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Sample records for acute migraine treatment

  1. Acute Migraine Treatment in Adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2015-06-01

    There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication

  2. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. PMID:20352584

  3. Beta blocker eye drops for treatment of acute migraine.

    PubMed

    Migliazzo, Carl V; Hagan, John C

    2014-01-01

    We report seven cases of successful treatment of acute migraine symptoms using beta blocker eye drops. The literature on beta blockers for acute migraine is reviewed. Oral beta blocker medication is not effective for acute migraine treatment. This is likely due to a relatively slow rate of achieving therapeutic plasma levels when taken orally. Topical beta blocker eye drops achieve therapeutic plasma levels within minutes of ocular administration which may explain their apparent effectiveness in relief of acute migraine symptoms. PMID:25211851

  4. [Prophylactic measures and acute treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A; Heinze-Kuhn, K

    2006-11-01

    The treatment of migraine consists of the acute treatment of the migraine attack and prophylactic measures for either pharmacological or non-pharmacological management. Since the retreat of the ergotamines one can only choose between one of the well-established analgesics and one of seven triptans for the treatment of the migraine attack. Although neither a new triptan nor an innovative new application form has been introduced, the year 2006 will be remembered as the year when the first triptan (naratriptan) was released as a prescription-free over-the-counter drug and when the first sumatriptan generics were marketed in Germany. In addition to the beta-blockers metoprolol and propranolol and the calcium antagonist flunarizine two antiepileptic drugs, topiramate and valproic acid, have been rated as first-line prophylactic drugs in Germany. Due to an extensive and successful study program topiramate has been officially approved in Germany. PMID:17048020

  5. Commonly Used Acute Migraine Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make headaches worse (or lead to decreased responsiveness to other drug therapies) Patient preference Goals of ... Reduce frequency, severity, and duration of attacks Improve responsiveness to treatment of acute attacks Reduce level of ...

  6. What do patients want from acute migraine treatment?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Rm

    2004-01-01

    Clinical observations have shown that migraine is a progressive disorder, both within an acute attack, and within the disease itself. Rates of diagnosis for migraine have increased in the last decade, but more than half of migraineurs remain undiagnosed. Patient expectations of migraine therapies have also increased (patients require rapid and sustained pain relief with a treatment that has good tolerability), and can differ greatly from those of physicians. Management decisions should be made with these expectations in mind, to enhance patient outcomes and compliance with treatment. Improved understanding of acute migraine attack pathophysiology has led to the strategy of early treatment to modify both the progression of the current attack and, potentially, the progression of the disease itself in the individual. The triptans are effective acute migraine therapies. Each agent has its own distinct profile of efficacy and tolerability, enabling individualization of treatment. PMID:15595989

  7. Pharmacological treatment of acute migraine in adolescents and children.

    PubMed

    Wöber-Bingöl, Çiçek

    2013-06-01

    Migraine is a common disease in children and adolescents. The incidence of migraine has increased alarmingly in the general population during recent decades. Migraine causes considerable individual suffering and impaired quality of life. Therefore, appropriate management is essential. In this article, the treatment of acute migraine in children and adolescents will be reviewed. Only a few randomized controlled studies have been published and high placebo rates are a major problem for proving superiority of active drugs. Generally, acetaminophen (paracetamol) and ibuprofen are accepted as drugs of first choice, even though the evidence is poor for the former and limited for latter. Among 14 studies on triptans in adolescents, 9 showed some superiority over placebo with respect to pain relief and pain freedom, and among 6 studies in children, 5 suggest some superiority over placebo. Sumatriptan nasal spray and zolmitriptan nasal spray have been approved for adolescents in Europe; almotriptan has been approved for adolescents in the USA, as has rizatriptan for patients aged 6-17 years. A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of a fixed combination of sumatriptan and naproxen in adolescents with migraine. In conclusion, evidence for the pharmacological treatment of acute migraine in children is very poor and evidence for adolescents is better but still limited. PMID:23575981

  8. Acute treatment of migraine and the role of triptans.

    PubMed

    Freitag, F G

    2001-03-01

    The use of triptans has improved the ability to treat migraine successfully compared with older treatments. Speed of relief, consistency of effect, and good tolerability have been the hallmarks of these agents. All of the currently available triptans have comparable efficacy and tolerability. Variables between the agents may lead to one agent or dose form being preferred over another in various clinical scenarios. The triptans that are forthcoming may improve on these options through enhanced efficacy rates, tolerability, and headache recurrence rates. There exist increasing options for migraine treatment that may further improve the clinical effects of the older and newer triptans through early treatment of migraine at the stages of mild migraine pain, or even during the prodromal phase of the attack. Additionally, recent work suggests that mini-prophylaxis of migraine at the menses is a highly successful treatment option with the triptans. In this age of managed care, providing cost-effective treatment of headache will take on increasing importance. Techniques such as stratification of acute treatments may enhance cost-effective care, whereas ready availability of the triptans may lead to significant improvements in utilization of parameters such as office visits, emergency room treatment, and even hospitalization. PMID:11898508

  9. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the american headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine

  10. Ineffective acute treatment of episodic migraine is associated with new-onset chronic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Richard B.; Fanning, Kristina M.; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael L.; Cady, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that ineffective acute treatment of episodic migraine (EM) is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent onset of chronic migraine (CM). Methods: In the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study, respondents with EM in 2006 who completed the Migraine Treatment Optimization Questionnaire (mTOQ-4) and provided outcome data in 2007 were eligible for analyses. The mTOQ-4 is a validated questionnaire that assesses treatment efficacy based on 4 aspects of response to acute treatment. Total mTOQ-4 scores were used to define categories of acute treatment response: very poor, poor, moderate, and maximum treatment efficacy. Logistic regression models were used to examine the dichotomous outcome of transition from EM in 2006 to CM in 2007 as a function of mTOQ-4 category, adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 5,681 eligible study respondents with EM in 2006, 3.1% progressed to CM in 2007. Only 1.9% of the group with maximum treatment efficacy developed CM. Rates of new-onset CM increased in the moderate treatment efficacy (2.7%), poor treatment efficacy (4.4%), and very poor treatment efficacy (6.8%) groups. In the fully adjusted model, the very poor treatment efficacy group had a more than 2-fold increased risk of new-onset CM (odds ratio = 2.55, 95% confidence interval 1.42–4.61) compared to the maximum treatment efficacy group. Conclusion: Inadequate acute treatment efficacy was associated with an increased risk of new-onset CM over the course of 1 year. Improving acute treatment outcomes might prevent new-onset CM, although reverse causality cannot be excluded. PMID:25609757

  11. The acute and preventative treatment of episodic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Episodic migraine is a common debilitating condition with significant worldwide impact. An effective management plan must include acute treatment to relieve the pain and potential disability associated with the attacks and may also include preventative treatments with an aim of decreasing attack frequency and severity in the longer term. Acute treatments must be limited to a maximum of 2-3 days a week to prevent medication overuse headache and focus on simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Preventative treatments are numerous and should be considered when migraine attacks are frequent and or disabling, acute medication is failing, in special circumstances such as hemiplegic migraines or if the patient requests them. All preventative medications must be given at therapeutic doses for at least 6-8 weeks before an adequate trial can be judged ineffective. The most important factor in choosing drugs is the patient and the clinical features of their attack and treatment should be tailored to these. Relative co-morbidities will influence drug choice, as will the side effect profile and the efficacy of the drug. First line preventative drugs include ß-blockers, amitriptyline and anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate and valproate. Drugs with lower efficacy or poorer side effect profiles include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin and herbal medicines. PMID:23024562

  12. Oral almotriptan: practical uses in the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Dowson, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Almotriptan (Almogran, Lundbeck; Almirall Prodesfarma; Axert, Ortho-McNeil) is a novel 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist (triptan) that is widely available on prescription for the acute treatment of migraine. Almotriptan has pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles that make it suitable for use in this indication. It is a potent agonist at 5-HT(1B), (1D) and (1F) receptors, while having a low affinity for other 5-HT receptors. It is also a potent inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation. Almotriptan has a high oral bioavailability, is absorbed rapidly, has a relatively short plasma half-life and its route of elimination presents few potential problems. Placebo-controlled dose-finding studies have demonstrated that almotriptan tablets are effective and well-tolerated in the acute treatment of migraine, with a 12.5 mg dose providing the best balance between efficacy and tolerability. Large placebo-controlled studies show that the efficacy of oral almotriptan is comparable with that of the other oral triptans. In direct comparator-controlled studies, almotriptan was as effective as sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg but had a superior tolerability profile. Furthermore, the efficacy and tolerability of almotriptan is sustained in the long term following open-label administration. Meta-analyses and post hoc analyses of clinical data confirm these findings. In conclusion, almotriptan 12.5 mg is a good therapeutic choice for the symptomatic treatment of acute migraine attacks. PMID:15853532

  13. Effective treatment of migraine. Terminating acute attacks, reducing their frequency.

    PubMed

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Edmeads, John

    2004-04-01

    Migraine is the headache most commonly encountered in primary care practice. In one US population survey, 17.6% of women and 6% of men reported migraine. Specific, effective treatment options for migraine are increasingly available, helping to reinforce how important it is that this common and sometimes disabling condition be recognized by primary care physicians. PMID:15095534

  14. How to Apply the AHS Evidence Assessment of the Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adults to your Patient with Migraine.

    PubMed

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Davenport, William Jeptha; Marmura, Michael J; Schwedt, Todd J; Silberstein, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    The "Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adults: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Migraine Pharmacotherapies" provides levels of evidence for medication efficacy for acute treatment of migraine. The goal of this companion paper is to provide guidance on how to choose between evidence-based treatment options, and, based on the clinical characteristics of the patient and their migraine attacks, to provide guidance on designing an individualized strategy for managing migraine attacks. The acute pharmacological treatments described in the American Headache Society evidence assessment can be divided into those initially taken by the patient during the headache phase of the migraine attack, those taken by the patient later in the attack when initial treatments fail, and those administered intravenously or intramuscularly in urgent care settings. Medications taken initially by patients in the headache phase include nonspecific analgesics such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), triptans, and dihydroergotamine (DHE). A stratified approach to treatment is advised, with the choice of medication based on the patient's treatment needs, taking into consideration the attack severity, presence of associated symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, and the degree of migraine-related disability. Individuals with migraine may find reassurance in having a "back-up plan" in the event of an initial acute treatment failure. For those individuals who had a partial response to the initial acute treatment, a second dose might be indicated. When the initial treatment does not provide meaningful and sustained benefits, a treatment from a different medication class is typically chosen. Depending upon the initial treatment used, this might include NSAIDs, triptans, or DHE. Opioids or acetaminophen in combination with codeine or tramadol can be considered as part of the "back-up plan," provided they are used infrequently. When all patient administered

  15. Early treatment of acute migraine: new evidence of benefits.

    PubMed

    Valade, D

    2009-12-01

    The current management approach to migraine headaches advocates use of triptan medications early in the course of an attack while pain is still mild, rather than waiting to treat the pain when it has progressed to moderate-severe. Recently, strong new evidence for the benefits of early intervention has become available. The AEGIS, AIMS and AwM studies of almotriptan in patients with migraine indicate that earlier treatment initiation and lower pain intensity at the time of treatment are important predictors of enhanced therapeutic outcomes. The opportunity to treat early exists for about 50% of all migraine attacks, which offers considerable scope for improving migraine management. Importantly, treating pain early and before it has progressed beyond 'mild' meets many of the expectations patients have of their migraine treatment. It is believed that consistent, positive outcomes may assist in overcoming the various physician- and patient-perceived barriers to adoption of this beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:20017750

  16. Acute management of migraine.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2010-04-01

    Migraine is a brain disease whose principal symptom is episodic intense throbbing pain in the head which is often accompanied by photophobia, phonophobia, nausea and vomiting. Primary objectives of migraine treatment are to abort the acute attacks, treat associated symptoms and prevent future attacks. With a majority of migraine patients being young, they will need a treatment plan to suit their professional work, leisure and reproductive concerns. Non specific anti-migraine drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-emetics, narcotics, and sympathomimetics are usually helpful in mild to moderate attacks. Specific drugs like triptans and ergots are useful for moderate to severe attacks. In step care approach, the patients are started with the simplest options like simple analgesics first followed by non-steroidal agents, then ergot preparations and eventually triptans if they do not respond. In stratified care approach, the attacks and the patients are stratified according to the severity and therapeutic response. Those with severe disabling episodes are given specific anti-migraine medications like triptans whereas patients with mild or low disability are treated with simple analgesics. Currently, the most favored acute anti-migraine medication is a triptan. At marketed doses all triptans are effective as compared to placebos and generally well tolerated. Amongst them however, rizatriptan 10 mg, eletriptan 80 mg and almotriptan 12.5 mg provide the highest likelihood of consistent success. Triptan related adverse events are usually short lived, mild and clinically insignificant. Ergots are slowly being replaced by triptans. This is because of their adverse side-effects, low bioavailability and high potential for abuse that can lead to overuse headache. PMID:21049703

