire. 148 subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura (IHS 2004 criteria), with at least one migraine attack per month in the preceding 6 months, were enrolled and randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg treating 1-3 attacks. The study had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, with treatment periods lasting <3 months. At the end of the study, patients assigned preference to one of the treatments using a questionnaire with a score from 0 to 5 (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints were pain-free and pain relief episodes at 2 h, and recurrent and sustained pain-free episodes within 48 h. 104 of the 125 patients (83%, intention-to-treat population) expressed a preference for a triptan. The average preference score was not significantly different between frovatriptan (2.9±1.3) and rizatriptan (3.2±1.1). The rates of pain-free (33% frovatriptan vs. 39% rizatriptan) and pain relief (55 vs. 62%) episodes at 2 h were not significantly different between the two treatments. The rate of recurrent episodes was significantly (p<0.001) lower under frovatriptan (21 vs. 43% rizatriptan). No significant differences were observed in sustained pain-free episodes (26% frovatriptan vs. 22% rizatriptan). The number of patients with adverse events was not significantly different between rizatriptan (34) and frovatriptan (25, p=NS). The results suggest that frovatriptan has a similar efficacy to rizatriptan, but a more prolonged duration of action. © Springer-Verlag 2010
Bartolini, Marco; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Lisotto, Carlo; Martelletti, Paolo; Moscato, Davide; Panascia, Biagio; Savi, Lidia; Pini, Luigi Alberto; Sances, Grazia; Santoro, Patrizia; Zanchin, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Ferrari, Michel D; Brighina, Filippo; Fierro, Brigida
The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with acute treatment of migraine with frovatriptan or almotriptan by preference questionnaire. One hundred and thirty three subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura (IHS 2004 criteria), with at least one migraine attack in the preceding 6 months, were enrolled and randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg, treating 1-3 attacks. The study had a multicenter, randomized, double blind, cross-over design, with treatment periods lasting <3 months. At study end patients assigned preference to one of the treatments using a questionnaire with a score from 0 to 5 (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints were pain free and pain relief episodes at 2 and 4 h, and recurrent and sustained pain free episodes within 48 h. Of the 133 patients (86%, intention-to-treat population) 114 of them expressed a preference for a triptan. The average preference score was not significantly different between frovatriptan (3.1 ± 1.3) and almotriptan (3.4 ± 1.3). The rates of pain free (30% frovatriptan vs. 32% almotriptan) and pain relief (54% vs. 56%) episodes at 2 h did not significantly differ between treatments. This was the case also at 4 h (pain free: 56% vs. 59%; pain relief: 75% vs. 72%). Recurrent episodes were significantly (P < 0.05) less frequent under frovatriptan (30% vs. 44%), also for the attacks treated within 30 min. No significant differences were observed in sustained pain free episodes (21% vs. 18%). The tolerability profile was similar between the two drugs. In conclusion, our study suggests that frovatriptan has a similar efficacy of almotriptan in the short-term, while some advantages are observed during long-term treatment.
Storer, Robin James; Supronsinchai, Weera; Srikiatkhachorn, Anan
Many animal models of migraine have been described. Some of them have been useful in the development of new therapies. All of them have their shortcomings. Animal models of chronic migraine have been relatively less frequently described. Whether a rigid distinction between episodic and chronic migraine is useful when their underlying pathophysiology is likely to be the same and that migraine frequency probably depends on complex polygenic influences remains to be determined. Any model of chronic migraine must reflect the chronicity of the disorder and be reliable and validated with pharmacological interventions. Future animal models of chronic migraine are likely to involve recurrent activation of the trigeminal nociceptive system. Valid models would provide a means for investigating pathophysiological mechanism of the transformation from episodic to chronic migraine and may also be used to test the efficacy of potential preventive medications.
Ernst, Michelle M.; O’Brien, Hope; Powers, Scott W.
While evidence supports the recommendation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric migraine, few children actually receive this evidence-based intervention. In this article we briefly review the most recent empirical evidence supporting CBT. We then identify both provider/system-related barriers as well as patient-related barriers. Finally, we provide practical solutions to addressing these barriers in the service of facilitating children receiving optimal comprehensive management of their headaches. PMID:26198185
Láinez, Miguel J A
In the US, it is estimated that up to 10% of men and 25% of women, particularly those aged 25-55 years, experience debilitating migraines, such that the condition presents an enormous economic burden for patients, health systems, employers and society. Migraine headache is a particularly prevalent condition associated with major reductions in patients' quality of life. From a payer perspective, the implementation of relevant programmes of migraine prophylaxis is highly desirable. Consistent evidence exists, from several randomized, controlled studies, of the efficacy of amitriptyline, divalproex sodium, propranolol, timolol and topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. Considering resource utilization, various studies suggest that migraine prophylaxis with antiepileptics, antidepressants, beta-blockers or calcium channel antagonists markedly reduces triptan use and visits to physician offices and emergency departments (EDs), without compromising quality of care or treatment outcomes. Over recent years, the effects of topiramate in reducing resource utilization in patients with migraine have been relatively widely studied. In US claims database analyses involving >4000 patients with migraine, topiramate significantly reduced triptan use by up to 20% in the 12-month period after starting treatment. Reductions were also noted in the numbers of ED visits, diagnostic procedures, hospital admissions and migraine-related hospitalization days. These long-term benefits of topiramate manifested without any increase in overall headache-related costs. Furthermore, in detailed modelling analyses based on UK and US data, topiramate-induced savings in acute medical services were estimated to offset about one-quarter of the monthly per patient cost of the topiramate regimen, which was shown to be a dominant cost-effective intervention relative to no preventive therapy: cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as pound 5728 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) [2005 costings] and $US10
Pacheva, Iliyana H; Ivanov, Ivan S
Migraine is common in pediatric neurology practice, while migraine variants are rare and pose diagnostic problems. The aim was to establish the occurrence of migraine variants in pediatric neurology practice and among migraine, and to discuss their presentation. The files of 2509 newly diagnosed patients, aged 0-18 years, treated as in- and out-patients in the Neuropediatric Ward at the Plovdiv Medical University Hospital between 2002 and 2006 were examined retrospectively. Migraine forms were diagnosed according to ICHD-II. Benign paroxysmal torticolis and alternating hemiplegia of childhood were also accepted as migraine variants according to proposed diagnostic criteria in the appendix of ICHD-II. Some specific forms like acute confusional migraine (ACM), Alice in wonderland syndrome (AWS), ophthalmoplegic migraine were also diagnosed although not included as migraine variants in the ICHD-II classification. 111 patients met diagnostic criteria for migraine. Patients with migraine variants comprised 24.3% of migrainous cases. Basilar type migraine was the most common (6.3% of all migrainous patients), followed by benign paroxysmal vertigo (5.4%), hemiplegic migraine (3.6%), ACM (2.7%), benign paroxysmal torticolis (2.7%), typical aura without headache (1.8%), abdominal migraine (1.8%), AWS (0.9%), ophthalmoplegic migraine (0.9%) and cyclical vomiting (0.9%). Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and retinal migraine was not found. Some patients either presented or were classified as different migraine variants. Basilar type migraine was the most common migraine variant. ACM and AWS should be regarded as distinct entities in the ICHD as migraine with complex aura. Benign paroxysmal torticollis also deserves its place as a migraine variant. Cases of ophthalmoplegic migraine with spontaneous remission and no cranial nerve enhancement on MRI should be considered as migraine form. Analyzing migraine variants will contribute to better awareness and adequate diagnosis
Silberstein, Stephen D; Berner, Todd; Tobin, John; Xiang, Qinfang; Campbell, John C
This post hoc subgroup analysis evaluated scheduled short-term preventive frovatriptan therapy for women with migraine occurring exclusively in association with menstruation (occurring day -2 to +3; day 1 = menses start, no migraines outside this window). A previously published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-way crossover trial assessed the efficacy and safety of a scheduled 6-day preventive regimen with frovatriptan for the treatment of menstrual migraine; the study population included women experiencing both menstrual and non-menstrual migraine and women experiencing only menstrual migraine. Women received each treatment (placebo, frovatriptan 2.5 mg once daily, and frovatriptan 2.5 mg twice daily) once over 3 perimenstrual periods in randomized sequence. For this subset analysis, screening questions were used to identify women with migraine occurring exclusively in association with menstruation. Efficacy was evaluated by occurrence and severity of migraine, functional impairment, and rescue medication use. Adverse events and tolerability were also assessed. Among 179 patients, the mean age (SD) was 37.3 (7.7) years and mean menstrual migraine history was 10.6 (8.7) years. Significantly fewer women experienced menstrual migraine during treatment with frovatriptan twice daily (37.7%, P < .001) or once daily (51.3%, P = .002) than during treatment with placebo (67.1%); a significant dose response was noted (P = .01, twice daily vs once daily). Significant treatment differences were also found for several secondary endpoints, but the data from this post hoc analysis must be interpreted with caution. Frovatriptan was well tolerated and most adverse events were mild or moderate and similar to those reported with the acute treatment of migraine with frovatriptan; the most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache. Scheduled short-term preventive frovatriptan therapy effectively reduced the occurrence of menstrual migraine in women with
de Tommaso, Marina; Sciruicchio, Vittorio
Migraine is a very common neurologic disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of severe headache, autonomic nervous system dysfunction and in some patients by an aura. Migraine is a very common neurologic disorder of neuro-vascular origin, being amongst the 20 most disabling diseases. Migraine attacks are characterized by severe headache, associated to autonomic nervous system dysfunction and in some patients by aura. Pathophysiology and Role of Central Sensitization: Abnormal neuronal excitability may subtend altered processing of sensory stimuli, leading to cortical spreading depression and trigeminal activation. A dysfunction of pain modulation enhances central sensitization phenomena, contributing to acute allodynia and headache persistence. The peculiarity of migraine pain facilitates the use of analgesics, and causes an adjunctive invalidating tendency toward drug over-use. Comorbidity: Chronic migraine patients are frequently affected by diffuse pain, framed in fibromyalgia diagnosis. This comorbidity seems to be supported by common pathophysiological mechanisms. It may aggravate migraine invalidity being worth of consideration for therapeutic management. Migraine Management: Acute and preventive treatments need to be tailored to single cases. Main comorbidity and factors facilitating central sensitization should be taken into account. The management of migraine patients should include a link between headache centers and general practitioner, in order to provide for a better patient information and treatment just at the onset of the disease. Despite its high epidemiologic impact, migraine is frequently underestimated and destined to evolve into chronic form and drugs abuse. A more focused attention to factors facilitating central sensitization and invalidating comorbidities, should reduce the global burden of the disease. migraine, pathophysiology, central sensitization, fibromyalgia comorbidity, acute and preventive therapy, patients - centered approach.
Lake, A; Rainey, J; Papsdorf, J D
Twenty-four migraine patients were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) self-monitoring of headache activity (waiting list), (b) frontalis EMG biofeedback, (c) digit temperature biofeedback, and (d) digit temperature biofeedback plus Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET). Bidirectional control over the target physiological response was assessed through a reversal design in each session. Following at least a four-week baseline, the three biofeedback groups received 8 to 10, 30-minute sessions of bidirectional biofeedback training, scheduled twice a week. Subjects in the combined digit temperature biofeedback plus RET group received three 40-minute sessions of RET as an addition to the third, fifth, and seventh biofeedback sessions. Records of daily home practice were kept throughout treatment and three-month followup. Subjects on the waiting list monitored headaches for at least five months, corresponding to "baseline", "treatment", and three-month followup. Digit temperature biofeedback alone and in conjunction with RET did not prove to be more effective than the control conditions. All the EMG subjects reduced headache activity to two-thirds or less of the baseline level by the third month of followup. Bidirectional digit temperature performance did not improve with training, was demonstrated in only 33% of the biofeedback sessions, was not maintained over time, and was unrelated to improvement in headache activity. EMG subjects reported biofeedback performance to be an easier task and met the performance criterion on 85% of the sessions. The frequency of home practice contributed over 55% of the variance in retrospective estimates of headache improvement but was not related to changes in daily records of headache activity. PMID:468745
Migraine is a chronic, neurological disorder generally manifesting itself in attacks with severe headache, nausea and an increased reactivity to sensory stimuli. A low migraine threshold is set by genetic factors, although the phenotype also modulates the manifestations. The 1-year prevalence is approximately 13% and is higher among women. Patients usually experience neuropsychological dysfunction, and sometimes also reversible focal neurological symptoms. The trajectories of the characteristic symptoms of acute migraine usually follow a similar time course, indicating a reciprocal underlying mechanism. A central nervous system hyperexcitability has been demonstrated in neurophysiological studies. The dibilitating effects of migraine are not confined to the attacks per se. Many individuals do not recover completely between the attacks and most report a negative impact on the most important life domains, and an interest in testing other treatments. Young persons have a higher frequency of attacks. Acute treatment should routinely be initiated with an analgesic plus a prokinetic anti-emetic. Triptans must not be provided early during the attack to ensure their efficacy. The natural course of attacks is commonly only temporarily altered by acute treatment. Non-pharmacological treatment and drugs may be equally viable in prophylaxis for migraine. In more complicated cases, conjoint therapy should be considered. New strategies to improve adherence with existing therapeutic regimens might yield greater benefits than will new pharmacological agents.
Moloney, Margaret F; Johnson, Constance J
In spite of the fact that migraines are one of the major problems seen by primary care providers, almost half of people with migraines do not obtain appropriate diagnosis and/or treatment. Migraine occurs in about 18% of women, and is often aggravated by hormonal shifts occurring around women's menses, during pregnancy, and during perimenopause. Quality of life with migraines is often greatly diminished, and many women miss work days and/or are less productive with migraines. Women's health care providers are very likely to see women with poorly managed migraines, but are often not comfortable diagnosing and treating their patients with headaches. A variety of self-care treatments, acute care prescription and non-prescription headache medications, and preventive medications are available and if used by a knowledgeable provider can provide relief for many women who might not otherwise receive appropriate care.
Kroner, John W; Hershey, Andrew D; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M; LeCates, Susan L; Allen, Janelle R; Slater, Shalonda K; Zafar, Marium; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Shenk, Chad E; Rausch, Joseph R; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Powers, Scott W
The objective of this secondary analysis of results from a previously published trial (Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00389038) in chronic migraine in children and adolescents was to examine if participants who received cognitive behavioral therapy and amitriptyline reached a greater level of reduction in headache frequency that no longer indicated a recommendation for preventive treatment as compared to those who received headache education and amitriptyline. Chronic migraine negatively affects children's home, school, and social activities. Preventive medication therapy is suggested for 5 or more headaches per month. Reduction to one headache day per week or less may suggest that preventive treatment is no longer indicated and provide a clinically relevant outcome for treatment efficacy and patient care. Randomized study participants (N = 135) kept a daily record of their headache frequency during 20 weeks of treatment and during a 1 year follow-up period. Baseline headache frequency was determined at the end of a 28 day screening period. Post treatment frequency was determined at 20 weeks (N = 128 completed) and post treatment follow-up was measured 12 months later (N = 124 completed). A chi-square test of independence was conducted by treatment group and by time point to determine group differences in the proportion of headache days experienced. At 20 weeks (post treatment), 47% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤4 headache days per month compared to 20% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group, (P = .0011), and 32% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤3 headache days per month at 20 weeks compared to 16% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group, (P = .0304). At the month 12 follow-up, 72% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤4 headache days per month compared to 52% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group
Connor, K M.; Shapiro, R E.; Diener, H -C.; Lucas, S; Kost, J; Fan, X; Fei, K; Assaid, C; Lines, C; Ho, T W.
Background: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a key role in migraine pathophysiology. In this large phase 3 clinical trial, we sought to confirm the efficacy of telcagepant, the first orally bioavailable CGRP receptor antagonist. Methods: Adults with migraine with or without aura (International Headache Society criteria) treated a moderate or severe attack with oral telcagepant 50 mg (n = 177), 150 mg (n = 381), 300 mg (n = 371), or placebo (n = 365) in a randomized, double-blind trial. The 5 co-primary endpoints were pain freedom, pain relief, and absence of photophobia, absence of phonophobia, and absence of nausea, all at 2 hours postdose. The key secondary endpoint was 2–24 hour sustained pain freedom. The prespecified primary efficacy analyses evaluated the 150 mg and 300 mg groups; the 50-mg group was included on an exploratory basis to further characterize the dose response but was not prespecified for analysis. Tolerability was assessed by adverse experience reports. Results: Telcagepant 300 mg was more effective (p ≤ 0.001) than placebo on all primary endpoints and the key secondary endpoint, as was telcagepant 150 mg (p ≤ 0.05). Telcagepant 300 mg showed a slight numeric advantage over telcagepant 150 mg on most measures. Telcagepant 50 mg values were numerically intermediate between placebo and telcagepant 150 mg and 300 mg. The percentages of patients with adverse experiences were 32.2% for telcagepant 50 mg, 32.0% for telcagepant 150 mg, 36.2% for telcagepant 300 mg, and 32.2% for placebo. Conclusions: This study confirmed previous findings that telcagepant 300 mg was effective at relieving pain and other migraine symptoms at 2 hours and providing sustained pain freedom up to 24 hours. In this study, telcagepant 150 mg was also effective. Telcagepant was generally well tolerated. GLOSSARY CGRP = calcitonin gene-related peptide. PMID:19770473
Avcu, Nazire; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Pekdemir, Murat; Yaka, Elif; Yılmaz, Serkan; Alyeşil, Cansu; Akalın, Latif Erdem
The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal lidocaine administration for migraine treatment. This single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care emergency department. Included patients met the migraine criteria of the International Headache Society. Patients were randomized to intranasal lidocaine or saline solution; all participants received 10 mg of intravenous metoclopramide. Patient pain intensity was assessed with an 11-point numeric rating scale score. The primary outcome measure was the change in pain scores at 15 minutes; secondary outcomes were changes in pain intensity after pain onset and need for rescue medication. Patients (n=162) were randomized into 2 groups with similar baseline migraine characteristics and numeric rating scale scores. The median reduction in numeric rating scale score at 15 minutes was 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2 to 5) for the lidocaine group and 2 (IQR 1 to 4) for the saline solution group (median difference=1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 2.1). The reduction in pain score at 30 minutes was 4 (IQR 3 to 7) for the lidocaine group and 5 (IQR 2 to 7) for the saline solution group (median difference=1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 2.1). Need for rescue medication did not differ between the groups, and local irritation was the most common adverse event in the lidocaine group. Although intranasal lidocaine was found no more efficacious than normal saline solution in our study, future studies should focus on patients who present earlier after headache onset. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferrara, L A; Pacioni, D; Di Fronzo, V; Russo, B F; Speranza, E; Carlino, V; Gargiulo, F; Ferrara, F
There is uncertainty regarding the prevention of migraine crises by changing the lifestyle of patients. The aim of this randomized, crossover intervention trial was to evaluate the effects of a low lipid intake on the incidence and severity of migraine crises, in comparison to a diet with moderate lipid intake. After a 2-month run-in when patients received preventive medication but were left on their habitual diet, a low-lipid or a normal-lipid diet was randomly prescribed for 3 months and thereafter diets were crossed over for the following 3 months. Headache was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders (IHCD) III criteria. The number and severity of attacks were assessed using a self-reported calendar. Adherence to the diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. An analysis was performed on the 83 episodic or chronic migraineurs (63 female and 20 male), in the age range of 18-57 years, who completed both intervention periods. Obese subjects had a significantly higher number of attacks than those overweight or with normal body weight (24.7 ± 8, 16.3 ± 12, and 15.6 ± 11, respectively, p < 0.03) with a significant relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and the number of monthly attacks (r = 0.238, p < 0.03). The number (2.9 ± 3.7 vs. 6.8 ± 7.5, p < 0.001) and severity (1.2 + 0.9 vs. 1.7 ± 0.9, p < 0.01) of attacks significantly decreased during both intervention periods, with a significant difference in favour of the low-lipid diet. In this group of patients, the low-lipid diet significantly affected the number and severity of migraine attacks in comparison to a normal-lipid diet. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 01917474. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Utterback, Gretchann; Zacharias, Rayna; Timraz, Shahrazad; Mershman, Denay
The incidence of migraine headaches in childhood is increasing. Migraines are often difficult to diagnose in pediatrics and even more difficult to treat and prevent. In order to decrease the impact of the condition on the child and the family, prophylactic treatment is recommended if the child is experiencing disabling migraines. The medications currently prescribed for the prevention of pediatric migraines often have significant side effects and are of questionable therapeutic value. For those patients and parents who are interested in alternative therapies and natural remedies for preventive treatment of pediatric migraines, butterbur extract derived from the butterbur plant, Petasites hybridus, has emerged as a promising treatment. This paper discusses the impact of migraines among pediatric patients, the rationale for the preventative treatment of pediatric migraines, the current therapies and the relevance of butterbur extract as a prophylactic treatment for migraines in this patient population.
Ohlsen, Bahia A.
Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment using acupuncture and spinal manipulation for a patient with a chronic tension-type headache and episodic migraines. Clinical Features A 32-year-old woman presented with headaches of 5 months' duration. She had a history of episodic migraine that began in her teens and had been controlled with medication. She had stopped taking the prescription medications because of gastrointestinal symptoms. A neurologist diagnosed her with mixed headaches, some migrainous and some tension type. Her headaches were chronic, were daily, and fit the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria of a chronic tension-type headache superimposed with migraine. Intervention and Outcome After 5 treatments over a 2-week period (the first using acupuncture only, the next 3 using acupuncture and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy), her headaches resolved. The patient had no recurrences of headaches in her 1-year follow-up. Conclusion The combination of acupuncture with chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy was a reasonable alternative in treating this patient's chronic tension-type headaches superimposed with migraine. PMID:23449932
Buse, Dawn C; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Kurth, Tobias; Lipton, Richard B
). Among 22-39 year olds with episodic migraine, 3.4% reported having received a physician diagnosis of CV events or conditions and 1.1% reported undergoing CV related procedures. Among 40-59 year olds, 10.2% reported having received a physician diagnosis of CV events or conditions and 3.5% reported CV related procedures. For those age 60 or older, 22.3% reported CV events or conditions and 8.8% reported CV procedures. Prevalence of events, conditions, and procedures was higher in men than women and also in older age groups. However, the absolute number of CV events, procedures, and conditions was greater for women than men due to the higher population prevalence of episodic migraine in women. We projected that 2.0 million women and 665,000 men in the US had episodic migraine and a history of one or more CV event, condition, or procedure. By age group, it is estimated that 579,000 among those aged 22-39, 1.37 million of those aged 40-59, and 696,000 of those 60 and older with episodic migraine have ever had at least one CV event, procedure, or condition. Based on these analyses, we estimate that there are roughly 2.6 million people with episodic migraine aged 22 and older in the US with one or more prior CV event, condition, or procedure. For this group, cardiovascular contraindications to many migraine-specific acute migraine therapies may make treatment challenging. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M
Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700
Introduction: Preventive therapy is recommended in patients with migraines frequent and/or severe enough to interfere with daily life, and/or with an inadequate response to acute therapy (26–43% of patients with migraine in a recent US survey). Preventive treatments include beta blockers, amitriptyline, and antiepileptics (sodium valproate, gabapentin), but these may have significant adverse effects and are contraindicated in some patients. Topiramate is an antiepileptic recently approved for prevention of migraine. Aims: To assess the evidence on the therapeutic value of topiramate as preventive treatment for migraine in adults. Evidence review: All identified outcomes were patient-oriented. Strong evidence shows that topiramate 100 or 200 mg/day is more effective than placebo in reducing mean monthly migraine frequency, and further evidence shows better effectiveness than placebo on responder rate, rescue medication use, migraine severity, and migraine duration. The 100 mg/day dose appears generally better tolerated than 200 mg/day. Evidence shows that topiramate is associated with weight loss rather than weight gain. Limited evidence suggests that topiramate can improve health-related quality of life and reduce days with disability. Uncontrolled studies indicate effectiveness in refractory migraine. Limited evidence indicates broadly similar efficacy and tolerability for topiramate 100 mg/day and propranolol 160 mg/day, though more comparative trials are required. There is insufficient economic evidence to assess the cost effectiveness of topiramate. Place in therapy: Topiramate 100 mg/day is the dose with the best balance between efficacy and tolerability, and offers therapeutic value in patients in whom propranolol or other preventive migraine therapies are contraindicated, poorly tolerated, or ineffective. PMID:22500148
Donnet, Anne; Becker, Henri; Allaf, Bashar; Lantéri-Minet, Michel
To describe the perception of migraine by neurologists in France, to compare perceptions between neurologists who did and did not suffer from migraines and to describe treatments used for their own migraines. Patients with migraine are usually undertreated, as treatment guidelines are frequently not followed and, therefore, resulting treatment satisfaction is low. One reason for this may be inappropriate perceptions of physicians concerning the seriousness of the pathology and the need to treat. However, available information on physician perceptions of migraine is limited. This was an observational, epidemiological survey conducted both in hospital- and community-based neurologists in France. Participating neurologists completed an anonymous questionnaire which collected data on demographics, migraine status, and perceptions of migraine. Neurologists who considered themselves migraineurs also provided data on migraine impact, treatment and on treatment satisfaction. Distributions of responses to questions on migraine perceptions were compared between migraineur and nonmigraineur neurologists. The study included 368 neurologists, of whom 179 (48.6%) were migraineurs themselves. Some 92.3% of participants claimed to be very or quite interested in migraine. Migraine was considered a real illness by 96.5% of neurologists and to be very or quite disabling by 96.6%. Around half perceived migraine as a challenging condition to manage with respect to unrealistic patient expectations (46.2%), time-consuming treatment (48.9%), and complications because of anxious or depressive comorbidity (59.9%) or medical nomadism (consulting multiple physicians for the same condition; 47.0%). No significant differences in any perception items were observed between migraineur and nonmigraineur neurologists. In total, 83.1% of neurologists were satisfied with acute headache treatments and 60.4% with prophylactic headache treatments. The most frequently reported treatments for neurologist
Schwedt, Todd J
Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed.
Kubik, Alicja; Biedroń, Agnieszka
Pain management is based mainly on pharmacotherapy which has many limitations. Non-pharmacological techniques, like neurofeedback (EEG-biofeedback) are alternative methods of pain treatment. Data from literature confirm high efficacy of neurofeedback in pain syndromes treatment, chronic and acute as well. Neurofeedback plays an important role in management of post stroke, post traumatic headaches and in primary headaches like tension type headaches or migraine. Literature review and own experience indicate importance of number and frequency of performed neurofeedback trainings on treatment effectiveness. Satisfactory results have already been observed after 30 trainings however usually 40-60 training have to be performed. Effectiveness of such therapy in pain syndromes is usually good or less often acceptable (50% reduction of headaches). Children with tension type headaches (differently than adults) need reminder therapy every 6-12 months, otherwise recurrence of headaches is observed. Based on our own experience neurofeedback therapy seems to play role in neuropathic pain and cancer pain management.
Friedman, Benjamin W.; Solorzano, Clemencia; Norton, Jennifer; Adewumni, Victoria; Campbell, Caron M.; Esses, David; Bijur, Polly E.; Solomon, Seymour; Lipton, Richard B.; Gallagher, E. John
Objectives Patients who use an emergency department (ED) for acute migraine headaches have higher migraine disability scores and lower socioeconomic status and are unlikely to have used a migraine-specific medication prior to presentation to the ED. The objective was to determine if a comprehensive migraine intervention, delivered just prior to ED discharge, could improve migraine impact scores 1 month after the ED visit. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive migraine intervention versus typical care among patients who presented to an ED for management of acute migraine. At the time of discharge, for patients randomized to comprehensive care, the authors’ protocol reinforced their diagnosis, shared a migraine education presentation from the National Library of Medicine, provided them with six tablets of sumatriptan 100 mg and 14 tablets of naproxen 500 mg, and if they wished, provided them with an expedited free appointment to our institution's headache clinic. Patients randomized to typical care received the care their attending emergency physicians (EPs) felt was appropriate. The primary outcome was a between-group comparison of the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score, a validated headache assessment instrument, 1 month after ED discharge. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of satisfaction with headache care and frequency of use of migraine-specific medication within that 1-month period. Results Over a 19-month period, 50 migraine patients were enrolled. One-month follow-up was successfully obtained in 92% of patients. Baseline characteristics were comparable. One-month HIT-6 scores in the two groups were nearly identical (59 vs. 56, 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference of 3 = –5 to 11), as was dissatisfaction with overall headache care (17% vs. 18%, 95% CI for difference of 1% = –22% to 24%). Patients randomized to the comprehensive intervention were more likely to be using triptans or migraine-specific therapy (43
Rhyne, Danielle N; Anderson, Sarah L; Gedde, Margaret; Borgelt, Laura M
No clinical trials are currently available that demonstrate the effects of marijuana on patients with migraine headache; however, the potential effects of cannabinoids on serotonin in the central nervous system indicate that marijuana may be a therapeutic alternative. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the effects of medical marijuana on the monthly frequency of migraine headache. Retrospective chart review. Two medical marijuana specialty clinics in Colorado. One hundred twenty-one adults with the primary diagnosis of migraine headache who were recommended migraine treatment or prophylaxis with medical marijuana by a physician, between January 2010 and September 2014, and had at least one follow-up visit. The primary outcome was number of migraine headaches per month with medical marijuana use. Secondary outcomes were the type and dose of medical marijuana used, previous and adjunctive migraine therapies, and patient-reported effects. Migraine headache frequency decreased from 10.4 to 4.6 headaches per month (p<0.0001) with the use of medical marijuana. Most patients used more than one form of marijuana and used it daily for prevention of migraine headache. Positive effects were reported in 48 patients (39.7%), with the most common effects reported being prevention of migraine headache with decreased frequency of migraine headache (24 patients [19.8%]) and aborted migraine headache (14 patients [11.6%]). Inhaled forms of marijuana were commonly used for acute migraine treatment and were reported to abort migraine headache. Negative effects were reported in 14 patients (11.6%); the most common effects were somnolence (2 patients [1.7%]) and difficulty controlling the effects of marijuana related to timing and intensity of the dose (2 patients [1.7%]), which were experienced only in patients using edible marijuana. Edible marijuana was also reported to cause more negative effects compared with other forms. The frequency of migraine headache was
Slof, J; Láinez, J M; Comas, A; Heras, J
Almotriptan has proven to be more efficacious and tolerable than ergotamine plus caffeine but is more expensive, thus raising the question about its cost-efficacy. The course of migraine attacks during 24 hours treated with almotriptan and ergotamine plus caffeine was modelled with a decision tree, using efficacy data from a recent randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the two drugs. Costs were calculated from the social perspective (including indirect costs due to absenteeism and loss of productivity) and from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective (only including drug costs). The impact on quality of life was estimated using utilities assigned in the literature to different health states of migraine patients. Treatment response was 57.7% for patients treated with almotriptan vs. 44.5% with ergotamine plus caffeine. Sustained pain-free status was achieved by 20.3% vs. 11.5%. Working days lost due to absenteeism and reduced productivity amounted to 0.24 vs. 0.38 days. Quality of life during attacks was estimated at an average utility of 0.548 vs. 0.422. From the NHS perspective, incremental costs per attack treated with almotriptan vs. ergotamine plus caffeine was euro 5.05, rendering an incremental cost-efficacy ratio of euro38.26 per additional response, euro57.39 per additional complete response, and euro14,709 per quality- adjusted life-year gained. From the social perspective almotriptan saved euro7.50 vs. ergotamine plus caffeine. Almotriptan can be considered cost-efficacious vs. ergotamine plus caffeine from the NHS perspective and is the dominant option (both more efficacious and more economical) from the social perspective.
GÜRSOY, Azize Esra; ERTAŞ, Mustafa
Migraine is a common chronic neurological disease characterized by episodic attacks of headache and associated symptoms. The pharmacological treatment of migraine may be acute or prophylactic, and patients with frequent, severe headaches often require both approaches. Prophylactic treatment is used to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks, to enhance the benefits of acute treatments, and to improve patient’s ability to function normally. Prophylactic treatment may also prevent progression from episodic migraine to chronic migraine and may result in reductions in health-care cost. The currently available pharmacological options for migraine prophylaxis include a wide array of medications. The major medication groups for prophylactic treatment include β-blockers, anticonvulsant, drugs such as topiramate and valproate, antidepressant drugs, such as amitriptyline and selective serotonin and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), calcium channel antagonists and neurotoxins. The agent for prophylactic treatment should be chosen based on the efficacy and side-effect profile of the drug, and the patient’s coexistent and comorbid conditions.
Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D
Vestibular migraine is now considered a distinct diagnostic entity by both the Barany Society and the International Headache Society. The recognition of vestibular migraine as a diagnostic entity required decades and was presaged by several reports indicating that a large proportion of patients with migraine headaches have vestibular symptoms and that a large proportion of patients with undiagnosed episodic vestibular symptoms have migraine headache. Despite the availability of diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, challenges to diagnosis include variability in terms of the character of dizziness, the presence or absence of clearly defined attacks, the duration of attacks, and the temporal association between headache or other migrainous features and vestibular symptoms. Also, symptoms of vestibular migraine often overlap with symptoms of other causes of dizziness, especially Ménière's disease and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). This article will discuss the demographics, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, physical examination findings, laboratory testing, comorbidities, treatment options, and pathophysiology of vestibular migraine. Future research in the field of vestibular migraine should include both clinical and basic science efforts to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Controlled treatment trials for vestibular migraine are desperately needed.
Pradhan, Amynah A; Smith, Monique L; Zyuzin, Jekaterina; Charles, Andrew
Background and Purpose Migraine is an extraordinarily common brain disorder for which treatment options continue to be limited. Agonists that activate the δ-opioid receptor may be promising for the treatment of migraine as they are highly effective for the treatment of chronic rather than acute pain, do not induce hyperalgesia, have low abuse potential and have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of δ-opioid receptor agonists for migraine by characterizing their effects in mouse migraine models. Experimental Approach Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed in mice treated with acute and chronic doses of nitroglycerin (NTG), a known human migraine trigger. Conditioned place aversion to NTG was also measured as a model of migraine-associated negative affect. In addition, we assessed evoked cortical spreading depression (CSD), an established model of migraine aura, in a thinned skull preparation. Key Results NTG evoked acute and chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice, as well as conditioned place aversion. Three different δ-opioid receptor agonists, SNC80, ARM390 and JNJ20788560, significantly reduced NTG-evoked hyperalgesia. SNC80 also abolished NTG-induced conditioned place aversion, suggesting that δ-opioid receptor activation may also alleviate the negative emotional state associated with migraine. We also found that SNC80 significantly attenuated CSD, a model that is considered predictive of migraine preventive therapies. Conclusions and Implications These data show that δ-opioid receptor agonists modulate multiple basic mechanisms associated with migraine, indicating that δ-opioid receptors are a promising therapeutic target for this disorder. PMID:24467301
Novak, V J
This work reports for the first time on the pathological background and the successful definitive surgical treatment of migraine attacks caused by weather (Foehn) changes, menstruation, nutrition (cheese, chocolates, red wines etc), and psychophysical stress. Forty-two patients between the ages of 13 and 48, who were subdivided into an earlier and later treatment group, were surgically treated for migraines caused by the factors mentioned above. In the first group of 15 female patients that was treated, the surgical technique consisted of subperichondral septum correction crushing and partial or total resection of the middle concha and ethmoidal opening. In four of the patients where no septum deviation was observed, a resection of the middle nasal concha and a transnasal opening of the ethmoidal cells in the area of the middle nasal passage was performed. In the later group consisting of 27 patients, the surgical technique was simplified so that only subperichondral septum correction and crushing of the middle concha was performed, without total resection of the concha and ethmoidal cell opening. Up to the present all the 42 patients operated on have been free from migraine attacks, the first operation having been performed seven years ago and the last eight months ago.
Diener, H C; Holle, D; Müller, D; Nägel, S; Rabe, K
The classification of the International Headache Society (IHS) generally differentiates episodic from chronic headache. Chronic migraine is defined as headache on 15 and more days a month over more than 3 months and headache on 8 days or more fulfils the criteria for migraine or were triptan/ergot-responsive when thought to be migrainous in early stages of the attack. The prevalence of chronic migraine is estimated at 2-4 %. The quality of life is highly compromised in this condition and comorbidities are much more frequent compared to episodic migraine. Data from prospective randomized studies are scarce as most patients with chronic migraine were excluded from previous trials and only few studies were conducted for this condition. The efficacy for prophylactic treatment compared with placebo is proven for topiramate and onabotulinum toxin A.
The co-occurrence between migraine and vertigo has been noticed for a long time ago. In recent years, however, growing numbers of epidemiological and clinical studies have definitely shown the significant relation between these two diseases. Recently, the term “vestibular migraine” is used commonly in studies. Vestibular migraine has taken place in appendix in the latest International Headache Society Classification. In this review, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and treatment of vesti-bular migraine will be discussed.
Gan, Siew Hua
Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine. PMID:25815319
Shaik, Munvar Miya; Gan, Siew Hua
Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.
Kopishinskaya, S V; Gustov, A V
to study the prevalence of migraine among patients with celiac disease (CD) and clinical features of «gluten migraine» syndrome and to assess the efficacy of gluten diet in its treatment. Authors examined 200 CD patients (main group) and 100 patients with reflux esophagitis and without CD (control group). All patients fulfilled the headache diary during three months before the diagnosis of migraine was made and six months during gluten diet. CD group had migraine syndrome four times more often than the control group (48.5%; p<0.001). In CD group migraine attacks were 2.5 times more frequent than in the control group (р=0.004), but the duration of the attacks was less long, 8 hours in average. The migraine attacks measured by the Visual Analog Scale were less intensive, 55% in average, and had a later onset. The attacks were more frequent in CD patients who were older than 50 years old (р<0.05). The attacks disappeared in 25% of patients with migraine syndrome who were on the gluten diet and the reduction in the intensity and/or frequency of attacks was observed in 38% of patients. We revealed the clear association between migraine syndrome and CD and the high efficacy of gluten diet in the treatment of migraine symptoms.
Wang, Ping-Han; Zhao, Li-Xue; Wan, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Xiao-Na; Long, Fang-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Chu; Du, Jun-Rong
Migraine is a highly prevalent neurovascular disorder in the brain. An optimal therapy for migraine has not yet been developed. Gastrodin (Gas), the main effective constitute from Gastrodiae Rhizoma (Tianma in Chinese), has been indicated for migraine treatment and prophylaxis more than 30 years, with demonstrated safety. However, Gas is a phenolic glycoside, with relatively low concentrations and weak efficacy in the central nervous system. To develop more effective anti-migraine agents, we synthesized a novel Gas derivative (Gas-D). In the present study, comparative pharmacodynamic evaluations of Gas and Gas-D were performed in a model of nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine in rats and the hot-plate test in mice. Following behavioral testing in this migraine model, external jugular vein blood and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) were collected to analyze plasma nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations and c-Fos expression in the TNC. The acute oral toxicity of Gas and Gas-D was also examined. We found that Gas-D had potent anti-migraine effects, likely attributable to inhibition of both trigeminal nerve activation at central sites and the peripheral release of CGRP following NO scavenging. Additionally, Gas-D exerted significant anti-nociceptive effect in response to thermal pain compared with Gas. Furthermore, a single dose of 2.048 g/kg Gas or Gas-D presented no acute oral toxicity in mice. Altogether, the potent anti-migraine and anti-hyperalgesic effects of Gas-D suggest that it might be a potentially novel drug candidate for migraine treatment or prophylaxis.
Cady, Roger K; Banks, James; Jones, Beverly A; Campbell, John
Compare the effectiveness and tolerability of current therapy with frovatriptan 2.5-mg tablets (in 1-3 migraines) in patients with migraine previously using other triptans, analgesics/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or triptans and NSAIDs (T+NSAIDs). Subanalysis of a postmarketing survey study in patients with migraine managed at primary care facilities in Germany. A total of 5025 patients rated the effectiveness and tolerability of previous therapy (triptans; T+NSAIDs; NSAIDs) and current therapy with frovatriptan; physicians rated only frovatriptan effectiveness and tolerability (1 = Very Good, 2 = Good, 3 = Satisfactory, 4 = Poor). Of 7107 patients initially surveyed, 5025 were identified for this subanalysis as previously using NSAIDs (n = 2890), triptans (n = 1418) or T + NSAIDs (n = 717). The mean (SD) age was 42.3 (11.9) years. At baseline, patients who previously used NSAIDs reported significantly fewer migraines per month, lower migraine severity, shorter migraine duration, and poorer ratings for effectiveness and tolerability versus responses from patients previously using triptans or T + NSAIDs (P < 0. 001 for each). Patient effectiveness ratings of Very Good or Good for previous therapy occurred in 49% (n = 691 of 1411) of patients using triptans, 27% (n = 195 of 716) of patients using T + NSAIDs, and 11% (n = 303 of 2866) of patients using NSAIDs (P < 0.04 between each group). Most patients rated current therapy with frovatriptan as Very Good or Good for effectiveness (86%, triptans; 83%, T + NSAIDs; 94%, NSAIDs) and tolerability (95%; 95%; 97%). Most physicians rated frovatriptan as Very Good or Good for effectiveness (87%; 86%; 95%) and tolerability (96%; 96%; 98%). Within-patient comparisons confirmed that frovatriptan had improved effectiveness (P < 0.001) and tolerability ratings (P < 0.001) in all three groups versus previous therapies. Intrapatient comparisons showed that most patients with migraine reported significantly improved
Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L
Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.
Ripa, Patrizia; Ornello, Raffaele; Degan, Diana; Tiseo, Cindy; Stewart, Janet; Pistoia, Francesca; Carolei, Antonio; Sacco, Simona
Evidence suggests that migraine activity is influenced by hormonal factors, and particularly by estrogen levels, but relatively few studies have investigated the prevalence and characteristics of migraine according to the menopausal status. Overall, population-based studies have shown an improvement of migraine after menopause, with a possible increase in perimenopause. On the contrary, the studies performed on patients referring to headache centers have shown no improvement or even worsening of migraine. Menopause etiology may play a role in migraine evolution during the menopausal period, with migraine improvement more likely occurring after spontaneous rather than after surgical menopause. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy has been found to be associated with migraine worsening in observational population-based studies. The effects of several therapeutic regimens on migraine has also been investigated, leading to nonconclusive results. To date, no specific preventive measures are recommended for menopausal women with migraine. There is a need for further research in order to clarify the relationship between migraine and hormonal changes in women, and to quantify the real burden of migraine after the menopause. Hormonal manipulation for the treatment of refractory postmenopausal migraine is still a matter of debate. PMID:26316824
Russo, Antonio; Bruno, Antonio; Trojsi, Francesca; Tessitore, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gioacchino
Migraine is one of the most common pain symptoms in children. Indeed, a high percentage of adult migraine patients report to have suffered from recurrent headache during the childhood. In particular, children could experience the so-called childhood periodic syndromes (such as cyclic vomiting, abdominal migraine, and benign paroxysmal vertigo) that have been usually considered precursors of migraine or they could develop overt migraine headaches. However, typical cohort of migraine symptoms could be absent and children could not achieve all clinical features necessary for a migraine attack diagnosis according to classification criteria. Nevertheless, migraine is characterized also in childhood by a significant negative impact on the quality of life and a high risk of developing chronic and persistent headache in adulthood. Several studies have emphasized the role of different risk factors for migraine in children. Among these, obesity and overweight, particular food or the regular consumption of alcohol or caffeine, dysfunctional family situation, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school, and insufficient leisure time seem to be strictly related to migraine onset or progression. Consequently, both identification and avoidance of triggers seem to be mandatory in children with migraine and could represent an alternative approach to the treatment of migraine abstaining from pharmacologic therapies.
Sun-Edelstein, Christina; Rapoport, Alan M
Chronic migraine (CM) is a common and disabling disorder that remains underdiagnosed and poorly treated. Significant unmet therapeutic needs add to the burden of this disorder; even when CM is recognized, effective treatment options are limited and randomized controlled trials supporting the use of various preventive medications are sparse. In this review, we discuss the available options for CM treatment. Currently the only FDA-approved treatment for CM prevention is onabotulinumtoxinA. Two double-blind studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topiramate for CM prevention, but it is not FDA-approved for this indication. Treatments in development for migraine will also be reviewed. Advancements in the understanding of migraine pathogenesis have identified new targets for both acute and preventive treatment and have engendered the development of targeted and mechanism-based therapies. The need for more effective treatment for CM patients, which has long since been identified, is now being addressed. Several of the emerging treatments for migraine prevention are under investigation specifically for CM or high-frequency episodic migraine.
Baratloo, Alireza; Mirbaha, Sahar; Delavar Kasmaei, Hossein; Payandemehr, Pooya; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Negida, Ahmed
Current evidence suggests that intravenous magnesium sulfate might be effective for reducing migraine pain. In a recent pilot study, we showed that intravenous caffeine citrate could reduce the severity of migraine headache. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of intravenous caffeine citrate vs. magnesium sulfate for management of acute migraine headache. We conducted a prospective quasi-experimental study from January until May 2016 in two educational medical centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Shoahadaye Tajrish Hospital and Imam Hossein Hospital), Tehran, Iran. The study included patients who were referred to the emergency department and met the migraine diagnosis criteria of the International Headache Society. Patients were allocated into 2 groups receiving either 60 mg intravenous caffeine or 2 g intravenous magnesium sulfate. The pain scores, based on the visual analog scale, were recorded on admission, as well as one and two hours after receiving the drug. A Chi-Square test and student t-test were used for analysis of baseline characteristics. A Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon singed rank test were used to analyze differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) score between and within the groups respectively. In total, 70 patients (35 patients in each group) with the mean age of 33.1 ± 11.3 years were included (64.3% female). For the Caffeine citrate group, the median pain score decreased from 9.0 (2.0) to 5.0 (4.0) after one hour and to 3.0 (4.0) after two hours. For the magnesium sulfate group, the pain score decreased from 8.0 (2.0) to 2.0 (2.0) after one hour and to 0.0 (1.0) after two hours. Both intravenous caffeine citrate and intravenous magnesium sulfate reduced pain scores significantly but the magnesium sulfate group showed more improvement than the Caffeine citrate group after one hour (P < 0.001) and after two hours (P < 0.001). It is likely that both intravenous caffeine and intravenous magnesium
Migraine is a common disorder with a female prevalence of 17% and a male prevalence of 9%. Migraine is most often disabling and the patients need treatment of the attacks. The introduction of triptans has been a revolution for many migraine patients but only a minority of patients use these specific drugs. The pharmacokinetics and efficacy and tolerability of triptans are reviewed. The triptans can most likely with advantage be combined with NSAIDs and prokinetic drugs. Among future drugs, CGRP receptor antagonists are the most promising. These drugs have shown excellent tolerability with no more adverse events than placebo, but only one quarter of migraine patients have been pain-free after 2 hours in phase III studies. The development of current CGRP antagonists has been stopped.
Xu, Ji-Hua; Mi, He-Yin
The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using acupressure as an adjunctive therapy to sodium valproate (SV) combined with acupressure (ASV) on the prevention of chronic migraine with aura (CMA). A total of 98 patients with CMA were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group, with 49 patients in each group. The patients in the intervention group received ASV, while the participants in the control group received SV alone. The primary outcome was measured by the numeric rating scale (NRS). The secondary outcomes including frequency of migraine attacks, the times of using analgesics, and quality of life, measured by the short-form 36 Health Survey Scale (SF-36) score. In addition, adverse events (AEs) were also recorded throughout the trial. The outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week treatment, and 4-week follow-up. After the 8-week treatment and 4-week follow-up, ASV efficacy was not greater than that of SV alone regarding pain relief, as measured using the NRS, and frequency of migraine attacks, consumption of analgesics, and quality of life, as measured using the SF-36. However, ASV can significantly reduce the nausea when compared with SV (P = .04). The present results indicate that ASV can decrease migraine-related nausea during treatment, but cannot relieve pain or enhance quality of life in patients with CMA.
Allais, G; Tullo, V; Omboni, S; Pezzola, D; Zava, D; Benedetto, C; Bussone, G
Oral contraceptive-induced menstrual migraine (OCMM) is a particularly severe form of migraine triggered by the cyclic hormone withdrawal. To review the efficacy of frovatriptan vs. other triptans, in the acute treatment of OCMM through a pooled analysis of three individual randomized Italian studies. With or without aura migraineurs were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). All studies had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. After treating 1-3 episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the other treatment for the next 3 months. In this analysis, the subset of 35 of the 280 women of the intention-to-treat population taking combined oral contraceptives and experiencing a migraine attack during the withdrawal phase, were analyzed. The proportion of pain free and pain relief at 2 h were 25 and 51 % with frovatriptan and 28 and 48 % with comparators (p = NS). At 24 h, 71 and 83 % of frovatriptan-treated patients and 60 and 76 % of comparator-treated patients were pain free (p < 0.05 between treatments) and had pain relief (p = NS), respectively. Relapse at 24 and 48 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower with frovatriptan (17 and 21 %) than with the comparators (27 and 31 %). Our results suggest that, due to its sustained antimigraine effect, frovatriptan may be particularly suitable for the management of OCMM than other triptans.
Silberstein, Stephen D
In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients. The scientific and clinical interest in topiramate has generated a large body of data from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, patient registries, cohort studies, and claims data analyses that have more fully characterized its role as a migraine preventive. This article will review the profile of topiramate that has emerged out of the past decade of research and clinical use in migraine prophylaxis. It will also address the rationale for extended-release (XR) formulations in optimizing topiramate therapy in migraine. Topiramate has activity at multiple molecular targets, which may account for why it is effective in migraine and most other, more specific, anticonvulsants are not. Based on randomized controlled trials, topiramate reduces migraine frequency and acute medication use, improves quality of life, and reduces disability in patients with episodic migraine and in those with chronic migraine with or without medication overuse headache. Its efficacy in chronic migraine is not improved by the addition of propranolol. Topiramate's ability to prevent progression from high-frequency episodic migraine to chronic migraine remains unclear. Consistent with clinicians' perceptions, migraineurs are more sensitive to topiramate-associated side effects than patients with epilepsy. Paresthesia is a common occurrence early in treatment but is rarely cause for terminating
Pilgramm, M; Schumann, K
We conducted a study on the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on 122 soldiers following acute acoustic trauma. The patients included in this study, after the effect of spontaneous recovery had largely been excluded, were randomly allocated to four treatment groups. The results of our studies show that hyperbaric oxygen therapy shortens the course of healing with respect to high-pitch perception dysacusis. The results of treatment after an observation period of 6 weeks is also more favorable when patients are treated with oxygen when compared to patients given infusions or vasoactive substances. Similarly, the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy also reduces the frequency of relapse following discharge from hospital. In contrast, the vasoactive substance chosen in our studies (betahistine) failed to have a favorable effect on the course of healing. Our study has also shown that no method can compare with hyperbaric therapy in eliminating tinnitus following acoustic trauma.
Hecker, A; Hecker, B; Kipfmüller, K; Holler, J; Schneck, E; Reichert, M; Weigand, M A; Padberg, W; Hecker, M
Patients with signs of an acute abdomen continue to be a challenge for both the emergency physician and the intensivist. Clinical symptoms usually result from secondary peritonitis possibly progressing to intraabdominal sepsis. Critically ill patients need rapid diagnostic work-up and an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. Among patients with secondary peritonitis, those with postoperative peritonitis (e.g., after anastomotic leakage) show a particularly high mortality because of unspecific symptoms. Beyond routine diagnostic procedures, patients with an acute abdomen often require a CT scan which helps to detect the septic focus, thereby often allowing an interventional source control. Therapy consists of three main elements: source control, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, and supportive intensive care medicine.
Bale, Jessica; Chee, Paul
Infliximab is a high-affinity recombinant chimeric immunoglobulin-1 monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor-alpha. It is used to treat a range of inflammatory disorders including psoriatic joint and skin changes. Acute interstitial lung disease is a rare but potentially fatal complication of therapy. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with severe psoriasis who presented with acute alveolitis shortly after his third infusion of infliximab. The infliximab was discontinued and investigations did not reveal an infective cause. His respiratory signs and symptoms improved quickly with corticosteroid therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon but potentially serious complication. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Humes, H D
Ischemic and toxic acute renal failure is reversible, due to the ability of renal tubule cells to regenerate and differentiate into a fully functional lining epithelium. Recent data support the thesis that recruitment or activation of macrophages to the area of injury results in local release of growth factors to promote regenerative repair. Because of intrinsic delay in the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the exogenous administration of growth promoters early in the repair phase of acute renal failure enhances renal tubule cell regeneration and accelerates renal functional recovery in animal models of acute renal failure. Molecular therapy for the acceleration of tissue repair in this disease process may be developed in the near future.
Additional Effects of a Physical Therapy Protocol on Headache Frequency, Pressure Pain Threshold, and Improvement Perception in Patients With Migraine and Associated Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Gonçalves, Maria Claudia; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Dach, Fabíola; Speciali, José Geraldo; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo; Chaves, Thaís Cristina
To evaluate the additional effect provided by physical therapy in migraine treatment. Randomized controlled trial. Tertiary university-based hospital. Among the 300 patients approached, 50 women (age range, 18-55y) diagnosed with migraine were randomized into 2 groups: a control group (n=25) and a physiotherapy plus medication group (n=25) (N=50). Both groups received medication for migraine treatment. Additionally, physiotherapy plus medication patients received 8 sessions of physical therapy over 4 weeks, comprised mainly of manual therapy and stretching maneuvers lasting 50 minutes. A blinded examiner assessed the clinical outcomes of headache frequency, intensity, and self-perception of global change and physical outcomes of pressure pain threshold and cervical range of motion. Data were recorded at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. Twenty-three patients experienced side effects from the medication. Both groups reported a significantly reduced frequency of headaches; however, no differences were observed between groups (physiotherapy plus medication patients showed an additional 18% improvement at posttreatment and 12% improvement at follow-up compared with control patients, P>.05). The reduction observed in the physiotherapy plus medication patients was clinically relevant at posttreatment, whereas clinical relevance for control patients was demonstrated only at follow-up. For pain intensity, physiotherapy plus medication patients showed statistical evidence and clinical relevance with reduction posttreatment (P<.05). In addition, they showed better self-perception of global change than control patients (P<.05). The cervical muscle pressure pain threshold increased significantly in the physiotherapy plus medication patients and decreased in the control patients, but statistical differences between groups were observed only in the temporal area (P<.05). No differences were observed between groups regarding cervical range of motion. We cannot
Acute inflammation is a severe medical condition defined as an inflammatory response of the body to an infection. Its rapid progression requires quick and accurate decisions from clinicians. Inadequate and delayed decisions makes acute inflammation the 10th leading cause of death overall in United States with the estimated cost of treatment about $17 billion annually. However, despite the need, there are limited number of methods that could assist clinicians to determine optimal therapies for acute inflammation. We developed a data-driven method for suggesting optimal therapy by using machine learning model that is learned on historical patients' behaviors. To reduce both the risk of failure and the expense for clinical trials, our method is evaluated on a virtual patients generated by a mathematical model that emulates inflammatory response. In conducted experiments, acute inflammation was handled with two complimentary pro- and anti-inflammatory medications which adequate timing and doses are crucial for the successful outcome. Our experiments show that the dosage regimen assigned with our data-driven method significantly improves the percentage of healthy patients when compared to results by other methods used in clinical practice and found in literature. Our method saved 88% of patients that would otherwise die within a week, while the best method found in literature saved only 73% of patients. At the same time, our method used lower doses of medications than alternatives. In addition, our method achieved better results than alternatives when only incomplete or noisy measurements were available over time as well as it was less affected by therapy delay. The presented results provide strong evidence that models from the artificial intelligence community have a potential for development of personalized treatment strategies for acute inflammation. PMID:24565439
Cady, Roger K; Farmer, Kathleen
For the last quarter of a century, triptans have been available for acute treatment of migraine but with little guidance on which of the different triptan products to use for which patient or which attack of migraine. In this article, we propose a structured approach to analysis of individual migraine attacks and patient characteristics as a means of defining and optimizing acute intervention. Assessment of patient and attack profiles includes the "5-Ps": pattern, phenotype, patient, pharmacology, and precipitants. Attending to these five components of information can assist in developing an individualized behavioral, pharmacological, and nonpharmacological comprehensive treatment plan for most migraine patients. This clinical approach is then focused on frovatriptan because of its unique molecular signature and potential novel clinical applications. Frovatriptan like all triptans is indicated for acute treatment of migraine but its role has been explored in management of several unique migraine phenotypes. Frovatriptan has the longest half-life of any triptan and consequently is often promoted for acute treatment of migraine of longer duration. It has also been studied as a short-term preventive treatment in women with menstrual-related migraine. Given that 60% of female migraineurs suffer from menstrual-related migraine, this population is the obvious group for continued study. Small studies have also explored frovatriptan's use in treating migraine predicted by premonitory symptoms as a preventive for the headache phase of migraine. By identifying patient and attack profiles, clinicians may effectively determine the viability of frovatriptan as an effective pharmacological intervention for migraine.
Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D
Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.
Rothner, A David; Parikh, Sumit
To provide an overview of the clinical course for children and adolescents with migraine variants (M.V.), childhood periodic syndromes or the episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition Beta version [ICHD-3] International Headache Society criteria for the diagnosis of each disorder. Migraine is a complex set of neurological symptoms. This review encompasses the subtypes of M.V. or episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine within the children and adolescent population. The episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine or migraine variant is multilayered neurological disorder in young children and adolescents. Within the these generally pediatric syndromes there are associated disorders described in this review, to provide a clinical overview and including the less common forms of migraine, such as acute confusional migraine, trauma-triggered migraine, and transient global amnesia. © 2015 American Headache Society.
Menstrual migraine (MM) is a highly prevalent condition associated with considerable disability. Migraine attacks occur exclusively around the menstrual period in approximately 10% of women with migraine, that is, pure menstrual migraine, while at least 50% of them also experience migraine at other times of the month, that is, menstrually related migraine (MRM). The therapeutic approach to patients with MRM is based on treatment of the attack, or prophylactic strategies. Triptans are recommended as first-line treatments for moderate to severe migraine attacks, including MM. Frovatriptan is one of the newest triptans. Its high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and long half-life contribute to its distinctive clinical effect, characterized by a more sustained and prolonged effect than other triptans. Indeed, frovatriptan proved to be effective in treating the acute attack, but was particularly effective in the short-term preventive therapy of MM. In addition, frovatriptan is one of the safest triptans, with the lowest risk of treatment-emergent adverse events. Following extensive evidence from randomized pharmacological trials, frovatriptan has now gained a grade A recommendation from the guidelines for short-term prophylaxis of MM. Recent post-hoc analyses of direct comparative trials also suggest that frovatriptan might have an important role in the acute treatment of MRM. In these studies, frovatriptan showed pain relief and pain-free rates similar to those of zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and almotriptan, but with significantly lower recurrence rates. More well-designed, randomized, prospective studies, specifically enrolling women with MM, will be needed in the near future to confirm the efficacy of frovatriptan in this migraine subtype. PMID:23483096
Allais, Gianni; Benedetto, Chiara
Menstrual migraine (MM) is a highly prevalent condition associated with considerable disability. Migraine attacks occur exclusively around the menstrual period in approximately 10% of women with migraine, that is, pure menstrual migraine, while at least 50% of them also experience migraine at other times of the month, that is, menstrually related migraine (MRM). The therapeutic approach to patients with MRM is based on treatment of the attack, or prophylactic strategies. Triptans are recommended as first-line treatments for moderate to severe migraine attacks, including MM. Frovatriptan is one of the newest triptans. Its high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and long half-life contribute to its distinctive clinical effect, characterized by a more sustained and prolonged effect than other triptans. Indeed, frovatriptan proved to be effective in treating the acute attack, but was particularly effective in the short-term preventive therapy of MM. In addition, frovatriptan is one of the safest triptans, with the lowest risk of treatment-emergent adverse events. Following extensive evidence from randomized pharmacological trials, frovatriptan has now gained a grade A recommendation from the guidelines for short-term prophylaxis of MM. Recent post-hoc analyses of direct comparative trials also suggest that frovatriptan might have an important role in the acute treatment of MRM. In these studies, frovatriptan showed pain relief and pain-free rates similar to those of zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and almotriptan, but with significantly lower recurrence rates. More well-designed, randomized, prospective studies, specifically enrolling women with MM, will be needed in the near future to confirm the efficacy of frovatriptan in this migraine subtype.
Curtis, Peter; Park, Jongbae; Faurot, Keturah R.; Coble, Rebecca; Suchindran, Chirayath; Coeytaux, Remy R.; Wilkinson, Laurel; Mann, J. Douglas
Abstract Background Developing valid control groups that generate similar perceptions and expectations to experimental complementary and alternative (CAM) treatments can be challenging. The perceived credibility of treatment and outcome expectancy often contributes to positive clinical responses to CAM therapies, thereby confounding efficacy data. As part of a clinical feasibility study, credibility and expectancy data were obtained from subjects suffering from migraine who received either CranioSacral therapy (CST) or an attention-control, sham, and low-strength magnet (LSSM) intervention. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the LSSM intervention generated similar levels of subject credibility and expectancy compared to CST. Design This was a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Subjects Sixty-five (65) adults with moderate to severe migraine were the subjects of this study. Interventions After an 8-week baseline, subjects were randomized to eight weekly treatments of either CST (n=36) or LSSM (n=29). The latter involved the use of a magnet-treatment protocol using inactive and low-strength static magnets designed to mimic the CST protocol in terms of setting, visit timing, body positioning, and therapist–subject interaction. Outcome measures A four-item, self-administered credibility/expectancy questionnaire, based on a validated instrument, was completed after the first visit. Results Using a 0–9 rating scale, the mean score for perceived logicality of treatment was significantly less for LSSM (5.03, standard deviation [SD] 2.34) compared to CST (6.64, SD 2.19). Subject confidence that migraine would improve was greater for CST (5.94, SD 2.01) than for LSSM (4.9, SD 2.21), a difference that was not statistically significant. Significantly more subjects receiving CST (6.08, SD 2.27) would confidently recommend treatment to a friend than those receiving LSSM (4.69, SD 2.49). Conclusions Although LSSM did not achieve a comparable level
MUNITIONS MIGRAINE BY George M. Farnell Assistant Professor of Security Assistance Management Defense Institute of Security Assistance...00-1982 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Munitions Migraine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... headaches of having adequate available personnel to perform their tasks in a secure and safe environment. It also must be pointed out that
Evaluating the efficacy of a drug therapy in the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine requires the conduct of placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials. In order to plan and conduct these studies in the most appropriate manner, it is desirable to know which factors influence the placebo response. This editorial overview discusses the factors that influence placebo response in trials for migraine and other headaches; such factors include expectation, blinding, route of drug administration, patient age and gender, and geographic distribution of the trials. The placebo response rates in the treatment of acute headache episodes are higher than in headache prophylaxis, and invasive procedures, such as injections, have a higher placebo response compared with orally administered drugs.
Oakley, Christopher B; Kossoff, Eric H
Individually, childhood epilepsy and migraine are two of the most common conditions seen in pediatric neurology. What complicates matters is that there can be marked similarities between migraine and epilepsy as well as a variety of underlying conditions that predispose children to both seizures and headache. Thus, separating epilepsy from migraine may not be easy, but can be done with a detailed history as well as timely use of ancillary testing. Once children have been diagnosed with epilepsy, migraine, or both, treatment options become essential in attempts to manage these common, yet often disabling, neurological conditions. Acute interventions tend to be condition specific while preventative options may overlap for migraine and epilepsy. In the following review, we will discuss the epidemiology of childhood epilepsy and headache, the association between them, as well as how to differentiate epilepsy from migraine. Treatment strategies will follow before concluding with a discussion on prognosis.