  17. Sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Vikelis, Michail; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Rapoport, Alan M

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY We will describe the pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy and safety data of the sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system (Zecuity®, NuPathe Inc., PA, USA), recently approved for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults, by the US FDA. This transdermal system utilizes a low-level electrical current to deliver sumatriptan transdermally and circumvents the GI tract. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that iontophoretic delivery of sumatriptan achieves detectable plasma concentrations 15 min after activation with a maximum mean serum concentration of 22 ng/ml. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial demonstrated minimal triptan-related side effects and superior efficacy versus placebo. The pain-free rate at 2 h postdose was 18% of patients applying the sumatriptan patch versus 9% using the placebo (p = 0.0092). This sumatriptan transdermal system may be a good choice for migraineurs with severe nausea or vomiting, those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events and/or those not responding optimally to oral medications. PMID:24641436

  18. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2006-08-01

    Migraine is a common episodic pain disorder, the treatment of which can be acute to stop an attack or preventive to reduce the frequency, duration or severity of attacks. Preventive treatment is used when attacks are frequent or disabling. Many different medication groups are used for preventive treatment, including beta-blockers, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Their mechanisms of action include raising the threshold to migraine activation, enhancing antinociception, inhibiting cortical spreading depression, inhibiting peripheral and central sensitization, blocking neurogenic inflammation and modulating sympathetic, parasympathetic or 5-HT tone. In this article, I review evidence of the effectiveness of migraine preventive drugs. I also discuss the setting of treatment priorities. PMID:16820222

  19. Almotriptan: meeting today's needs in acute migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Láinez, Miguel J A

    2007-12-01

    Migraine is a common disorder associated with considerable individual and economic burden. Triptans are recommended for the treatment of migraine of any severity in patients who have failed to gain adequate relief with nonspecific medication; early transition to triptans avoids prolonged morbidity in patients failing to respond to nonspecific medications. There is evidence that early intervention therapy with oral formulations in migraine, soon after the onset of an attack and when pain is still mild, improves efficacy. Seven different triptans are currently marketed, with differing pharmacologic, efficacy and tolerability profiles. Almotriptan has many positive features, which include rigorously demonstrated efficacy in sumatriptan nonresponders, as early therapy and in menstrual migraine. In addition, almotriptan has a favorable pharmacologic profile with a lack of clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interventions with other drugs, adverse reactions rate similar to placebo, superior cost-effectiveness and excellent performance on composite clinical outcome measures that incorporate features of greatest importance to patients. Although effective in both triptan-naive and -experienced patients, and as both early and standard therapy, almotriptan shows greater efficacy in triptan-naive patients and as early treatment, and is consistently one of the preferred triptans in multiattribute decision-making analyses incorporating attributes of significance for patients and physicians. Therefore, almotriptan has many features that make it an ideal choice for a triptan-naive patient moving from nonspecific medication, a patient switching from another triptan owing to inefficacy or tolerability issues and patients being advised to take a triptan early in the course of a migraine attack. PMID:18052762

  20. Migraine preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disease. Preventive therapy is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include recurring migraine attacks that significantly interfere with the patient's daily routines, despite appropriate acute treatment; frequent headaches; contraindication to, failure of, overuse of, or intolerance to acute therapies; patient preference; frequent, very long, or uncomfortable auras; and presence of uncommon migraine conditions. The major medication groups for preventive migraine treatment include beta-adrenergic blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, and anticonvulsants. The choice of preventive treatment depends on the individual drug's efficacy and adverse events, the patient's clinical features, frequency, and response to prior treatment, and the presence of any comorbid or coexistent disease. PMID:20816433

  1. Pharmacoeconomic benefits of almotriptan in the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Frederick G

    2008-04-01

    Almotriptan is one of seven oral triptans available in the USA and much of the rest of the world. Reviews of its efficacy and tolerability demonstrate it to be among the most effective and well tolerated of this class. Studies of almotriptan in a variety of early intervention paradigms demonstrate significant improvements in efficacy and further improved tolerability compared with standard treatment of headaches of at least moderate severity. The nature of migraine pain and symptoms is such as to produce impairment of the individual in their usual activities, including work, and leads to a significant cost of migraine to the workplace. Utilizing both specific studies examining this and drawing conclusions upon the results of additional trials suggests that, despite the direct costs of this agent, the economic advantages and personal advantages to the patients more than compensate. PMID:20528399

  2. [The problems of migraine headache treatment].

    PubMed

    Vilionskis, Aleksandras; Vaitkus, Antanas

    2002-01-01

    The acute treatment and prophylaxis of migraine headache are discussed in this article. The medications for acute treatment, their doses, indications, contraindications and adverse effects are compared. The special attention for migraine headache prophylaxis is paid. The migraine diagnostic criteria and triggers of migraine headache are noted. PMID:12474651

  3. Innovative delivery systems for migraine: the clinical utility of a transdermal patch for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Alan M; Freitag, Fred; Pearlman, Starr H

    2010-11-01

    Migraine is a disabling, painful primary headache disorder that is associated with various combinations of neurological, gastrointestinal, autonomic and pain symptoms. Gastrointestinal disturbances associated with migraine, including nausea and vomiting, affect a majority of migraineurs and often result in a delay in taking or avoidance of pharmacological intervention. Gastric stasis and vomiting may lead to delayed or inconsistent absorption of orally administered medications. Many migraineurs awake early in the morning with their attack progressing and already associated with nausea and vomiting. As a result, there is a need for a novel, non-invasive, non-oral delivery system for fast and effective acute treatment of migraine. There are two non-oral delivery systems currently available in the US for the acute treatment of migraine: three nasal sprays and two injectable formulations. Although nasal sprays depend partially on nasal mucosal absorption, a significant amount of drug is swallowed, transits the stomach and is absorbed in the small intestine, which is not as rapid or effective a route of delivery for those migraineurs with gastric stasis. Sumatriptan is rapidly absorbed by subcutaneous injection with or without a needle, but the invasiveness and discomfort of the delivery, the high incidence of adverse events and the high recurrence rate all limit its use for many patients. Iontophoretic delivery of medication is a non-invasive transdermal approach that uses small amounts of electrical current to promote rapid movement of the ionized drug through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This delivery bypasses hepatic first-pass metabolism and also avoids gastric transit delay and slowing of small intestinal absorption associated with gastrointestinal stasis in migraineurs. Two pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that iontophoretic transdermal delivery of sumatriptan results in rapid and consistent achievement of therapeutic plasma concentrations

  4. Efficacy of parecoxib, sumatriptan, and rizatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Lohse, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Triptans and analgetic nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs reduce acute pain syndromes in migraine. A further treatment option for an acute headache attack in patients with migraine may be the application of cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors, as they have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an oral fast-dissolving tablet of 10 mg of rizatriptan, an intravenous infusion of 40 mg of parecoxib, and a subcutaneous pen injection of sumatriptan (6 mg/0.5 mL) on pain relief in 3 cohorts of patients with episodic migraine. They were treated owing to the acute onset of a pain attack as a case of emergency. They were randomized to treatment with sumatriptan, rizatriptan, or parecoxib. The participants completed a visual analog scale for pain intensity at baseline before the drug administration and then after intervals of 20, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. Rizatriptan, parecoxib, and sumatriptan reduced pain symptoms. Twenty and 30 minutes after drug intake, rizatriptan was more efficacious than parecoxib and sumatriptan, and parecoxib was more effective than sumatriptan. Only a significant difference between rizatriptan and sumatriptan was found after 60 and 120 minutes. This trial demonstrates the effectiveness of a parecoxib infusion in the treatment of acute migraine and that the circumvention of the first pass effect of the liver by rizatriptan may be beneficial for fast pain relief. PMID:21996647

  5. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Migraine preventive therapy, even in the absence of a headache, is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include disabling migraine attacks, the overuse of acute medications or failure of or contraindication to acute medications, troublesome side effects from medication, hemiplegic migraine, or very frequent headaches (more than 2 a week). The major medication groups for preventive treatment include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, b-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, neurotoxins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others. If preventive medication is indicated, the agent preferentially should be chosen from one of the first-line categories, based on the drug's side-effect profile and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:16622394

  6. [Current diagnosis and treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Katsarava, Z; Limmroth, V

    2008-02-01

    Headaches are one of the most common disorders and symptoms in daily medical practice. The prevalence of migraine is 8% in men and 12-15% in women. Dramatic progress in the areas of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and acute and preventive therapy of migraine has been made over the past 100 years, with triptans being the breakthrough for treating acute migraine attacks. Beta blockers, calcium antagonists, and neuromodulators are available for preventive migraine therapy. Nonpharmacologic treatment also plays an important role in migraine prevention. New medical care structures such as integrated headache care provide better support for patients with migraine, particularly those with chronic migraine. PMID:18219499

  7. [Current diagnosis and treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Katsarava, Z; Limmroth, V

    2008-05-01

    Headaches are one of the most common disorders and symptoms in daily medical practice. The prevalence of migraine is 8% in men and 12-15% in women. Dramatic progress in the areas of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and acute and preventive therapy of migraine has been made over the past 100 years, with triptans being the breakthrough for treating acute migraine attacks. Beta blockers, calcium antagonists, and neuromodulators are available for preventive migraine therapy. Nonpharmacologic treatment also plays an important role in migraine prevention. New medical care structures such as integrated headache care provide better support for patients with migraine, particularly those with chronic migraine. PMID:18483757

  8. Migraine: preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, S D; Goadsby, P J

    2002-09-01

    Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder. A comprehensive headache treatment plan includes acute attack treatment to relieve pain and impairment and long-term preventive therapy to reduce attack frequency, severity, and duration. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include: (i) migraine that significantly interferes with the patient's daily routine despite acute treatment; (ii) failure, contraindication to, or troublesome side-effects from acute medications; (iii) overuse of acute medications; (iv) special circumstances, such as hemiplegic migraine; (v) very frequent headaches (more than two a week); or (vi) patient preference. Start the drug at a low dose. Give each treatment an adequate trial. Avoid interfering, overused, and contraindicated drugs. Re-evaluate therapy. Be sure that a woman of childbearing potential is aware of any potential risks. Involve patients in their care to maximize compliance. Consider co-morbidity. Choose a drug based on its proven efficacy, the patient's preferences and headache profile, the drug's side-effects, and the presence or absence of coexisting or co-morbid disease. Drugs that have documented high efficacy and mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) include beta-blockers, amitriptyline, and divalproex. Drugs that have lower documented efficacy and mild to moderate AEs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin, topiramate, riboflavin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:12230591

  9. [Preventive treatment for migraine].

    PubMed

    Mulleners, Wim M; Haan, Joost; Dekker, Frans; Ferrari, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine patients who experience an average of 2 or more attacks per month are eligible for preventive treatment as well as treatment for acute attacks. The decision to offer preventative treatment is also made on the basis of the average attack duration, severity of the attacks, and response to attack treatment. Prior to initiating preventive treatment, the average attack frequency per month should be assessed, preferably by means of a headache diary over a number of months, as attack frequency is extremely variable. None of the currently available preventive drugs, such as beta-blockers, sodium valproate, topiramate and candesartan, were developed specifically for treating migraine, but were all originally intended for other indications. 50% of the migraine patients receiving preventive treatment can expect a 50% reduction in attacks, and the remaining attacks often seem to be less severe. The effects of the drugs are often unpredictable per individual, and side-effects frequently lead to early discontinuation of treatment. Drugs usually prescribed for cardiovascular disorders are often used. In the case of a disorder such as migraine with a high burden of disability, patients with cardiovascular or pulmonary comorbidity should receive medication that is optimally adjusted for both indications. PMID:20699036

  10. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  11. [Current state of knowledge and developments in the prophylaxis and acute treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Schriever, J; Bühlen, M; Broich, K

    2014-08-01

    For the acute treatment of the headache phase of a migraine attack, a variety of different pharmacotherapeutic treatment options exist. These range from nonspecifically acting non-opioid analgesics (e.g., paracetamol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory substances (e.g., acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) to agents specifically interfering with the serotonin system (ergot alkaloids such as ergotamine and its derivatives, triptans). In patients with significant emesis co-occurring during an attack, additional antiemetics such as metoclopramide or domperidone may be administered. In migraine prophylaxis, largely divergent agents, e.g., β-adrenoceptor antagonists, Ca-antagonists, or anticonvulsants, are commonly used. The diversity of these compounds may help the treating physician to tailor prophylactic treatment to the patient's individual needs. The treatment success of the individual patient is difficult to predict both in acute and prophylactic migraine treatment. Apart from contraindications or associated side effects of a particular substance, the individual patient's response to treatment is therefore a major determinant in selecting the suitable medication. PMID:25028243