Murín, J; Kasper, J; Bulas, J; Uhliar, R
In the period of two years the authors treated at the coronary care unit 146 patients inflicted by the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In 15 of them (13 men, 2 women, 13 times Q and twice non-Q, 5 times anterior, 10 times inferior) they performed intravenous thrombolytic treatment by use of streptokinase. The success rate of the thrombolytic therapy was evaluated by noninvasive markers: 1.) rapid withdrawal of chest pain, 2.) rapid (in 6 hours) and essential improvement of ST segment elevation and 3.) presence of reperfusion arrhythmias (in 6 hours). The authors detected insufficient medicinal conciousness among their health district population as regard to their response after the AMI origin (absolute majority of patients delayed their arrival). Minor complications due to therapy (allergy and minor local hemorrhage) occurred in 4 patients. Nobody died. Only those cases were considered as being successful, in which all three success rate markers were present. This condition was fulfilled in 8 patients (i.e. in 53% of cases) and with minor insufficiencies in further two patients (which would increase the percentage of the success rate to 67%). This success rate of the thrombolytic therapy ranges within the limits given by literature. In five patients the authors evaluated the behaviour of the left ventricular asynergy (its range and index) prior to and following the thrombolytic therapy and this examination they consider to be appropriate for observance of the thrombolytic therapy success rate in patients with AMI. (Tab. 3, Ref. 20.).
Maghbooli, Mehdi; Golipour, Farhad; Moghimi Esfandabadi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehran
Frequency and torment caused by migraines direct patients toward a variety of remedies. Few studies to date have proposed ginger derivates for migraine relief. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ginger in the ablation of common migraine attack in comparison to sumatriptan therapy. In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who had acute migraine without aura were randomly allocated to receive either ginger powder or sumatriptan. Time of headache onset, its severity, time interval from headache beginning to taking drug and patient self-estimation about response for five subsequent migraine attacks were recorded by patients. Patients(,) satisfaction from treatment efficacy and their willingness to continue it was also evaluated after 1 month following intervention. Two hours after using either drug, mean headaches severity decreased significantly. Efficacy of ginger powder and sumatriptan was similar. Clinical adverse effects of ginger powder were less than sumatriptan. Patients' satisfaction and willingness to continue did not differ. The effectiveness of ginger powder in the treatment of common migraine attacks is statistically comparable to sumatriptan. Ginger also poses a better side effect profile than sumatriptan. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lilly, Scott M.; Wilensky, Robert L.
In the majority of cases acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are caused by activation and aggregation of platelets and subsequent thrombus formation leading to a decrease in coronary artery blood flow. Recent focus on the treatment of ACS has centered on reducing the response of platelets to vascular injury as well as inhibiting fibrin deposition. Novel therapies include more effective P2Y12 receptor blockers thereby reducing inter-individual variability, targeting the platelet thrombin receptor (protease activated receptor 1) as well as directly inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin activity. In this review we discuss the clinical data evaluating the effectiveness of these various new ACS treatment options. PMID:22028691
Durham, Paul L.; Cady, Roger
OnabotulinumtoxinA has recently been approved by regulatory agencies in the UK and United States for treatment of chronic migraine based on data generated from the PREEMPT studies. As such, onabotulinumtoxinA is the only prophylactic therapy specifically approved for chronic migraine. Most headache clinicians would agree that acute episodic migraine and chronic migraine differ in their pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and response to pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological therapies. Of the 7 botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, botulinum neurotoxin type A (onabotulinumtoxinA) has been the most thoroughly investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. Based on preclinical studies, onabotulinumtoxinA is known to inhibit the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from both motor and sensory neurons by preventing vesicle fusion to the cell membrane. In addition to the well-documented myorelaxant effects of this neurotoxin, onabotulinumtoxinA can exert a direct analgesic effect that likely involves inhibition of primary and secondary nociceptive neurons. The inhibitory effects of onabotulinumtoxinA are also likely to involve suppressing the activity of myogenic trigger points and decreasing the persistent nociceptive barrage that promotes and maintains central sensitization. This article describes possible mechanisms to explain how onabotulinumtoxinA functions as a therapy for chronic migraine and considers why treatment with the neurotoxin is not effective in some chronic migraineurs. PMID:22082429
Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luis; Formiga, Francesc
Diuretics are widely recommended in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Unfortunately, despite their widespread use, limited data are available from randomized clinical trials to guide clinicians on the appropriate management of diuretic therapy. Loop diuretics are considered the first-line diuretic therapy, especially intravenous furosemide, but the best mode of administration (high-dose versus low-dose and continuous infusion versus bolus) is unclear. When diuretic resistance develops, different therapeutic strategies can be adopted, including combined diuretic therapy with thiazide diuretics and/or aldosterone antagonists. Low or "non-diuretic" doses (25-50mg QD) of aldosterone antagonists have been demonstrated to confer a survival benefit in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and consequently should be prescribed in all such patients, unless contraindicated by potassium and/or renal function values. There is less evidence on the use of aldosterone antagonists at higher or "diuretic" doses (≥ 100mg QD) but these drugs could be useful in relieving congestive symptoms in combination with furosemide. Thiazide diuretics can also be helpful as they have synergic effects with loop diuretics by inhibiting sodium reabsorption in distal parts of the nephron. The effect of diuretic therapy in AHF should be monitored with careful observation of clinical signs and symptoms of congestion. Serum electrolytes and kidney function should also be monitored during the use of intravenous diuretics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Santiago, Raoul; Vairy, Stéphanie; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja; Bittencourt, Henrique
During recent decades, the prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved dramatically, nowadays, reaching a cure rate of almost 90%. These results are due to a better management and combination of old therapies, refined risk-group stratification and emergence of minimal residual disease (MRD) combined with treatment's intensification for high-risk subgroups. However, the subgroup of patients with refractory/relapsed ALL still presents a dismal prognosis indicating necessity for innovative therapeutic approaches. Areas covered: We performed an exhaustive review of current first-line therapies for childhood ALL in the worldwide main consortia, summarized the major advances for front-line and relapse treatment and highlighted recent and promising innovative therapies with an overview of the most promising ongoing clinical trials. Expert opinion: Two major avenues marked the beginning of 21(st) century. First, is the introduction of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor coupled to chemotherapy for treatment of Philadelphia positive ALL opening new treatment possibilities for the recently identified subgroup of Ph-like ALL. Second, is the breakthrough of immunotherapy, notably CAR T-cell and specific antibody-based therapy, with remarkable success observed in initial studies. This review gives an insight on current knowledge in these innovative therapeutic directions, summarizes currently ongoing clinical trials and addresses challenges these approaches are faced with.
Gasiorowski, Robin E; Clark, Georgina J; Bradstock, Kenneth; Hart, Derek N J
Novel therapies with increased efficacy and decreased toxicity are desperately needed for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The anti CD33 immunoconjugate, gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), was withdrawn with concerns over induction mortality and lack of efficacy. However a number of recent trials suggest that, particularly in AML with favourable cytogenetics, GO may improve overall survival. This data and the development of alternative novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have renewed interest in the area. Leukaemic stem cells (LSC) are identified as the subset of AML blasts that reproduces the leukaemic phenotype upon transplantation into immunosuppressed mice. AML relapse may be caused by chemoresistant LSC and this has refocused interest on identifying and targeting antigens specific for LSC. Several mAb have been developed that target LSC effectively in xenogeneic models but only a few have begun clinical evaluation. Antibody engineering may improve the activity of potential new therapeutics for AML. The encouraging results seen with bispecific T cell-engaging mAb-based molecules against CD19 in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphobalstic leukaemia, highlight the potential efficacy of engineered antibodies in the treatment of acute leukaemia. Potent engineered mAb, possibly targeting novel LSC antigens, offer hope for improving the current poor prognosis for AML. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gauthier, Nadine; Anselm, Anjali H; Haddad, Haissam
Hospitalization and mortality rates associated with heart failure are persistently high. This is due partly to aging of the population but mostly to delayed progress in the pharmacological treatment of decompensated heart failure. We will review the current recommendations and most recent advancement in the pharmacological treatment of acute decompensated heart failure while providing a systematic approach to the management of this prevalent condition. Loop diuretics, nitrates and inotropes such as dobutamine and milrinone are the current mainstay of acute heart failure management although their associated morbidity and possible mortality have raised serious concerns. Recent vasoactive agents such as Nesiritide, Tolvaptan and more recently the inotropic agent Levosimedan could offer improved hemodynamics and congestive relief to patients in acute pulmonary edema. Despite the promising results of these agents, further clinical trials are required prior to their international approval as first-line therapy. Although we can be optimistic that these vasoactive drugs might have favorable clinical outcomes and improve the intricate management of decompensated heart failure, their associated mortality benefit remains unclear and controversial.
Sandercock, Peter A G; Counsell, Carl; Tseng, Mei-Chiun; Cecconi, Emanuela
In people with acute ischaemic stroke, platelets become activated and can cause blood clots to form and block an artery in the brain, resulting in damage to part of the brain. Such damage gives rise to the symptoms of stroke. Antiplatelet therapy might reduce the volume of brain damaged by ischaemia and also reduce the risk of early recurrent ischaemic stroke, thereby reducing the risk of early death and improving long-term outcomes in survivors. However, antiplatelet therapy might also increase the risk of fatal or disabling intracranial haemorrhage. To assess the efficacy and safety of immediate oral antiplatelet therapy (that is started as soon as possible and no later than two weeks after stroke onset) in people with acute presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 16 October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2013), MEDLINE (June 1998 to May 2013), and EMBASE (June 1998 to May 2013). In 1998, for a previous version of this review, we searched the register of the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration, MedStrategy and contacted relevant drug companies. Randomised trials comparing oral antiplatelet therapy (started within 14 days of the stroke) with control in people with definite or presumed ischaemic stroke. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria and assessed trial quality. For the included trials, they extracted and cross-checked the data. We included eight trials involving 41,483 participants. No new trials have been added since the last update.Two trials testing aspirin 160 mg to 300 mg once daily, started within 48 hours of onset, contributed 98% of the data. The risk of bias was low. The maximum follow-up was six months. With treatment, there was a significant decrease in death or dependency at the end of follow-up (odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 0.99). For every 1000 people treated with
Winner, Paul; Linder, Steven; Hershey, Andrew D
A multi-centered, randomized, placebo-controlled, early intervention, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the consistency of response of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium 85/500 mg (S/NS) over 4 attacks in the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents. Inclusion of subjects was dependent on their age of 12-17 years, frequency, and history of migraine headaches (1-8 per month) over the previous 6 months prior to screening and generally healthy males and females of non-childbearing potential that were not on excluded medications. Subjects were instructed to treat within 1 hour of pain onset, including when the pain was still mild. Subjects were randomized in a double-blind fashion using a computer-generated randomization list in which the study drug was prepared prior to study start, and subjects were allocated to a number in sequential order for each site. Each site was allocated number blocks in sets of 10 depending of the rate of enrollment. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of S/NS vs placebo in the primary end-points of pain-free response at 2 hours (2hPF), 24-hour sustained pain-free response (24hPF), and pain-free response at 2 hours with early intervention (2hPFE) calculated as percentage out of all attacks. In the study, 94 subjects treated 347 attacks in total: treating 277 with S/NS and 70 with placebo. Compared with placebo, S/NS produced higher 2hPF rates (S/NS 37%, placebo 18%; P < .004), and 2hPFE with rates (S/NS 32%, 18% placebo; P < .03). Compared with placebo, 24hPF rates were S/NS 86%, placebo 78%, P < .17, which were higher than placebo but not clinically significant. 2hPF was reported in at least 2 of the 3 migraines treated with S/NS in 40.4% of subjects. 24hPF was reported in at least 2 of the 3 migraine treated with S/NS in 86.2% subjects. Adverse reactions were generally low and comparable between S/NS and placebo.
Cho, A A; Clark, J B; Rupert, A H
The authors present a case of an attack helicopter pilot with recurrent spatial disorientation (SD) flying with night vision goggles (NVG's), diagnosed as having visually triggered migraine headaches. Serial Dynamic Platform Posturography testing during an acute migraine attack demonstrated balance dysfunction under visual and somatosensory deficient conditions, correlating with headache intensity. Vestibular symptoms are associated with migraine, and may be triggered by visual stimuli. NVG scintillations in susceptible individuals may act as a visual trigger for migraine. Migraine phenomenon may be a contributing factor to SD, especially during NVG operations. The association of visual and vestibular dysfunction with migraine and aeromedical disposition of migraine in aviators is discussed.
Gladstone, Jonathan Paul; Gawel, Marek
Migraine is a common, frequently incapacitating, headache disorder that imposes a substantial burden on both the individual patient and society. The last two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine, and in our development of an efficacious and diverse therapeutic armamentarium. There are several routes of drug administration available to patients with migraine. All the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists (triptans) are available as oral tablets (sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan, frovatriptan and eletriptan). Only sumatriptan is available as a subcutaneous injection. Some triptans are also available via newer routes of administration, including orally disintegrating tablets (rizatriptan and zolmitriptan), rectal suppositories (sumatriptan) and intranasal sprays (sumatriptan and zolmitriptan). Oral disintegrating tablets and other non-oral triptan routes (subcutaneous, intranasal, rectal) are a useful alternative to conventional oral tablets for patients who have difficulty swallowing pills or prefer not to do so, and for patients whose nausea and/or vomiting precludes swallowing tablets and/or makes the likelihood of complete absorption unpredictable. This is important because epidemiological studies in migraine reveal that the vast majority of patients (>90%) have experienced nausea during a migraine attack and more than 50% have nausea with the majority of attacks. Similarly, most (almost 70%) have vomited at some time during an attack and of these patients, almost one-third vomit in the majority of attacks. The newer formulations, rapidly dissolving tablets and intranasal sprays, afford patients the opportunity to use abortive therapy without the need for liquids, at anytime and anywhere, at the onset of a migraine attack. Furthermore, the intranasal sprays are absorbed rapidly and have a prompt onset of action allowing for significant pain free rates versus placebo as early
While the pathophysiology of recurrent migraine remains elusive, effective treatment for the prevention of attacks is available. Pharmacologic agents are useful adjuncts to a therapeutic approach that includes abundant patient education, rigorous follow up by the treating physician, and a commitment by both patient and physician to work out an individualized solution over time. PMID:21234086
Maconochie, Ian K; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep
Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. This is the latest update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2014. To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae. For this 2016 update we searched the following databases up to March 2016: the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Global Health, and Web of Science. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of differing volumes of fluid given in the initial management of bacterial meningitis were eligible for inclusion. All four of the original review authors extracted data and assessed trials for quality in the first publication of this review (one author, ROW, has passed away since the original review; see Acknowledgements). The current authors combined data for meta-analysis using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data or mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used a fixed-effect statistical model. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included three trials with a total of 420 children; there were no trials in adult populations. The largest of the three trials was conducted in settings with high mortality rates and was judged to have low risk of bias for all domains, except performance bias which was high risk. The other two smaller trials were not of high quality.The meta-analysis found no significant difference between the maintenance-fluid and restricted-fluid groups in number of deaths (RR 0.82, 95
Kung, Theodore A; Pannucci, Christopher J; Chamberlain, Justin L; Cederna, Paul S
Minimally invasive techniques have been developed to treat migraine headache, and several reports have shown efficacy in treating select patients who are refractory to conventional therapies. Although there is a growing body of evidence supporting migraine surgery, no study has examined its adoption by plastic surgeons in the United States. A Web-based survey consisting of 17 ad hoc questions was designed to ascertain respondents' demographics, experience, knowledge, and attitudes regarding migraine surgery. After pilot testing, the survey was distributed by means of email to the entire membership of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. A total of 3747 American Society of Plastic Surgeons members were surveyed, and 193 surveys were completed, for a response rate of 5.2 percent. Thirty-four respondents (18 percent) had performed surgery to treat migraine headache. Among those who have performed migraine surgery, over 80 percent reported improvement in patient symptoms. Of those who have not performed migraine surgery, 60 percent would be interested if an appropriate patient was referred to them by a neurologist. Although there is interest in migraine surgery among a subset of plastic surgeons, significant barriers to performing migraine surgery include deficient referral patterns from neurologists and lack of familiarity with the concept and techniques of migraine surgery.
Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Silva, Marcus Tulius T
Background Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine. However, few commercially available NSAIDs can be administered IV. Lysine clonixinate (LC), an NSAID derived from nicotinic acid, has been proved effective in various algesic syndromes (eg, renal colic, muscular pain, nerve compression, odontalgia). The oral formulation of LC has been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine of moderate severity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the IV formulation of LC in the treatment of severe migraine. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study enrolled patients with severe migraine (without aura) as defined by the criteria of the International Headache Society. When patients presented to a neurology hospital with an outpatient headache unit (Instituto de Neurologia Deolindo Couto, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) with a severe migraine attack that had lasted <4 hours, they were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (IV placebo [25 mL of 0.9% saline] or IV LC [21 mL of 0.9% saline plus 4 mL of LC 200 mg]). Headache intensity and adverse effects (AEs) were assessed before (0 minute) and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after study drug administration. Rescue medication was available 2 hours after study drug administration, and its use was compared between groups. Results Thirty-two patients (23 women, 9 men; mean [SD] age, 32  years; range, 18–58 years) entered the study. Twenty-nine patients (21 women, 8 men; mean [SD] age, 32  years; range, 18–56 years) completed the study. Three patients (all in the placebo group) did not complete the study (1 patient was unable to rate the pain severity after drug administration and 2 patients refused IV drug administration). Among study completers, 17 patients received LC and 12 placebo. At 30 minutes, 1 patient (8.3%) in the placebo group and 5 patients (29.4%) in the LC group were pain free
Weatherall, Mark W
All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache.
Lionetto, Luana; Casolla, Barbara; Mastropietri, Fabiola; D'Alonzo, Lidia; Negro, Andrea; Simmaco, Maurizio; Martelletti, Paolo
Migraine is a multifactorial neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of disabling pain attacks, accompanied with gastrointestinal, neurological systems dysfunction. The pharmacologic treatment of migraine is classically divided in the management of the acute attack and preventive strategies. Acute treatments consist of triptan, ergot, opioid, antiemetic and NSAIDs. This article discusses pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan . The data were obtained by searching the following keywords in MEDLINE: zolmitriptan, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, triptans, migraine, menstrual-related migraine, cluster headache, relatively to the period 1989 - 2012. Zolmitriptan has been considered effective treatment in the acute phase of migraine, menstrual-related migraine and cluster headache attacks. Pharmacokinetic parameters may vary as a consequence of gender differences, inter- and intra-subjects variability and delivery system. Zolmitriptan was developed with the aim of obtaining a lipophilic compound in order to be more rapidly absorbed and centrally active. Pharmacologically, pharmacokinetic parameters are responsible for its wide efficacy and the limited adverse effect profile.
Cobb-Pitstick, Katherine M; Hershey, Andrew D; O'Brien, Hope L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; LeCates, Susan; White, Shannon; Vaughn, Polly; Manning, Paula; Segers, Ann; Bush, Judith; Horn, Paul S; Kacperski, Joanne
To evaluate factors that influence migraine recurrence after outpatient infusion or inpatient treatment for intractable migraine. Recurrence of migraine after acute treatment in an infusion center or an inpatient setting is not well documented in children and adolescents. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of migraines, multiple factors may influence migraine recurrence. It has been reported that treatment with steroids may reduce the risk of migraine recurrence. The efficacy of steroids as a therapeutic adjunct has not been established. Studies in the adult population have yielded conflicting results. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients presenting for treatment of an intractable migraine to the outpatient infusion unit or inpatient unit at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). Data collected included: age, gender, location of treatment (outpatient, inpatient), migraine duration, diagnosis, severity, the addition of steroids to treatment protocols, and recurrence of migraine at 48 and 72 hours after discharge. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests, logistic regression with backward elimination for variable selection, and least squares means slicing with associated odds ratios. Charts from 207 pediatric patients were analyzed. Using logistic regression analysis: location, gender, diagnosis, and age were all found to be significant predictors of migraine recurrence (P < .05). Patients treated in the inpatient setting were significantly less likely to experience recurrence compared to patients treated in an outpatient infusion unit (OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.61, P = .0002). Male patients with a diagnosis of episodic migraine were significantly less likely to experience recurrence than male patients with chronic migraine (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.04-0.73; P = .0074). The inclusion of steroids in this study population showed no significant reduction in migraine recurrence. The probability of recurrence decreased
Gürtler, R; Raderecht, C
Problems of maintaining therapy for acute myelocytic leukemias in adults are discussed. The analysis of the maintaining therapy in 22 patients affected with an acute myelocytic leukemia and living for more than 6 months revealed that the interval therapy with a high dosage of cytostatic combinations in the sense of the COAP scheme is preferable compared with the daily administration of 6-mercaptopurin, in addition methotrexate twice a week. Reasons for this are discussed.
Using a case study of a 57-year-old man with relapsed/refractory precursor-B (pre-B) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), this review discusses treatment with immunoconjugates and autologous therapy in acute ALL. Three therapies--blinatumomab, inotuzumab, and CAR T cells--are considered here, each with advantages in specific clinical situations. These therapies represent some of the exciting advances that have been made in the treatment of ALL over the last several years.
Pagnini, P; Vannucchi, P; Giannoni, B; Pecci, R
and intensity of both headache and vertigo while taking prophylactic therapy. Control visits were programmed after 4, 12 and 24 months of therapy. All patients considerably improved symptoms with therapy: 19 subjects (68%) reported complete disappearance of vestibular symptoms, while 9 (32%) considered symptoms very improved. The subjective judgement was corroborated by data from patients diaries. We conclude that EMV is a clinical variant of typical migraine-related vertigo: a migraineassociated vertigo, headache spell independent, following a headache period, during the lifetime of a patient.
Maconochie, Ian K; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep
Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1966 to October week 5, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to November 2013), CINAHL (1981 to November 2013), LILACS (1982 to November 2013) and Web of Science (2010 to 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of differing volumes of fluid given in the initial management of bacterial meningitis were eligible for inclusion. For this update we identified two abstracts, but after obtaining full texts we excluded them. Previous searches had identified six trials; on careful inspection three trials (415 children) met the inclusion criteria. All four of the original review authors extracted data and assessed trials for quality (one author, ROW, has died since the original review; see Acknowledgements). We combined data for meta-analysis using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data or mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used a fixed-effect statistical model. We assessed overall evidence quality using the GRADE approach. There were no trials in adult populations. All included trials were on paediatric patient groups. The largest of the three trials was conducted in settings with high mortality rates. The meta-analysis found no significant difference between the maintenance-fluid and restricted-fluid groups in number of deaths (RR 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.27; 407
Cady, Roger K
Chronic migraine is a frequent, severely disabling headache that often evolves from EM. Treatment should be individualized with consideration of the patient as a whole person rather than just the headaches. Many options have been used for acute and preventive pharmacologic management, although good scientific and clinical evidence is limited to a few options. Evidence supports the efficacy and tolerability of both topiramate and onabotulinumtoxinA for prevention of CM headaches. However, only onabotulinumtoxinA is approved by the FDA for preventive treatment of CM.
Steiner, T J
I briefly review the purposes of efficacy measures, which go far beyond supporting new drug development. I use vignettes to illustrate the importance of functional recovery during the migraine attack, and argue that headache relief provides this. Sustained headache relief (SHR) is therefore a very worthwhile outcome when the alternative is a day of debilitating pain. As a measure, SHR may not be ideal for new drug development but it is informative to individuals, health care providers and politicians, and serves cost-effectiveness analysis better than any other. Cochrane are absolutely right to use it in systematic reviews along with the IHS-recommended measures.
This is the case report of a 44-year-old woman presented with an acute stroke immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The patient had no significant medical history other than chronic depression. She was taking sertraline, and she had had multiple previous ECT treatments without any complications. While being monitored in the recovery room within 10 minutes after the last ECT session, she was found to have sudden onset of left-sided flaccid hemiplegia and numbness along with slurred speech. On arrival to our hospital, she was found to have flaccid hemiplegia on the left side involving the face, arm, and leg (face and arm more than the leg involvement), severe dysarthria, and mild neglect syndrome (National Health Institute Stroke Scale of 14). Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head showed no signs of early ischemia, and iodine contrast CT angiography revealed right middle cerebral artery (MCA) (distal M1 segment) clot. Patient received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) at 2.5 hours after the onset of symptoms, and then a total of 3.0 mg of intra-arterial (IA) rt-PA. Angiography at the end of the procedure showed successful recanalization of the M1 segment and normal vessel caliber with adequate distal flow. After the procedure, the patient made rapid improvements in all of her initial symptoms during the first 24 hours. An extensive stroke workup failed to reveal any cause of the stroke, including usual stroke and hypercoagulable risk factors. This was an acute embolic stroke immediately following an ECT, and without the aggressive thrombolytic therapy, the patient's outcome would have been poor because there was an M1 segment clot with a major MCA syndrome with relatively high National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The neurological side effect profile of ECT is reported to be minimal with most common symptoms being headache, disorientation, and memory complaints. There is no clear cause-and-effect relationship in this case
... for migraine headaches. Dietary triggers for migraines include: Chocolate Cheese Food additives such as MSG Alcohol A, B, and C A, B, C, and D True/False: Migraines sometimes run in families. True/False: A bad headache is usually a sign of a brain tumor. Answer Key False. In most cases of ...
Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Allais, Gianni; Tullo, Vincenzo; Zava, Dario; Pezzola, Deborha; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara; Bussone, Gennaro; Aguggia, Marco
An association between obesity and migraine has been observed in recent studies and it is supported by plausible biological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the acute treatment of migraine, in patients enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, crossover, Italian studies and classified according to body mass index (BMI) levels, as normal weight or non-obese (NO, BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and overweight or obese subjects (O, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). 414 migraineurs with or without aura were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). After treating up to three episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the alternate treatment for the next 3 months. The present analysis assessed triptan efficacy in 220 N and in 109 O subjects of the 346 individuals of the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of pain free at 2 h did not significantly differ between frovatriptan and the comparators in either NO (30 vs. 34 %) or O (24 vs. 27 %). However, the rate of pain free at 2 h was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in NO than in O, irrespective of the type of triptan. Pain relief at 2 h was also similar between drug treatments for either subgroup. Pain relapse occurred at 48 h in significantly (p < 0.05) fewer episodes treated with frovatriptan in both NO (26 vs. 36 %) and O (27 vs. 49 %). The rate of 48-h relapse was similar in NO and O with frovatriptan, while it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in O with the comparators. Frovatriptan, in contrast to other triptans, retains a sustained antimigraine effect in NO and even more so in O subjects.
Mousa, G Y
Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.
Brandes, Jan Lewis
Many patients with migraine do not consult a physician, or do not achieve adequate relief after consulting a physician because of undertreatment. The objective of the Migraine and Zomig Evaluation study was to provide insights into the management of migraine in the general population. In phase I, 5553 members of the general public in the UK, France, Germany, Italy, and the US were interviewed by telephone and classified according to International Headache Society criteria. The Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) questionnaire was used to assess the impact of migraine on work, home and social lives. In phase II, 516 patients with clinically diagnosed migraine were interviewed to assess the impact of migraine on daily life, attitudes towards migraine, perceptions of current treatments and aspirations for future treatments. In phase I, the average prevalence of migraine over the five countries was 9%. Migraine posed a significant burden in terms of the impact on patients' daily lives, and attack severity and frequency. However, medical consultation rates were low; reasons for this included patients not recognising that they had migraine or having low expectations about treatment benefits. On average, only 10% of patients who had consulted a physician had been prescribed a triptan. Only 22% of participants in phase II thought that migraine did not markedly affect their lives. In each of the five countries, > or = 50% of patients required bed rest to manage migraine attacks, demonstrating the impact of migraine-related disability on patients' lives. Assessment of MIDAS scores confirmed the debilitating effect of migraine; > 50% of respondents had a MIDAS grade of III or IV, indicating moderate or severe disability. Less than one-third of patients reported that their current medication was consistently effective and only 36% were 'very satisfied' with their current therapy. High efficacy and rapid pain relief were rated as the most important attributes of
Chechenin, M G; Voevodin, S V; Pronichev, E Iu; Shuliveĭstrov, Iu V
The authors evaluated the clinical and physiological effects of kinetic therapy (KT) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Forty-six patients with ARDS underwent successive postural positioning in accordance with two regimens: 1) lateral, prone, contralateral, supine positions; 2) prone, lateral, contralateral, supine positions. The criterion for changing each position was the change in monitoring indices: SpO2, PaO2, and thoracopulmonary compliance (C). KT was performed until a respirator was withdrawn from the patient. In 25 patients, each maneuver of positioning was made during 30-minute propofol sedation. The control group included 24 patients with ARDS who received neither KT nor propofol sedation. KT caused a decrease in Vd/Vt, Qs/Qt and an increase in PaO2/FiO2 and C was more intensive, as compared with the control group. The duration of the patient's prone position was 3.2-0.7 hours and that of the supine position was 3.4-0.8 hours. The right and left lateral positions lasted 1.1-0.2 and 1.3-0.2 hours, respectively. KT regimen 1 was found to be more effective than KT regimen 2. Propofol sedation enhanced the efficiency of KT. The latter reduced death rates in patients with ARDS.
Al-Quliti, Khalid W.; Assaedi, Ekhlas S.
Despite being one of the most common disabling primary headaches, migraine continues to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. A migraine challenges not only the patient suffering from the migraine, but also physicians; especially in recognizing candidates for prophylaxis and selecting the appropriate preventive medication. Recently, there have been major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of migraine, with different guidelines of migraine management across the world. Here, we review migraine’s abortive and prophylactic medications, based on their pharmacologic category, citing their recommended doses, efficacy, and side effects. Additionally, we highlight the prophylactic treatment of specific patient populations and present suggested treatment approaches in view of recent international treatment guidelines that consider factors other than drug efficacy when choosing the optimal preventive therapy. Finally, we introduce drugs in different stages of development, which have novel mechanisms of action or have new therapeutic targets. PMID:27356650
Nappi, Rossella E; Sances, Grazia; Detaddei, Silvia; Ornati, Alessandra; Chiovato, Luca; Polatti, Franco
In this review, we underline the importance of linking migraine to reproductive stages for optimal management of such a common disease across the lifespan of women. Menopause has a variable effect on migraine depending on individual vulnerability to neuroendocrine changes induced by estrogen fluctuations and on the length of menopausal transition. Indeed, an association between estrogen 'milieu' and attacks of migraine is strongly supported by several lines of evidence. During the perimenopause, it is likely to observe a worsening of migraine, and a tailored hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) to minimize estrogen/progesterone imbalance may be effective. In the natural menopause, women experience a more favourable course of migraine in comparison with those who have surgical menopause. When severe climacteric symptoms are present, postmenopausal women may be treated with continuous HRT. Even tibolone may be useful when analgesic overuse is documented. However, the transdermal route of oestradiol administration in the lowest effective dose should be preferred to avoid potential vascular risk.
Cabello, Juan B; Burls, Amanda; Emparanza, José I; Bayliss, Susan E; Quinn, Tom
Oxygen (O2) is widely used in people with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous systematic reviews concluded that there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen reduced, increased or had no effect on heart ischaemia or infarct size. Our first Cochrane review in 2010 also concluded there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen should be used. Since 2010, the lack of evidence to support this widely used intervention has attracted considerable attention, prompting further trials of oxygen therapy in myocardial infarction patients. It is thus important to update this Cochrane review. To assess the effects of routine use of inhaled oxygen for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We searched the following bibliographic databases on 6 June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters). LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) was last searched in September 2016. We also contacted experts to identify eligible studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials in people with suspected or proven AMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI) within 24 hours after onset, in which the intervention was inhaled oxygen (at normal pressure) compared to air, regardless of co-therapies provided to participants in both arms of the trial. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies to see if they met the inclusion criteria and independently undertook the data extraction. We assessed the quality of studies and the risk of bias according to guidance in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The primary outcome was death. The measure of effect used was the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to evaluate the quality of the evidence and the GRADE profiler (GRADEpro) to
White, Christopher J; Abou-Chebl, Alex; Cates, Christopher U; Levy, Elad I; McMullan, Paul W; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Weinberger, Jesse M; Wholey, Mark H
The majority (>80%) of the three-quarters of a million strokes that will occur in the United States this year are ischemic in nature. The treatment of acute ischemic stroke is very similar to acute myocardial infarction, which requires timely reperfusion therapy for optimal results. The majority of patients with acute ischemic stroke do not receive any form of reperfusion therapy, unlike patients with acute myocardial infarction. Improving outcomes for acute stroke will require patient education to encourage early presentation, an aggressive expansion of qualified hospitals, and willing providers and early imaging strategies to match patients with their best options for reperfusion therapy to minimize complications. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cattley, Peter; Tuchin, Peter J.
Objective: To assess the response of a patient with chronic migraines to a short program of chiropractic care (diversified technique). Method: The study was run over a 13 week period with chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) on a once weekly schedule for 5 weeks, followed by an 8 week re-evaluation. Outcome Measures: To measure the effect of treatment, a previously reported diary system was used which noted the intensity of a range of symptoms that are recorded following each migraine episode. Results: The results attained showed there was a marked improvement in the migraine symptoms following the chiropractic care. The patient reported an improvement in frequency, intensity, duration and use of medication. These findings appear to also confirm other evidence which documented similar changes following a large randomised controlled trial of chiropractic treatment of migraine. Discussion: The case is presented as further support for CSMT in the treatment of migraine. The outcome of this case is also discussed in relation to recent research that concludes that CSMT is a very effective treatment for some people with non-neuromusculoskeletal conditions. Conclusion: It now appears clear that chiropractic care may be used to assist patients with migraine. Research is currently being undertaken to investigate the potential mechanisms of chiropractic in the treatment of migraine. This research should also assess what (if any) prognostic signs can be identified to assist practitioners making a more informed decision on the treatment of choice for migraine. PMID:17987195
Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Safouris, Apostolos; Krogias, Christos; Arthur, Adam S; Alexandrov, Andrei V
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability and intravenous thrombolysis has been the only approved acute reperfusion therapy (RT) for many years. Seven randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) have been recently published. These studies have changed the treatment paradigm by establishing mechanical thrombectomy (MT) as the most effective acute stroke therapy for improving functional outcome in anterior circulation ELVO with a NNT of 6. The present review will critically evaluate the results of these RCTs and of the existing meta-analyses investigating the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy for AIS. Points of debate such as acute stroke imaging, posterior circulation stroke and general anesthesia will be addressed. We will also discuss health policies aiming to increase the availability of endovascular treatment for stroke patients.
Baos, V; Ester, F; Castellanos, A; Nocea, G; Caloto, M T; Gerth, W C
Migraine is frequently undertreated, perhaps because impaired communication between patients and physicians underestimate the disability associated with migraine attacks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of a structured migraine diary used during a prospective open-label study of triptan-naive patients in Spain for recording information on response to therapy for a pre-study migraine attack and three consecutive migraine attacks, the first and third treated with rizatriptan 10-mg wafer and the second with usual non-triptan therapy. Of 97 patients (83% women; mean age, 39 years) who completed the study, all reported moderate to severe pain, and two-thirds reported severe to total impairment during migraine attacks. At study end, 72% of patients reported that the migraine diary helped communication with their doctor about migraine, and 70% were more or much more satisfied than before the study with level of overall medical care provided by their doctor. Patients who reported the diary to be useful also reported higher overall satisfaction with medical care (p < 0.001). Most of the 22 physicians (91%) reported that the diary enabled them to better communicate with their patients about migraine, and all reported that it enabled them to assess differences in pain intensity and disability across patients. We conclude that a structured migraine diary can be a valuable aid for improving communication between physicians and patients regarding migraine disability and treatment outcomes.
Migraine is, essentially, an episodic disease. However, characteristics of headache of some episodic migraine change like as tension-type headache and number of headache days also increased, as a result, develop into chronic migraine.However, it is difficult to distinguish chronic migraine and medication oversuse headache. For this reason, and because of the general rule, The international Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, beta version (ICHD- 3beta) defined the patients meeting criteria for chronic migraine and for medication overuse headache should be given both diagnoses. The pathophysiology of transformation from episodic to chronic migraine is still unknown. Epidemiological study revealed several risk factors such as medication overusue, frequency of headache, obesity, low education, low income, snoring, depression, neck/head trauma and so on. It is important to control these risk factors for migraine chronification.
Martin, Paul R; Aiello, Rachele; Gilson, Kathryn; Meadows, Graham; Milgrom, Jeannette; Reece, John
Numerous studies have demonstrated comorbidity between migraine and tension-type headache on the one hand, and depression on the other. Presence of depression is a negative prognostic indicator for behavioral treatment of headaches. Despite the recognised comorbidity, there is a limited research literature evaluating interventions designed for comorbid headaches and depression. Sixty six participants (49 female, 17 male) suffering from migraine and/or tension-type headache and major depressive disorder were randomly allocated to a Routine Primary Care control group or a Cognitive Behavior Therapy group that also received routine primary care. The treatment program involved 12 weekly 50-min sessions administered by clinical psychologists. Participants in the treatment group improved significantly more than participants in the control group from pre-to post-treatment on measures of headaches, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Improvements achieved with treatment were maintained at four month follow-up. Comorbid anxiety disorders were not a predictor of response to treatment, and the only significant predictor was gender (men improved more than women). The new integrated treatment program appears promising and worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acute variceal bleeding is one of the most serious and feared complications of patients with portal hypertension. The most common cause of portal hypertension is advanced liver disease. Patients with esophageal and gastric varices may bleed because of a progressive increase in portal pressure that causes them to grow and finally rupture. This article will review the current management strategies for acute variceal bleeding with emphasis on endoscopic therapy for the acute episode.
Cady, Roger K; Farmer, Kathleen
For the last quarter of a century, triptans have been available for acute treatment of migraine but with little guidance on which of the different triptan products to use for which patient or which attack of migraine. In this article, we propose a structured approach to analysis of individual migraine attacks and patient characteristics as a means of defining and optimizing acute intervention. Assessment of patient and attack profiles includes the “5-Ps”: pattern, phenotype, patient, pharmacology, and precipitants. Attending to these five components of information can assist in developing an individualized behavioral, pharmacological, and nonpharmacological comprehensive treatment plan for most migraine patients. This clinical approach is then focused on frovatriptan because of its unique molecular signature and potential novel clinical applications. Frovatriptan like all triptans is indicated for acute treatment of migraine but its role has been explored in management of several unique migraine phenotypes. Frovatriptan has the longest half-life of any triptan and consequently is often promoted for acute treatment of migraine of longer duration. It has also been studied as a short-term preventive treatment in women with menstrual-related migraine. Given that 60% of female migraineurs suffer from menstrual-related migraine, this population is the obvious group for continued study. Small studies have also explored frovatriptan’s use in treating migraine predicted by premonitory symptoms as a preventive for the headache phase of migraine. By identifying patient and attack profiles, clinicians may effectively determine the viability of frovatriptan as an effective pharmacological intervention for migraine. PMID:27103792
Gupta, Saurabh; Nahas, Stephanie J.; Peterlin, B. Lee
Migraine is a neurovascular disorder, and although the pathophysiology of migraine has not been fully delineated, much has been learned in the past 50 years. This knowledge has been accompanied by significant advancements in the way migraine is viewed as a disease process and in the development therapeutic options. In this review, we will focus on 4 mediators (nitric oxide, histamine, serotonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide) which have significantly advanced our understanding of migraine as a disease entity. For each mediator we begin by reviewing the preclinical data linking it to migraine pathophysiology, first focusing on the vascular mechanisms, then the neuronal mechanisms. The preclinical data are then followed by a review of the clinical data which support each mediator’s role in migraine and highlights the pharmacological agents which target these mediators for migraine therapy. PMID:21631491
Hofmann, Robin; James, Stefan K; Jernberg, Tomas; Lindahl, Bertil; Erlinge, David; Witt, Nils; Arefalk, Gabriel; Frick, Mats; Alfredsson, Joakim; Nilsson, Lennart; Ravn-Fischer, Annica; Omerovic, Elmir; Kellerth, Thomas; Sparv, David; Ekelund, Ulf; Linder, Rickard; Ekström, Mattias; Lauermann, Jörg; Haaga, Urban; Pernow, John; Östlund, Ollie; Herlitz, Johan; Svensson, Leif
Background The clinical effect of routine oxygen therapy in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction who do not have hypoxemia at baseline is uncertain. Methods In this registry-based randomized clinical trial, we used nationwide Swedish registries for patient enrollment and data collection. Patients with suspected myocardial infarction and an oxygen saturation of 90% or higher were randomly assigned to receive either supplemental oxygen (6 liters per minute for 6 to 12 hours, delivered through an open face mask) or ambient air. Results A total of 6629 patients were enrolled. The median duration of oxygen therapy was 11.6 hours, and the median oxygen saturation at the end of the treatment period was 99% among patients assigned to oxygen and 97% among patients assigned to ambient air. Hypoxemia developed in 62 patients (1.9%) in the oxygen group, as compared with 254 patients (7.7%) in the ambient-air group. The median of the highest troponin level during hospitalization was 946.5 ng per liter in the oxygen group and 983.0 ng per liter in the ambient-air group. The primary end point of death from any cause within 1 year after randomization occurred in 5.0% of patients (166 of 3311) assigned to oxygen and in 5.1% of patients (168 of 3318) assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.21; P=0.80). Rehospitalization with myocardial infarction within 1 year occurred in 126 patients (3.8%) assigned to oxygen and in 111 patients (3.3%) assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.46; P=0.33). The results were consistent across all predefined subgroups. Conclusions Routine use of supplemental oxygen in patients with suspected myocardial infarction who did not have hypoxemia was not found to reduce 1-year all-cause mortality. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and others; DETO2X-AMI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01787110 .).
INOUE, YUTA; YABE, TAKAO
We report a rare case of benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV) of childhood transitioning into basilar migraine (BM) that was effectively treated with lomerizine. A 6-year-old male visited our hospital complaining of repeated attacks of vertigo for 3 months. The patient’s vertigo attacks lasted for several hours and were accompanied by nausea, vomiting, intense fear and loss of consciousness. No nystagmus was observed during the vertigo attacks. Blood tests and imaging examinations revealed no abnormal findings. The results of electronystagmography and the caloric test were unremarkable. Pure-tone audiometry revealed profound right-side sensorineural hearing loss. Among the differential diagnoses, delayed endolymphatic hydrops, epilepsy and BM were considered. Delayed endolymphatic hydrops was considered unlikely since no nystagmus occurred during the vertigo attacks and there was no change in hearing; electroencephalography revealed no epileptic seizure waves. The attacks of vertigo were well-controlled with lomerizine. The patient was diagnosed with BM since the use of lomerizine, an agent for the treatment for migraine, was effective. Since it was reported that BPV is closely related to migraine and the onset of the vertigo attacks was accompanied by a loss of consciousness, we concluded that this patient had BM transitioning from BPV. PMID:23837033
Roussos, Alexander P; Hirsch, Alan R
To report a migraineur with osmophobia and trigger to garlic and onion aroma. While odors serve as a trigger in 70% of migraineurs, alliaceous aromas have been described only rarely. Furthermore, nor has more than one type of alliaceous odor acted as a trigger in the same individual. Neither has migraine with aura been described as precipitated by such aromas. A patient experiencing migraines with aura, triggered almost exclusively by alliaceous aromas, is described. 32-year-old woman; 5 years previously felt nasal pruritis upon eating a red onion dip. Shortly thereafter, the mere aroma of raw onions caused a sensation of her throat closing along with an associated panic attack. Over the intervening years, upon exposure to onions and garlic aroma she experienced a fortification spectra and visual entopia, followed by a bipareital, crushing level 10/10 headache, burning eyes and nose, lacrimation, perioral paresthesias, generalized pruritis, nausea, fatigue, sore throat, dysarthria, confusion, dyspnea, palpitations, presyncopal sensations, hand spasms, tongue soreness, neck pain, phonophobia, and photophobia. These would persist for 1 hour after leaving the aroma. She was unresponsive to medication and would wear a surgical mask when out. The patient also experienced chemosensory complaints: dysosmias every few months; phantosmias of food or cleaning products every month for a minute of level 5/10 intensity; pallinosmia of onion or garlic odor for 30 minutes after exposure; and metallic pallinugeusia after eating with metal utensils. Neurological exam normal except for bilateral positive Hoffman reflexes. Quick Smell Identification Test 3/3 and Brief Smell Identification Test 12/12 were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography with and without contrast normal. Allergy skin test was positive for garlic and onion. Nose plug and counter stimulation with peppermint prevented the onset of headaches and associated symptoms. This is the first report of
Haydock, Matthew D; Mittal, Anubhav; Wilms, Heath R; Phillips, Anthony; Petrov, Maxim S; Windsor, John A
The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the quality of current evidence about fluid therapy (FT) in acute pancreatitis (AP). Intravenous FT is thought to be important in the early management of patients with AP. Clinically relevant questions remain regarding the type of fluid, the rate of administration, and the goal of FT. A comprehensive literature search for human studies was performed using online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library). The quality of the entire body of evidence was then graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group guidelines in relation to 3 key areas: type of fluid, rate of fluid administration, and goal-directed FT. The initial search yielded 410 studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. Only 2 randomized studies compared types of fluids. Nine studies looked at aggressive versus nonaggressive resuscitation protocols, of which 4 concluded that an aggressive approach yielded better outcomes and 5 concluded that a nonaggressive approach was better. Two studies investigated goal-directed FT, using different goals; one demonstrating benefit and the other none. Analysis of the body of evidence as per the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group revealed that the majority of evidence was of low or very low quality. FT is considered a cornerstone of the early management of patients with AP and yet the evidence on which it is based remains paltry and of poor quality. This systematic review has demonstrated the equipoise necessary for the design of randomized controlled trials to answer pressing questions relating to the type of fluid, the rate of administration, and how FT should be guided.
Ruiz-Bailén, M; Romero-Bermejo, F J; Expósito-Ruiz, M; Zamora-Zamora, F; Martínez-Ramírez, M J; Castillo-Rivera, A M; Ramos-Cuadra, J A; Ramírez-Sánchez, M; Vázquez-García, R
To evaluate the effects of the early administration of statins during acute myocardial infarction (MI). A retrospective cohort study was carried out. National (Spain). Patients included in the ARIAM registry from January 1999 to December 2008 with a diagnosis of MI. None. We used logistic regression analysis and propensity scoring to determine whether the administration of statins during the first 24h of MI acts as a protective factor against: 1) mortality, 2) the incidence of lethal arrhythmias, or 3) cardiogenic shock. A total of 36 842 patients were included in the study. Statins were administered early in 50.2% of the patients. Statin administration was associated with younger patients with known previous dyslipidemia, obesity, a history of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, presence of sinus tachycardia, use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention. Mortality was 8.2% (13.2% without statin versus 3% with statin, P<.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that statin administration acted as a protective factor against mortality (adjusted OR 0.518, 95%CI 0.447 to 0.601). Continued use of statins was associated with a reduction in mortality (adjusted OR 0.597, 95%CI 0.449 to 0.798), and the start of treatment was a protective factor against mortality (adjusted OR 0.642, 95%CI 0.544 -0.757). Statin therapy also exerted a protective effect against the incidence of lethal arrhythmias and cardiogenic shock. These results suggest that early treatment with statins in patients with MI is associated with reduced mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Tullo, Vincenzo; Allais, Gianni; Ferrari, Michel D; Curone, Marcella; Mea, Eliana; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara; Zava, Dario; Bussone, Gennaro
The objective of this study is to assess patients' satisfaction with migraine treatment with frovatriptan (F) or zolmitriptan (Z), by preference questionnaire. 133 subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura (IHS criteria) were randomized to F 2.5 mg or Z 2.5 mg. The study had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, with each of the two treatment periods lasting no more than 3 months. At the end of the study, patients were asked to assign preference to one of the treatments (primary endpoint). The number of pain-free (PF) and pain-relief (PR) episodes at 2 h, and number of recurrent and sustained pain-free (SPF) episodes within 48 h were the secondary study endpoints. Seventy-seven percent of patients expressed a preference. Average score of preference was 2.9 +/- 1.3 (F) versus 3.0 +/- 1.3 (Z; p = NS). Rate of PF episodes at 2 h was 26% with F and 31% with Z (p = NS). PR episodes at 2 h were 57% for F and 58% for Z (p = NS). Rate of recurrence was 21 (F) and 24% (Z; p = NS). Time to recurrence within 48 h was better for F especially between 4 and 16 h (p < 0.05). SPF episodes were 18 (F) versus 22% (Z; p = NS). Drug-related adverse events were significantly (p < 0.05) less under F (3 vs. 10). In conclusion, our study suggests that F has a similar efficacy of Z, with some advantage as regards tolerability and recurrence.
Öztürk, Vesile; Ertaş, Mustafa; Baykan, Betül; Sirin, Hadiye; Özge, Aynur
We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of etodolac, in acute migraine attacks in comparison with paracetamol (acetaminophen). We designed a randomized, double-blind, crossover phase III clinical trial for patients diagnosed with migraine for at least 1 year, according to ICHD-II criteria. Two hundred and twenty-nine adult patients having 2 to 8 attacks monthly from 17 centers were included. The patients were instructed to use 3 attack treatment packages consisting of 1,000 mg paracetamol, 400 mg etodolac, and 800 mg etodolac on 3 migraine attacks of moderate-severe intensity each in a 3-month treatment period, interchangeably. Any pain medication was used in 1,570 migraine attacks while study treatments were used in 1,047 attacks. The results for 1,000 mg paracetamol, 400 mg etodolac, and 800 mg etodolac were as follows: response of headache at 2 hours 44.9%, 48.3% and 46.1%; pain-free at 2 hours 19.2%, 19.3% and 24.1%; sustained pain-free from 2 to 24 hours 34.3%, 38.3% and 41.1%; relapse rates in 2 to 24 hours 7.3%, 14.3% and 9.7%. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the headache response, pain-free, sustained pain-free, and relapse rates. Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia, or photophobia decreased similarly in all groups within 24 hours of treatment administration. Drug-related adverse events were noted in 8 patients with 1,000 mg paracetamol, in 9 patients with 400 mg etodolac and in 9 patients for 800 mg etodolac during the study. Our study showed that etodolac is a safe and effective alternative in acute migraine treatment and showed comparable efficacy to paracetamol 1,000 mg. Etodolac may be considered as an alternative option for acute treatment of migraine. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.
AVP-825 breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing 22 mg sumatriptan powder vs 100 mg oral sumatriptan in the acute treatment of migraines (The COMPASS study): a comparative randomized clinical trial across multiple attacks.
Tepper, Stewart J; Cady, Roger K; Silberstein, Stephen; Messina, John; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Shin, Paul; Siffert, Joao
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of AVP-825, an investigational bi-directional breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing low-dose (22 mg) sumatriptan powder, vs 100 mg oral sumatriptan for acute treatment of migraine in a double-dummy, randomized comparative efficacy clinical trial allowing treatment across multiple migraine attacks. In phases 2 and 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, AVP-825 provided early and sustained relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults, with a low incidence of triptan-related adverse effects. This was a randomized, active-comparator, double-dummy, cross-over, multi-attack study (COMPASS; NCT01667679) with two ≤12-week double-blind periods. Subjects experiencing 2-8 migraines/month in the past year were randomized 1:1 using computer-generated sequences to AVP-825 plus oral placebo tablet or an identical placebo delivery system plus 100 mg oral sumatriptan tablet for the first period; patients switched treatment for the second period in this controlled comparative design. Subjects treated ≤5 qualifying migraines per period within 1 hour of onset, even if pain was mild. The primary end-point was the mean value of the summed pain intensity differences through 30 minutes post-dose (SPID-30) using Headache Severity scores. Secondary outcomes included pain relief, pain freedom, pain reduction, consistency of response across multiple migraines, migraine-associated symptoms, and atypical sensations. Safety was also assessed. A total of 275 adults were randomized, 174 (63.3%) completed the study (ie, completed the second treatment period), and 185 (67.3%) treated at least one migraine in both periods (1531 migraines assessed). There was significantly greater reduction in migraine pain intensity with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan in the first 30 minutes post-dose (least squares mean SPID-30 = 10.80 vs 7.41, adjusted mean difference 3.39 [95% confidence
AVP-825 Breath-Powered Intranasal Delivery System Containing 22 mg Sumatriptan Powder vs 100 mg Oral Sumatriptan in the Acute Treatment of Migraines (The COMPASS Study): A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial Across Multiple Attacks
Tepper, Stewart J; Cady, Roger K; Silberstein, Stephen; Messina, John; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Shin, Paul; Siffert, Joao
Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of AVP-825, an investigational bi-directional breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing low-dose (22 mg) sumatriptan powder, vs 100 mg oral sumatriptan for acute treatment of migraine in a double-dummy, randomized comparative efficacy clinical trial allowing treatment across multiple migraine attacks. Background In phases 2 and 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, AVP-825 provided early and sustained relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults, with a low incidence of triptan-related adverse effects. Methods This was a randomized, active-comparator, double-dummy, cross-over, multi-attack study (COMPASS; NCT01667679) with two ≤12-week double-blind periods. Subjects experiencing 2-8 migraines/month in the past year were randomized 1:1 using computer-generated sequences to AVP-825 plus oral placebo tablet or an identical placebo delivery system plus 100 mg oral sumatriptan tablet for the first period; patients switched treatment for the second period in this controlled comparative design. Subjects treated ≤5 qualifying migraines per period within 1 hour of onset, even if pain was mild. The primary end-point was the mean value of the summed pain intensity differences through 30 minutes post-dose (SPID-30) using Headache Severity scores. Secondary outcomes included pain relief, pain freedom, pain reduction, consistency of response across multiple migraines, migraine-associated symptoms, and atypical sensations. Safety was also assessed. Results A total of 275 adults were randomized, 174 (63.3%) completed the study (ie, completed the second treatment period), and 185 (67.3%) treated at least one migraine in both periods (1531 migraines assessed). There was significantly greater reduction in migraine pain intensity with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan in the first 30 minutes post-dose (least squares mean SPID-30 = 10.80 vs 7.41, adjusted mean
Acute genitourinary infections represent an important problem in daily urological practice. Standardised diagnostic procedures and therapeutic guidelines, as far as they exist, are mandatory to minimise the risk for severe sequelae and to optimise the therapeutic outcome. The present overview details diagnostic steps, therapeutic guidelines and the management of potential sequelae of acute prostatitis, acute epididymitis and acute orchitis. Acute prostatitis does not seem to represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem as long as prostatic abscess formation is absent. In acute epididymitis the development of epididymo-orchitis is unpredictable despite adequate therapy and is of particular concern to andrologists because of its potential significance for male fertility. In contrast to these diseases, acute primary orchitis is a rare event, mostly occurring as mumps orchitis, without standardised treatment guidelines.
Nicholson, Robert A.; Rooney, Megan; Vo, Kelly; O’Laughlin, Erinn; Gordon, Melanie
Objective Evaluate whether, in a primary care setting, Caucasians (C) and African Americans (AA) with moderately to severely disabling migraines differed in regards to: utilizing the health-care system for migraine care, migraine diagnosis and treatment, level of mistrust in the health-care system, perceived communication with their physician, and perceived migraine triggers. Background Research has documented ethnic disparities in pain management. However, almost no research has been published concerning potential disparities in utilization, diagnosis, and/or treatment of migraine. It is also important to consider whether ethnic differences exist for trust and communication between patients and physicians, as these are essential when diagnosing and treating migraine. Methods Adult patients with headache (n = 313) were recruited from primary care waiting rooms. Of these, 131 (AA = 77; C = 54) had migraine, moderate to severe headache-related disability, and provided socioeconomic status (SES) data. Participants completed measures of migraine disability (MIDAS), migraine health-care utilization, diagnosis and treatment history, mistrust of the medical community, patient–physician communication (PPC), and migraine triggers. Analysis of covariance (controlling for SES and recruitment site), chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlations were conducted. Results African Americans were less likely to utilize the health-care setting for migraine treatment (AA = 46% vs. C = 72%, P < .001), to have been given a headache diagnosis (AA = 47% vs. C = 70%, P < .001), and to have been prescribed acute migraine medication (AA = 14% vs. C = 37%, P < .001). Migraine diagnosis was low for both groups, and <15% of all participants had been prescribed a migraine-specific medication or a migraine preventive medication despite suffering moderate to severe levels of migraine disability. African Americans had less trust in the medical community (P < .001, η2 = 0.26) and less
Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Manheimer, Eric; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R
interventions. Pooled analyses did not show a statistically significant superiority for true acupuncture for any outcome in any of the time windows, but the results of single trials varied considerably. Four trials compared acupuncture to proven prophylactic drug treatment. Overall in these trials acupuncture was associated with slightly better outcomes and fewer adverse effects than prophylactic drug treatment. Two small low-quality trials comparing acupuncture with relaxation (alone or in combination with massage) could not be interpreted reliably. In the previous version of this review, evidence in support of acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis was considered promising but insufficient. Now, with 12 additional trials, there is consistent evidence that acupuncture provides additional benefit to treatment of acute migraine attacks only or to routine care. There is no evidence for an effect of 'true' acupuncture over sham interventions, though this is difficult to interpret, as exact point location could be of limited importance. Available studies suggest that acupuncture is at least as effective as, or possibly more effective than, prophylactic drug treatment, and has fewer adverse effects. Acupuncture should be considered a treatment option for patients willing to undergo this treatment.
Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches.
Lankisch, P G; Koop, H; Winckler, K; Fölsch, U R; Creutzfeldt, W
Because somatostatin (SRIF) reduces exocrine pancreatic secretion, its effect on acute pancreatitis was investigated in rats. Linear SRIF reduced serum amylase and lipase but had no effect on pancreatic necrosis, oedema, leucocyte infiltration, and enzyme content. The mortality rate was not reduced. These results do not recommend the use of SRIF in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:604191
Schaefer, Sara M.; Gottschalk, Christopher H.; Jabbari, Bahman
Migraine is the most common neurological disorder, and contributes to disability and large healthcare costs in the United States and the world. The treatment of migraine until recently has focused on medications, both abortive and prophylactic, but treatment of chronic migraine has been revolutionized with the introduction of botulinum toxin injection therapy. In this review, we explore the current understanding of migraine pathophysiology, and the evolution of the use of botulinum toxin therapy including proposed pathophysiological mechanisms through animal data. We also discuss the similarities and differences between three injection techniques. PMID:26184313
Schaefer, Sara M; Gottschalk, Christopher H; Jabbari, Bahman
Migraine is the most common neurological disorder, and contributes to disability and large healthcare costs in the United States and the world. The treatment of migraine until recently has focused on medications, both abortive and prophylactic, but treatment of chronic migraine has been revolutionized with the introduction of botulinum toxin injection therapy. In this review, we explore the current understanding of migraine pathophysiology, and the evolution of the use of botulinum toxin therapy including proposed pathophysiological mechanisms through animal data. We also discuss the similarities and differences between three injection techniques.
Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley
Ongoing changes to health-care funding Australia wide continue to influence how occupational therapists practise in acute hospitals. This study describes the practice challenges experienced by Western Australian acute care occupational therapists. Then, it explores if and how acute care occupational therapists are modifying their practice in response to these practice changes. This study used a qualitative grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 13 purposively selected acute care occupational therapists from four Western Australian metropolitan hospitals. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method to provide detailed descriptions of acute care occupational therapy practice and to generate theory. Five conceptual categories were developed. The first two addressed practice challenges: pragmatic organisational influences on client care and establishing a professional identity within the multidisciplinary team. Three categories related to therapist responses are as follows: becoming the client advocate, being the facilitator and applying clinical reasoning. Finally, modified practice was identified as the core category which explains the process whereby acute care occupational therapists are ensuring they remain relevant and authentic in the acute care context. Western Australian acute care occupational therapists are practising in a highly complex health context that presents many challenges. They are responding by using a modified form of practice that ensures occupational therapy skills remain relevant within the narrow confines of this health setting. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Webb, Tennille N.; Shatat, Ibrahim F.
Acute hypertension (HTN) in hospitalized children and adolescents occurs relatively frequently and in some cases, if not recognized and treated promptly, it can lead to hypertensive crisis with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, where acute HTN is most likely due to uncontrolled primary HTN, children and adolescents with acute HTN are more likely to have secondary HTN. This review will briefly cover evaluation of acute HTN and various age specific etiologies of secondary HTN and provide more in-depth discussion on treatment target, potential risks of acute HTN therapy, available pediatric data on intravenous and oral antihypertensive agents, and propose treatment schema including unique therapy of specific secondary HTN scenarios. PMID:24522943
Webb, Tennille N; Shatat, Ibrahim F; Miyashita, Yosuke
Acute hypertension (HTN) in hospitalized children and adolescents occurs relatively frequently, and in some cases, if not recognized and treated promptly, it can lead to hypertensive crisis with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. In contrast to adults, where acute HTN is most likely due to uncontrolled primary HTN, children and adolescents with acute HTN are more likely to have secondary HTN. This review will briefly cover evaluation of acute HTN and various age-specific etiologies of secondary HTN and provide more in-depth discussion on treatment targets, potential risks of acute HTN therapy, and available pediatric data on intravenous and oral antihypertensive agents, and it proposes treatment schema including unique therapy of specific secondary HTN scenarios.
Because of the transient and rare nature, objective visual and neuroimaging evaluation during an acute, spontaneous attack of a migrainous aura causing a complete homonymous hemianopia has not been reported. A healthy 27-year-old white woman with a history of typical aura with migraine presented during an episode of no light perception in the right hemifield of both eyes. Ophthalmic testing and neuroimaging were unremarkable. The visual field defect started to resolve 1 hour after initial symptoms, and significant improvement was seen after 4 hours. One year later, the patient had no visual field defects and had not experienced another episode of homonymous hemianopia. More than one third of migrainous patients experience visual symptoms. Typical aura with migraine is diagnosed usually by history. Laboratory testing and neuroimaging are necessary if an alternative cause is suspected, i.e., the aura begins after age 40 years, negative features are predominant, or the aura is very short or prolonged. Correct diagnosis is critical, because conditions that mimic migrainous aura have potentially devastating consequences. Migraine with aura patients may have persistent visual field defects and are at an increased risk for stroke compared with nonmigraine patients. This case improves our knowledge of the nature of a transient homonymous hemianopia associated with migraine. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MacGregor, E Anne
Migraine is most prevalent in women during their reproductive years. An understanding of the effects of menstruation and menopause on migraine can enable neurologists to provide targeted and appropriate medical and hormonal strategies, enabling their patients to achieve better control of migraine and reduced disability. This article reviews the effects of hormonal events on migraine and summarizes the evidence-based options available for management. Estrogen "withdrawal" during the late luteal phase of the natural menstrual cycle and the hormone-free interval of combined hormonal contraceptives has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of menstrual migraine. However, more recent research suggests that other independent mechanisms may be relevant. Prostaglandin inhibitors used for management of dysmenorrhea are effective for associated menstrual migraine, suggesting a common pathophysiology. The interplay between serotonin and estrogen also deserves further research. Menstrual and perimenopausal migraine can be managed effectively using a variety of strategies, the choice of which depends on the efficacy of acute treatment, predictability and regularity of menstruation, use of contraception, and presence of menstrual disorders or perimenopausal vasomotor symptoms.