  12. Dihydroergotamine: a review of formulation approaches for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Kori, Shashidhar H

    2013-05-01

    Dihydroergotamine (DHE) was first used to treat migraine in 1945 and is currently included among migraine-specific treatments for moderate-severe migraine. DHE may be administered through several routes of delivery, with efficacy and tolerability varying among formulations. We review DHE formulation approaches for the acute treatment of migraine, reviewing pharmacokinetics/dynamics and comparing clinical response among various formulations. Pharmacokinetic properties vary among DHE formulations, with peak concentration occurring in 6 min with intravenous, 34 min with intramuscular, 56 min with intranasal, 12 min with oral inhalation and 75 min with oral administration. DHE is a potent agonist at serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors. Adverse effects due to binding to select adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors are significantly less with orally inhaled than intravenous DHE when comparing therapeutically effective doses. Among parenteral formulations (including subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and nasal spray), efficacy is superior with injectable dosing. Nasal spray DHE is generally more effective than placebo, but less effective than sumatriptan. Orally inhaled DHE is likewise more effective than placebo, but there are no head-to-head comparisons with triptans available for review. Adverse effects, particularly nausea, may limit use of parenteral DHE. Nausea is generally less frequent with non-injectable dosing. PMID:23620146

  13. Rizatriptan: a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L; Foster, Rachel H

    2005-01-01

    Rizatriptan (Maxalt; Maxalt-MLT; Maxalt-Melt) is an oral serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist (triptan) used in the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. Rizatriptan 5 mg and 10 mg are effective in relieving the symptoms of migraine and the 10 mg dose provided faster pain relief than sumatriptan 50 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg, ergotamine/caffeine 2 mg/200 mg and possibly zolmitriptan 2.5 mg, while displaying similar tolerability. Two cost-utility analyses performed from a societal perspective indicated that rizatriptan 10 mg was dominant over ergotamine/caffeine 2 mg/200 mg, sumatriptan 50 mg or 100 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg, zolmitriptan 2.5 mg and analgesic-based usual care in the acute treatment of migraine. In one analysis also performed from the perspective of a healthcare payer, rizatriptan was still dominant over naratriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. Rizatriptan was cost effective compared with usual care with an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of 31,845 Can dollars (2002 values) and an incremental cost per additional attack aborted of 49.82 Can dollars. A modelled cost-effectiveness analysis conducted from a healthcare payer's perspective indicated that almotriptan 12.5 mg was more cost effective than rizatriptan 10 mg as a result of better tolerability. The incremental cost per additional successfully treated patient (defined as being sustained pain free without adverse events) with almotriptan was 6.94 US dollars (1999 values). In other nonmodelled cost-effectiveness analyses, rizatriptan 10 mg, eletriptan 40 mg and almotriptan 12.5 mg most consistently displayed the greatest cost effectiveness in different analyses using different clinical endpoints. A modelled analysis of the costs of migraine-related productivity losses in US corporations indicated that the use of rizatriptan rather than usual care to treat migraines could result in annual cost offsets of approximately 84-118 US dollars (2000 values

  14. Resting-state fMRI study of acute migraine treatment with kinetic oscillation stimulation in nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie-Qiang; Wang, Yanlu; Hallin, Rolf; Juto, Jan-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic oscillatory stimulation (KOS) in the nasal cavity is a non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation method with promising efficacy for acute migraine and other inflammatory disorders. For a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of KOS treatment, we conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 10 acute migraine patients and 10 normal control subjects during KOS treatment in a 3 T clinical MRI scanner. The fMRI data were first processed using a group independent component analysis (ICA) method and then further analyzed with a voxel-wise 3-way ANOVA modeling and region of interest (ROI) of functional connectivity metrics. All migraine participants were relieved from their acute migraine symptoms after 10-20 min KOS treatment and remained migraine free for 3-6 months. The resting-state fMRI result indicates that migraine patients have altered intrinsic functional activity in the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and middle/superior temporal gyrus. KOS treatment gave rise to up-regulated intrinsic functional activity for migraine patients in a number of brain regions involving the limbic and primary sensory systems, while down regulating temporally the activity for normal controls in a few brain areas, such as the right dorsal posterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus. The result of this study confirms the efficacy of KOS treatment for relieving acute migraine symptoms and reducing attack frequency. Resting-state fMRI measurements demonstrate that migraine is associated with aberrant intrinsic functional activity in the limbic and primary sensory systems. KOS in the nasal cavity gives rise to the adjustment of the intrinsic functional activity in the limbic and primary sensory networks and restores the physiological homeostasis in the autonomic nervous system. PMID:27622142

  15. Treatment recommendations for migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2008-09-01

    The pharmacological treatment of migraine can be acute or preventive. Acute treatment attempts to stop the progression of an attack or relieve pain and functional impairment once an attack has begun, whereas preventive therapy is given to reduce attack frequency and severity. Additional benefits of preventive therapy include improving responsiveness to acute attack treatment, and reducing disability. Treatment protocols should also include education and reassurance, avoidance of triggers, nonpharmacological treatments, and physical and/or complementary medicine when appropriate. The treatment plan should be reassessed at regular intervals. Acute attack medication can be specific or nonspecific, and needs to be tailored to the individual patient. Backup and rescue medication should be available in case the initial treatment fails. The route of drug administration depends on attack severity, how rapidly the attack escalates, the patient's preference, the presence or absence of severe nausea or vomiting, and the need for rapid relief. Preventive migraine treatments include beta-blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists, anticonvulsants, and NSAIDs. Preventive treatments are selected on the basis of the drugs' side-effect profiles and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:18665146

  16. The efficacy and tolerability of frovatriptan and dexketoprofen for the treatment of acute migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Rolando, Sara; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Benedetto, Chiara

    2014-08-01

    Frovatriptan is a triptan characterized by a high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and a long half-life contributing to a more sustained and prolonged action than other triptans. Dexketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a relatively short half-life and rapid onset of action, blocking the action of cyclo-oxygenase, which is involved in prostaglandins' production, thus reducing inflammation and pain. Both drugs have been successfully employed as monotherapies for the treatment of acute migraine attacks. The combination of these two drugs (frovatriptan 2.5 mg plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg) has been tested in migraine sufferers, showing a rapid and good initial efficacy, with 2-h pain free rates of 51%, and a high persistence in the 48-h following the onset of pain: recurrence occurred in only 29% of attacks and sustained pain free rates were 43% at 24- and 33% at 48-h. PMID:25056381

  17. Almotriptan for the treatment of acute migraine: a review of early intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Antonaci, Fabio; De Cillis, Ilaria; Cuzzoni, Maria Giovanna; Allena, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Almotriptan is a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)(1B/1D) receptor agonist (triptan) that has shown consistent efficacy in the acute treatment of migraine with excellent tolerability. It is an effective, well-tolerated and cost-effective triptan, as demonstrated by improvement in rigorous, patient-orientated end points, such as 'sustained pain-free without adverse events'. Results from post hoc analyses, observational studies and well-controlled, prospective clinical trials have shown that significant improvements can be achieved if almotriptan 12.5 mg is administered within an hour of migraine onset, particularly when pain is mild, rather than waiting until pain is moderate-to-severe. Benefits were also achieved with early treatment of moderate-to-severe pain. Time-to-treatment was the best predictor of headache duration, whereas initial headache intensity best predicted most other efficacy outcomes. Early administration of almotriptan 12.5 mg not only produced rapid symptomatic relief, it also improved the patient's quality of life and ability to resume normal daily functioning. Furthermore, the efficacy of almotriptan is not significantly affected by allodynia (purported to reduce the efficacy of triptans). Thus, the excellent efficacy and tolerability profile of almotriptan administered early in a migraine attack indicate that it may be a first-line treatment option in this common, underdiagnosed and undertreated disorder. PMID:20187858

  18. Preventive migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either. PMID:19289224

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of almotriptan versus zolmitriptan for the acute treatment of menstrual migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, G; Acuto, G; Cabarrocas, X; Esbri, R; Benedetto, C; Bussone, G

    2006-05-01

    Menstrual migraine (MM) attacks are a challenge for the headache specialist, because they are particularly difficult to treat. Almotriptan is a second-generation triptan successfully used for the acute treatment of migraine. No data on the efficacy and safety of almotriptan in MM treatment have been published previously. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of almotriptan in the symptomatic treatment of MM attacks and to compare these parameters to those obtained with zolmitriptan, another second-generation triptan. Data from a multicentre, multinational, randomised, double-blind, parallel clinical trial, conducted at 118 centres in 9 European countries, to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of almotriptan 12.5 mg vs. zolmitriptan 2.5 mg in the acute treatment of migraine were analysed retrospectively. Of the 1061 patients included, 902 were women and 255 of these treated a MM attack: 136 with almotriptan and 119 with zolmitriptan. No significant difference between the two treatments was found. Two hours after dosing, 67.9% of almotriptan-treated and 68.6% of zolmitriptan-treated patients had obtained pain relief; while 44.9% and 41.2%, respectively, were pain free. Recurrence rates 2-24 h after dosing were 32.8% for almotriptan and 34.7% for zolmitriptan. Adverse events in the 24 h after dosing were reported by 19.8% of those taking almotriptan and 23.1% of those taking zolmitriptan. In conclusion, almotriptan is effective and safe in the treatment of MM attacks. PMID:16688629

  20. Focus on trial endpoints of clinical relevance and the use of almotriptan for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, G; Dahlöf, C G; Mathew, N; Nappi, G

    2005-11-01

    Almotriptan is a 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist, or triptan, indicated for the acute treatment of migraine. It has been shown to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of acute migraine in approximately 5000 patients enrolled in short-term placebo- and active-controlled trials and long-term open-label trials. A recent meta-analysis reported that almotriptan has the highest sustained pain-free (SPF) rate and lowest adverse-event (AE) rate of all oral triptans. Sustained pain free is a composite endpoint of pain freedom at 2 h, no recurrence of moderate-to-severe headache and no use of rescue medication from 2 to 24 h after dosing. Patient surveys have indicated that migraine sufferers consider complete pain relief, no recurrence, rapid onset and no side-effects to be the most important attributes of their acute treatment. Composite endpoints such as SPF and SPF with no AEs (SNAE) contain the attributes that migraine sufferers express as being the most important elements of an acute migraine therapy, and their use in future clinical trials should aid in the selection of agents that can offer patients the highest likelihood of consistent treatment success. PMID:16236092

  1. The treatment of pediatric migraine.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Donald W; Yonker, Marcy; Winner, Paul; Sowell, Michael

    2005-06-01

    The management of pediatric migraine requires a balance of biobehavioral measures coupled with agents for acute treatment and, if needed, daily preventive medicines. A recent American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has critically reviewed the limited data regarding the efficacy and safety of medicines for the acute and preventive therapy of pediatric migraine. The first step is to establish the headache frequency and degree to which the migraines impact upon lifestyle and performance. The next step is to institute nonpharmacologic measures such as regulation of sleep (improved sleep hygiene), moderation of caffeine, regular exercise, and identification of provocative influences (eg, stress, foods, social pressures). A wide variety of therapeutic options exist for patients whose migraine headaches occur with sufficient frequency and severity to produce functional impairment. The most rigorously studied agents for the acute treatment of migraine are ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and sumatriptan nasal spray, all of which have shown safety and efficacy in controlled trials. Daily preventive drug therapies are warranted in about 20% to 30% of young migraine sufferers. The particular drug selected for the individual patient requires an appreciation of comorbidities such as affective or anxiety disorders, co-existent medical conditions such as asthma or diabetes, and acceptability of potential toxicities such as weight gain, sedation, or tremor. PMID:16018227

  2. Eletriptan: a review of its use in the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L; Keating, Gillian M

    2006-01-01

    Eletriptan (Relpax) is an orally administered, lipophilic, highly selective serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist ('triptan') that is effective in the acute treatment of moderate to severe migraine attacks in adults. It has a rapid onset of action and demonstrates superiority over placebo as early as 30 minutes after the administration of a single 40 or 80 mg oral dose. The efficacy of eletriptan 20 mg was similar to that of sumatriptan 100 mg, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg displayed greater efficacy than sumatriptan 50 or 100 mg for most endpoints. Eletriptan 40 mg was generally superior to naratriptan 2.5 mg and equivalent to almotriptan 12.5 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 mg, while eletriptan 80 mg was superior to zolmitriptan 2.5 mg for most efficacy parameters. Eletriptan 40 and 80 mg were consistently superior to ergotamine/caffeine. Eletriptan is generally well tolerated, reduces time lost from normal activities, improves patients' health-related quality of life and appears to be at least as, if not more, cost effective than sumatriptan. Eletriptan is therefore a useful addition to the triptan family and a first-line treatment option in the acute management of migraine attacks. PMID:16789799

  3. Frovatriptan: a review of its use in the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Frovatriptan (Migard®; Frova®) is an orally administered triptan approved for the acute treatment of adults with migraine, with or without aura. This article reviews the pharmacology of frovatriptan, focusing on its efficacy and tolerability. The precise mechanism of action of frovatriptan is unknown, but is thought to stem from agonism at serotonin 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, resulting in inhibition of intracranial and extracerebral artery vasodilation, along with possible anti-inflammatory and pain inhibiting effects. Frovatriptan appears to be functionally selective for 5-HT receptors in human basilar arteries over coronary arteries, which could translate into a low cardiovascular risk. In contrast to other triptans, frovatriptan has a long terminal elimination half-life in blood of ≈26 hours, which can be expected to be associated with a sustained treatment effect. Oral frovatriptan 2.5 mg was efficacious in patients with moderate to severe migraine attacks; in randomized, double-blind trials the proportion of patients with headache response at 2 hours (primary endpoint) was consistently significantly higher in frovatriptan than placebo groups. Frovatriptan was generally well tolerated in short-term clinical trials and when used over the longer term. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events occurring at a frequency ≥1% higher in frovatriptan than placebo recipients were dizziness, fatigue, headache, paraesthesia, flushing, skeletal pain, hot or cold sensation, dry mouth, chest pain and dyspepsia. In a study in patients with coronary artery disease, or who were at high risk of coronary artery disease, there was no increase over placebo in the occurrence of clinically significant ECG changes or in cardiac rhythm disturbances. In a further trial, frovatriptan administered early in a migraine attack was more efficacious than placebo followed by later administration of frovatriptan as pain progressed. Three crossover trials compared early

  4. A review of the pharmacoeconomics of eletriptan for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Bhambri, Rahul; Mardekian, Jack; Liu, Larry Z; Schweizer, Edward; Ramos, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a commonly occurring, chronic disorder that can cause significant disability. Eletriptan, a selective serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 1 receptor subtype B/D (5-HT1B/1D) agonist, is a clinically effective treatment for moderate to severe migraine. The objective of this literature review was to summarize the available data on the pharmacoeconomics of eletriptan relative to other triptans. Articles meeting the following three criteria were included in the review: 1) contained pharmacoeconomic data on a marketed dose of eletriptan; 2) included data on at least one other comparator triptan; and 3) was in English. A MEDLINE(®) search yielded a total of eight studies (from the European Union [n=5] and from the USA [n=3]) across multiple regions. Seven of the studies examined the pharmacoeconomics of eletriptan relative to other triptans, and a further study examined the health care costs of eletriptan 40 mg versus sumatriptan 100 mg. Eletriptan 40 mg was among a group of triptans, including rizatriptan 10 mg and almotriptan 12.5 mg, demonstrating the greatest cost-effectiveness. This result held across different definitions of efficacy (2 hours pain-free, sustained pain-free, and sustained pain-free with no adverse events) and also held when cost-effectiveness models accounted for second doses and use of rescue medication, management of adverse events, and productivity loss, in addition to drug acquisition costs. Only limited head-to-head comparator data were available. The majority of pharmacoeconomic studies utilized the same set of efficacy and/or tolerability data, and indirect costs were rarely included despite the fact that the majority of per capita migraine costs are attributable to indirect costs. In summary, although the market is now dominated by generics, eletriptan 40 mg is among the most clinically and cost-effective oral triptans available for the management of acute migraine. Increased effectiveness/efficacy of eletriptan may necessitate a

  5. A review of the pharmacoeconomics of eletriptan for the acute treatment of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Rahul; Mardekian, Jack; Liu, Larry Z; Schweizer, Edward; Ramos, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a commonly occurring, chronic disorder that can cause significant disability. Eletriptan, a selective serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 1 receptor subtype B/D (5-HT1B/1D) agonist, is a clinically effective treatment for moderate to severe migraine. The objective of this literature review was to summarize the available data on the pharmacoeconomics of eletriptan relative to other triptans. Articles meeting the following three criteria were included in the review: 1) contained pharmacoeconomic data on a marketed dose of eletriptan; 2) included data on at least one other comparator triptan; and 3) was in English. A MEDLINE® search yielded a total of eight studies (from the European Union [n=5] and from the USA [n=3]) across multiple regions. Seven of the studies examined the pharmacoeconomics of eletriptan relative to other triptans, and a further study examined the health care costs of eletriptan 40 mg versus sumatriptan 100 mg. Eletriptan 40 mg was among a group of triptans, including rizatriptan 10 mg and almotriptan 12.5 mg, demonstrating the greatest cost-effectiveness. This result held across different definitions of efficacy (2 hours pain-free, sustained pain-free, and sustained pain-free with no adverse events) and also held when cost-effectiveness models accounted for second doses and use of rescue medication, management of adverse events, and productivity loss, in addition to drug acquisition costs. Only limited head-to-head comparator data were available. The majority of pharmacoeconomic studies utilized the same set of efficacy and/or tolerability data, and indirect costs were rarely included despite the fact that the majority of per capita migraine costs are attributable to indirect costs. In summary, although the market is now dominated by generics, eletriptan 40 mg is among the most clinically and cost-effective oral triptans available for the management of acute migraine. Increased effectiveness/efficacy of eletriptan may necessitate a lesser

  6. NSAIDs in the Acute Treatment of Migraine: A Review of Clinical and Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Pardutz, Arpad; Schoenen, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurological disorder with a serious socio-economical burden. By blocking cyclooxygenase nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are involved in the pathophysiology of migraine headaches. Despite the introduction more than a decade ago of a new class of migraine-specific drugs with superior efficacy, the triptans, NSAIDs remain the most commonly used therapies for the migraine attack. This is in part due to their wide availability as over-the-counter drugs and their pharmaco-economic advantages, but also to a favorable efficacy/side effect profile at least in attacks of mild and moderate intensity. We summarize here both the experimental data showing that NSAIDs are able to influence several pathophysiological facets of the migraine headache and the clinical studies providing evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of various subclasses of NSAIDs in migraine therapy. Taken together these data indicate that there are several targets for NSAIDs in migraine pathophysiology and that on the spectrum of clinical potency acetaminophen is at the lower end while ibuprofen is among the most effective drugs. Acetaminophen and aspirin excluded, comparative trials between the other NSAIDs are missing. Since evidence-based criteria are scarce, the selection of an NSAID should take into account proof and degree of efficacy, rapid GI absorption, gastric ulcer risk and previous experience of each individual patient. If selected and prescribed wisely, NSAIDs are precious, safe and cost-efficient drugs for the treatment of migraine attacks.

  7. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  8. Patient satisfaction with eletriptan in the acute treatment of migraine in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Nett, R B; Tiseo, P J; Almas, M; Sikes, C R

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objective: The efficxacy of triptans for acute migraine has been well established in clinical trials but not in primary care, where they are most commonly prescribed. The aim of this open-label study was to evaluate the effectiveness of eletriptan 40 mg in primary care, using a patient-weighted satisfaction scale. Methods: Eligible patients met International Headache Society criteria for migraine, with 1–6 attacks per month. Patients completed questionnaires at screening and following a single eletriptan-treated attack. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using a six-item Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). MSQ item scores were weighted, based on the important score ratings, to yield individualised satisfaction scores. The primary end-point was the difference in weighted satisfaction scores between the patient's previous treatment and eletriptan 40 mg. Secondary end-points assessed quality of life (QOL), functioning and efficacy of treatment. Results: Of 590 patients screened, 437 completed the study. Degree (95.2%), time (88.8%) and duration (83.8%) of headache pain relief were rated as most important by patients. The mean (±SD) total satisfaction score on the MSQ was higher for eletriptan than previous therapy (2.2 ± 3.0 vs. 0.6 ± 2.4; p < 0.001). The high level of satisfaction with eletriptan vs. previous treatment reflects the improvements in QOL and functioning observed, and the high headache and pain-free response rates. Conclusions: Patient-weighted satisfaction with eletriptan 40 mg was higher than with previous treatment for all items. The use of patient-weighted importance ratings of satisfaction is a promising approach for establishing effectiveness of treatment in primary care. PMID:17877653

  9. The diagnosis and treatment of chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is the most common disabling brain disorder. Chronic migraine, a condition characterized by the experience of migrainous headache on at least 15 days per month, is highly disabling. Patients with chronic migraine present to primary care, are often referred for management to secondary care, and make up a large proportion of patients in specialist headache clinics. Many patients with chronic migraine also have medication overuse, defined as using a compound analgesic, opioid, triptan or ergot derivative on at least 10 days per month. All doctors will encounter patients with chronic headaches. A basic working knowledge of the common primary headaches, and a rational manner of approaching the patient with these conditions, allows a specific diagnosis of chronic migraine to be made quickly and safely, and by making this diagnosis one opens up a substantial number of acute and preventive treatment options. This article discusses the current state of management of chronic migraine. PMID:25954496

  10. The diagnosis and treatment of chronic migraine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common disabling brain disorder. Chronic migraine, a condition characterized by the experience of migrainous headache on at least 15 days per month, is highly disabling. Patients with chronic migraine present to primary care, are often referred for management to secondary care, and make up a large proportion of patients in specialist headache clinics. Many patients with chronic migraine also have medication overuse, defined as using a compound analgesic, opioid, triptan or ergot derivative on at least 10 days per month. All doctors will encounter patients with chronic headaches. A basic working knowledge of the common primary headaches, and a rational manner of approaching the patient with these conditions, allows a specific diagnosis of chronic migraine to be made quickly and safely, and by making this diagnosis one opens up a substantial number of acute and preventive treatment options. This article discusses the current state of management of chronic migraine. PMID:25954496

  11. Rizatriptan versus rizatriptan plus rofecoxib versus rizatriptan plus tolfenamic acid in the acute treatment of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Background Rizatriptan is an effective and fast acting drug for the acute treatment of migraine. Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have also demonstrated efficacy in treating migraine attacks. There is evidence that the combination of a triptan and a NSAID decreases migraine recurrence in clinical practice. The primary aim of this randomized open label study was to assess the recurrence rates in migraine sufferers acutely treated with rizatriptan (RI) alone vs. rizatriptan plus a COX-2 enzyme inhibitor (rofecoxib, RO) vs. rizatriptan plus a traditional NSAID (tolfenamic acid, TO). We were also interested in comparing the efficacy rates within these three groups. Methods We assessed 45 patients from a headache clinic in Rio de Janeiro (35 women and 10 men, ages 18 to 65 years, mean 37 years). Patients with IHS migraine were randomized to one out of 3 groups, where they had to treat 6 consecutive moderate or severe attacks in counterbalanced order. In group 1, patients treated the first two attacks with 10 mg RI, the third and fourth attacks with RI + 50 mg RO and the last attacks with RI + 200 mg of TA. In group 2, we began with RI + TA, followed by RI, and RI + RO. Group 3 treated in the following order: RI + RO, RI + TA, RI alone. The presence of headache, nausea and photophobia at 1, 2 and 4 hours, as well as recurrence and side effects were compared. Results A total of 33 patients finished the study, treating 184 attacks. The pain-free rates at 1 hour were: RI: 15.5%; RI + RO: 22.6%; RI + TA: 20.3%(NS). Pain-free rates at 2 h were: RI: 37.9%; RI + RO: 62.9%, and RI + TA: 40.6% (p = 0.008 for RI vs. RI + RO; p = 0.007 for RI + RO vs. RI + TA, NS for RI vs RI + TA). At 4 h, pain-free rates were: RI: 69%; RI + RO: 82.3%; RI + TA: 78.1% (NS for all comparisons). The combination of RI + RO was superior to RI and to RI + TA in regard of the absense of nausea and photophobia at 4 hours. Recurrence (after being pain-free at 2 h) was observed in 50% of

  12. Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 43. Marmura MJ, Silberstein SD, Schwedt TJ. The acute treatment of migraine in ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25600718 . Silberstein SD. Headache management. In: Benzon HT, Rathmell JP, Wu ...