Shehata, Hatem S; Esmail, Eman H; Abdelalim, Ahmad; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; Elmazny, Alaa; Sabbah, Asmaa; Shalaby, Nevin M
Background Chronic migraine is a prevalent disabling disease, with major health-related burden and poor quality of life. Long-term use of preventive medications carries risk of side effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection as preventive therapies for chronic migraine. Methods A pilot, randomized study was conducted on a small-scale sample of 29 Egyptian patients with chronic migraine, recruited from Kasr Al-Aini teaching hospital outpatient clinic and diagnosed according to ICHD-III (beta version). Patients were randomly assigned into two groups; 15 patients received BTX-A injection following the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy injection paradigm and 14 patients were subjected to 12 rTMS sessions delivered at high frequency (10 Hz) over the left motor cortex (MC, M1). All the patients were requested to have their 1-month headache calendar, and they were subjected to a baseline 25-item (beta version) Henry Ford Hospital Headache Disability Inventory (HDI), Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), and visual analogue scale assessment of headache intensity. The primary efficacy measures were headache frequency and severity; secondary measures were 25-item HDI, HIT-6, and number of acute medications. Follow-up visits were scheduled at weeks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after baseline visit. Results A reduction in all outcome measures was achieved in both the groups. However, this improvement was more sustained in the BTX-A group, and both the therapies were well tolerated. Conclusion BTX-A injection and rTMS have favorable efficacy and safety profiles in chronic migraineurs. rTMS is of comparable efficacy to BTX-A injection in chronic migraine therapy, but with less sustained effect. PMID:27785091
Vitkovic, Jessica; Winoto, Arimbi; Rance, Gary; Dowell, Richard; Paine, Mark
Vestibular rehabilitation programs do appear to play a beneficial role in the treatment of dizziness in patients with vestibular migraine. Anecdotally, however, patients with vestibular migraine may report persistent significant symptoms at the end of a standard treatment period where other non-migrainous patients are accomplishing their treatment goals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation in patients with vestibular migraine compared to patients with vestibular symptoms without migraine. Thirty-six patients (vestibular migraine = 20, vestibular impairment = 16) with significant daily vestibular symptoms received a nine week customized vestibular rehabilitation program. Each subject attended five therapy appointments occurring at initial, two, five, nine and six months. A range of subjective and physical performance outcome measures were taken at baseline, nine weeks and six months. The vestibular migraine group showed poorer subjective performance at the onset of therapy, which was not reflected in the difference in physical performance between the groups. Both groups benefitted equally from rehabilitation. The same degree of improvement was observed in the migraine group regardless of medication regime. This study has validated vestibular rehabilitation as an effective treatment in dizzy patients both with and without vestibular migraine where the use of medication did not preclude benefit from therapy. However, further research is required to clarify the role of specific vestibular suppressant medications and the scheduling of their use in relation to physical therapy.
Goldfarb, George; Burnstein, Irwin L.
Until a dental department is added to a college health service, a physician or nurse can give treatment for acute oral infections. Treatment excludes the use of caustic, escharotic chemicals in favor of more benign agents. (Author)
Di Somma, Salvatore; Magrini, Laura
Acute heart failure is globally one of most frequent reasons for hospitalization and still represents a challenge for the choice of the best treatment to improve patient outcome. According to current international guidelines, as soon as patients with acute heart failure arrive at the emergency department, the common therapeutic approach aims to improve their signs and symptoms, correct volume overload, and ameliorate cardiac hemodynamics by increasing vital organ perfusion. Recommended treatment for the early management of acute heart failure is characterized by the use of intravenous diuretics, oxygen, and vasodilators. Although these measures ameliorate the patient's symptoms, they do not favorably impact on short- and long-term mortality. Consequently, there is a pressing need for novel agents in acute heart failure treatment with the result that research in this field is increasing worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kanbay, M; Korkmaz, M; Yilmaz, U; Gur, G; Boyacioglu, S
Few data exist about the incidence of drug induced acute pancreatitis in the general population. Drugs are related to the aetiology of pancreatitis in about 1.4%–2% of cases. Although angiotensin converting enzymes are generally well tolerated, acute pancreatitis has been reported in a few subjects treated with captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril. A 85 year old man with a long standing history of hypertension, who was treated with ramipril 5 mg once daily, presented with acute pancreatitis. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. After cessation of ramipril his condition improved and amylase level decreased. This was his third episode of acute pancreatitis since ramipril was started in 2000. To the authors' knowledge ramipril induced pancreatitis has not previously been reported. PMID:15467001
Negro, Andrea; Lionetto, Luana; D'Alonzo, Lidia; Casolla, Barbara; Marsibilio, Francesco; Vignaroli, Gabriele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Martelletti, Paolo
Migraine is a multifactorial neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of disabling pain attacks, accompanied with gastrointestinal, neurological systems dysfunction. The pharmacologic treatment of migraine is classically divided in the management of the acute attack and preventive strategies. Triptans represent a powerful pharmacological tool in acute migraine treatment. However, a significant portion of treated patients cannot have access to this class due to possible adverse affects. Today, a total of seven triptan molecules are available, representing a commonly prescribed migraine treatment. The authors take a systematic approach to discuss the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic aspects of almotriptan . They consider the emerging data on the clinical efficacy in the treatment of migraine and menstrual-related migraine. The data were obtained by searching the following key words in MEDLINE: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, triptans, almotriptan, migraine, menstrual migraine, relatively to the period 1989 - 2012. The excellent efficacy and superior tolerability profile of almotriptan administered early offer a potential improvement over existing triptans for the symptomatic treatment of migraine attacks. Compared with other triptans, the different pathways involved in the metabolism of almotriptan ensure a limited variability of clinical response to the drug, making it less susceptible to the individual genomic background.
... caffeine (like cola drinks) certain foods (cheese, pizza, chocolate, ice cream, fatty or fried food, lunch meats, ... from your migraine triggers. If certain foods like chocolate or cheese or caffeinated drinks trigger your migraines, ...
Migraine is a common neurological disorder and can be severely disabling during attacks. The highest prevalence occurs between the ages of 25 and 55 years. Prior studies have found that migraine occurs together with other illnesses at a greater coincidental rate than is seen in the general population. These occurrences are called “comorbidities”. To delineate the comorbidities of migraine is important, because it can help improve treatment strategies and the understanding of the possible pathophysiology of migraine.
Lipton, Richard B; Silberstein, Stephen D
Migraine is a common disabling primary headache disorder that affects an estimated 36 million Americans. Migraine headaches often occur over many years or over an individual's lifetime. By definition, episodic migraine is characterized by headaches that occur on fewer than 15 days per month. According to the recent International Classification of Headache Disorders (third revision) beta diagnostic criteria, chronic migraine is defined as "headaches on at least 15 days per month for at least 3 months, with the features of migraine on at least 8 days per month." However, diagnostic criteria distinguishing episodic from chronic migraine continue to evolve. Persons with episodic migraine can remit, not change, or progress to high-frequency episodic or chronic migraine over time. Chronic migraine is associated with a substantially greater personal and societal burden, more frequent comorbidities, and possibly with persistent and progressive brain abnormalities. Many patients are poorly responsive to, or noncompliant with, conventional preventive therapies. The primary goals of migraine treatment include relieving pain, restoring function, and reducing headache frequency; an additional goal may be preventing progression to chronic migraine. Although all migraineurs require abortive treatment, and all patients with chronic migraine require preventive treatment, there are no definitive guidelines delineating which persons with episodic migraine would benefit from preventive therapy. Five US Food and Drug Association strategies are approved for preventing episodic migraine, but only injections with onabotulinumtoxinA are approved for preventing chronic migraine. Identifying persons who require migraine prophylaxis and selecting and initiating the most appropriate treatment strategy may prevent progression from episodic to chronic migraine and alleviate the pain and suffering associated with frequent migraine.
Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.
We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder in an individual with genetic susceptibility. It is characterized by acute or subacute onset of multifocal neurologic deficits with encephalopathy, often following a viral illness or vaccination. Since ADEM is diverse in its clinical features, the diagnostic criteria of ADEM require the exclusion of other etiologies. In this review, I will explain the diagnostic algorism and criteria, and therapy of ADEM.
Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Paul, Vishesh; Chadha, Sameer; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, air embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and gas gangrene with minimal adverse effects. Very few cases of HBOT causing acute pulmonary edema (PE) has been described; with a study on dogs suggesting that a complication of this therapy could be PE. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man with a history of stable systolic heart failure and diabetes mellitus presenting with acute PE following treatment with HBOT for diabetic foot. PMID:25988073
Rowe, Jacob M
Distinct progress has been made in recent years in the therapy of acute leukemia. For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), this progress has been anchored in the increased understanding of genomic complexity. Multiple targets and the relationships among them pose new challenges along with new possibilities for the development of targeted therapies. A number of new drugs are in early clinical development for AML, one of which centers on the role of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in malignancy. Epigenetic modulation, intracellular pathways, and the microenvironment are all being explored for possible therapies to treat AML. Dramatic clinical progress has also been made in therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with the rapid approval of blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager antibody. Yet caution must also be exercised-not every mutation is an epigenetic target and early publication of clinical data is often misleading. Until the survival outcome for adult patients with acute leukemia improves, further inquiry into the biology of the disease and progress in the development of new therapies are needed.
Triptans are recommended for the acute treatment of moderate to severe migraine or failure to respond to other acute migraine treatments. Seven triptans are available providing a wide range of choices. These triptans are more similar than dissimilar but patients do note differences in effectiveness and in tolerance. Also migraine situations may differ from attack to attack, providing the opportunity to exploit the uniqueness of a particular triptan. Frovatriptan has a uniquely long-half life, five times that of other triptans. This provides the opportunity to use frovatriptan in mini-prophylaxis such as in menstrual-related migraine and other situations, as well as use in long-lasting or recurrent migraine.
Triptans are recommended for the acute treatment of moderate to severe migraine or failure to respond to other acute migraine treatments. Seven triptans are available providing a wide range of choices. These triptans are more similar than dissimilar but patients do note differences in effectiveness and in tolerance. Also migraine situations may differ from attack to attack, providing the opportunity to exploit the uniqueness of a particular triptan. Frovatriptan has a uniquely long-half life, five times that of other triptans. This provides the opportunity to use frovatriptan in mini-prophylaxis such as in menstrual-related migraine and other situations, as well as use in long-lasting or recurrent migraine. PMID:18728819
Estemalik, E; Tepper, S
Migraine headaches are among the most common headache disorders seen in various practices. The prevalence of migraine headaches is 18% in women and 6% in men. While millions of Americans suffer from migraine headaches, roughly 3%–13% of identified migraine patients are on preventive therapy, while an estimated 38% actually need a preventive agent. The challenge among physicians is not only when to start a daily preventive agent but which preventive agent to choose. Circumstances warranting prevention have been described in the past, and in 2012, a new set of guidelines with an evidence review on preventive medications was published. A second set of guidelines provided evidence on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbs, minerals, and vitamins for prevention of episodic migraine. This article describes the updated US guidelines for the prevention of migraines and also outlines the major studies from which these guidelines were derived. PMID:23717045
Stein, Eytan M
The past 15 years have seen major leaps in our understanding of the molecular genetic mutations that act as drivers of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clinical trials of agents against specific mutant proteins, such as FLT3-internal tandem duplications (ITDs) and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations (IDHs) are ongoing. This review discusses agents in clinical trials that target specific gene mutations and/or epigenetic targets. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Hou, Min; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Ren, Wen-Ting; Cui, Guang-Fu; Xin, Le; Hou, Yi-Ping
Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines. PMID:26529014
Hou, Min; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Ren, Wen-Ting; Cui, Guang-Fu; Xin, Le; Hou, Yi-Ping
Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines.
Kowalska, Marta; Prendecki, Michał; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta
Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects 11% of adults worldwide. This disease most likely has a neurovascular origin. Migraine with aura (MA) and more common form - migraine without aura (MO) – are the two main clinical subtypes of disease. The exact pathomechanism of migraine is still unknown, but it is thought that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in this pathological process. The first genetic studies of migraine were focused on the rare subtype of MA: familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). The genes analysed in familial and sporadic migraine are: MTHFR, KCNK18, HCRTR1, SLC6A4, STX1A, GRIA1 and GRIA3. It is possible that migraine is a multifactorial disease with polygenic influence. Recent studies have shown that the pathomechanisms of migraine involves both factors responsible for immune response and oxidative stress such as: cytokines, tyrosine metabolism, homocysteine; and factors associated with pain transmission and emotions e.g.: serotonin, hypocretin-1, calcitonin gene-related peptide, glutamate. The correlations between genetic variants of the HCRTR1 gene, the polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and hypocretin-1, and serotonin were observed. It is known that serotonin inhibits the activity of hypocretin neurons and may affect the appearance of the aura during migraine attack. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of migraine, including genotype-phenotype correlations, may contribute to finding markers important for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:27191890
Wilson, Simon John; Newby, David E; Dawson, Dana; Irving, John; Berry, Colin
Despite a large volume of evidence supporting the use of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there remains major uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of therapy. Clinical trials have varied markedly in the duration of therapy, both across and within trials. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that shorter durations of dual antiplatelet therapy are superior because the avoidance of atherothrombotic events is counterbalanced by the greater risks of excess major bleeding with apparent increases in all-cause mortality with longer durations. These findings did not show significant heterogeneity according to whether patients had stable or unstable coronary heart disease. Moreover, the potential hazards and benefits may differ when applied to the general broad population of patients encountered in everyday clinical practice who have markedly higher bleeding and atherothrombotic event rates. Clinicians lack definitive information regarding the duration of therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and risk scores do not appear to be sufficiently robust to address these concerns. We believe that there is a pressing need to undertake a broad inclusive safety trial of shorter durations of therapy in real world populations of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The clinical evidence would further inform future research into strategies for personalised medicine. PMID:28249994
Diarrhoea is one of the most commonly occurring diseases. This article presents a review of the current state of the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea, as well as of the most important pathogens. The general principles of the therapy of diarrhoea are exemplified, followed by a description of the targeted antimicrobial therapy of the most important bacterial gastrointestinal infections, including salmonellosis, shigellosis and Campylobacter infections, as well as infections with pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, yersiniosis and cholera. Diarrhoea caused by toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains has increased in incidence and in severity. These infections will therefore be described in detail, including important new aspects of treatment. Symptomatic therapy is still the most important component of the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. However, empirical antibiotic therapy should be considered for severely ill patients with a high frequency of stools, fever, bloody diarrhoea, underlying immune deficiency, advanced age or significant comorbidities. Increasing resistance, in particular against fluoroquinolones, must be taken into consideration. Therapy with motility inhibitors is not recommended for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and severe colitis. The macrocyclic antibiotic fidaxomicin can reduce the rate of recurrent disease in CDI. Furthermore, evidence for the benefits of faecal microbiota transplantation as a treatment option for multiple recurrences of CDI is increasing. In conclusion, the treatment of acute diarrhoea is still primarily supportive. General empirical antibiotic therapy for acute diarrhoea is not evidence-based.
Haan, Joost; Kaptein, Ad A; Ter Meulen, Bastiaan C
Background Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) published a large number of books on a variety of neurological topics. Of these, numerous copies have been sold and they probably serve as the only or main source of information on neurological diseases for many persons without a medical background. His first book was on migraine and in his subsequent books many descriptions of migraine can be found, mainly those of auras. Methods We explored the descriptions of migraine in Sacks' work in order to evaluate the image of migraine offered to the readers. Conclusion Oliver Sacks gave wonderful descriptions of migraine auras, but hardly any of migraine headache. Furthermore, he described rare auras such as 'amusia' and olfactory auras. Overall, this makes his descriptions of migraine not very useful to serve as medical information for laypersons. Oliver Sacks, however, wrote great literature.
Ford, Janet H; Jackson, James; Milligan, Gary; Cotton, Sarah; Ahl, Jonna; Aurora, Sheena K
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the sociodemographics, disease burden, and treatment patterns of patients with episodic and chronic migraine in the United States. Migraine is a disabling neurological disease that places an enormous burden on patients. Data were drawn from the Adelphi Migraine United States Disease Specific Programme (index period: January to March 2014). Physicians (N = 150) completed a patient report form on 10 consulting patients with migraine. Episodic migraineurs had ≤14 headache days per month (HDM) and those with chronic migraine had ≥15. Headache-related disability was assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire. Disability was also compared across subgroups based on the number of HDM (≤3, 4-7, 8-14, and ≥15). A total of 1487 patient report forms were completed. Over 70% of the patients were female, 90.8% (n = 1350) were episodic migraineurs, and 9.2% (n = 137) were chronic migraineurs. Acute treatment was prescribed for >90% of the patients, and >50% had a current prescription for preventive treatment. Despite taking acute and/or preventive treatment, 29.2% of episodic migraineurs (including some patients with ≤3 headache days/month) and 73.2% of chronic migraineurs had moderate-to-severe headache-related disability (MIDAS total score ≥11). Preventive treatment was discontinued/switched at least once by 26.4% of episodic migraineurs and by 53.3% of chronic migraineurs. Of those patients (n = 382) who gave collective reasons for discontinuation/switching preventive treatment, over 70% selected lack of efficacy and tolerability/safety. This real-world analysis provides additional support for the unmet medical need for efficacious therapies that reduce migraine frequency and severity, headache-related disability, and have better tolerability for patients with migraine. In addition, further research is needed to better understand the burden of illness among patients
Förster, Alex; Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans U; Brockmann, Marc A; Groden, Christoph
Migraine with aura is a common neurological disorder, and differentiation from transient ischemic attack or stroke based on clinical symptoms may be difficult. From an MRI report database we identified 33 patients with migraine with aura and compared these to 33 age-matched ischemic stroke patients regarding perfusion patterns on perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI)-derived maps: time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and cerebral blood flow and volume (CBF, CBV). In 18/33 (54.5%) patients with migraine with aura, TTP showed areas of hypoperfusion, most of these not limited to the territory of a specific artery but affecting two or more vascular territories. In patients with migraine with aura, TTP (1.09 ± 0.05 vs. 1.47 ± 0.40, p < 0.001) and MTT ratios (1.01 ± 0.10 vs. 1.19 ± 0.21, p = 0.003) were significantly lower compared to patients with ischemic stroke. In contrast to this, CBF and CBV ratios did not differ significantly between both groups. Migraine aura is usually associated with a perfusion deficit not limited to a specific vascular territory, and only a moderate increase of TTP. Thus, hypoperfusion restricted to a single vascular territory in combination with a marked increase of TTP or MTT may be regarded as atypical for migraine aura and suggestive of acute ischemic stroke. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Speciali, José G; Peres, Mário; Bigal, Marcelo E
Placebos are typically defined as physiologically inactive substances that elicit a therapeutic response. The antipode of the placebo effect is the nocebo effect, or the negative effects of placebo, where unpleasant symptoms (e.g., adverse events) emerge after the administration of placebo. Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception. Herein we focus on the importance of placebo in headache research. We first review the mechanisms of the placebo effect. We then focus on the importance of placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. We follow by discussing the importance of placebo on the preventive treatment of migraine and our perspectives for the 5 years to come regarding the study of the placebos.
Mainville, Norman; Connolly, W.E.S.
WE REPORT THE CASE OF A 50-year-old man who reported sudden, painless loss of vision in his left eye after starting antihypertensive therapy. Potential causes of acute painless unilateral visual loss are discussed, as is the initial management of hypertension in asymptomatic patients. PMID:12925427
Oh, Weng C; Gardner, David S; Devonald, Mark A J
A wide range of renal replacement therapies is now available to support patients with acute kidney injury. These treatments utilize diffusion, convection or a combination of these mechanisms to remove metabolic waste products from the bloodstream. It is inevitable that physiologically important substances including micronutrients will also be removed. Here we review current knowledge of the extent of micronutrient loss, how it varies between treatment modalities and its clinical significance. Very few studies have specifically investigated micronutrient loss in renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury. Recent data suggest that trace elements and amino acids are lost during intermittent dialysis, hybrid therapies such as sustained low-efficiency diafiltration and continuous therapies. Extent of micronutrient loss appears to vary with treatment type, with continuous convection-based treatments probably causing greatest losses. Patients with acute kidney injury are at high risk of disease-related malnutrition. The use of renal replacement therapy, although often essential for life support, results in loss of micronutrients into the filtrate or dialysate. Losses are probably greater with continuous convective treatments, but it is not yet known whether these losses are clinically significant or whether their replacement would improve patient outcomes.
Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future.
Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069
Vincent, Maurice; Hadjikhani, Nouchine
Clinical and pathophysiological evidences connect migraine and the cerebellum. Literature on documented cerebellar abnormalities in migraine, however, is relatively sparse. Cerebellar involvement may be observed in 4 types of migraines: in the widespread migraine with aura (MWA) and migraine without aura (MWoA) forms; in particular subtypes of migraine such as basilar-type migraine (BTM); and in the genetically driven autosomal dominant familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) forms. Cerebellar dysfunction in migraineurs varies largely in severity, and may be subclinical. Purkinje cells express calcium channels that are related to the pathophysiology of both inherited forms of migraine and primary ataxias, mostly spinal cerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA-6) and episodic ataxia type 2 (EA-2). Genetically driven ion channels dysfunction leads to hyperexcitability in the brain and cerebellum, possibly facilitating spreading depression waves in both locations. This review focuses on the cerebellar involvement in migraine, the relevant ataxias and their association with this primary headache, and discusses some of the pathophysiological processes putatively underlying these diseases. PMID:17578530
Gupta, Surya N; Gupta, Vikash S; Borad, Nirali
"Migraine-related conditions" are probably the second most common condition after seizure encountered in pediatric neurology requiring frequent Emergency Department visits. Among migraines, migraine-related condition presents with an acute onset sign or symptom other than headache or visual aura of unknown etiology. A delay in diagnosis is a common occurrence. Previously, the authors proposed a common clinical profile and suggested that the future review should seek the applicability of the common profile in aid to clinical diagnosis of migraine-related individual syndromes. Authors describe the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the spectrum of migraine variants and beyond in children.
Bickel, A; Kornhuber, J; Maihöfner, C; Ropohl, A
Abnormal signal transmission in central serotonergic pathways is supposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of migraine and major depression. We report on a patient, who was treated during an episode of depression with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline and developed frequent migraine attacks under this therapeutical regime. Single migraine attacks were treated successfully with triptanes. Although SSRIs may be beneficial for migraine prophylaxis at long term administration, this case suggests that acute administration of SSRIs in migraineurs may include the risk of worsening migraine.
van Os, Hendrikus J A; Mulder, Inge A; Broersen, Alexander; Algra, Ale; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Terwindt, Gisela M; Schonewille, Wouter J; Visser, Marieke C; Ferrari, Michel D; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Wermer, Marieke J H
Migraine is a well-established risk factor for ischemic stroke, but migraine is also related to other vascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the association between migraine and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We retrieved data on patients with ischemic stroke from the DUST (Dutch Acute Stroke Study). Migraine history was assessed with a migraine screener and confirmed by telephone interview based on the ICHD criteria (International Classification of Headache Disorders). We assessed intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic changes and quantified intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications as measure of atherosclerotic burden on noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography. We calculated risk ratios with adjustments for possible confounders with multivariable Poisson regression analyses. We included 656 patients, aged 18 to 99 years, of whom 53 had a history of migraine (29 with aura). Patients with migraine did not have more frequent atherosclerotic changes in intracranial (51% versus 74%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) or extracranial vessels (62% versus 79%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.12) than patients without migraine and had comparable internal carotid artery calcification volumes (largest versus medium and smallest volume tertile, 23% versus 35%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.52). Migraine is not associated with excess atherosclerosis in large vessels in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our findings suggest that the biological mechanisms by which migraine results in ischemic stroke are not related to macrovascular cerebral atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Irimia, Pablo; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Fernandez-Torron, Roberto; Martinez-Vila, Eduardo
Many migraineurs who seek care in headache clinics are refractory to treatment, despite advances in headache therapies. Epidemiology is poorly characterized, because diagnostic criteria for refractory migraine were not available until recently. We aimed to determine the frequency of refractory migraine in patients attended in the Headache Unit in a tertiary care center, according to recently proposed criteria. The study population consisted of a consecutive sample of 370 patients (60.8% females) with a mean age of 43 years (range 14-86) evaluated for the first time in our headache unit over a one-year period (between October 2008 and October 2009). We recorded information on clinical features, previous treatments, Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS), and final diagnosis. Overall migraine and tension-type headache were found in 46.4% and 20.5% of patients, respectively. Refractory migraine was found in 5.1% of patients. In refractory migraineurs, the mean MIDAS score was 96, and 36.8% were medication-overusers. Refractory migraine is a relatively common and very disabling condition between the patients attended in a headache unit. The proposed operational criteria may be useful in identifying those patients who require care in headache units, the selection of candidates for combinations of prophylactic drugs or invasive treatments such as neurostimulation, but also to facilitate clinical studies in this patient group.
Silberstein, S.D.; Holland, S.; Freitag, F.; Dodick, D.W.; Argoff, C.; Ashman, E.
Objective: To provide updated evidence-based recommendations for the preventive treatment of migraine headache. The clinical question addressed was: What pharmacologic therapies are proven effective for migraine prevention? Methods: The authors analyzed published studies from June 1999 to May 2009 using a structured review process to classify the evidence relative to the efficacy of various medications available in the United States for migraine prevention. Results and Recommendations: The author panel reviewed 284 abstracts, which ultimately yielded 29 Class I or Class II articles that are reviewed herein. Divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, topiramate, metoprolol, propranolol, and timolol are effective for migraine prevention and should be offered to patients with migraine to reduce migraine attack frequency and severity (Level A). Frovatriptan is effective for prevention of menstrual migraine (Level A). Lamotrigine is ineffective for migraine prevention (Level A). PMID:22529202
Abramovici, Adi; Cantu, Jessica; Jenkins, Sheri M
The pathophysiology leading to preterm labor is not well understood and often multifactorial; initiating factors include intrauterine infection, inflammation, ischemia, overdistension, and hemorrhage. Given these different potential causes, directing therapy for preterm labor has been difficult and suboptimal. To date, no single drug has been identified as successful in treating all of the underlying mechanisms leading to preterm labor. In addition, the methodology of many of the tocolytic studies is limited by lack of sufficient patient numbers, lack of comparison with a placebo, and inconsistent use of glucocorticoids. The limitations in these individual studies make it difficult to evaluate the efficacy of a single tocolytic by meta-analysis. Despite these limitations, the goals for tocolysis for preterm labor are clear: To complete a course of glucocorticoids and secure the appropriate level of neonatal care for the fetus in the event of preterm delivery. The literature demonstrates that many tocolytic agents inhibit uterine contractility. The decision as to which tocolytic agent should be used as first-line therapy for a patient is based on multiple factors, including gestational age, the patient’s medical history, common and severe side effects, and a patient’s response to therapy. In a patient at less than 32 weeks gestation, indomethacin may be a reasonable first choice based on its efficacy, ease of administration, and minimal side effects. Concurrent administration of magnesium for neuroprotection may be given. At 32 to 34 weeks, nifedipine may be a reasonable first choice because it does not carry the fetal risks of indomethacin at these later gestational ages, is easy to administer, and has limited side effects relative to beta-mimetics. In an effort to review a commonly faced obstetrical complication, this article has provided a summary of the most commonly used tocolytics, their mechanisms of action, side effects, and clinical data regarding their
Alberici, Antonella; Borroni, Barbara; Manelli, Filippo; Griffini, Simona; Zavarise, Paola; Padovani, Alessandro; Dalla Volta, Giorgio
Topiramate (TPM) is generally recognized efficacious and safe in migraine prevention. A significant proportion of patients undergoing TPM administration may show weight loss. In epileptic subjects, high body mass index (BMI) was found to be predictive of weight loss under TPM therapy. We therefore aimed to study whether common clinical determinants may be associated to TPM weigh loss in migraine patients. In our clinical series, high BMI was not found a predictor of weight loss under TPM treatment. Unknown genetic and environmental factors that may determine the courses of weight loss under TPM therapy are still do be identified.
Firszt, Rafael; Frank, Michael M
Hereditary angioedema is an episodic swelling disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. Attacks are characterized by nonpitting edema of external or mucosal body surfaces. Patients often present with swelling of the extremities, abdominal pain, and swelling of the mouth and throat, which can at times lead to asphyxiation. The disease is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the complement C1-inhibitor protein, which leads to unregulated production of bradykinin. Long-term therapy has depended on the use of attenuated androgens or plasmin inhibitors but in the US there was, until recently, no specific therapy for acute attacks. As well, many patients with hereditary angioedema in the US were either not adequately controlled on previously available therapies or required doses of medications that exposed them to the risk of serious adverse effects. Five companies have completed or are currently conducting phase III clinical trials in the development of specific therapies to terminate acute attacks or to be used as prophylaxis. These products are based on either replacement therapy with purified plasma-derived or recombinant C1-inhibitor, or inhibition of the kinin-generating pathways with a recombinant plasma kallikrein inhibitor or bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist. Published studies thus far suggest that all of these products are likely to be effective. These new therapies will likely lead to a totally new approach in treating hereditary angioedema.
Coombs, Catherine C.; Tallman, Martin S.; Levine, Ross L.
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease that is, in general, associated with a very poor prognosis. Multiple cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities that characterize different forms of AML have been used to better prognosticate patients and inform treatment decisions. Indeed, risk status in patients with this disease has classically been based on cytogenetic findings; however, additional molecular characteristics have been shown to inform risk assessment, including FLT3, NPM1, KIT, and CEBPA mutation status. Advances in sequencing technology have led to the discovery of novel somatic mutations in tissue samples from patients with AML, providing deeper insight into the mutational landscape of the disease. The majority of patients with AML (>97%) are found to have a clonal somatic abnormality on mutational profiling. Nevertheless, our understanding of the utility of mutation profiling in clinical practice remains incomplete and is continually evolving, and evidence-based approaches to application of these data are needed. In this Review, we discuss the evidence-base for integrating mutational data into treatment decisions for patients with AML, and propose novel therapeutic algorithms in the era of molecular medicine. PMID:26620272
Dulucq, Stéphanie; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja
Advances in our understanding of the pathobiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have led to risk-targeted treatment regimens and remarkable improvement in survival rates. Still, up to 20% of patients experience treatment failure due to drug resistance. Treatment-related toxicities are often life-threatening and are the primary cause of treatment interruption, while ALL survivors may develop complications due to exposure to chemotherapy and/or irradiation during a vulnerable period of development. Different factors may contribute to variable treatment outcomes including patient genetics that has been shown to play important role. This review summarizes candidate gene and genome-wide association studies that identified common polymorphisms underlying variability in treatment responses including a few studies addressing late effects of the treatment. Genetic variants influencing antileukemic drug effects or leukemic cell biology have been identified, including for example variants in folate-dependent enzymes, influx and efflux transporters, metabolizing enzymes, drug receptor or apoptotic proteins. Many pharmacogenetic studies have been conducted in ALL and a variety of potential markers have been identified. Yet more comprehensive insight into genome variations influencing drug responses is needed. Whole exome/genome sequencing, careful study design, mechanistic explanation of association found and collaborative studies will ultimately lead to personalized treatment and improved therapeutic and health outcomes.
Savi, Lidia; Omboni, Stefano; Lisotto, Carlo; Zanchin, Giorgio; Ferrari, Michel D; Zava, Dario; Pinessi, Lorenzo
The objectives of this study are to assess the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan, and rizatriptan in the subgroup of women with menstrually related migraine of a multicenter, randomized, double blind, cross-over study. Each patient received frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg in a randomized sequence: after treating 3 episodes of migraine in not more than 3 months with the first treatment, the patient had to switch to the other treatment. Menstrually related migraine was defined according to the criteria listed in the Appendix of the last IHS Classification of Headache disorders. 99 out of the 125 patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis of the main study were of a female gender: 93 had regular menstrual cycles and were, thus, included in this analysis. A total of 49 attacks classified as menstrually related migraine were treated with frovatriptan and 59 with rizatriptan. Rate of pain relief at 2 h was 58% for frovatriptan and 64% for rizatriptan (p = NS), while rate of pain free at 2 h was 31 and 34% (p = NS), respectively. At 24 h, 67 and 81% of frovatriptan-treated, and 61 and 74% of rizatriptan-treated patients were pain free and had pain relief, respectively (p = NS). Recurrence at 24 h was significantly (p < 0.01) lower with frovatriptan (10 vs. 32% rizatriptan). Frovatriptan was as effective as rizatriptan in the immediate treatment of menstrually related migraine attacks while showing a favorable sustained effect with a lower rate of migraine recurrence. These results need to be confirmed by randomized, double-blind, prospective, large clinical trials.