  13. The iontophoretic transdermal system formulation of sumatriptan as a new option in the acute treatment of migraine: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Vikelis, Michail; Spingos, Konstantinos C; Rapoport, Alan M

    2015-07-01

    An iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) (skin patch) formulation of sumatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine attacks was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2013. This transdermal system bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, as it uses low electrical current to move sumatriptan transdermally into the subcutaneous tissue. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated minimal triptan-related side effects and superior efficacy versus placebo, comparable with other sumatriptan formulations. Sumatriptan ITS can be applied successfully during a mild or severe migraine attack. According to pharmacokinetic properties and clinical data, sumatriptan ITS may be a good choice for people with migraine and severe nausea, vomiting or gastroparesis, those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events and those not responding optimally to oral medications. PMID:26136843

  14. The iontophoretic transdermal system formulation of sumatriptan as a new option in the acute treatment of migraine: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spingos, Konstantinos C.; Rapoport, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    An iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) (skin patch) formulation of sumatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine attacks was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2013. This transdermal system bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, as it uses low electrical current to move sumatriptan transdermally into the subcutaneous tissue. Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials have demonstrated minimal triptan-related side effects and superior efficacy versus placebo, comparable with other sumatriptan formulations. Sumatriptan ITS can be applied successfully during a mild or severe migraine attack. According to pharmacokinetic properties and clinical data, sumatriptan ITS may be a good choice for people with migraine and severe nausea, vomiting or gastroparesis, those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events and those not responding optimally to oral medications. PMID:26136843

  15. Oral lysine clonixinate in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, A V; Barbosa, J S; Cheim, C; Alves, L A

    2001-03-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has proven to be effective in various pain syndromes such as renal colic and muscular pain. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral LC compared to placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Sixty four patients with the diagnosis of migraine, according to the IHS criteria, were studied prospectively. Patients received LC or placebo once the headache reached moderate or severe intensity for 6 consecutive attacks. With regard to the moderate attacks, LC was superior than placebo after 1, 2 and 4 hours. The consumption of other rescue medications after 4 hours was significantly higher in the placebo group. With regard to the severe attacks, there was no difference between the active drug group and the placebo group concerning headache intensity and consumption of other rescue medications. We conclude that the NSAID lysine clonixinate is effective in treating moderately severe migraine attacks. It is not superior than placebo in treating severe migraine attacks. PMID:11299430

  16. The pathophysiological and pharmacological basis of current drug treatment of migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2013-05-01

    Migraine is a common neurological syndrome that affects approximately 10-20% of the population. The pathophysiology of migraine is unclear. 5-hydroxytriptamine is a key mediator in the pathogenesis of migraine and thus 5-HT1-receptor agonists are the principal drugs for acute migraine therapy. There are three classes of drugs for migraine: over-the-counter analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for acute mild migraine, specific prescription drugs (triptans and ergot alkaloids) for acute severe migraine and pharmacological agents for prophylaxis of migraine. Sumatriptan, naratriptan and others, referred to as 'triptans', are the mainstay for acute treatment of migraine. Ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine) are used in patients with frequent, moderate migraine, but are less effective than triptans. There are several agents for prevention of migraine occurrence in patients with frequent or severe disabling migraine attacks. New drugs with improved efficacy and reduced side effects are needed for effective treatment and prevention of migraine. PMID:23656340

  17. Lysine Clonixinate vs Naproxen Sodium for the Acute Treatment of Migraine: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Peixoto, Patrícia; Higashi, Rafael; Silva, Ariovaldo; Schutz, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    was superior to NS in reducing photophobia at 2 hours (P = .027). Ten patients who took LC and 8 who took NS required rescue drugs after 2 hours. Twelve patients who used LC and 16 who took NS reported side effects. Comments Although this study did not include a placebo arm, which impairs any definitive efficacy claims, we found LC and NS to be similarly effective and well tolerated in patients presenting moderate or severe attacks of migraine. Introduction Migraine is a highly prevalent neurologic disorder that typically manifests as moderate or severe intermittent headache attacks with associated symptoms.[1–3] Migraine attacks worsen with routine physical activities and may last 4-72 hours if not properly treated.[4] The burden of migraine is severe, resulting in considerable economic and social losses.[5] Newer agents for the acute treatment of migraine include the triptans,[6] but common analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and even opioids continue to be the basic components of the therapeutic arsenal in most countries and specialized centers.[7] In addition, clinical experience suggests that not all patients using a triptan reach a pain-free or sustained pain-free status. Headache recurrence within 24 hours, side effects, and even high costs may also represent limiting factors for the use of triptans.[8] Some patients find relief with simple or combination analgesics[9,10] and/or NSAIDs. Most NSAIDs have proved effective for treating migraine and are still widely used in many countries despite the potential for gastrointestinal side effects and the current availability of more specific agents.[8–14] Different drug options and formulations are available. The choice for a specific type of medication depends on individual patient characteristics, including pain intensity, speed of headache development, the presence of associated symptoms, degree of incapacitation, and individual patient response.[11] In addition, in developing countries

  18. Advances in pharmacological treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Limmroth, V

    2001-10-01

    Migraine is a paroxysmal disorder with attacks of headache, nausea, vomiting, photo- and phonophobia and malaise. This review summarises new treatment options both for the therapy of the acute attack as well as for migraine prophylaxis. Analgesics like aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in treating migraine attacks. Few controlled trials were performed for the use of ergotamine or dihydroergotamine. These trials indicate inferior efficacy compared with serotonin (5-HT(1B/D)) agonists (triptans). The triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan), are highly effective. They improve headache as well as nausea, photo- and phonophobia. The different triptans show only minor differences in efficacy, headache recurrence and adverse effects. The knowledge of their different pharmacological profile allows a more specific treatment of the individual migraine characteristics. Migraine prophylaxis is recommended, when more than three attacks occur per month, if attacks do not respond to acute treatment or if side effects of acute treatment are severe. Substances with proven efficacy include the beta-blockers metoprolol and propranolol, the calcium channel blocker flunarizine, several 5-HT antagonists and amitriptyline. Recently anti-epileptic drugs (valproic acid, gabapentin, topiramate) were evaluated for the prophylaxis of migraine. The use of botulinum toxin is under investigation. PMID:11772289

  19. Migraine: prophylactic treatment.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rakesh; Sinh, Manish

    2010-04-01

    Prophylactic treatment constitutes an important aspect of migraine management and includes avoidance of trigger factors and life style advice followed by consideration of medications. The drugs of first choice are beta-blockers, flunarizine, topiramate, valproate and amitriptyline. Drugs of second choice with less efficacy and evidence are venlafaxine, gabapentin, naproxen, butterbur root, riboflavin and magnesium. Botulinum toxin type A has not yet been shown to be effective. The choice of prophylactic drugs would depend on efficacy, co-morbidity, side effects, availability and cost. Non-pharmacological treatments such as relaxation techniques, bio-feedback, cognitive behavioral therapy and acupuncture are supported by some evidence but require far more specialist time or technical devices. All the drugs used in migraine prophylaxis have been detected by serendipity. Drugs developed, in the future, on the basis of the current knowledge of pathophysiology will hopefully be more effective. PMID:21049704

  20. Intravenous Valproate versus Subcutaneous Sumatriptan in Acute Migraine Attack.

    PubMed

    Ghaderibarmi, Fahmida; Tavakkoli, Nader; Togha, Mansoureh

    2015-10-01

    Migraine is a common and incapacitating neurologic disorder manifesting with episodic moderate to a severe headache and other symptoms such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting. Triptans and ergot compounds have been used as treatment options for an acute migraine headache for many years. Triptans are considered the first line of treatment in patients with moderate to a severe migraine. Although the triptans are commonly used at any time during a migraine attack; they are more efficacious when used in the early stages of a migraine. Intravenous valproic acid has been shown to be well tolerated, safe, and with rapid onset of action in patients with acute moderate to severe and even refractory migraine. Sodium valproate is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for prophylaxis of a migraine with and without aura. In this study, the main goal was to compare the effectiveness of sumatriptan versus valproate in an acute migraine. A randomized clinical trial including 37 patients with an acute migraine was considered to compare the effectiveness of sumatriptan versus valproate. The patients were divided into two groups. In first group, 6 mg subcutaneous of sumatriptan and in the second group 15 mg/Kg of valproate was administered. The outcomes including pain and drug adverse effects were compared across the groups. A total of 37 patients (7 male and 30 female) were evaluated in two groups. The difference between two groups regarding sex and age was not significant (P>0.05). The mean pain scores reduced from 8.3 to 4.7 and from 8.3 to 2.2 after one hour of treatment in sumatriptan and valproate groups, respectively. Response to treatment in valproate group was faster and more effective than sumatriptan group (P<0.05).The results indicated that valproate was more effective and with the faster response in patients with an acute migraine in comparison with sumatriptan without any recurrence and remarkable side effects. PMID:26615376

  1. Emerging Drugs for Migraine Prophylaxis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bigal, Marcelo E.; Krymchantowski, Abouch V.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Background Abstract Migraine is a chronic neurologic disorder with heterogeneous characteristics resulting in a range of symptom profiles, burden, and disability. Migraine affects nearly 12% of the adult population in occidental countries, imposing considerable economic and social losses. The pharmacologic treatment of migraine includes preventive and acute strategies. A better understanding of the migraine pathophysiology along with the discovery of novel molecular targets has lead to a growing number of upcoming therapeutic proposals. This review focuses on new and emerging agents for the treatment of migraine. Background Migraine is a highly prevalent, disabling, undiagnosed, and undertreated disease.[1] The phenomenon is a primary neurologic disorder with a clear genetic basis.[2,3] For some uncommon forms of migraine, such as familial hemiplegic migraine, specific pathogenic genes have been identified. The most common mutation affects a gene on chromosome 19 that encodes for a neuronal calcium channel.[4] This observation suggests that other forms of migraine may also be ion channelopathies. During the migraine attack, neural events result in the dilatation of meningeal blood vessels that, in turn, causes pain, further nerve activation, and inflammation.[5] Because neural events are linked to vascular events, migraine is considered a neurovascular headache disorder. Migraine probably results from dysfunction of brainstem areas involved in the modulation of craniovascular afferent fibers.[2–5] Brainstem activation may also lead to activation of ascending and descending pathways, with initiation of a perimeningeal vasodilatation and neurogenic inflammation. The pain is understood as a combination of altered perception (related to peripheral or central sensitization) of stimuli that are usually not painful, and the activation of a feed-forward neurovascular dilator mechanism in the first (ophthalmic) division of the trigeminal nerve. Cortical

  2. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, Italian study of frovatriptan versus almotriptan for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Marco; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Lisotto, Carlo; Martelletti, Paolo; Moscato, Davide; Panascia, Biagio; Savi, Lidia; Pini, Luigi Alberto; Sances, Grazia; Santoro, Patrizia; Zanchin, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Ferrari, Michel D; Brighina, Filippo; Fierro, Brigida

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with acute treatment of migraine with frovatriptan or almotriptan by preference questionnaire. One hundred and thirty three subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura (IHS 2004 criteria), with at least one migraine attack in the preceding 6 months, were enrolled and randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg, treating 1-3 attacks. The study had a multicenter, randomized, double blind, cross-over design, with treatment periods lasting <3 months. At study end patients assigned preference to one of the treatments using a questionnaire with a score from 0 to 5 (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints were pain free and pain relief episodes at 2 and 4 h, and recurrent and sustained pain free episodes within 48 h. Of the 133 patients (86%, intention-to-treat population) 114 of them expressed a preference for a triptan. The average preference score was not significantly different between frovatriptan (3.1 ± 1.3) and almotriptan (3.4 ± 1.3). The rates of pain free (30% frovatriptan vs. 32% almotriptan) and pain relief (54% vs. 56%) episodes at 2 h did not significantly differ between treatments. This was the case also at 4 h (pain free: 56% vs. 59%; pain relief: 75% vs. 72%). Recurrent episodes were significantly (P < 0.05) less frequent under frovatriptan (30% vs. 44%), also for the attacks treated within 30 min. No significant differences were observed in sustained pain free episodes (21% vs. 18%). The tolerability profile was similar between the two drugs. In conclusion, our study suggests that frovatriptan has a similar efficacy of almotriptan in the short-term, while some advantages are observed during long-term treatment. PMID:21437714

  3. Migraine headache confounding the diagnosis of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Karle, Francis J; Auerbach, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    A 36-year-old man with a history of migraine headache attempted to hike from Lukla, Nepal, to Mount Everest Base Camp. On the sixth day of hiking, he had a migraine headache. After achieving resolution with typical therapies and rest, he ascended higher. Another headache developed that was interpreted to be a migraine. The headache was treated, and he ascended higher, after which severe symptoms of acute mountain sickness developed, necessitating his evacuation by helicopter. Persons with headaches in daily life may present challenges to diagnosis when traveling to high altitude. Careful evaluation and decision making are needed to achieve proper diagnosis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. PMID:24462763

  4. Improving medication adherence in migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Rains, Jeanetta A; Nicholson, Robert A; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    Medication adherence is integral to successful treatment of migraine and other headache. The existing literature examining medication adherence in migraine is small, and the methodologies used to assess adherence are limited. However, these studies broadly suggest poor adherence to both acute and preventive migraine medications, with studies using more objective monitoring reporting lower adherence rates. Methods for improving medication adherence are described, including organizational strategies, provider-monitoring and self-monitoring of adherence, regimen strategies, patient education, self-management skills training (e.g., stimulus control, behavioral contracts), and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. The article concludes by discussing the future of research regarding adherence to medications for migraine and other headaches. PMID:26040703