Gupta, Surya N; Gupta, Vikash S; Fields, Dawn M
Complicated migraine encompasses several individual clinical syndromes of migraine. Such a syndrome in children frequently presents with various neurological symptoms in the Emergency Department. An acute presentation in the absence of headache presents a diagnostic challenge. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may have medicolegal implication. To date, there are no reports of a common clinical profile proposed in making a clinical diagnosis for the complicated migraine. In this clinical review, we propose and describe: (1) A common clinical profile in aid to clinical diagnosis for spectrum of complicated migraine; (2) How it can be used in differentiating complicated migraine from migraine without aura, migraine with aura, and seizure; (3) We discuss the status of complicated migraine in the International Headache Society classification 2013; and (4) In addition, a common treatment strategy for the spectrum of migraine has been described. To diagnose complicated migraine clinically, it is imperative to adhere with the proposed profile. This will optimize the use of investigation and will also avoid a legal implication of delay in their management. The proposed common clinical profile is incongruent with the International Headache Society 2013. Future classification should minimize the dissociation from clinically encountered syndromes and coin a single word to address collectively this subtype of migraine with an acute presentation of a common clinical profile. PMID:25664241
BORAN, H. Evren; BOLAY, Hayrunnisa
Migraine is a serious health problem which impair quality of life. It is the second most common primary headache that affects approximately more than %10 people in general population. Migraine pathophysiology is still unclear. Increasing results of studies suggest to migraine pathophysiology is related with primary neuronal mechanisms. Migraine pain starts in which region of brain and what brain regions are activated in different stages is unenlightened. There is evidences that growing number of studies which using new imaging techniques as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonans imaging (fMRI) show that migraine and cluster headaches are related with neuronal structures and vasodilatation. There are four phases to a migraine. The prodrome phase, aura, the attack, and the postdrome phase. Some datas obtained from last ten years indicate that cortical excitability has increased in interictal phase too. For many years, studies in rodents show trgimenial nerve is activated and it leads to vasodilatation and neurogenic inflammation in the headache phase. Although the majority of patients encountered in clinical practice are migraine without aura or chronic migraine, experimental studies of the migraine pathophysiology are focusing on the aura model which is used cortical spreading depression.
Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara
Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.
Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.
Young, William B.; Park, Jung E.; Tian, Iris X.; Kempner, Joanna
Background People who have a disease often experience stigma, a socially and culturally embedded process through which individuals experience stereotyping, devaluation, and discrimination. Stigma has great impact on quality of life, behavior, and life chances. We do not know whether or not migraine is stigmatizing. Methods We studied 123 episodic migraine patients, 123 chronic migraine patients, and 62 epilepsy patients in a clinical setting to investigate the extent to which stigma attaches to migraine, using epilepsy as a comparison. We used the stigma scale for chronic illness, a 24-item questionnaire suitable for studying chronic neurologic diseases, and various disease impact measures. Results Patients with chronic migraine had higher scores (54.0±20.2) on the stigma scale for chronic illness than either episodic migraine (41.7±14.8) or epilepsy patients (44.6±16.3) (p<0.001). Subjects with migraine reported greater inability to work than epilepsy subjects. Stigma correlated most strongly with the mental component score of the short form of the medical outcomes health survey (SF-12), then with ability to work and migraine disability score for chronic and episodic migraine and the Liverpool impact on epilepsy scale for epilepsy. Analysis of covariance showed adjusted scores for the stigma scale for chronic illness were similar for chronic migraine (49.3; 95% confidence interval, 46.2 to 52.4) and epilepsy (46.5; 95% confidence interval, 41.6 to 51.6), and lower for episodic migraine (43.7; 95% confidence interval, 40.9 to 46.6). Ability to work was the strongest predictor of stigma as measured by the stigma scale for chronic illness. Conclusion In our model, adjusted stigma was similar for chronic migraine and epilepsy, which were greater than for episodic migraine. Stigma correlated most strongly with inability to work, and was greater for chronic migraine than epilepsy or episodic migraine because chronic migraine patients had less ability to work. PMID
Lay, Christine L; Broner, Susan W
Of the nearly 32 million Americans with migraine, 24 million are women. It is a disorder affecting women throughout their lifetimes, from childhood and puberty through the postmenopausal years. In childhood, before puberty girls are afflicted with migraine at approximately the same rate as boys, but after puberty, there is an emerging female predominance. Estrogen plays a key role in this epidemiologic variation but is not the only factor. There are numerous times when hormonal influences have an impact on migraine and its pattern, including menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause. Hence practitioners treating women with migraine need to have a clear understanding of these special considerations.
Kadia, Tapan M; Ravandi, Farhad; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease in its clinical presentation, response to therapy, and overall prognosis. For decades, pretreatment karyotype evaluation has served to identify subgroups for risk-adapted postremission therapy, but the initial treatment approach has been largely unchanged. With continued advances in the genetic and epigenetic characterization of AML, we have discovered even more diversity and are starting to understand the biological underpinnings of these multiple disease entities. Newer therapies are being developed to address the pathophysiology within these individual AML subsets. This review categorizes AML into biologically defined groups based on currently available data and describes the evolving treatment approaches within these groups. Identifying the genetic abnormalities and biological drivers prior to AML treatment will be important as we work to individualize therapy and improve outcomes.
Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas
During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626
Speck, V; Maihöfner, C
Migraine is a very common primary headache disorder associated with intermittent attacks and great suffering. Despite extensive research efforts in the recent years, many pathophysiological aspects remain unclear. An altered cortical adaptability and the brainstem as a migraine generator are probably involved in the initiation of a (silent) cortical spreading depression and other processes that lead to neurogenic inflammation of the meninges causing the headache. Numerous studies in the last years have examined somatic, especially cerebrovascular and also psychological comorbidities. For attack therapy, CGRP antagonists have emerged as promising non-vasoconstrictive acting alternatives for triptans. However, they were so far not approved due to liver enzyme elevations in safety studies. Another new approach without vasoconstrictive action are the selective 5-HT1F agonists (especially Lasmiditan). Large placebo-controlled and triptan-controlled trials need to be awaited. For migraine prophylaxis, a comparable effect of sports and pharmacological prophylaxis using topiramate could be found. Particularly the combination of drug and non-drug therapies (such as the combination of stress management training with a beta-blocker treatment) achieves high efficacy. Also interdisciplinary, multimodal treatment approaches are important options. Two large multicentre studies have demonstrated the efficacy of botulinum toxin A as a prophylactic treatment for chronic migraine. Neuromodulative and neurostimulative procedures are promising but still experimental treatment options for patients with refractory migraine.
Carpenter, Christopher R.; Keim, Samuel M.; Milne, William Kenneth; Meurer, William J.; Barsan, William G.
Background Ischemic cerebrovascular accidents remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke within 3 h of symptom onset of highly select patients has been advocated by some groups since 1995, but trials have yielded inconsistent outcomes. One recent trial demonstrated significant improvement when the therapeutic window was extended to 4.5 h. Clinical Question Does the intravenous systemic administration of tPA within 4.5 h to select patients with acute ischemic stroke improve functional outcomes? Evidence Review All randomized controlled trials enrolling patients within 4.5 h were identified, in addition to a meta-analysis of these trial data. Results The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) clinical trials demonstrated significantly improved outcomes at 3 months, with increased rates of intracranial hemorrhage, whereas ECASS II and the Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke (ATLANTIS) study showed increased hemorrhagic complications without improving outcomes. Meta-analysis of trial data from all ECASS trials, NINDS, and ATLANTIS suggest that thrombolysis within 4.5 h improves functional outcomes. Conclusion Ischemic stroke tPA treatment within 4.5 h seems to improve functional outcomes and increases symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates without significantly increas ing mortality. PMID:20576390
Migraine is a common disorder that starts at an early age and takes a variable pattern from intermittent to chronic headache with several exacerbations throughout a lifetime. Children and adolescents are significantly affected. If an acute headache is not aborted by outpatient migraine therapy, it often causes severe disability, preventing the child from attending school and social events. Treating the acute severe headache aggressively helps prevent prolonged disability as well as possible chronification. Multiple medications are available, mostly for the outpatient management of an attack and include the use of over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications as well as prescribed medications in the triptan group. These therapies do sometime fail and the exacerbation can last from days to weeks. If the headache lasts 72 hours or longer it will fall in the category of status migrainosus. Status migrainosus is described as a severe disabling headache lasting 72 hours or more by the ICHD3 criteria. Disability is a major issue in children and adolescents and aggressive acute measures are to be taken to control it as soon as possible. Early aggressive intravenous therapy can be very effective in breaking the attack and allowing the child to be quickly back to normal functioning. This article reviews what is available for the treatment of pediatric primary headaches in the emergency room. © 2015 American Headache Society.
Chen, Yu-Wei; Sim, Ming-Ming; Smith, Eric E
Diagnostic and interventional percutaneous coronary catheterization is associated with stroke. Many of such strokes are asymptomatic, but some are devastating. Once the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction is confirmed, thrombolytic therapy should be administrated within the time window of 3 hours. We report a 61-year-old woman who suffered from an acute cerebral infarction during diagnostic cardiac catheterization for unstable angina, which manifested as sudden onset of global aphasia, right hemiplegia and gaze preponderance to the left side. Computed tomography of the head performed immediately after recognition of the symptoms showed a hyperdense middle cerebral artery (MCA) sign. Following prompt recognition and diagnosis, intravenous thrombolytic therapy was administered 2 hours after symptom onset. The patient had a favorable outcome. Initially, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 21, and 24 hours later it improved to 9. The hyperdense MCA lesion had resolved on the 24-hour follow-up scan. This case illustrates the clinical benefit of thrombolytic therapy in the setting of acute stroke associated with cardiac catheterization.
Antonaci, Fabio; Chimento, Pierluigi; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Sances, Grazia; Bono, Giorgio
In medical research, the placebo effect is an important methodological tool. Placebo is given to participants in clinical trials, with the intention of mimicking an experimental intervention. The "nocebo" effect, on the other hand, is the phenomenon whereby a patient who believes that a treatment will cause harm actually does experience adverse effects. The placebo effect strongly influences the way the results of clinical trials are interpreted. Placebo responses vary with the choice of study design, the choice of primary outcome measure, the characteristics of the patients and the cultural setting in which the trial is conducted. In migraine trials, the placebo response is high, in terms of both efficacy and side effects. Although medical ethics committees are becoming increasingly resistant to the use of placebo in acute migraine trials, placebo nevertheless remains the pivotal comparator in trials of migraine medications.
Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine have resulted in important breakthroughs in treatment. For example, understanding of the role of serotonin in the cerebrovascular circulation has led to the development of triptans for the acute relief of migraine headaches, and the identification of cortical spreading depression as an early central event associated wih migraine has brought renewed interest in antiepileptic drugs for migraine prophylaxis. However, migraine still remains inadequately treated. Indeed, it is apparent that migraine is not a single disease but rather a syndrome that can manifest itself in a variety of pathological conditions. The consequences of this may be that treatment needs to be matched to particular patients. Clinical research needs to be devoted to identifying which sort of patients benefit best from which treatments, particularly in the field of prophylaxis. We propose four patterns of precipitating factors (adrenergic, serotoninergic, menstrual, and muscular) which may be used to structure migraine prophylaxis. Finally, little is known about long-term outcome in treated migraine. It is possible that appropriate early prophylaxis may modify the long-term course of the disease and avoid late complications. PMID:19209286
The hypothesis that migraine pain is caused by vasodilation has been challenged by clinical and experimental evidence. The most convincing arguments against the vascular hypothesis come from neuroimaging data. Magnetic resonance imaging studies show that spontaneous migraine attacks are not accompanied by extracranial vasodilation, and by only slight dilation of the intracranial arteries. Pharmacologically-induced migraine attacks also provide further evidence against the role of vasodilation in migraine. Vasodilators such as sildenafil and nitroglycerine trigger attacks without dilation of the middle cerebral artery diameter, whereas VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) markedly dilates intra- and extracranial arteries but does not induce migraine attacks. Clinical studies also show a lack of correspondence between the subjective experience of throbbing headache and the arterial pulse. Moreover, many acute anti-migraine agents are not vasoconstrictors. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of migraine headache generation. Contrary to a longstanding and widespread belief, vasodilatation is neither sufficient nor necessary to cause migraine headache and is probably an epiphenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Results of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose study comparing the fixed combination of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine with ibuprofen for acute treatment of patients with severe migraine.
Goldstein, Jerome; Hagen, Martina; Gold, Morris
In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose study (n = 1555), a fixed combination of acetaminophen 500 mg, acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg, and caffeine 130 mg (AAC) was compared with ibuprofen 400 mg (IB) and placebo (PLA) for acute treatment of migraine. An exploratory post-hoc analysis compared AAC with IB and PLA in the subset of patients with severe pain at baseline (n = 660). At most time points, AAC and IB relieved the pain and associated symptoms of severe migraine significantly better than PLA (p ≤ 0.05). AAC was significantly superior to IB for pain relief at 45 minutes and at one, two, three, and four hours postdose (p < 0.04); pain intensity difference from one hour through three hours (p < 0.05); headache response at two hours (p = 0.04); functional disability reduced to little or none at three hours (p = 0.013); freedom from phonophobia at three hours (p = 0.04) and photophobia at 15 minutes postdose (p = 0.03); and use of rescue medication (p = 0.018). AAC patients also reported meaningful pain relief 16 minutes faster than IB patients (132 minutes vs 148 minutes, p = 0.026). In patients with severe baseline migraine pain, AAC and IB are significantly more effective than PLA, and AAC provides significantly faster and more effective pain relief than IB. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Allais, Gianni; Tullo, Vincenzo; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara; Sances, Grazia; Zava, Dario; Ferrari, Michel D; Bussone, Gennaro
The objective of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan (F) versus rizatriptan (R), zolmitriptan (Z) and almotriptan (A), in women with menstrually related migraine (IHS criteria) through a pooled analysis of three individual studies. Subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura were randomized to F 2.5 mg or R 10 mg (study 1), F or Z 2.5 mg (study 2), and F or A 12.5 mg (study 3). The studies had an identical multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. After treating three episodes of migraine in no more than 3 months with the first treatment, patients had to switch to the next treatment for other 3 months. 346 subjects formed intention-to-treat population of the main study; 280 of them were of a female gender, 256 had regular menses and 187 were included in the menstrual migraine subgroup analysis. Rate of pain free at 2, 4 and 24 h was 23, 52 and 67 % with F and 30, 61 and 66 % with comparators (P = NS). Pain relief episodes at 2, 4 and 24 h were 37, 60 and 66 % for F and 43, 55 and 61 % for comparators (P = NS). Rate of recurrence was significantly (P < 0.05) lower under F either at 24 h (11 vs. 24 % comparators) or at 48 h (15 vs. 26 % comparators). Number of menstrual migraine attacks associated with drug-related adverse events was equally low (P = NS) between F (5 %) and comparators (4 %).
Bartolini, Marco; Giamberardino, Maria Adelaide; Lisotto, Carlo; Martelletti, Paolo; Moscato, Davide; Panascia, Biagio; Savi, Lidia; Pini, Luigi Alberto; Sances, Grazia; Santoro, Patrizia; Zanchin, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Ferrari, Michel D; Fierro, Brigida; Brighina, Filippo
The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan and almotriptan in women with menstrually related migraine (IHS Classification of Headache disorders) enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Patients received frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg in a randomized sequence: after treating 3 episodes of migraine in no more than 3 months with the first treatment, the patient was switched to the other treatment. 67 of the 96 female patients of the intention-to-treat population of the main study had regular menstrual cycles and were thus included in this subgroup analysis. 77 migraine attacks classified as related to menses were treated with frovatriptan and 78 with almotriptan. Rate of pain relief at 2 and 4 h was 36 and 53 % for frovatriptan and 41 and 50 % for almotriptan (p = NS between treatments). Rate of pain free at 2 and 4 h was 19 and 47 % with frovatriptan and 29 and 54 % for almotriptan (p = NS). At 24 h, 62 % of frovatriptan-treated and 67 % of almotriptan-treated patients had pain relief, while 60 versus 67 % were pain free (p = NS). Recurrence at 24 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower with frovatriptan (8 vs. 21 % almotriptan). This was the case also at 48 h (9 vs. 24 %, p < 0.05). Frovatriptan was as effective as almotriptan in the immediate treatment of menstrually related migraine attacks. However, it showed a more favorable sustained effect, as shown by a lower rate of migraine recurrence.
Lin, TL; Vala, MS; Barber, JP; Karp, JE; Smith, BD; Matsui, W
Despite extensive study in many malignancies, maintenance therapy has clinically benefited only two diseases: acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). ALL maintenance therapy utilizes low-dose 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX), while maintenance in APL primarily consists of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). 6MP and MTX as used in ALL are also now usually added to maintenance ATRA for APL, based on data suggesting an improved disease-free survival. Although the mechanism of action of MTX and 6MP as maintenance is unknown, low-dose cytotoxic agents are potent inducers of differentiation in vitro. Thus, we studied whether maintenance therapy in ALL, like ATRA in APL, may be inducing terminal differentiation of ALL progenitors. The APL cell line NB4, the ALL cell lines REH and RS4;11, and patients' ALL blasts were incubated with ATRA, 6MP, and MTX in vitro. All three drugs inhibited the clonogenic growth of the APL and ALL cell lines without inducing immediate apoptosis, but associated with induction of phenotypic differentiation. The three drugs similarly upregulated lymphoid antigen expression, while decreasing CD34 expression, on patients' ALL blasts. These data suggest that induction of leukemia progenitor differentiation plays an important role in the mechanism of action of maintenance therapy in ALL. PMID:17611566
... after age 12, during and after puberty, migraines affect girls three times more often than boys. Migraines aren't contagious, ... Answer all the questions in the diary each time you have a headache. The ... which can help you to go to sleep and get rid of the headache medicines to ...
Chronification of migraine occurs in approximately 3% of entire cases annually. Some risk factors, like obesity and affective disorder, exacerbate the migraine disease conditions. The incidence of migraine chronification is dependent on the baseline frequency of migraine attacks. Functional MRI data support that dysfunction of the descending anti-nociceptive systems plays an important role in the development of migraine chronification. Moreover, several studies employing voxel-based morphometry have revealed morphological alterations of gray matter density in various brain regions, some of which are irrelevant to the sensory or limbic systems. It remains to be determined whether such organic changes are either causative of or attributable to migraine chronification. A preclinical study showed that cortical spreading depression can activate matrix metalloproteinase-9, potentially leading to disruption of blood-brain barrier and subsequent parenchymal damage. We demonstrated that TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) stimulation in the trigeminal nociceptors induces morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Recently, botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) has been approved for patients with chronic migraine. The primary action of BoNT-A is inhibition of regulated exocytosis at the peripheral nerve terminals, raising the possibility that certain peripheral factors are implicated in the development of migraine chronification.
Migraine and epilepsy are both common episodic disorders that share many clinical features and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The comorbidity of these two conditions is well known. However, the temporal association between migraine and epilepsy is a controversial issue, since these two conditions may occur in numerous ways. Four types of association between headache and epileptic seizure are recognized: pre-ictal headache, headache as the expression of an epileptic manifestation, post-ictal headache, and inter-ictal headache. The classification of epilepsy by the International League Against Epilepsy did not refer to the epileptic headache. On the other hand, the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3) defines three entities: migraine aura-triggered seizure which sometimes referred to as migralepsy, hemicrania epileptica, and post-ictal headache. However, ICHD-3 mentions that there is a complex and bidirectional association between migraine and epilepsy. Most of the previous reports of migralepsy corresponded to occipital seizures that mimic migraine with aura. The term migralepsy has recently been criticized. Migraine and epilepsy share several pathophysiological mechanisms which involve neurotransmitters and iron channel dysfunctions. There is the hypothesis of a shared genetic susceptibility to migraine and epilepsy. Strong support of a shared genetic basis comes from familial hemiplegic migraine.
Martins, Isabel Pavão; Gil-Gouveia, Raquel; Silva, Claudia; Maruta, Carolina; Oliveira, Antonio Gouveia
The possible effects of migraine on executive abilities remain controversial; hence, we studied inter-ictal cognitive performance of individuals with migraine and non migraine headaches (NMH) compared with headache free controls. In a cross-sectional observational study, taking place in primary care, adults aged 50 or above were evaluated by a neurobehavioral battery including several executive measures. Present history of headache was sought, and migraine was diagnosed by the ID-Migraine questionnaire. The effect of headache type on cognitive measures was analyzed with multiple regression with adjustment by diagnosis, age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. Among 478 participants, 23.2% reported current headache, of whom 50 were NMH, and 61 were migraine headaches. No group differences were found in the majority of cognitive measures. Compared with controls, migraine subjects performed worse on a test of attention, while NMH participants presented more intrusions and worse discriminability in memory recognition plus a lower performance on semantic memory tests. The presence of headaches in late adulthood was related to a worse performance on few measures of executive functioning, suggesting that cognitive impact is not specific to migraine but might be associated to headache. © 2012 American Headache Society.
Evans, Randolph W
The disclosure that 2012 presidential candidate Michele Bachmann has migraines resulted in intense public and physician interest in the migraine of presidents, migraine and potential presidential disability, and the politics of migraine that are reviewed in this article. Jefferson had severe headaches that may have been a migraine variant. Lincoln, Grant, and Wilson were, John Adams and Eisenhower might have been, and Truman and Kennedy may have been migraineurs. First Ladies Abigail Adams, Lincoln, Eisenhower, and Kennedy all suffered from migraines. Although migraines can usually be effectively treated, disabling attacks could occur because of the accentuated triggers of office that could prevent a future president from being temporarily able to discharge the duties of office. The 25th amendment is available to voluntarily transfer powers of office to the vice president even for a short period of time. The current $13 million per year in research funding provided by the National Institutes of Health is clearly inadequate to the task of improving treatment for such a pervasive, disabling disease that so profoundly affects so many Americans including presidential candidates, presidents, and first ladies. A survey of the Southern Headache Society on migraine and presidential disability is also presented.
Casucci, G; Villani, V; Cologno, D; D'Onofrio, F
Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder with episodic manifestations, progressive in some individuals. Preventive treatment is recommended for patients with frequent or disabling attacks. A sizeable proportion of migraineurs in need of preventive treatment does not significantly benefit from monotherapy. This short review evaluates the role of pharmacological polytherapy in migraine prevention.
Campinha-Bacote, Dexter L; Kendle, Julie B; Jones, Climentene; Callicoat, Deborah; Webert, Allyn; Stoukides, Cheryl A; Kaul, Alan F
The goals of this program were to evaluate the effectiveness of migraine disease management techniques in improving patient satisfaction with migraine care, decreasing the frequency and severity of headaches and migraine-associated disability, increasing the effectiveness of migraine treatment and work productivity, improving physician diagnosis and treatment of migraine, and ultimately determining the program's impact on healthcare resource utilization. A prospective observational study was undertaken. This prospective Migraine Management Program (MMP) used active patient and healthcare physician-based disease management resources, tools, and techniques. Members were identified using administrative and medical claims databases indicating an ICD-9 diagnosis code (346.XX) for migraine during the previous twelve months. All identified patients received the Migraine Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (MTAQ) to assess their level of migraine control for pre/post measurement. Of the 2,134 patients responding to the initial MTAQ, 789 completed both a baseline and follow-up and 1,345 completed only a baseline questionnaire. For those patients completing both, there was a statistically significant reduction in all identified management issues: poor symptom control, high attack frequency, knowledge/behavior barriers, economic burden, and dissatisfaction with treatment. Comparing the former group to those completing only the baseline MTAQ, the latter were significantly more likely to report problems with three migraine management issues; poorer symptom control, greater economic burden, and dissatisfaction with their treatment. The use of appropriate patient and physician educational interventions, such as Aetna's MMP incorporating disease management principles and the MTAQ questionnaire, can have a significant impact on patient-centered outcomes and satisfaction with their migraine treatment.
Spritzer, Scott D; Bravo, Thomas P; Drazkowski, Joseph F
Antiepileptic drugs (AED) are often considered first line for monotherapy in treatment of patients with migraines, and also those with comorbid migraine and epilepsy. Topiramate, a newer generation AED, has broad mechanism of action and evidence of benefit in patients with either episodic or chronic migraine along with epilepsy, both generalized and focal. Our goal is to review the relevant mechanisms of action along with any supportive evidence published to date on the use of topiramate (TPM) in patients with both migraine headache and epilepsy. There has been very little published to date on the use of TPM in patients diagnosed with both disorders. Despite this, TPM has been adopted as first line therapy in this patient population. Future studies investigating the effectiveness of this treatment strategy are warranted in order to determine the most effective use of this medication in patients diagnosed with migraine headaches and epilepsy. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Ashina, Messoud
Here, we review the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) in migraine and cluster headache (CH). Mounting evidence implicates signaling molecule PACAP38 in the pathophysiology of migraine. Human provocation studies show PACAP38 induces migraine attacks in migraine patients without aura and marked and sustained dilation of extracerebral arteries. PACAP38 selectively targets the PAC1 receptor making this receptor a promising candidate for targeted migraine therapy. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to pursue this possible treatment pathway. PACAP38 provocation studies in CH could elucidate possible involvement of PACAP38 in CH pathophysiology and predict efficacy of PACAP38 antagonists in this primary headache. © 2017 American Headache Society.
Cairns, J; Armstrong, P W; Belenkie, I; Hirsh, J; Johnstone, D E; Knudtson, M; Lemieux, M; Massel, D; Naylor, C D; Roy, L
Thrombolytic therapy is a huge advance in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results of large clinical trials over the past 9 years have unequivocally demonstrated its benefit: of every 1000 patients treated 30 will be saved, at a cost of two cases of nonfatal cerebral hemorrhage and seven of noncerebral major hemorrhage. The concurrent use of acetylsalicylic acid increases the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Sales figures for thrombolytic agents indicate that their use in Canada is less than optimal and lags behind that in several European countries. Major educational efforts are needed to promote awareness of the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy and of optimal approaches for maximizing its potential benefit for patients with AMI. PMID:7697574
Nasa, Prashant; Gupta, Ankur; Mangal, Kishore; Nagrani, S K; Raina, Sanjay; Yadav, Rohit
Aluminum phosphide is most common cause of poisoning in northern India. There is no specific antidote available and management of such cases is mainly supportive with high mortality. We present two cases of severe acute aluminium phosphide poisoning where continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was started early along with other resuscitative measures and both the patients survived.
Somerville, B W
The relief of acute migraine attacks with an analgesic/antihistamine combination containing paracetamol, codeine phosphate, doxylamine succinate and caffeine (Mersyndol) compared with that achieved with a placebo has been studied in a double-blind, crossover trial. Mersyndol emerged as significantly better than placebo in the complete relief of migraine pain, and was clearly superior to placebo in partially relieving the pain of migraine. These results suggest that it could be a useful alternative to ergotamine, and a comparative trial with ergotamine is suggested. Side effects with this combination were fairly common but mild, and consisted mainly of drowsiness caused by the antihistamine component.
The initiation of a prophylactic treatment for migraine depends on the frequency of migraine attacks and the extent of the function disability associated with these attacks. Antidepressants have good evidence of efficacy in the prophylactic treatment for migraine. In general, among the antidepressants, amitriptyline is the most frequently prescribed by headache specialists. Several clinical trials on this drug have also evidenced the remarkable benefits of amitriptyline in the prophylactic treatment of migraine attack. In evidence-based guidelines developed by Japanese Headache Society and American Neurological Association, it is classified as a Group 1 drugs (effective drug for the prevention of migraine attack). Moreover, these drugs are more useful in cases where there is comorbidity with conditions such as depression. The side-effects of these drugs are sleepiness and dry mouth. Administration of amytriptyline at low dose can reduce the frequency of side effects such as sleepiness.
Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sandor, Peter S
Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder by which several systems of the central nervous system (autonomous system, affective, cognitive, sensoric and motoric system) may be affected on different levels. Around a fourth of the patients have migraine aura. The most common aura is the visual aura, followed by sensoric aura. But motoric deficits as well as deficits of higher cortical centers (disorders of thinking, orientation, coherence or concentration) may occur as well. In analogy with a headache calendar, an aura calendar can deliver important help in the diagnostic process of rare migraine manifestations and prevent underdiagnosis of unusual migraine manifestations. Complex migraine manifestations are diagnoses of exlusion, and a broad diagnostic work-up is warranted in order to exclude dangerous neurologic pathologies. There are no specific therapeutic recommendations, as there is a lack of randomized controlled studies.
Parajuá, J L; Calles, C
We present the case of a migrainous patient who had a cerebral infarct during a migrainous crisis. She was 26 weeks pregnant. The infarct, detected on MRI was in the right thalamic region. It presented as left hemiparesia and left hemi-hypo-estesia. Laboratory tests were normal. There was full recovery from the episode. Migraine is considered to be a risk factor per se for stroke, especially in young women. The association of migrainous ictus, which is a diagnosis by exclusion of other aetiologies, and pregnancy is rare, as is apparent on review of the subject. In the Western world, pregnancy is not considered to be a risk factor for ictus. The functional prognosis of migrainous stroke is good, with minimal risk of relapse.
Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Mehmet, Baykara
Clinical trials and electrophysiologic studies demonstrated increased perceptual sensitivity in patients suffering from migraines. At least, one triggering factor is described in 85% of migraine patients. The aim of this report was to investigate the relationship between contact lens (CL) usage and migraine attacks in two cases. Two patients who were diagnosed with migraine reported that the frequency of migraine attacks increased after they switched to using CL with different base curves (BCs). These two patients, who began using CL with different BCs experienced discomfort and dryness of the eye. The ocular complaints were followed by migraine attacks. CL intolerance was also developed during migraine attack in one of the cases. The frequency of migraine attacks decreased and allodynia relieved significantly when flatter BCs were selected. CL related stimulus could have triggered the migraine attack. CLs should be well fitted in migraine patients with allodynia.
Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Mehmet, Baykara
Clinical trials and electrophysiologic studies demonstrated increased perceptual sensitivity in patients suffering from migraines. At least, one triggering factor is described in 85% of migraine patients. The aim of this report was to investigate the relationship between contact lens (CL) usage and migraine attacks in two cases. Two patients who were diagnosed with migraine reported that the frequency of migraine attacks increased after they switched to using CL with different base curves (BCs). These two patients, who began using CL with different BCs experienced discomfort and dryness of the eye. The ocular complaints were followed by migraine attacks. CL intolerance was also developed during migraine attack in one of the cases. The frequency of migraine attacks decreased and allodynia relieved significantly when flatter BCs were selected. CL related stimulus could have triggered the migraine attack. CLs should be well fitted in migraine patients with allodynia. PMID:27433037
Migraine is a complex disorder with many different manifestations. There has been an increasing interest in the association of migraine and vertigo. Many different terms have been developed to describe this concept, the more popular being vestibular migraine, migrainous vertigo, and migraine-associated vertigo. The most commonly cited diagnostic criteria are that of Neuhauser though this has yet to be included in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (2nd edition). At this time, there is a lack of consensus regarding migraine-related vertigo and its pathomechanism. Regardless, a few randomized controlled prospective studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of various medications. Topiramate has been shown to be effective for migraine-related vertigo. At this time there is no specific treatment for migraine-related dizziness outside of conventional migraine management. The genetics have yet to be fully realized though an autosomal dominant familial migraine vertigo disorder has been identified.
Kebriaei, Partow; Poon, Michelle Limei
The prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults remains poor, and novel treatment options are needed to improve outcomes. Immunotherapeutic strategies have been a recent focus in this area, targeting specific surface antigens on the ALL blast cells. Our review concentrates on four major class of antibody therapies, namely, (1) naked and unconjugated antibodies, (2) immunoconjugates and immunotoxins, (3) bi-specific T cell engaging (BiTE) therapy, and (4) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T cells. We review preclinical and clinical data, and update on the latest advances in this exciting field, and suggest how these therapies can be incorporated into the treatment algorithm for ALL.
Dussor, Greg; Cao, Yu-Qing
Migraine is among the most common diseases on earth and one of the most disabling, the latter due in large part to poor treatment efficacy. Development of new therapeutics is dependent on the identification of mechanisms contributing to migraine and discovery of targets for new drugs. Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated the transient receptor-potential M8 (TRPM8) channel in migraine. This channel is predominantly expressed on peripheral sensory neurons and is known as the sensor for cold temperature in cutaneous tissue but is also expressed on deep visceral afferents where cold is not likely a stimulus. Consequently, a number of alternative endogenous agonists have been proposed. Apart from its role in cold sensation, TRPM8 also contributes to cold allodynia after nerve injury or inflammation, and it is necessary for cooling/menthol-based analgesia. How it might contribute to migraine is less clear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomical and physiological mechanisms by which meningeal TRPM8 may play a role in migraine as well as the potential of TRPM8 as a therapeutic target. TRPM8 is expressed on sensory afferents innervating the meninges, and these neurons are subject to developmental changes that may influence their contribution to migraine. As in viscera, meningeal TRPM8 channels are unlikely to be activated by temperature fluctuations and their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Preclinical migraine studies show that activation of meningeal TRPM8 by exogenous agonists can both cause and alleviate headache behaviors, depending on whether other meningeal afferents concurrently receive noxious stimuli. This is reminiscent of the fact that cold can trigger migraine in humans but menthol can also alleviate headache. We propose that both TRPM8 agonists and antagonists may be potential therapeutics, depending on how migraine is triggered in individual patients. In this regard, TRPM8 may be a novel target for personalized
Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Sarma, Rakesh; Grimsley, Edwin
Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs.
Razeghi Jahromi, Soodeh; Abolhasani, Maryam; Ghorbani, Zeinab; Sadre-Jahani, Solmaz; Alizadeh, Zahra; Talebpour, Mohammad; Meysamie, Alipasha; Togha, Mansoureh
There is evidence that substantial weight loss through bariatric surgery (BS) may result in short-term improvement of migraine severity. However, it still remains to be seen whether smaller amounts of weight loss have a similar effect on migraine headache. This study has been designed to compare the effects of weight reduction through BS and non-surgical modifications. Migraine characteristics were assessed at 1 month before (T0), 1 month (T1), and 6 months (T2) after BS (vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) (n = 25) or behavioral therapy (BT) (n = 26) in obese women (aged 18-60 years) with migraine headache. Migraine was diagnosed using the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHDIIβ) criteria. There was significant reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS) from the baseline to T1 and T2 in both groups. The number of migraine-free days showed a significant increase within each group (p < 0.001). The BS group had a significant reduction in attack duration (p < 0.001) while there were no changes observed within the BT group. Following the adjustment of ANCOVA models for baseline values of migraine characteristics, age, changes in weight, BMI, body fat, and fat-free mass from T0 to T2, the BS group showed statistically significant lower VAS and duration of migraine attacks and a significantly higher number of migraine-free days than the BT group at T1 and T2 (p ≤ 0.028). Our results indicated that far before significant weight reduction after BS (VSG), there was marked alleviation in the severity and duration of migraine and a significant increase in the number of migraine-free days in obese female migraineurs. However, the effects in the BT group were not comparable with the effects in the BS group.
Shaikh, Nader; Wald, Ellen R.; Jeong, Jong H.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Bowen, A’Delbert; Flom, Lynda L.; Hoberman, Alejandro
Objective To determine prognostic factors that independently predict response to antimicrobial therapy in children with acute sinusitis. Study design 206 children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis who were given antimicrobial therapy by their primary care provider were included. The severity of symptoms in the 8 to 12 days after treatment was initiated was followed using a validated scale. We examined the univariate and multivariate association between factors present at the time of diagnosis (symptoms, signs, nasopharyngeal culture result, radiograph results) and time to resolution of symptoms. This study was conducted 8 to 10 years after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination was introduced, but before introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Results Children with proven nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae improved more rapidly (6.5 vs. 8.5 median days to symptom resolution) than those who were not colonized with S. pneumoniae. Age and radiograph findings did not predict time to symptom resolution. Conclusions In children with acute sinusitis, proven nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae at presentation independently predicted time to symptom resolution. Future randomized, placebo-controlled trials could investigate the usefulness of testing for the presence of nasopharyngeal pathogens as a predictor of response to treatment. PMID:24367985
Maasumi, Kasra; Tepper, Stewart J; Kriegler, Jennifer S
A review of treatment options for menstrual migraine. Migraine affects ∼30 million people in the US. A subset of female migraineurs have migraines that are mainly associated with menstruation. Menstrual migraine (MM) is divided into pure MM and menstrually related migraine. Pure MM attacks occur only with menstruation and have a prevalence of 1%. Menstrually related migraine has a prevalence of 6-7%, and occurs both during menstruation as well as during the rest of the cycle. MM is usually without aura and is more severe, longer lasting, and more resistant to treatment due to the effects of ovarian hormones, specifically estrogen. MM treatment is divided into acute, short-term prophylaxis, and daily prevention. The best-studied acute treatments are triptans. For short-term prophylaxis, triptans, non-triptans, or combinations are used. Some preventive medications may be used daily to prevent MM. Many anti-epileptic medications used in migraine prevention can affect the efficacy of oral contraceptives and hormonal treatments, so caution is indicated when these are used. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Embase were searched for MM and treatments. Many randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective studies have evaluated the efficacy of sumatriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan, zolmitriptan, and almotriptan in MM. Reviewing numerous studies with statistically significant results, rizatriptan has the best overall evidence for acute treatment of MM, ranging from pain-free responses of 33-73% at 2 hours. Sumatriptan and rizatriptan have shown similar efficacies of 61-63% in terms of 2 hour pain freedom. Rizatriptan showed sustained pain relief between 2 and 24 hours with an efficacy of 63% and sustained pain freedom for MM between 2 and 24 hours with an efficacy of 32%. For short-term prevention of MM, there were four randomized controlled trials for frovatriptan taken twice daily, one trial for zolmitriptan taken three times daily, and two studies for naratriptan taken twice
Altalib, H H; Fenton, B T; Sico, J; Goulet, J L; Bathulapalli, H; Mohammad, A; Kulas, J; Driscoll, M; Dziura, J; Mattocks, K; Kerns, R; Brandt, C; Haskell, S
Background and aim Health administrators, policy makers, and educators have attempted to increase guideline adherence of migraine medications while reducing inappropriate use of opioid- and barbiturate-containing medications. We evaluated the burden of migraine and proportion of guideline-concordant care in a large, national health care system over time. Methods We conducted a time-series study using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record. Veterans with migraines were identified by ICD-9 code (346.X). Prescriptions and comorbid conditions were evaluated before and after migraine diagnosis. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed. Results A total of 57,064 veterans were diagnosed with migraine headache (5.3%), with women significantly more likely diagnosed (11.6% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.0001). The number of veterans diagnosed with migraine has significantly increased over the years. By 2012, triptans were prescribed to 43% of people with migraine, with no difference by gender. However, triptan prescriptions increased from 2004 to 2012 in men, but not women, veterans. Preventive medicines showed a significant increase with the year of migraine diagnosis, after controlling for age, sex, race, and for comorbidities treated with medications used for migraine prevention. Conclusions The burden of migraines is increasing within the VHA, with a corresponding increase in the delivery of guideline-concordant acute and prophylactic migraine-specific medication.
Bray, Fleta N; Simmons, Brian J; Wolfson, Aaron H; Nouri, Keyvan
Ionizing radiation is an important treatment modality for a variety of malignant conditions. However, development of radiation-induced skin changes is a significant adverse effect of radiation therapy (RT). Cutaneous repercussions of RT vary considerably in severity, course, and prognosis. When they do occur, cutaneous changes to RT are commonly graded as acute, consequential-late, or chronic. Acute reactions can have severe sequelae that impact quality of life as well as cancer treatment. Thus, dermatologists should be informed about these adverse reactions, know how to assess their severity and be able to determine course of management. The majority of measures currently available to prevent these acute reactions are proper skin hygiene and topical steroids, which limit the severity and decrease symptoms. Once acute cutaneous reactions develop, they are treated according to their severity. Treatments are similar to those used in prevention, but incorporate wound care management that maintains a moist environment to hasten recovery. Chronic changes are a unique subset of adverse reactions to RT that may develop months to years following treatment. Chronic radiation dermatitis is often permanent, progressive, and potentially irreversible with substantial impact on quality of life. Here, we also review the etiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, prevention, and management of late-stage cutaneous reactions to radiotherapy, including chronic radiation dermatitis and radiation-induced fibrosis.
Mowla, Ashkan; Singh, Karanbir; Mehla, Sandhya; Ahmed, Mohammad K; Shirani, Peyman; Kamal, Haris; Krishna, Chandan; Sawyer, Robert N; Ching, Marilou; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Crumlish, Annemarie; Hopkins, L N
Intracranial aneurysms are currently considered as contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke, very likely due to a possible increase in the risk of bleeding from aneurysm rupture; however, there is limited data available on whether intravenous thrombolysis is safe for acute ischemic stroke patients with pre-existing intracranial aneurysms. To find out the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and cerebrovascular images of all the patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center from the beginning of 2006 till the end of April 2014. Those with unruptured intracranial aneurysm present on cerebrovascular images prior to acute reperfusion therapy were identified. Post-thrombolysis brain imaging was reviewed to evaluate for any intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage related or unrelated to the aneurysm. A total of 637 patients received intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center during an 8·3-year period. Thirty-three (5·2%) were found to have at least one intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-three (70%) of those received only intravenous thrombolysis, and 10 patients received combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis. The size of the largest aneurysm was 10 mm in maximum diameter (range: 2-10 mm). The mean size of aneurysms was 4·8 mm. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred among the 23 patients receiving only intravenous thrombolysis. Out of those who received a combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis, one developed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the location of acute infarct, distant to the aneurysm location. Our findings suggest that neither intravenous thrombolysis nor combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis increases the risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke
We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A.
Teggi, R; Fabiano, B; Recanati, P; Limardo, P; Bussi, M
Recent reports have focused on a possible association between migraine and Menière's disease; patients suffering from Menière's disease present a higher rate of migraine. In some cases, the clinical features of migraine-associated vertigo may mimic the presentation of Menière's disease. The present report focuses on two cases of females with recurrent episodes of rotational vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss and tinnitus lasting from a few minutes to several hours; both cases also presented migrainous attacks. As a result of repeated cochleovestibular attacks, both patients presented a permanent low frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Preventive therapies for Menière's disease did not reduce vertigo attacks, while topiramate and acetylsalicylic acid treatment resulted in a significant reduction of both migraine and vertigo. Both the diagnosis of Menière's disease and of migraine-associated vertigo rely on clinical history and both disorders lack a specific diagnostic test. In the early stages, differential diagnosis between Menière's disease and migraine-associated vertigo is often very difficult; previous investigations focused on the possibility that subjects with migraine may experience all symptoms of Menière's disease, including sensorineural fluctuating hearing loss. In conclusion, a trial with prophylactic drug treatment for migraine might be suggested in patients with clear symptoms of migraine and recurrent cochleovestibular disorders.
Schrier, Robert W.; Wang, Wei; Poole, Brian; Mitra, Amit
Acute renal failure (ARF), characterized by sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance, is a frequent clinical problem, particularly in the intensive care unit, where it is associated with a mortality of between 50% and 80%. In this review, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of ARF are discussed, including the vascular, tubular, and inflammatory perturbations. The clinical evaluation of ARF and implications for potential future therapies to decrease the high mortality are described. PMID:15232604
Wu, Yanchuan; Pan, Xueqiang; Xu, Yongsong; Lu, Xuran; He, Shida; He, Rui; Gong, Muxin
Wuzhuyu decoction (WZYD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. It has been extensively used for treating migraine for thousands of years in TCM. Four potential active ingredients from WZYD, ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1), ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1), evodiamine (Ev) and rutaecarpine (Ru), were found to have positive correlations with pharmacodynamic indicators involving mouse migraine in our previous study. To find a better therapeutic effect on migraine, this research was carried out to optimize the combinations of Rg1, Rb1, Ev and Ru using the uniform design method. The results showed that Rb1 and Ev played key roles in improving the therapeutic effect on mouse migraine by strongly ameliorating pharmacodynamic indicators associated with migraine. They significantly increased the contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine in brain tissues, and reduced the content of nitric oxide in brain tissues and the activities of nitric oxide synthase in both brain tissues and blood serum. The optimal concentrations of Rb1 and Ev were 1057.4 mg/L and 312.5 mg/L, respectively. Rg1 and Ru contributed less to the overall desirability, suggesting that they had reverse effects on some pharmacodynamic indicators of this type of migraine. The verification test demonstrated by the immunohistochemical method that the optimal combination inhibited the expression of c-fos and c-jun in periaqueductal gray of mice, and strongly ameliorated pharmacodynamic indicators. These results suggested that the therapeutic effect of the optimal combination of the four ingredients was strong, and the optimal results were proven to be reliable and accurate.
Stone, Melissa T; Weed, Valerie; Kulich, Ronald J
Migraine can impact every aspect of a person's functioning. Psychological comorbidities, cognitive constructs, and behavioral responses to pain greatly impact the perception of migraine pain, treatment efficacy and outcome, and overall quality of life and functioning. Current considerations for migraine treatment emphasize the utility of the biopsychosocial model in understanding and treating migraine, noting both the importance of addressing psychological factors such as cognitive beliefs as well as psychiatric comorbidities. The guidelines for migraine treatment implicate opioid therapy as a second or third tier treatment. Guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of opioid medications among patients with chronic pain emphasize the importance of screening prior to prescribing opioid medications. Chronic opioid therapy has been shown to further levels of disability, decrease quality of life, and correlate to psychiatric comorbidities, concerns that are already present in migraine patients. While opioid treatment provides an alternative for persons with contraindications for alternative migraine treatments, it is critical that opioids be used sparingly and exclusively in conjunction with comprehensive assessment and integration of psychological treatment.
Yorns, William R; Hardison, H Huntley
Migraine is the most frequent type of headache in children. In the 1980s, scientists first hypothesized a connection between migraine and mitochondrial (mt) disorders. More recent studies have suggested that at least some subtypes of migraine may be related to a mt defect. Different types of evidence support a relationship between mitochondria (mt) and migraine: (1) Biochemical evidence: Abnormal mt function translates into high intracellular penetration of Ca(2+), excessive production of free radicals, and deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which ultimately causes energy failure in neurons and astrocytes, thus triggering migraine mechanisms, including spreading depression. The mt markers of these events are low activity of superoxide dismutase, activation of cytochrome-c oxidase and nitric oxide, high levels of lactate and pyruvate, and low ratios of phosphocreatine-inorganic phosphate and N-acetylaspartate-choline. (2) Morphologic evidence: mt abnormalities have been shown in migraine sufferers, the most characteristic ones being direct observation in muscle biopsy of ragged red and cytochrome-c oxidase-negative fibers, accumulation of subsarcolemmal mt, and demonstration of giant mt with paracrystalline inclusions. (3) Genetic evidence: Recent studies have identified specific mutations responsible for migraine susceptibility. However, the investigation of the mtDNA mutations found in classic mt disorders (mt encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy) has not demonstrated any association. Recently, 2 common mtDNA polymorphisms (16519C→T and 3010G→A) have been associated with pediatric cyclic vomiting syndrome and migraine. Also, POLG mutations (eg, p.T851 A, p.N468D, p.Y831C, p.G517V, and p.P163S) can cause disease through impaired replication of mtDNA, including migraine. Further studies to investigate the relationship between mt
The metaphors of migraine make it a challenging source of inspiration for writers of fiction. The visual aura is a hallucination, the outside world - the so-called 'reality' - is distorted. The excruciating pain can stand for horror, punishment, and fate. Photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia underline visual, acoustic, and olfactoric stimuli. The protagonist sees, hears, and smells more, but not always better. Paradoxically, this increased awareness of 'reality' results in a need to seek isolation. Often, the end of a migraine attack is like a rescue. Immediately after an attack the fear of the next one begins. As migraine is hereditary, there are also aspects of solidarity, but shame and blame are nearby.
To examine the importance of good communication when informing the patient of the diagnosis of migraine; to review the essentials of successful communication between physician and patient on the aspect of diagnosis; to survey learning resources for physicians on communicating information to patients. This paper is based on observations made by the author of the successful interactions of numerous international "headache experts" with their patients, on a review of the medical education literature pertaining to the teaching of communication skills, and on 30 years of not always successful communication with patients. Communicating the diagnosis of migraine is an opportunity to educate and reassure the patient, to lay the foundation for rational treatment and to help establish the successful doctor-patient relationship which is essential for effective management. No matter how accurate the diagnosis, failure to communicate it effectively to the patient (and often to significant others) may impair interactions with the patient and compromise therapy. Effective communication of a diagnosis requires clarity, relevance to the patient, a positive attitude, and reinforcement through repetition, questioning and dialogue. In terms of using the diagnosis to lay a foundation for therapy, it is useful to explain the symptoms as transient physical dysfunction of normal tissues, to indicate that there are multiple mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of which only some may presently be susceptible to treatment and to stress the relevance of emotions as factors which may powerfully affect, for better or worse, the underlying disturbed physiology of migraine. Into this model can be "plugged" all the relevant therapies for migraine. This is the ideal, but every day experience in the headache consultant's office suggest that in both primary care and specialist practice, it is infrequently attained. There are scant resources other than example for physicians to learn communication of
Gelfand, Amy A.; Goadsby, Peter J.
Migraine is a relatively common reason for pediatric emergency room visits. Given the paucity of randomized trials involving pediatric migraineurs in the emergency department setting compared to adults, recommendations for managing these children are largely extrapolated from adult migraine emergency room studies and trials involving outpatient home pediatric migraine therapy. This paper reviews what is known about pediatric migraineurs who present to the emergency room and how they are currently managed, then goes on to summarize the best evidence currently available to guide clinical decision making. PMID:22964436
Wilkins, Arnold; Huang, Jie; Cao, Yue
cortical activation that is responsible for the reduction of the frequency of migraine attacks in those who benefited from the PSF. PSF offer a possible new prophylactic therapy for migraine. They are safe, free of side effects, and inexpensive.
Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186
Jackson, Rosanna K; Irving, Julie A E; Veal, Gareth J
Dexamethasone is a key component in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Despite playing a key role in the improved survival of ALL over several decades, intensification of dexamethasone therapy has also contributed to the increased toxicity associated with treatment, which is now seen to be at unacceptable levels given the favourable disease prognosis. Therefore the focus for treatment is now shifting towards reducing toxicity whilst maintaining current survival rates. As approximately 50% of patients were successfully treated on less intensive protocols of the 1980s, it has been questioned whether therapy intensification is necessary in all patients. Furthermore, there remains a subset of children who are still not cured of their disease. New strategies are therefore needed to identify patients who could benefit from dose reduction or intensification. However, adjusting a potentially life threatening therapy is a challenging task, particularly given the heterogeneous nature of ALL. This review focuses on the potential for patient stratification based on our current knowledge of dexamethasone pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics and the action of dexamethasone at the cellular level. A carefully designed, combined approach is needed if we are to achieve the aim of improved personalization of dexamethasone therapy for future patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Much clinical experience has been gained in the use of the glucose/electrolyte oral solutions in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Those patients who are in shock or too weak to drink need intravenous fluids to correct their total deficit. With isotonic polyelectrolyte fluids rehydration may be achieved in 2-4 hours. Subsequently, most of these patients can be given oral fluids to replace continuing stool loss. Patients who are not in shock and who are sufficiently strong to drink at the outset nearly always can be rehydrated with oral fluids alone. Vomiting is most likely caused by acidosis and volume depletion, and these can be corrected in severely dehydrated patients by intravenous therapy and by oral therapy in those not in shock and able to drink by oral therapy. Proponents of oral glucose/electrolyte therapy for diarrhea, like other proponents of new treatments, have great visions of its benefits to the world, yet these visions require validation. The biggest problem will be getting glucose and electrolytes to where they are most needed -- at the level of home and village.
Carroll, William L.; Hunger, Stephen P.
Purpose of the review The prognosis for children with the most common childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved dramatically. However the burden of therapy can be substantial with long term side effects and certain subgroups continue to have a poor outcome. Recent Advances The recent discovery of new genetic alterations in high risk subsets provide targets for precision medicine-based interventions using existing FDA approved agents. Novel immunotherapeutic approaches are being deployed in relapsed ALL, one of the leading causes of cancer cell death in children. Moreover genomic analysis has charted the evolution of tumor subclones and relapse specific alterations now provide a mechanistic explanation for drug resistance setting the stage for targeted therapy. There is greater recognition that host factors, genetic polymorphisms, influence cancer risk, response to therapy and toxicity. In the future it is anticipated that they will be integrated into clinical decision making to maximize cure and minimize side effects. Recent efforts to limit prophylactic central nervous system irradiation have been successful thereby sparing many children late neurocognitive impairments. Summary Integration of advances in precision medicine approaches and novel agents will continue to increase the cure rate and decrease the burden of therapy for childhood ALL. PMID:26576011
Approximately 1% of the general population and 10% of patients with migraine suffer from vestibular migraine (VM). However, this condition remains relatively unknown; therefore, it is often underdiagnosed despite the recent adoption of international diagnostic criteria for VM. The diagnosis of VM is based on the symptoms, degree, frequency, and duration of the vestibular episodes, a history of migraine, the temporal association of migraine symptoms with vestibular episodes in at least 50% of cases, and the exclusion of other causes. Physical examination and laboratory findings are usually normal in patients with VM but can be used to rule out other vestibular disorders with similar symptoms. The pathophysiology of VM remains incompletely understood; however, several mechanisms link the trigeminal system, which is activated during migraine attacks, and the vestibular system. Because few controlled trials have specifically investigated VM, the treatment options for this order are largely the same as those for migraine and include antiemetics for severe acute attacks, pharmacological migraine prophylaxis, and lifestyle changes. PMID:27821976
Lin, Su; Ye, Qiaoxia; Wang, Mingfang; Wu, Yinlian; Weng, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Yueyong
Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of peginterferon α-2a (pegIFN) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) treatments in patients with hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with mild acute exacerbation (AE). Methods Treatment-naive HBeAg-positive CHB patients with AE who received pegIFN or NA (entecavir (ETV) or telbivudine (LDT)) therapies were retrospectively selected. The HBeAg seroconversion rate, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss rate and the cost-effectiveness of different treatments were compared. Results A total of 63 patients with pegIFN therapy and 78 with NA (38 with ETV and 40 with LDT) therapy were included. The HBsAg loss rate was significantly higher in the pegIFN group when compared with the NA group (on week 96: 9/63 (14.29%) vs. 1/78 (1.28%), P = 0.005). No significant difference in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA negativity or the HBeAg/HBsAg seroconversion rate was found between ETV and LDT group. One year of pegIFN therapy resulted in 18.56 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient, and the incremental cost per additional QALY gained was $3,709. Conclusions PegIFN therapy is safe in HBeAg-positive CHB patients with mild AE, as it results in a higher HBsAg loss rate and longer QALYs than NA therapy. PMID:28270871
Maniyar, Farooq H; Goadsby, Peter J
Chronic migraine is a relatively common disorder in neurological terms that causes very significant disability at a high cost. The precise mechanisms behind the progression of episodic migraine to chronic migraine are not well understood. Functional neuro-imaging works on the basis that neuronal activations are associated with changes in regional cerebral blood flow, and it can help us answer some of these questions. In this review, we discuss important recent studies in chronic migraine or studies relating to increasing frequency of migraine attacks. The findings show that increasing frequency of migraine attacks is associated with changes in key brainstem areas, basal ganglia and various cortical areas involved in pain.
Penzien, Donald B; Irby, Megan B; Smitherman, Todd A; Rains, Jeanetta C; Houle, Timothy T
This paper provides an overview of the well-established and empirically supported behavioral interventions for the treatment of migraine. The considerable evidence base addressing behavioral interventions amassed since 1969 has conclusively established the efficacy of therapies featuring combinations of relaxation, biofeedback, and stress management training, and demonstrated they are capable of yielding benefits on par with pharmacological therapies for migraine. Behavioral interventions also are well suited for delivery across a variety of different contexts (e.g., group vs. individual, standard clinic vs. limited therapist contact, face-to-face vs. technology-assisted). Despite the amply established efficacy and effectiveness of these self-management interventions for the treatment of migraine, the availability and implementation of these approaches remain limited for many headache sufferers. We anticipate the technological advances in delivery platforms will provide better access to behavioral self-management strategies for migraine.
Ehtesham, Naeim; Sharifi, Mohammadreza
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hematopoietic malignancy that is known with its special cytogenetic feature. Several studies have surveyed expression signature of microRNAs (miRNAs) in APL patients, especially patients who are treated with conventional therapy of this disease. Using miRNAs as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in various cancers has been widely studied. Currently, most studies are focusing on exploiting miRNAs as therapeutic tools, and promising progress has been achieved in this field. Recently, studies in the field of miRNA-based therapy in APL have been started. PMID:28028527
Schlenk, R F; Döhner, K; Döhner, H
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. The genetic diagnostics have become an essential component in the initial work-up for disease classification, prognostication and prediction. More and more promising molecular targeted therapeutics are becoming available. A prerequisite for individualized treatment strategies is a fast pretherapeutic molecular screening including the fusion genes PML-RARA, RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and CBFB-MYH11 as well as mutations in the genes NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA. Promising new therapeutic approaches include the combination of all- trans retinoic acid and arsentrioxid in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the combination of intensive chemotherapy with KIT inhibitors in core-binding factor AML and FLT3 inhibitors in AML with FLT3 mutation, as well as gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy in patients with low and intermediate cytogenetic risk profiles. With the advent of the next generation sequencing technologies it is expected that new therapeutic targets will be identified. These insights will lead to a further individualization of AML therapy.
Lancet, Jeffrey E
A 29-year-old white man presented to the hospital with a 3-week history of fatigue, generalized weakness, gingival swelling and bleeding, and headaches. Laboratory work revealed WBC 30.4 k/μL, hemoglobin 7.9 g/dL, and platelets 16 k/μL. The WBC differential showed 64% blasts and 24% promyelocytes. Coagulation studies revealed prothrombin time (PT) 13.5 seconds, internationalized normalized ratio (INR) 1.3, fibrinogen 199 mg/dL, D-dimer greater than 1.0 μg/mL, and fibrin split products greater than 40 μg/mL. A bone-marrow aspirate with biopsy was performed, yielding the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with t(15;17)(q23;q21.1) in all metaphases. Induction therapy commenced with daunorubicin, cytarabine (Ara-C), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and complete remission was documented 5 weeks later. PML-RARA fusion transcripts were still detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. He is now referred to you for consideration of postremission therapy in the setting of high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia in first remission.
Moretti, Antonio; Ferrari, Federica; Villa, Roberto F
Acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Its incidence and prevalence increase considerably with age and numbers will grow with an ageing population. Consequently, the impact of AIS on costs is soaring. AIS is caused by the abrupt occlusion of an intracranial vessel resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain region supplied. The ischaemic core (which is irreversibly lesioned) is surrounded by the penumbra region with less severe flow reduction, lower functional impairment and potential recovery. Therefore, the fundamental treatment of AIS relies on prompt recanalisation and reperfusion of the threatened, but potentially salvageable, ischaemic penumbra. With this aim, intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the current strategy. However, thrombolysis is underused, owing to various exclusion criteria that limit the number of treated patients. Other thrombolytics are under investigation. Endovascular therapy with mechanical recanalisation devices is also increasingly applied, though definite evidence of its benefit is lacking. Moreover, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are acute complications to be treated in AIS. This review analyses the current status, the problems, the perspectives and the cost-effectiveness of the pharmacological therapy for AIS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In the current classification of headache disorders, headache attributable to genetic disorders is not classified separately, rather as headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder. The classification thus implies that a vascular pathology causes headache in these genetic disorders. Unquestionably, migraine is one of the prominent presenting features of several genetic cerebral small vessel diseases such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, and hereditary infantile hemiparessis, retinal arteriolar tortuosity and leukoencephalopahty. Shared genetic features, increased susceptibility, and/or vascular endothelial dysfunction may play a role in pathogenesis of migraine. Common or overlapping pathways involving the responsible genes may provide insight regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms that can explain their comorbidity with migraine. This review focuses on clinical features of genetic vasculopathies. An independent category-migraine related to genetic disorders-should be considered to classify these disorders.
Holland, S.; Silberstein, S.D.; Freitag, F.; Dodick, D.W.; Argoff, C.; Ashman, E.
Objective: To provide updated evidence-based recommendations for the preventive treatment of migraine headache. The clinical question addressed was: Are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other complementary treatments effective for migraine prevention? Methods: The authors analyzed published studies from June 1999 to May 2009 using a structured review process to classify the evidence relative to the efficacy of various medications for migraine prevention. Results: The author panel reviewed 284 abstracts, which ultimately yielded 49 Class I or Class II articles on migraine prevention; of these 49, 15 were classified as involving nontraditional therapies, NSAIDs, and other complementary therapies that are reviewed herein. Recommendations: Petasites (butterbur) is effective for migraine prevention and should be offered to patients with migraine to reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks (Level A). Fenoprofen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, naproxen sodium, MIG-99 (feverfew), magnesium, riboflavin, and subcutaneous histamine are probably effective for migraine prevention (Level B). Treatments considered possibly effective are cyproheptadine, Co-Q10, estrogen, mefenamic acid, and flurbiprofen (Level C). Data are conflicting or inadequate to support or refute use of aspirin, indomethacin, omega-3, or hyperbaric oxygen for migraine prevention. Montelukast is established as probably ineffective for migraine prevention (Level B). PMID:22529203
Dahlem, Markus A.; Schmidt, Bernd; Bojak, Ingo; Boie, Sebastian; Kneer, Frederike; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kurths, Jürgen
Stimulation protocols for medical devices should be rationally designed. For episodic migraine with aura we outline model-based design strategies toward preventive and acute therapies using stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. To this end, we regard a localized spreading depression (SD) wave segment as a central element in migraine pathophysiology. To describe nucleation and propagation features of the SD wave segment, we define the new concepts of cortical hot spots and labyrinths, respectively. In particular, we firstly focus exclusively on curvature-induced dynamical properties by studying a generic reaction-diffusion model of SD on the folded cortical surface. This surface is described with increasing level of details, including finally personalized simulations using patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner readings. At this stage, the only relevant factor that can modulate nucleation and propagation paths is the Gaussian curvature, which has the advantage of being rather readily accessible by MRI. We conclude with discussing further anatomical factors, such as areal, laminar, and cellular heterogeneity, that in addition to and in relation to Gaussian curvature determine the generalized concept of cortical hot spots and labyrinths as target structures for neuromodulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that these target structures are like fingerprints, they are individual features of each migraine sufferer. The goal in the future will be to provide individualized neural tissue simulations. These simulations should predict the clinical data and therefore can also serve as a test bed for exploring stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. PMID:25798103
Dahlem, Markus A; Schmidt, Bernd; Bojak, Ingo; Boie, Sebastian; Kneer, Frederike; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kurths, Jürgen
Stimulation protocols for medical devices should be rationally designed. For episodic migraine with aura we outline model-based design strategies toward preventive and acute therapies using stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. To this end, we regard a localized spreading depression (SD) wave segment as a central element in migraine pathophysiology. To describe nucleation and propagation features of the SD wave segment, we define the new concepts of cortical hot spots and labyrinths, respectively. In particular, we firstly focus exclusively on curvature-induced dynamical properties by studying a generic reaction-diffusion model of SD on the folded cortical surface. This surface is described with increasing level of details, including finally personalized simulations using patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner readings. At this stage, the only relevant factor that can modulate nucleation and propagation paths is the Gaussian curvature, which has the advantage of being rather readily accessible by MRI. We conclude with discussing further anatomical factors, such as areal, laminar, and cellular heterogeneity, that in addition to and in relation to Gaussian curvature determine the generalized concept of cortical hot spots and labyrinths as target structures for neuromodulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that these target structures are like fingerprints, they are individual features of each migraine sufferer. The goal in the future will be to provide individualized neural tissue simulations. These simulations should predict the clinical data and therefore can also serve as a test bed for exploring stereotactic cortical neuromodulation.