  5. Acute migraine therapy: recent evidence from randomized comparative trials.

    PubMed

    Mett, Anna; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2008-06-01

    (1) A wide array of data regarding acute migraine treatment are available, but few trials strictly adhere to International Headache Society guidelines for patient inclusion criteria.(2) Triptans appear to have similar efficacy profiles, but among newer triptans, almotriptan offers improved tolerability over sumatriptan.(3) Combination indomethacin/caffeine/prochlorperazine most likely has similar therapeutic efficacy to triptan therapy, with further research needed to complete understanding of any potential differences between these treatments.(4) Multi-targeted combination therapy with a triptan plus a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), such as sumatriptan/naproxen sodium, is more effective in acute migraine treatment than monotherapy with either agent alone.(5) It is unclear whether triptans offer clinically relevant benefits over aspirin or NSAIDs in migraine patients. Thus NSAIDs, particularly effervescent aspirin, should be considered the first-line treatment of migraine attacks. PMID:18451718

  6. The pharmacological profile and clinical prospects of the oral 5-HT1F receptor agonist lasmiditan in the acute treatment of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Heike; Neeb, Lars

    2015-01-01

    More than 20 years have passed without the launch of a new substance class for acute migraine therapy. Triptans were the latest class of substances which successfully passed all developmental stages with a significant antimigraine efficacy and a sufficient safety profile. New drugs with a better adverse event profile and at least similar efficacy are needed for migraine subjects who cannot tolerate triptans for attack treatment. Lasmiditan is a novel highly specific 5-HT1F receptor agonist currently in clinical trials for acute migraine therapy and devoid of vasoconstriction in coronary arteries as determined in a surrogate assay. In both phase II randomized, placebo-controlled trials in acute migraine the primary endpoint was met. For the intravenous formulation a clear dose-dependent effect on headaches could be determined. Lasmiditan tablets in doses of 50–400 mg show significant headache relief after 2 hours compared with placebo and improved accompanying symptoms. This substance is chemically clearly different from other antimigraine drugs, which is also reflected by its dose-dependent adverse event profile chiefly including dizziness, vertigo, paresthesia and fatigue. Adverse events are usually linked to the central nervous system. Future phase III clinical trials with an active triptan comparator or in a preferential trial design will allow a better comparison of lasmiditan and triptans. They will also determine whether lasmiditan will become available to the migraine patient. PMID:25584073

  7. Rizatriptan in the treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Dahlof, C G; Rapoport, A M; Sheftell, F D; Lines, C R

    1999-11-01

    Rizatriptan is a selective 5-hydroxytriptamine1B/1D receptor agonist that was launched in 1998 for the acute treatment of migraine in adults. Based on data from 6 large clinical trials in patients > or =18 years of age in whom migraine was diagnosed according to International Headache Society criteria, the marketed 10-mg and 5-mg oral doses of rizatriptan are effective in relieving headache pain and associated migraine symptoms. The 10-mg dose is more effective than the 5-mg dose. At 2 hours after dosing, up to 77% of patients taking rizatriptan 10 mg had pain relief compared with 37% of those taking placebo, up to 44% were completely pain free compared with 7% of those taking placebo, and up to 77% were free of nausea compared with 58% of those taking placebo (P < 0.05 for all 3 comparisons). Both doses of rizatriptan are generally well tolerated. In placebo-controlled studies involving treatment of a single migraine attack, the most common side effects (incidence > or =2%) occurred in <10% of patients, typically were transitory (2 to 3 hours), and were mild or moderate. Rizatriptan is an effective and well-tolerated acute treatment for migraine. PMID:10890255

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Cady, Roger; Dodick, David W

    2002-03-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, considerable uncertainty remains surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. This uncertainty is reflected in studies that show both underdiagnosis and undertreatment of migraine. While the diagnosis can be assisted by criteria from the International Headache Society, other approaches may be useful in clinical practice. Treatment of migraine must be based on an individualized patient strategy that integrates education, patient participation, and effective use of pharmacological interventions. Many patients, despite self-treatment with simple analgesics, continue to suffer considerable disability associated with their migraines. Triptans, which are more effective at relieving migraine symptoms and maintaining patient function than are nonspecific therapies, are used in only a minority of patients with migraine. Treatment goals of rapid, complete relief with no recurrence and minimal adverse effects can be achieved when effective therapy is matched to individual patient goals. For prophylaxis, anticonvulsant drugs emerging as effective options are being added to the armamentarium with traditional compounds such as tricyclic antidepressants and beta-blockers. PMID:11888029

  9. Migraine: pathophysiology, pharmacology, treatment and future trends.

    PubMed

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Valdivia, Luis Felipe; de Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R

    2003-03-01

    Migraine treatment has evolved into the scientific arena, but it seems still controversial whether migraine is primarily a vascular or a neurological dysfunction. Irrespective of this controversy, the levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), a vasoconstrictor and a central neurotransmitter, seem to decrease during migraine (with associated carotid vasodilatation) whereas an i.v. infusion of 5-HT can abort migraine. In fact, 5-HT as well as ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and other antimigraine agents invariably produce vasoconstriction in the external carotid circulation. The last decade has witnessed the advent of sumatriptan and second generation triptans (e.g. zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan), which belong to a new class of drugs, the 5-HT1B/1D/1F receptor agonists. Compared to sumatriptan, the second-generation triptans have a higher oral bioavailability and longer plasma half-life. In line with the vascular and neurogenic theories of migraine, all triptans produce selective carotid vasoconstriction (via 5-HT1B receptors) and presynaptic inhibition of the trigeminovascular inflammatory responses implicated in migraine (via 5-HT1D/5-ht1F receptors). Moreover, selective agonists at 5-HT1D (PNU-142633) and 5-ht1F (LY344864) receptors inhibit the trigeminovascular system without producing vasoconstriction. Nevertheless, PNU-142633 proved to be ineffective in the acute treatment of migraine, whilst LY344864 did show some efficacy when used in doses which interact with 5-HT1B receptors. Finally, although the triptans are effective antimigraine agents producing selective cranial vasoconstriction, efforts are being made to develop other effective antimigraine alternatives acting via the direct blockade of vasodilator mechanisms (e.g. antagonists at CGRP receptors, antagonists at 5-HT7 receptors, inhibitors of nitric oxide biosynthesis, etc). These alternatives will hopefully lead to fewer side effects. PMID:15320857

  10. Almotriptan in the treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Giorgio; Perrotta, Armando; Arce Leal, Natalia L; Buscone, Simona; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Almotriptan is an orally administered, highly selective serotonin 5-HT(1(B)/1(D)) receptor agonist that is effective in the acute treatment of moderate to severe migraine attacks. Since its introduction on to the market in 2001, several studies involving a large number of migraine patients have confirmed its efficacy and tolerability profile. Almotriptan, was found to be among the best-responding triptans in terms of pain relief and pain-free rate at 2 h. It has been reported that almotriptan has the best sustained pain-free (SPF) rate and the lowest adverse events (AEs) rate of all the triptans. When these clinical characteristics were combined to form the composite endpoint SPF and no AEs (SNAE), almotriptan emerged as the triptan with the best efficacy and tolerability profile. It also showed a good efficacy profile during the early treatment (within 1 h of onset) of migraine attacks characterized by moderate pain intensity. On the basis of these findings, almotriptan may be considered a therapeutic option for the acute treatment of migraine attacks. PMID:19300615

  11. Possible precipitation of migraine attacks with prophylactic treatment.

    PubMed

    Donnet, A; Vuillaume De Diego, E; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of a prophylactic treatment in a migraine sufferer depends upon the stratification of the patient's frequency of attacks and the disability they cause, as well as the patient's acute consumption and comorbid diseases. We report on 14 patients who were among a group of 618 migraine sufferers who received a new preventative treatment. These 14 patients developed an increase in the frequency of their migraine attacks that was possibly induced by this new prophylactic treatment. The clinical description of the migraine attacks remained the same but the frequency of the attacks of migraine without aura was dramatically increased. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a possible precipitation of attacks of migraine without aura with a prophylactic treatment. There is no link with a specific class of prophylactic treatment. We hypothesize that the migraine sufferers who experienced aggravation after the new prophylactic drug had been introduced had a paradoxical decrease in the induction threshold for cortical spreading depression (CSD). Mechanisms of such a decrease are unknown and are probably multifactorial, but changes in serotonin neurotransmission have been experimentally demonstrated to modify cortical excitability and favour CSD. The aggravation was described only for attacks without aura. However, with only 14 patients, it is not possible to predict whether suffering from that the type of migraine is a factor that predisposes a patient to aggravation. While additional cases are necessary, physicians should be aware of the possibility that prophylactic treatment may exacerbate migraine attacks. PMID:18948696

  12. Randomized, controlled trial of telcagepant for the acute treatment of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Connor, K M.; Shapiro, R E.; Diener, H -C.; Lucas, S; Kost, J; Fan, X; Fei, K; Assaid, C; Lines, C; Ho, T W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a key role in migraine pathophysiology. In this large phase 3 clinical trial, we sought to confirm the efficacy of telcagepant, the first orally bioavailable CGRP receptor antagonist. Methods: Adults with migraine with or without aura (International Headache Society criteria) treated a moderate or severe attack with oral telcagepant 50 mg (n = 177), 150 mg (n = 381), 300 mg (n = 371), or placebo (n = 365) in a randomized, double-blind trial. The 5 co-primary endpoints were pain freedom, pain relief, and absence of photophobia, absence of phonophobia, and absence of nausea, all at 2 hours postdose. The key secondary endpoint was 2–24 hour sustained pain freedom. The prespecified primary efficacy analyses evaluated the 150 mg and 300 mg groups; the 50-mg group was included on an exploratory basis to further characterize the dose response but was not prespecified for analysis. Tolerability was assessed by adverse experience reports. Results: Telcagepant 300 mg was more effective (p ≤ 0.001) than placebo on all primary endpoints and the key secondary endpoint, as was telcagepant 150 mg (p ≤ 0.05). Telcagepant 300 mg showed a slight numeric advantage over telcagepant 150 mg on most measures. Telcagepant 50 mg values were numerically intermediate between placebo and telcagepant 150 mg and 300 mg. The percentages of patients with adverse experiences were 32.2% for telcagepant 50 mg, 32.0% for telcagepant 150 mg, 36.2% for telcagepant 300 mg, and 32.2% for placebo. Conclusions: This study confirmed previous findings that telcagepant 300 mg was effective at relieving pain and other migraine symptoms at 2 hours and providing sustained pain freedom up to 24 hours. In this study, telcagepant 150 mg was also effective. Telcagepant was generally well tolerated. GLOSSARY CGRP = calcitonin gene-related peptide. PMID:19770473

  13. Can migraine prophylaxis prevent acute mountain sickness at high altitude?

    PubMed

    Kim, M W; Kim, M

    2011-11-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops in people trekking at high altitude. The underlying mechanism is vasodilation due to low pressure of oxygen. However, individual susceptibility for AMS is unknown, thus, one cannot predict when or to whom it happens. Because AMS usually begins with headache, and because migraineurs are more vulnerable to AMS, we studied by the literatures review on the mechanism and clinical features in common, and assessed the treatment modalities for both disorders. This led to us the following hypothesis that, migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS at high altitude. Clinical features of AMS include nausea or vomiting when it progresses. Hypobaric hypoxia, dehydration or increased physical exertion trigger or aggravate both disorders. In migraine, cerebral vasodilation can happen following alteration of neuronal activity, whereas the AMS is associated with peripheral vessel dilation. Medications that dilate the vessels worsen both conditions. Acute treatment strategies for migraine overlap with to those of AMS, including drugs such as vasoconstrictors, or other analgesics. To prevent AMS, adaptation to high altitude or pharmacological prophylaxis, i.e., acetazolamide has been recommended. This carbonic anhydrase inhibitor lowers serum potassium level, and thus stabilizes membrane excitability. Acetazolamide is also effective on specific forms of migraine. Taken together, these evidences implicate that migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS by elevating the threshold for high altitude. PMID:21856088

  14. Current Treatment Options in Vestibular Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Obermann, Mark; Strupp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 1% of the general population in western industrialized countries suffers from vestibular migraine. However, it remains widely unknown and often under diagnosed despite the recently published diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine. Treatment trials that specialize on vestibular migraine are scarce and systematic randomized controlled clinical trials are now only emerging. This review summarizes the knowledge on the currently available treatment options that were tested specifically for vestibular migraine and gives an evidence-based, informed treatment recommendation with all its limitations. To date only two randomized controlled treatment trials provide limited evidence for the use of rizatriptan and zolmitriptan for the treatment of vestibular migraine attacks because of methodological shortcomings. There is an ongoing multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial testing metoprolol 95 mg vs. placebo (PROVEMIG-trial). Therefore, the therapeutic recommendations for the prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine are currently widely based on the guidelines of migraine with and without aura as well as expert opinion. PMID:25538676

  15. Emerging drugs in migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Waeber, Christian

    2003-11-01

    Ergot alkaloids have been the mainstay of acute migraine therapy for most of the 20th century. They have been supplanted by sumatriptan-like drugs ('triptans'), which, while keeping some of the ergotś mechanisms of action, show improved safety profiles due to their increased receptor selectivity. However, triptans are still far from being perfect drugs: they can constrict human coronary arteries at therapeutic doses and, therefore, are contra-indicated in the presence of cardiovascular disease. Another problem with these agents is recurrence of moderate-to-severe pain within 24 h of initial headache relief. While mechanism-driven drug design has led to the development of various novel, albeit still imperfect, acute antimigraine medications, only a few new prophylactic agents have been made available to migraine clinicians. The efficacy of most, if not all of them has been discovered serendipitously. This is probably due to the fact that, while the pathophysiology of a migraine attack is now reasonably understood, the mechanisms leading to an attack are still mostly unknown. This update analyses the profile of some antimigraine drugs in clinical trials, their mode of action and their potential advantages or drawbacks over already available agents. PMID:14661998

  16. [Alternatives to beta blockers in preventive migraine treatment].