While it has been established that headaches in the pediatric age group are relatively common, the characterization of headache disorders and their treatment in this group has historically been limited. Due to the paucity of controlled studies on prophylaxis of the primary headache disorders in children, the diagnosis of migraine often rests on criteria similar to those used in adults. Data from adult studies are often extrapolated and applied to the pediatric patient. Although it appears that many prophylactic agents are safe, well tolerated and efficacious in children, currently only topiramate is FDA-approved for use in patients 12 years and over. As a result, despite often experiencing significant disability, many children who present to their physician with migraines do not receive preventive therapy. One-third of adolescents meet the criteria for warranting prophylactic therapy, yet few are offered a preventative medication. Moreover, controlled clinical trials investigating the use of both abortive and prophylactic medications in children have suffered from high placebo response rates. A diverse group of medications are used to prevent migraine attacks, including antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines and antihypertensive agents, yet there still remains a serious lack of controlled studies on the pharmacological treatment of pediatric migraine.
Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley
Increased accountability and growing fiscal limitations in global health care continue to challenge how occupational therapy practices are undertaken. Little is known about how these changes affect current practice in acute hospital settings. This article reviews the relevant literature to further understanding of occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings. A scoping review of five electronic databases was completed using the keywords Occupational therapy, acute hospital settings/acute physical hospital settings, acute care setting/acute care hospital setting, general medicine/general medical wards, occupational therapy service provision/teaching hospitals/tertiary care hospitals. Criteria were applied to determine suitability for inclusion and the articles were analysed to uncover key themes. In total 34 publications were included in the review. Analysis of the publications revealed four themes: (1) Comparisons between the practice of novice and experienced occupational therapists in acute care (2) Occupational therapists and the discharge planning process (3) Role of occupation in the acute care setting and (4) Personal skills needed and organisation factors affecting acute care practice. The current literature has highlighted the challenges occupational therapists face in practicing within an acute setting. Findings from this review enhance understanding of how occupational therapy department managers and educators can best support staff that practise in acute hospital settings. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Lobo, B L; Cooke, S C; Landy, S H
This review summarizes data on the effectiveness of various symptomatic migraine pharmacotherapies and makes recommendations for treatment. A wide variety of agents are available for the symptomatic treatment of migraine headache, including over-the-counter analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), combination products, opiates, ergot alkaloids, corticosteroids, dopamine antagonists, and triptans. In the stepped-care approach, simple analgesics and NSAIDs are the recommended first step for the treatment of mild-to-moderate migraine headaches. Patients who do not respond to first-step treatments may be given ergots, combination products, dopamine antagonists, or triptans as the second step. Corticosteroids or opiates may be used as rescue treatment in patients who do not respond to second-step treatment. A stratified approach to care individualizes treatment based on the severity of the headache and other patient-specific factors. In a stratified approach, dihydroergotamine or triptans may be the first-step treatment for patients who present with a history of severe migraines that have responded poorly to previous treatments. Sumatriptan was the first triptan approved for the symptomatic treatment of migraine headache; newer triptans include zolmitriptan, naratriptan, and rizatriptan. Since sumatriptan is rapidly absorbed by the subcutaneous route, its time to onset of effect is shortest. Among triptan drugs that are administered orally, the relative time to onset may be shorter with rizatriptan than sumatriptan. Naratriptan has a longer time to onset but is associated with a lower rate of migraine recurrence than other triptans. graine headache, ergot alkaloids, triptans,
Peroutka, Stephen J
A role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathophysiology of migraine has been established over the past 25 years. There have now been at least five different small-molecule CGRP antagonists that have demonstrated statistical proof of efficacy in the acute treatment of migraine. At present, multiple clinical trials are underway that are assessing the ability of long-acting antibodies against CGRP to prevent frequent migraine attacks. This review summarizes the existing data concerning the role of CGRP in migraine and attempts to highlight some possible outcomes from the ongoing anti-CGRP antibody trials.
Vandeleur, M; Chróinín, M N Ní
The aim was to develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination. Children admitted to Cork University Hospital Paediatric Department with acute asthma were identified during two identical 2 month seasonal periods before (2005) and after (2006) implementation of the new guidelines in September 2006. Pre-intervention and post-intervention audits by case note review were performed to determine the impact of and compliance with this evidence-based guideline emphasising patient assessment, spacer delivered bronchodilator and specific discharge criteria. Patients had similar characteristics during the two study periods. There was a raised threshold for admission after guideline implementation with 11/52 patients having mild exacerbations in 2006, compared to 21/36 in 2005. Duration of admission was less in the post-implementation group for equivalent exacerbation severity e.g. for moderate severity; 28 hours in 2005, 23 hours in 2006. Duration of bronchodilator therapy was shorter in 2006 and more likely to be given by spacer device earlier for equivalent levels of severity e.g. for moderate exacerbations, in 2006 the average length of salbutamol therapy was 18 hours with 12 hours by spacer device, in 2005 the average length of therapy was 25 hours with 3 hours by spacer. There was earlier initiation of oral corticosteroids; the average time to administration was 56 minutes in 2006 and 227 minutes in 2005. There was an improved documentation of asthma education in 2006 e.g. inhaler technique was reviewed in 37/52 in 2006, 21/35 in 2005 and better use of written action plans.
Source localization of intermittent rhythmic delta activity in a patient with acute confusional migraine: cross-spectral analysis using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).
Kim, Dae-Eun; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Eom, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jung-Min
Acute confusional migraine (ACM) shows typical electroencephalography (EEG) patterns of diffuse delta slowing and frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA). The pathophysiology of ACM is still unclear but these patterns suggest neuronal dysfunction in specific brain areas. We performed source localization analysis of IRDA (in the frequency band of 1-3.5 Hz) to better understand the ACM mechanism. Typical IRDA EEG patterns were recorded in a patient with ACM during the acute stage. A second EEG was obtained after recovery from ACM. To identify source localization of IRDA, statistical non-parametric mapping using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was performed for the delta frequency band comparisons between ACM attack and non-attack periods. A difference in the current density maximum was found in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (ACC). The significant differences were widely distributed over the frontal, parietal, temporal and limbic lobe, paracentral lobule and insula and were predominant in the left hemisphere. Dorsal ACC dysfunction was demonstrated for the first time in a patient with ACM in this source localization analysis of IRDA. The ACC plays an important role in the frontal attentional control system and acute confusion. This dysfunction of the dorsal ACC might represent an important ACM pathophysiology.
Tarantino, Samuela; Capuano, Alessandro; Torriero, Roberto; Citti, Monica; Vollono, Catello; Gentile, Simonetta; Vigevano, Federico; Valeriani, Massimiliano
Migraine equivalents are common clinical conditions without a headache component, occurring as repeated episodes with complete remission between episodes. They include abdominal migraine, cyclical vomiting, benign paroxysmal vertigo, and benign paroxysmal torticollis. Other clinical entities, such as motion sickness and limb pain have been associated with migraine. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of migraine equivalents in a large population of children referred to a pediatric headache center and to analyze the possible relationship between migraine equivalents and headache features. A total of 1134 of children/adolescents (73.2% with migraine and 26.8% with tension-type headache) were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to the episode frequency (high and low). Pain intensity was rated on a three-level graduate scale (mild, moderate, and severe pain). Migraine equivalents were reported in 70.3% of patients. Abdominal migraine (48.9%), limb pain (43.9%), and motion sickness (40.5%) were the most common migraine equivalents. Although headache type (migraine or tension-type headache) did not correlate with migraine equivalents presence (χ(2) = 33.2; P = 0.27), high frequency of headache episodes correlated with the occurrence of migraine equivalents. Moreover, migraine equivalents indicated a protective role for some accompanying feature of the headache episode. Our results suggest that migraine equivalents should not be considered merely as headache precursors, but they as part of the migrainous syndrome. Thus, their inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for pediatric migraine/tension-type headache is useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gooriah, Rubesh; Nimeri, Randa; Ahmed, Fayyaz
Migraine, a significantly disabling condition, is treated with acute and preventive medications. However, some individuals are refractory to standard treatments. Although there is a host of alternative management options available, these are not always backed by strong evidence. In fact, most of the drugs used in migraine were initially designed for other purposes. Whilst effective, the benefits from these medications are modest, reflecting the need for newer and migraine-specific therapeutic agents. In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of novel treatments, of which noninvasive neuromodulation appears to be the most attractive given its ease of use and excellent tolerability profile. This paper reviews the evidence behind the available treatments for migraine. PMID:26839703
Velasco, Elena Martínez; Mesonero, Luis López; Hueso, María Isabel Pedraza; Piñero, Marina Ruiz; de Lera Alfonso, Mercedes; Peral, Ángel Luis Guerrero
Cutaneous manifestations of migraine are infrequent and their spectrum is reduced to the red ear syndrome (RES) and eyelid disorders. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with migraine accompanied by extensive erythema, which involved right ear and cheek and left hemithorax. She fulfilled proposed criteria of RES. We started preventive therapy with a significant response. This is the first description in the literature of an erythema accompanying migraine attacks broadly exceeding the ear.
Davis, Christopher; Reno, Elaine; Maa, Edward; Roach, Robert
Davis, Christopher, Elaine Reno, Edward Maa, and Robert Roach. History of Migraine Predicts Headache at High Altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:300-304, 2016.-Objective: To characterize the spectrum of headaches and their association with migraine history within a population of recreational hikers above 4300 m. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a convenience sample of 667 hikers participated in a written survey after descent from Mount Gray/Torreys (4349 m). Headaches were characterized as migraine, high altitude headache (HAH), and/or acute mountain sickness (AMS) using International Headache Society Lake Louise AMS scoring criteria. A univariate odds ratio was calculated to determine whether a history of migraine increased the risk of migrainous headache. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether a priori identified risk factors such as age, sex, recent alcohol consumption, home elevation, and self-reported fluid intake and whether summit success increased the risk of any headache at altitude. Sixty percent of hikers were male with an age range of 17-62 years. Eighty percent reached the summit of Mount Grays/Torreys (4349 m). Seventy-nine percent of participants resided in Colorado; the median elevation of residence for subjects was 1697 m (interquartile range 1557-1765 m). HAH occurred in 39% of hikers, while AMS occurred in 26% of hikers. A history of migraine was associated with increased risk of any headache at altitude (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.62-3.65) and was strongly associated with the development of migrainous headache while at altitude (OR: 14.05, 95% CI: 5.49-35.93). A history of migraine is a risk factor for the development of headache at altitude and is strongly associated with the development of migrainous headache.
Wiesen, Patricia; Van Overmeire, Lionel; Delanaye, Pierre; Dubois, Bernard; Preiser, Jean-Charles
The physiological and biological modifications related to acute renal failure in critically ill patients, including the current use of continuous renal replacement therapies, have dramatically changed the type and importance of the metabolic and nutrition disturbances observed during treatment of renal failure. This review summarizes the current knowledge and makes recommendations for the daily nutrition management of these patients. The filtration of water-soluble substances of low molecular weight by continuous hemodiafiltration results in significant losses of glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins, trace elements, and water-soluble vitamins. The losses of these macronutrients and micronutrients should be compensated for. During continuous renal replacement therapy, the daily recommended energy allowance is between 25 and 35 kcal/kg, with a ratio of 60%-70% carbohydrates to 30%-40% lipids, and between 1.5 and 1.8 g/kg protein. Providing energy 25-35 kcal/kg/d with a carbohydrate/lipid ratio of 60-70/30-40 and protein 1.5-1.8 g/kg/d is recommended during continuous renal replacement therapy. Supplemental vitamin B(1) (100 mg/d), vitamin C (250 mg/d), and selenium (100 mcg/d) are also recommended.
Cousins, Joyce L; Wark, Peter AB; McDonald, Vanessa M
Oxygen is a commonly used drug in the clinical setting and like other drugs its use must be considered carefully. This is particularly true for those patients who are at risk of type II respiratory failure in whom the risk of hypercapnia is well established. In recent times, several international bodies have advocated for the prescription of oxygen therapy in an attempt to reduce this risk in vulnerable patient groups. Despite this guidance, published data have demonstrated that there has been poor uptake of these recommendations. Multiple interventions have been tested to improve concordance, and while some of these interventions show promise, the sustainability of these interventions are less convincing. In this review, we summarize data that have been published on the prevalence of oxygen prescription and the accurate and appropriate administration of this drug therapy. We also identify strategies that have shown promise in facilitating changes to oxygen prescription and delivery practice. There is a clear need to investigate the barriers, facilitators, and attitudes of clinicians in relation to the prescription of oxygen therapy in acute care. Interventions based on these findings then need to be designed and tested to facilitate the application of evidence-based guidelines to support sustained changes in practice, and ultimately improve patient care. PMID:27307722
Cousins, Joyce L; Wark, Peter A B; McDonald, Vanessa M
Oxygen is a commonly used drug in the clinical setting and like other drugs its use must be considered carefully. This is particularly true for those patients who are at risk of type II respiratory failure in whom the risk of hypercapnia is well established. In recent times, several international bodies have advocated for the prescription of oxygen therapy in an attempt to reduce this risk in vulnerable patient groups. Despite this guidance, published data have demonstrated that there has been poor uptake of these recommendations. Multiple interventions have been tested to improve concordance, and while some of these interventions show promise, the sustainability of these interventions are less convincing. In this review, we summarize data that have been published on the prevalence of oxygen prescription and the accurate and appropriate administration of this drug therapy. We also identify strategies that have shown promise in facilitating changes to oxygen prescription and delivery practice. There is a clear need to investigate the barriers, facilitators, and attitudes of clinicians in relation to the prescription of oxygen therapy in acute care. Interventions based on these findings then need to be designed and tested to facilitate the application of evidence-based guidelines to support sustained changes in practice, and ultimately improve patient care.
Dougherty, Carrie; Silberstein, Stephen D
Chronic migraine, a subtype of migraine defined as ≥ 15 headache days per month for ≥ 3 months, in which ≥ 8 days per month meet criteria for migraine with or without aura or respond to migraine-specific treatment, is a disabling, underdiagnosed, and undertreated disorder associated with significant disability, poor health-related quality of life, and high economic burden. The keys to caring for chronic migraine patients include: (1) making a proper diagnosis; (2) identifying and eliminating exacerbating factors; (3) assessing for medication overuse (patients with chronic headache often overuse acute medications); and (4) continued management. Communication between patient and physician about treatment goals is important. The patient management guidelines presented in this article should help physicians improve treatment success and proactively address common comorbidities among their patients with chronic migraine.
Starling, Amaal J; Vargas, Bert B
Chronic migraine is a debilitating disorder that affects 2 % of the global population and imparts a significant societal and economic impact. The cornerstones of chronic migraine management include making an accurate diagnosis, patient education, treatment of comorbid conditions, and selection of an appropriate, evidence-based acute and preventive treatment regimen. Although it is common to treat chronic migraine with preventive medications effective for episodic migraine, a number of treatment options exist with specific evidence for effectiveness in chronic migraine. Currently, onabotulinumtoxinA injections are the only FDA-approved preventive treatment for chronic migraine. A number of non-medication treatment options including occipital nerve and supraorbital nerve stimulation have shown promise as effective prevention for patients either unable to tolerate or unable to obtain relief from oral medications, but more research is necessary.
... When to seek help What is an ocular migraine? Is it a sign of something serious? Answers ... the other which might have more–serious complications. Migraine aura involving your vision In some cases, ocular ...
Migraine is a widespread disorder with a large impact on society. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common occurrence, affecting about 25 % of the population. Observational studies report PFO to be more prevalent in patients with migraine with aura, and patients with migraine with aura have a higher incidence of PFO. The only population-based study does not support this link. It is possible that an association exists between large-sized PFO and migraine. This association may explain how migraine with aura can be triggered. Numerous studies have reported improved migraine with PFO closure, but the only prospective placebo-controlled trial aimed at closure of PFO in patients with migraine with aura did not support this. At this time, evidence does not support the routine detection and closure of PFO in patients with migraine.
Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.
Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the
Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D; James, Stefan; Kilaru, Rakhi; He, Yaohua; Mohan, Puneet; Bhatt, Deepak L; Goodman, Shaun; Verheugt, Freek W; Flather, Marcus; Huber, Kurt; Liaw, Danny; Husted, Steen E; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; De Caterina, Raffaele; Jansky, Petr; Darius, Harald; Vinereanu, Dragos; Cornel, Jan H; Cools, Frank; Atar, Dan; Leiva-Pons, Jose Luis; Keltai, Matyas; Ogawa, Hisao; Pais, Prem; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Ruzyllo, Witold; Diaz, Rafael; White, Harvey; Ruda, Mikhail; Geraldes, Margarida; Lawrence, Jack; Harrington, Robert A; Wallentin, Lars
Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events. The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P=0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P=0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo. The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; APPRAISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00831441.).
Ongun, Nedim; Atalay, Nilgun S; Degirmenci, Eylem; Sahin, Fusun; Bir, Levent Sinan
Migraine is a common disorder characterized by headache attacks frequently accompanied by vestibular symptoms like dizziness, vertigo, and balance disorders. Clinical studies support a strong link between migraine and vertigo rather than between other headache types and vertigo or nonvertiginous dizziness. There is a lack of consensus regarding the pathophysiology of migrainous vertigo. Activation of central vestibular processing during migraine attacks and vasospasm-induced ischemia of the labyrinth are reported as the probable responsible mechanisms. Because vestibular examination alone does not provide enough information for diagnosis of migrainous vertigo, posturography systems which provide objective assessment of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual information would be very helpful to show concomitant involvement of the vestibular and somato-sensorial systems. There are few posturographic studies on patients with migraine but it seems that how balance is affected in patients with migraine and/or migrainous vertigo is still not clear. We want to investigate balance function in migraineurs with and without vertigo with a tetra-ataxiometric posturography system and our study is the first study in which tetra-ataxiometric static posturography was used to evaluate postural abnormalities in a well-defined population of patients with migrainous vertigo. To investigate balance functions in migraineurs with and without vertigo with a tetra-ataxiometric posturography system. Prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study. Pamukkale University Hospital, Neurology and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics. Sixteen patients with migrainous vertigo, 16 patients with migraine without aura and no vestibular symptoms, and 16 controls were included in the study. Computerized static posturography system was performed and statistical analyses of fall, Fourier, Stability, and Weight distribution indexes were performed. The tetra-ataxiometric posturography device
Pourafshar, Negiin; Karimi, Ashkan; Kazory, Amir
Congestion is the most common reason for hospitalization of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and adversely impacts their outcomes. Extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF) therapy has re-emerged as an effective strategy for decongestion in this setting. This article is intended to discuss key concepts in UF and its technique, provide a brief historical view of UF application for decongestion in ADHF, review the hemodynamic and neurohormonal effects of UF and their positive effects on the pathophysiology of ADHF, discuss the findings of the landmark trials in this field, and explain key findings of these studies as well as the apparent discrepancies in their findings. In a separate section we discuss the intricacies of renal dysfunction in ADHF as it plays a very important role in understanding the current evidence and designing futures clinical trials of UF in ADHF. In the end, the authors provide their perspective on the future role of UF in management of patients with ADHF and congestion.
Contractor, Hussain; Ruparelia, Neil
Admissions to emergency care centres with acute coronary syndromes remain one of the principal burdens on healthcare systems in the Western world. Early pharmacological treatment in these patients is crucial, lessening the impact on both morbidity and mortality, with the cornerstone of management being antiplatelet agents. While aspirin and clopidogrel have been the drugs of choice for nearly a decade, an array of newer, more potent antiplatelet agents are now available or in late stage development. Data are rapidly gathering suggesting these agents have superior anti-ischaemic properties, improving patient outcomes, but that for some agents increased vigilance and appropriate patient selection may be necessary to guard against bleeding complications. In this review, the authors aim to deliver an overview of the changing field of antiplatelet therapy and provide information about the relative risks and benefits of these newer agents, many of which will be entering widespread clinical use imminently.
Durham, Paul L.; Masterson, Caleb G.
Objective The goal of this study was to better understand the cellular mechanisms involved in proton stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) secretion from cultured trigeminal neurons by investigating the effects of two anti-migraine therapies, onabotulinumtoxin A and rizatriptan. Background Stimulated CGRP release from peripheral and central terminating processes of trigeminal ganglia neurons is implicated in migraine pathology by promoting inflammation and nociception. Based on models of migraine pathology, several inflammatory molecules including protons are thought to facilitate sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptive neurons and stimulate CGRP secretion. Despite the reported efficacy of triptans and onabotulinumtoxinA to treat acute and chronic migraine, respectively, a substantial number of migraneurs do not get adequate relief with these therapies. A possible explanation is that triptans and onabutulinumtoxinA are not able to block proton mediated CGRP secretion. Methods CGRP secretion from cultured primary trigeminal ganglia neurons was quantitated by radioimmunoassay while intracellular calcium and sodium levels were measured in neurons via live cell imaging using Fura2-AM and SBFI-AM, respectively. The expression of ASIC3 was determined by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, the involvement of ASICs in mediating proton stimulation of CGRP was investigated using the potent and selective ASIC3 inhibitor APETx2. Results While KCl caused a significant increase in CGRP secretion that was significantly repressed by treatment with EGTA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and rizatriptan, the stimulatory effect of protons (pH 5.5) was not suppressed by EGTA, onabotulinumtoxinA, or rizatriptan. In addition, while KCl caused a transient increase in intracellular calcium levels that was blocked by EGTA, no appreciable change in calcium levels was observed with proton treatment. However, protons did significantly increase the
Tank, C; Lefering, R; Althaus, A; Simanski, C; Neugebauer, E
The significance of postoperative pain management for patients in the hospital is well known and has been a focus of research for several years. The ambulatory care after hospital discharge, however, is not well investigated. A prospective observational study was therefore conducted to study the transfer management from in-hospital patients to ambulatory care. A patient questionnaire was developed and patients were asked to fill it out at different time points after the operation: during the time in the hospital, then at 2 weeks and 6 months after hospital discharge. In addition, the responsible family doctor was approached and interviewed. The main focus of the questionnaire was the measurement of post-surgical pain (numeric rating scale NRS), patient satisfaction (Cologne patient questionnaire), and quality of life (SF 12). Of a total of 128 patients 72.9% described moderate to severe pain after the orthopaedic operations in the hospital. 90.8% of the patients had pain directly after discharge from the hospital; in 67.4% of the cases pain was ≥3 and in 23.4% of the cases pain was ≥6. Six months after discharge pain was significant in 29.4% of the patients, 60.8% of the patients were satisfied with the transfer to the home setting. 16% were not satisfied at all and 23.2% were neutral. Important factors for dissatisfaction with the transfer management were, according to stepwise logistic regeression analysis, sex (female patients), young age, a poor bodily constitution at the hospital and thereafter, and the pain management in the hospital and after discharge. The study shows the significance of the acute pain therapy not only during the hospital stay but also after discharge. There are very few data on pain therapy after discharge from the hospital. Based on the significance of the chronification of acute pain it is of the utmost importance to close this gap. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Farook, Naureen; Haussen, Diogo; Sur, Samir; Snelling, Brian; Gersey, Zachary; Yavagal, Dileep; Peterson, Eric
Systemic heparinization has become the mainstay anticoagulant in neurointerventional procedures to prevent thromboembolic complications. Its benefit during endovascular therapy for acute stroke however has not been established. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the impact of heparin during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We performed a retrospective review of our interventional stroke database from February 2009 to September 2012 for patients with anterior circulation AIS with ICA-T or MCA M1 occlusions. 76 patients were categorized into 2 groups: intraprocedural vs. no intraprocedural heparin use. Outcomes measured included reperfusion (modified TICI scale), cerebral hemorrhages (ECASS criteria), and 90-day outcomes (modified Rankin scale). Baseline characteristics were similar between heparin and non-heparin treated patients, except for presence of CAD (6% vs. 30%, p=0.01), Coumadin (0% vs. 11%, p=0.04), and NIHSS (15.6±5.0 vs. 18.1±4.6, p=0.03). There was a nonsignificantly higher reperfusion rate achieved in heparin-treated patients compared to non heparin-treated patients (63% vs. 50%, p=0.35). Patients who received heparin had significantly lower rates of hemorrhage (p=0.02). Multivariate logistic regression for good outcome revealed only age (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.78-0.95; p<0.01), ASPECTS (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.01-4.50; p=0.04), and successful reperfusion (OR 19.25; 95% CI 2.37-155.95; p<0.01) independently associated with mRS 0-2 at 90 days. The use of intraprocedural heparin in patients with AIS from MCA M1 or ICA-T occlusion was found safe. The impact of heparinization is unclear and warrants further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dodick, David W; Loder, Elizabeth W; Manack Adams, Aubrey; Buse, Dawn C; Fanning, Kristina M; Reed, Michael L; Lipton, Richard B
To assess the rates and predictors of traversing steps essential to good medical care for chronic migraine, including: (1) medical consultation, (2) accurate diagnosis, and (3) minimal pharmacologic treatment. Candidate predictors included socioeconomic, demographic, and headache-specific variables. Previous research has established that barriers to effective management for episodic migraine include the absence of health insurance, lack of appropriate medical consultation, failure to receive an accurate diagnosis, and not being offered a regimen with acute and preventive treatments. The Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes (CaMEO) Study, a longitudinal web-based panel study of migraine, included a cross-sectional module focused on patterns of and barriers to medical care. Participants eligible for this analysis met the study criteria for chronic migraine, had evidence of headache-related disability, and provided data on health insurance status. The main outcomes in the current analysis included the proportion of respondents who sought consultation for headache with a designated healthcare professional, self-reported receiving a diagnosis of chronic or transformed migraine, and received minimal pharmacologic treatment for headache with a focus on prescribed acute and preventive treatments. In the CaMEO Study, 80,783 respondents provided study data, 16,789 (20.8% of respondents) met criteria for migraine, and 1476 (8.8% of those with migraine) met chronic migraine criteria. In total, 1254 participants (85.0% of those with chronic migraine) met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Of those, 512 respondents (40.8%) reported currently consulting with a healthcare professional for headache. Odds of consulting increased with increasing age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03), body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.03), migraine-related disability (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04), and migraine severity (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.11-1.22) and presence of health insurance (OR 4
Rohan, Kelly J; Mahon, Jennifer N; Evans, Maggie; Ho, Sheau-Yan; Meyerhoff, Jonah; Postolache, Teodor T; Vacek, Pamela M
Whereas considerable evidence supports light therapy for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), data on cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD (CBT-SAD) are promising but preliminary. This study estimated the difference between CBT-SAD and light therapy outcomes in a large, more definitive test. The participants were 177 adults with a current episode of major depression that was recurrent with a seasonal pattern. The randomized clinical trial compared 6 weeks of CBT-SAD (N=88) and light therapy (N=89). Light therapy consisted of 10,000-lux cool-white florescent light, initiated at 30 minutes each morning and adjusted according to a treatment algorithm based on response and side effects. CBT-SAD comprised 12 sessions of the authors' SAD-tailored protocol in a group format and was administered by Ph.D. psychologists in two 90-minute sessions per week. Outcomes were continuous scores on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-SAD Version (SIGH-SAD, administered weekly) and Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II, administered before treatment, at week 3, and after treatment) and posttreatment remission status based on cut points. Depression severity measured with the SIGH-SAD and BDI-II improved significantly and comparably with CBT-SAD and light therapy. Having a baseline comorbid diagnosis was associated with higher depression scores across all time points in both treatments. CBT-SAD and light therapy did not differ in remission rates based on the SIGH-SAD (47.6% and 47.2%, respectively) or the BDI-II (56.0% and 63.6%). CBT-SAD and light therapy are comparably effective for SAD during an acute episode, and both may be considered as treatment options.
Narain, Sachin; Al-Khoury, Lama; Chang, Eric
Background Migraine headaches are a common and functionally debilitating disorder affecting approximately 17% of women and 5.6% of men. Compared to episodic migraine patients, chronic migraineurs are more likely to be occupationally disabled, miss family activities, have comorbid anxiety and/or chronic pain disorders, and utilize significantly more health care dollars. Ziconotide is a calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of chronic severe pain without issues of tolerance or dependency found with opioid therapy. Case A 59-year-old female had an intrathecal baclofen pump placed for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis. Her symptoms also included lower extremity neuropathic pain and severe migraine headaches with 22 migraine headache days per month. Prior treatments included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, and Botox injections which reduced her symptoms to four migraine days per month at best. While her spasticity had markedly improved with intrathecal baclofen, ziconotide was added to help her neuropathic pain complaints. Following initiation of low-dose ziconotide (1 µg/day), the patient noted both lower extremity pain improvement and complete resolution of migraine headaches resulting in zero migraine days per month. She has now been migraine free for 8 months. Conclusion Upon review of the available literature, there are no published cases of migraine improvement with intrathecal ziconotide. This represents the first case describing resolution of migraine symptoms with low-dose ziconotide. PMID:26392785
Szok, Délia; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László; Tajti, János
Background: Chronic migraine is a common, highly disabling, underdiagnosed and undertreated entity of migraine. It affects 0.9%–2.2% of the general adult population. The present paper overviews the preclinical and clinical data regarding the therapeutic effect of onabotulinumtoxinA in chronic migraineurs. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the database of PubMed up to 20 May 2015 for articles related to the pathomechanism of chronic migraine, the mode of action, and the efficacy, safety and tolerability of onabotulinumtoxinA for the preventive treatment of chronic migraine. Results: The pathomechanism of chronic migraine has not been fully elucidated. The mode of action of onabotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of chronic migraine is suggested to be related to the inhibition of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in the trigeminovascular system. Randomized clinical trials demonstrated that long-term onabotulinumtoxinA fixed-site and fixed-dose (155–195 U) intramuscular injection therapy was effective and well tolerated for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. Conclusions: Chronic migraine is a highly devastating entity of migraine. Its exact pathomechanism is unrevealed. Two-third of chronic migraineurs do not receive proper preventive medication. Recent clinical studies revealed that onabotulinumtoxinA was an efficacious and safe treatment for chronic migraine. PMID:26193319
Gao, Shui-Bo; Wu, Hong; Gao, Cheng-Shun
To observe the clinical effect of Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy on acute mastitis during lactation. Fifteen cases suffered from acute lactation mastitis were treated with Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy, that is, firstly with lifting and flicking reduction at "Taiji" and "Xuepen" point, whose intensity was varied from patient's physical fitness. Subsequently, the patients were treated with flame therapy induced by distillate spirit, once each day. After the treatment, all the patients were cured completely in from 1 to 5 days, with an average of 2.5 days. Guoshu acupoint pressure therapy is effective on acute mastitis during lactation.
Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio; Marques, Karine Sobral; Torres, Rinailda Cascia Santos; Leal, Kamila Nazare Ribas
To evaluate the association between osmophobia and the characteristics of patients and their headaches, among migraine patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Patients who consecutively sought medical attendance in a primary care unit were asked about their headaches over the last 12 months. Those who had migraine were included. A semi-structured interview, the Headache Impact Test and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. 147 patients had migraine; 78 had osmophobia; 60 had significant anxiety symptoms; and 78 had significant depression symptoms. The mean age of these patients was 43.2 years (± 13.7); 91.2% were women. The mean length of time with complaints of headache was 13.8 years (± 12). Among the migraine patients, those with anxiety, more years of headache history, and phonophobia presented significantly more osmophobia (multivariate logistic regression). Osmophobia in migraine patients is associated with significant anxiety symptoms, length of headache history, and phonophobia. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Silberstein, Stephen D.
Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585
Gryglas, Anna; Smigiel, Robert
Migraine and stroke are common, disabling neurologic disorders, with a high socioeconomic burden. A link between them has been proposed years ago, and various theories have been proposed to explain this bidirectional relation. However, the precise causes remain unclear. We briefly summarize existing hypotheses of this correlation seeking for recommendations for stroke prevention in migraineurs, if any exist. Among the strongest suggested theories of migraine-stroke association are cortical spreading depression, endovascular dysfunction, vasoconstriction, neurogenic inflammation, hypercoagulability, increased prevalence of vascular risk factors, shared genetic defects, cervical artery dissection, and patent foramen ovale. There is no evidence that any preventive therapy in migraineurs should be used to decrease stroke risk, even in most predisposed subset of patients. However, a woman with migraine with aura should be encouraged to cease smoking and avoid taking oral contraceptives with high estrogen doses. We need further investigation to better understand the complexity of migraine-stroke association and to make firm recommendations for the future.
Ruthman, Carl A.; Festic, Emir
The development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) carries significant risk of morbidity and mortality. To date, pharmacologic therapy has been largely ineffective for patients with ARDS. We present our personal review aimed at outlining c