    PubMed

    Evers, S

    2008-10-01

    Drug prevention of migraine is recommended if more than three attacks occur per month, acute drug treatment is insufficient, or very severe attacks with aura are the main problem. Besides beta blockers, a variety of substances have proved efficacious in migraine prevention. Thus individualised treatment of migraine patients is possible. When choosing the appropriate preventive drug, the potential side effects are considered. Drugs of first choice, besides beta blockers, are flunarizine, valproic acid, and topiramate. Second-choice drugs with lower efficacy or less well published evidence include amitriptyline, venlafaxine, gabapentin, naproxen, acetylsalicylic acid, butterbur root, vitamin B2, and magnesium. Flunarizine or propranolol are recommended for children. PMID:18806984

  17. Optimizing prophylactic treatment of migraine: Subtypes and patient matching

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine have resulted in important breakthroughs in treatment. For example, understanding of the role of serotonin in the cerebrovascular circulation has led to the development of triptans for the acute relief of migraine headaches, and the identification of cortical spreading depression as an early central event associated wih migraine has brought renewed interest in antiepileptic drugs for migraine prophylaxis. However, migraine still remains inadequately treated. Indeed, it is apparent that migraine is not a single disease but rather a syndrome that can manifest itself in a variety of pathological conditions. The consequences of this may be that treatment needs to be matched to particular patients. Clinical research needs to be devoted to identifying which sort of patients benefit best from which treatments, particularly in the field of prophylaxis. We propose four patterns of precipitating factors (adrenergic, serotoninergic, menstrual, and muscular) which may be used to structure migraine prophylaxis. Finally, little is known about long-term outcome in treated migraine. It is possible that appropriate early prophylaxis may modify the long-term course of the disease and avoid late complications. PMID:19209286

  18. Frovatriptan vs. other triptans for the acute treatment of oral contraceptive-induced menstrual migraine: pooled analysis of three double-blind, randomized, crossover, multicenter studies.

    PubMed

    Allais, G; Tullo, V; Omboni, S; Pezzola, D; Zava, D; Benedetto, C; Bussone, G

    2013-05-01

    Oral contraceptive-induced menstrual migraine (OCMM) is a particularly severe form of migraine triggered by the cyclic hormone withdrawal. To review the efficacy of frovatriptan vs. other triptans, in the acute treatment of OCMM through a pooled analysis of three individual randomized Italian studies. With or without aura migraineurs were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). All studies had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. After treating 1-3 episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the other treatment for the next 3 months. In this analysis, the subset of 35 of the 280 women of the intention-to-treat population taking combined oral contraceptives and experiencing a migraine attack during the withdrawal phase, were analyzed. The proportion of pain free and pain relief at 2 h were 25 and 51 % with frovatriptan and 28 and 48 % with comparators (p = NS). At 24 h, 71 and 83 % of frovatriptan-treated patients and 60 and 76 % of comparator-treated patients were pain free (p < 0.05 between treatments) and had pain relief (p = NS), respectively. Relapse at 24 and 48 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower with frovatriptan (17 and 21 %) than with the comparators (27 and 31 %). Our results suggest that, due to its sustained antimigraine effect, frovatriptan may be particularly suitable for the management of OCMM than other triptans. PMID:23695052

  19. Efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the treatment of acute migraine of hypertensive and normotensive subjects: a review of randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Tullo, V; Bussone, G; Omboni, S; Barbanti, P; Cortelli, P; Curone, M; Peccarisi, C; Benedetto, C; Pezzola, D; Zava, D; Allais, G

    2013-05-01

    Migraine might be associated with high blood pressure (BP), which can cause more severe and more difficult to treat forms of headache. To evaluate the efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the acute treatment of migraine, in patients classified according to a history of arterial hypertension, enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, crossover, Italian studies. Migraineurs with or without aura were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). After treating up to three episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the alternate treatment for the next 3 months. The present analysis assessed triptan efficacy in 60 subjects with a history of treated or untreated essential arterial hypertension (HT) and in 286 normotensive (NT) subjects. During the study, migraine attacks with aura were significantly more prevalent in HT subjects (21 vs. 13 % NT, p < 0.001). The proportion of pain free at 2 h did not significantly differ between HTs and NTs for either frovatriptan (25 vs. 26 %) or the comparators (33 vs. 32 %). Pain relief was achieved in significantly (p < 0.05) fewer episodes in HT subjects for both frovatriptan (41 vs. 52 % NT) and the comparators (48 vs. 58 %). Relapses at 48 h were similarly low in HTs and NTs with frovatriptan (29 vs. 31 %), while they were significantly (p < 0.05) larger in HTs (62 %) than in NTs (44 %) with comparators. No BP or heart rate increment was observed during the study in HT subjects. No difference in tolerability was reported between HTs and NTs. In conclusion, HT individuals tend to be less responsive than NT migraineurs to triptan therapy. However, frovatriptan, in contrast to other triptans, seems to have a sustained antimigraine effect in both HT and NT patients. PMID:23695053

  20. Topical beta-blocker treatment for migraine.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Patrick J T

    2012-02-01

    Beta-blockers are a well-known prophylactic treatment for migraine; however, treatment by the ocular route has not been widely considered. This case illustrates the resolution of a visual field defect associated with migraine and improvement of symptoms possibly due to administration of a topical beta-blocker. This novel method of treatment especially when visual field defects are present may have a place in the management of migraine. PMID:22278763

  1. Intravenous lysine clonixinate for the acute treatment of severe migraine attacks: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study☆

    PubMed Central

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Silva, Marcus Tulius T

    2003-01-01

    Background Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine. However, few commercially available NSAIDs can be administered IV. Lysine clonixinate (LC), an NSAID derived from nicotinic acid, has been proved effective in various algesic syndromes (eg, renal colic, muscular pain, nerve compression, odontalgia). The oral formulation of LC has been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine of moderate severity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the IV formulation of LC in the treatment of severe migraine. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study enrolled patients with severe migraine (without aura) as defined by the criteria of the International Headache Society. When patients presented to a neurology hospital with an outpatient headache unit (Instituto de Neurologia Deolindo Couto, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) with a severe migraine attack that had lasted <4 hours, they were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (IV placebo [25 mL of 0.9% saline] or IV LC [21 mL of 0.9% saline plus 4 mL of LC 200 mg]). Headache intensity and adverse effects (AEs) were assessed before (0 minute) and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after study drug administration. Rescue medication was available 2 hours after study drug administration, and its use was compared between groups. Results Thirty-two patients (23 women, 9 men; mean [SD] age, 32 [2] years; range, 18–58 years) entered the study. Twenty-nine patients (21 women, 8 men; mean [SD] age, 32 [2] years; range, 18–56 years) completed the study. Three patients (all in the placebo group) did not complete the study (1 patient was unable to rate the pain severity after drug administration and 2 patients refused IV drug administration). Among study completers, 17 patients received LC and 12 placebo. At 30 minutes, 1 patient (8.3%) in the placebo group and 5 patients (29.4%) in the LC group were pain free

  2. Evidence-Based Treatments for Adults with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Gooriah, Rubesh; Nimeri, Randa; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2015-01-01

    Migraine, a significantly disabling condition, is treated with acute and preventive medications. However, some individuals are refractory to standard treatments. Although there is a host of alternative management options available, these are not always backed by strong evidence. In fact, most of the drugs used in migraine were initially designed for other purposes. Whilst effective, the benefits from these medications are modest, reflecting the need for newer and migraine-specific therapeutic agents. In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of novel treatments, of which noninvasive neuromodulation appears to be the most attractive given its ease of use and excellent tolerability profile. This paper reviews the evidence behind the available treatments for migraine. PMID:26839703

  3. Rizatriptan vs. rizatriptan plus trimebutine for the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, A V; Filho, P F M; Bigal, M E

    2006-07-01

    Gastroparesis frequently happens during migraine attacks, postponing the onset of action of orally administered drugs. Furthermore, triptans seem to work better in the earlier phases of the migraine attacks. Therefore, associating a gastrokinetic drug with a triptan may translate into better efficacy and higher consistency of response. Trimebutine is an opioid derivative with exclusive action on receptors of the Meissner and Auerbach plexus throughout the digestive tube. It has no absorption or central penetration. Herein we contrast the combination of rizatriptan plus trimebutine with rizatriptan alone in the acute treatment of migraine. Forty patients with migraine consecutively seen in our clinic were randomized to treat two consecutive moderate or severe attacks with one tablet of 10 mg rizatriptan plus one capsule of 200 mg trimebutine and two attacks with the same triptan and placebo, in counterbalanced order. We collected information on the severity of the attack, as well as presence of nausea and photophobia at the time of drug intake, and after 1, 2 and 4 h. Recurrence and adverse events were also contrasted. Sixty-four attacks were treated with each drug regimen. At 1 h postdose, 30 (46.8%) of 64 attacks treated with the combination resolved completely, vs. eight (12.5%) of the rizatriptan-treated attacks, a difference of 34% (P < 0.01). At 2 h postdose, 47 (73.4%) attacks treated with the combination vs. 20 (31.2%) of those treated with rizatriptan alone resolved completely, a difference of 42% (95% confidence interval 26, 58, P < 0.001). Regarding nausea and photophobia, the combination was also associated with significantly better response. Recurrence was similar among the two drug regimens, as well as adverse events. The combination rizatriptan and trimebutine is more effective than rizatriptan alone. The combination does not increase adverse events or recurrence of pain. PMID:16776704

  4. Headaches and Migraines: Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Past Issues / Spring ... of headache. Each has distinct symptoms and treatments. Migraine and Other Vascular Headaches—Symptoms and Diagnosis Migraine: ...

  5. A review of rizatriptan, a quick and consistent 5-HT1B/1D agonist for the acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2004-03-01

    Rizatriptan is a second-generation triptan marketed as 5 and 10 mg tablets and rapidly disintegrating wafer formulations. In > 5000 acute migraine patients enrolled in short-term trials and almost 1800 patients in long-term, open-label trials treating approximately 47000 attacks, rizatriptan was effective and well-tolerated. Controlled head-to-head data and a meta-analysis of 53 randomised, placebo-controlled trials of oral triptans in > 24000 patients have shown that rizatriptan 10 mg offers efficacy advantages over oral sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg and other oral triptans, both in terms of speed of onset of action and consistency. These advantages may reflect its improved pharmacological profile over sumatriptan in terms of higher oral bioavailability and a shorter time to maximum concentration. The wafer formulation offers the convenience of being administered without water. As a result of its superior efficacy profile and generally good tolerability, rizatriptan can be considered as a first-line treatment for acute migraine. PMID:15013934

  6. [Prophylactic drug treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Massiou, H; Bousser, M-G

    2005-07-01

    Prophylactic treatment is mainly intended to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. Based on the results of published controlled trials, the main prophylactic drugs are some beta-blockers, methysergide, pizotifene, oxetorone, flunarizine, amitriptyline, NSAIDs, sodium valproate and topiramate. With these drugs, the frequency of attacks can be reduced by half in 50 percent of patients. Some less evaluated substances such as aspirin, DHE, indoramine, and angiotensin II inhibitors may be useful. The decision to treat with drugs and the choice of a prophylactic drug are made together with the patient. The superiority of one major drug over another has never been demonstrated in a comparative trial, thus the choice of the drug to start with depends on the possible side effects and contraindications, the characteristics of the migraine attacks, and the associated morbidities and possible interactions with abortive medications. Doses should be increased gradually, in order to reach the recommended daily dose, only if tolerance permits. Treatment efficacy has to be assessed after 2 or 3 months, and in case of failure or poor tolerance, another treatment should be started. If the treatment is successful, it should be continued for 6 to 12 months, and then tapered off. The moderate efficacy and the frequency of the side effects observed with prophylactic drugs explain the high rate of withdrawals. Some patients nevertheless dramatically improve, warranting trying several drugs successively in order to find the most appropriate one. PMID:16141958

  7. Migraine preventive therapy: current and emerging treatment options.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, A M; Bigal, M E

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we review new treatment options for migraine prevention. We start with an overview about migraine and then briefly discuss current indications for migraine prevention and new and emerging preventive medications. PMID:15926007

  8. Diagnosis and treatment for chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Maureen; Mallick-Searle, Theresa

    2016-06-19

    Migraine is a debilitating headache disorder that is underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide, partially attributable to misdiagnosis and expectations of poor treatment outcomes. This article provides a review of chronic migraine, including pathophysiology, burden, diagnosis, and management, with special emphasis on the role of NPs. PMID:27203455

  9. Diagnosis and treatment for chronic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Maureen; Mallick-Searle, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Migraine is a debilitating headache disorder that is underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide, partially attributable to misdiagnosis and expectations of poor treatment outcomes. This article provides a review of chronic migraine, including pathophysiology, burden, diagnosis, and management, with special emphasis on the role of NPs. PMID:27203455

  10. The TRPA1 channel in migraine mechanism and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Benemei, S; Fusi, C; Trevisan, Gabriela; Geppetti, Pierangelo

    2014-01-01

    Migraine remains an elusive and poorly understood disease. The uncertainty is reflected by the currently unsatisfactory acute and prophylactic treatments for this disease. Genetic and pharmacological information points to the involvement of some transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in pain mechanisms. In particular, the TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels seem to play a major role in different models of pain diseases. Recent findings have underscored the possibility that TRP channels expressed in the nerve terminals of peptidergic nociceptors contribute to the migraine mechanism. Among this channel subset, TRPA1, a sensor of oxidative, nitrative and electrophilic stress, is activated by an unprecedented series of irritant and pain-provoking exogenous and endogenous agents, which release the pro-migraine peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, through this neuronal pathway. Some of the recently identified TRPA1 activators have long been known as migraine triggers. Furthermore, specific analgesic and antimigraine medicines have been shown to inhibit or desensitize TRPA1 channels. Thus, TRPA1 is emerging as a major contributing pathway in migraine and as a novel target for the development of drugs for pain and migraine treatment. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24206166

  11. The 'Act when Mild' (AwM) study: a step forward in our understanding of early treatment in acute migraine.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J

    2008-09-01

    An important issue in the management of migraine is the advice given to patients as to when to take their treatment in the course of the attack. While it seems common sense almost to take treatment early in the attack, the evidence base for that advice is not as robust as could be expected. The 'Act when Mild' (AwM) Study was a randomized, four-arm, multicentre, multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan (12.5 mg) to compare outcomes after administration of treatment when pain intensity was mild and within 1 h of headache onset (mild/early) with outcomes when pain had become moderate or severe. Of 491 migraineurs enrolled, 403 were evaluable with an intention-to-treat population (ITT) of 404. At the primary end-point, 2 h pain free, on the ITT analysis 49% of patients in the almotriptan 12.5 mg treat early/mild group and 40% in the treat moderate/severe group had responded (P = 0.21). Of these patients, 43 did not take medication according to their randomly allocated baseline pain intensity (mild or moderate/severe) and were subsequently reassigned, prior to study unblinding, to the appropriate group (AwM population) for re-analysis of the primary outcome measure: 2-h pain-free rates. In the almotriptan arms, 53% of the mild/early group and 37.5% of the moderate/severe group were pain free at 2 h (P = 0.02; AwM population). The corresponding proportions in the placebo groups were 24.7% and 17.5% (significantly lower than the respective almotriptan arms; P treatment with almotriptan in the mild/early vs. the moderate/severe stage, including: sustained pain-free, 45.6% vs. 30.5% (P = 0.02); headache recurrence at 24 h, 6% vs. 24% (P = 0.0124). Adverse events were reported in < 5% of patients, with no significant differences between almotriptan and placebo and no serious events in any group. Treatment with almotriptan while migraine pain is

  12. New therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Charles, Andrew; Goadsby, Peter J; Holle, Dagny

    2015-10-01

    The management of patients with migraine is often unsatisfactory because available acute and preventive therapies are either ineffective or poorly tolerated. The acute treatment of migraine attacks has been limited to the use of analgesics, combinations of analgesics with caffeine, ergotamines, and the triptans. Successful new approaches for the treatment of acute migraine target calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT1F) receptors. Other approaches targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) receptor, glutamate, GABAA receptors, or a combination of 5-HT1B/1D receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthesis have been investigated but have not been successful in clinical trials thus far. In migraine prevention, the most promising new approaches are humanised antibodies against CGRP or the CGRP receptor. Non-invasive and invasive neuromodulation approaches also show promise as both acute and preventive therapies, although further studies are needed to define appropriate candidates for these therapies and optimum protocols for their use. PMID:26376968

  13. Acute Migraine Therapy: New Drugs and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Monteith, Teshamae S.

    2010-01-01

    Opinion Statement The conceptual shift of our understanding of migraine from a vascular disorder to a brain disorder has dramatically altered the approach to the development of new medicines in the field. Current pharmacologic treatments of acute migraine consist of nonspecific and relatively specific agents. Migraine-specific drugs comprise two classes, the ergot alkaloid derivatives and the triptans, serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists. The ergots, consisting of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE), are the oldest specific antimigraine drugs available and are considered relatively safe and effective. Ergotamine has been used less extensively because of its adverse effects; DHE is better tolerated. The triptan era, beginning in the 1990s, was a period of considerable change, although these medicines retained vasoconstrictor actions. New methods of delivering older drugs include orally inhaled DHE and the transdermal formulation of sumatriptan, both currently under study. Novel medicines being developed are targeted at neural sites of action. Serotonin 5-HT1F receptor agonists have proven effective in phase II studies and have no vascular actions. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are another promising nonvasoconstrictor approach to treating acute migraine. Olcegepant (BIBN4096BS) and telcagepant (MK-0974) have been shown to be safe and effective in phase I, II, and (for telcagepant) phase III clinical trials. Other targets under investigation include glutamate (AMPA/kainate), TRPV1, prostanoid EP4, and nitric oxide synthase. With new neural targets and the potential for therapeutic advances, the next era of antimigraine medications is near. PMID:21110235

  14. Efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the treatment of acute migraine of normal weight and obese subjects: a review of randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Allais, Gianni; Tullo, Vincenzo; Zava, Dario; Pezzola, Deborha; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara; Bussone, Gennaro; Aguggia, Marco

    2014-05-01

    An association between obesity and migraine has been observed in recent studies and it is supported by plausible biological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of frovatriptan and other triptans in the acute treatment of migraine, in patients enrolled in three randomized, double-blind, crossover, Italian studies and classified according to body mass index (BMI) levels, as normal weight or non-obese (NO, BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and overweight or obese subjects (O, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). 414 migraineurs with or without aura were randomized to frovatriptan 2.5 mg or rizatriptan 10 mg (study 1), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or zolmitriptan 2.5 mg (study 2), frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg (study 3). After treating up to three episodes of migraine in 3 months with the first treatment, patients switched to the alternate treatment for the next 3 months. The present analysis assessed triptan efficacy in 220 N and in 109 O subjects of the 346 individuals of the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of pain free at 2 h did not significantly differ between frovatriptan and the comparators in either NO (30 vs. 34 %) or O (24 vs. 27 %). However, the rate of pain free at 2 h was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in NO than in O, irrespective of the type of triptan. Pain relief at 2 h was also similar between drug treatments for either subgroup. Pain relapse occurred at 48 h in significantly (p < 0.05) fewer episodes treated with frovatriptan in both NO (26 vs. 36 %) and O (27 vs. 49 %). The rate of 48-h relapse was similar in NO and O with frovatriptan, while it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in O with the comparators. Frovatriptan, in contrast to other triptans, retains a sustained antimigraine effect in NO and even more so in O subjects. PMID:24867847

  15. Vestibular migraine: a critical review of treatment trials.

    PubMed

    Fotuhi, Majid; Glaun, Braeme; Quan, Susan Y; Sofare, Tzipora

    2009-05-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM), also known as migraine-associated vertigo, is a common cause of dizziness in adults. We performed a comprehensive literature search regarding treatment for VM or migraine-associated vertigo during the period of 1990-2008 and used, individually or in combination, the search terms VM, migraine-associated vertigo, migraine-associated dizziness, migrainous vertigo, migraine and vertigo, migraine and disequilibrium, and headache and vertigo. We found nine publications that address treatment strategies for VM. One small randomized clinical trial found some benefit from the use of zolmitriptan for abortive treatment of VM. The other eight observational studies showed marginal improvement with migraine prophylactic medications such as nortriptyline, verapamil, or metoprolol. Until more specific treatment options become available, patients with VM need to be managed with similar prophylactic and abortive strategies as those used for migraine in adults. PMID:19252785

  16. Treatment of perimenstrual migraine with triptans: an update.

    PubMed

    Casolla, Barbara; Lionetto, Luana; Candela, Serena; D'Alonzo, Lidia; Negro, Andrea; Simmaco, Maurizio; Martelletti, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Pure menstrual migraine (PMM) and menstrually related migraine (MRM) are difficult challenges in migraine management. Triptans are a class of highly selective serotonin receptor agonists, which interfere with the pathogenesis of migraine and are effective in relieving the associated neurovegetative symptoms. In recent years triptans have been extensively proposed for the treatment of severe, disabling, and recurrent perimenstrual migraine attacks. This review summarizes the different levels of recommendations for the use of triptans in the treatment of perimenstrual migraine. This review is also intended to offer an updated reasonable guide to physicians treating perimenstrual migraine in daily practice. PMID:22644903

  17. Almotriptan in the acute treatment of migraine in patients 11-17 years old: an open-label pilot study of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Charles, James A

    2006-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the safety and efficacy of almotriptan in patients aged 11-17 years old with acute migraine. Fifteen patients aged 11-17 with a history of migraine with or without aura were treated with almotriptan. Reduction in headache severity, disability and adverse effects were studied. Almotriptan in doses ranging from 6.25 to 12.5 mg was well tolerated. There were virtually no adverse effects except for one case of transient mild stiffness. Of the 15 patients, only 2 demonstrated no efficacy without adverse effects. In the other 13 patients, not only was almotriptan effective, but again, no significant adverse effects were reported. Almotriptan is probably safe and effective in patients aged 11-17. This small open-label pilot study should support the feasibility of a large randomised controlled study to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in children and adolescents with episodic migraine. PMID:16688412

  18. New onset migraine with aura after treatment initiation with ivabradine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migraine with aura is a complex neurological disorder modeled in animals by cortical spreading depression. It is less usual to find complete animal models for the disease so any opportunity to test a human effect back at the bench is welcome. Findings We report the case of a 24 year old woman who developed new onset episodic migraine with visual aura shortly after treatment initiation with the If ion channel blocker ivabradine for frequency control in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We studied whether ivabradine could alter cortical spreading depression in a suitable animal model. Sixteen rats received either ivabradine or saline, and the number of depolarization shifts and blood flow changes induced by cortical spreading depression were measured in both groups. No significant differences between the ivabradine and saline group were detected. Conclusions Ivabradine is an interesting substance since it is known to produce migraine-like phosphenes frequently and the patient we report developed de novo migraine with aura. However, we were unable to demonstrate that the drug influences the susceptibility of the brain to cortical spreading depression with acute administration. The combined data show the relationship of migraine aura to cortical spreading depression may have some nuances yet to be identified. PMID:23718730

  19. The role of exercise in migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, E; Yetkin, M F; Ugur, F; Bilgen, M

    2015-09-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on the use of exercise for migraine treatment with regard to its efficacy, mechanism of action and role in practice. Many randomized studies have reported the efficacy of prophylactic treatment of migrane with medications such as beta blockers or antiepileptic drugs. Studies on alternative approaches, like aerobic exercise and biofeedback, are however limited but also considered to be effective. Scientific databases were searched with keywords "exercise" and "migraine". The resulting publications were gathered, examined and discussed throughly. Past studies had limitations and were few in number, but more recent randomized controlled studies have concretely provided level of evidence about the effectiveness of exercise in prophylactic treatment of migraine. Core properties of exercise like intensity, duration, frequency, type and warming up period are required to be monitored while treating migraine to increase the beneficial effects and, also to prevent injuries and side effects which may include exertional headache. Isometric neck exercise is helpful when the migraine is accompanied by neck pain. Patient population with low beta endorphin level in blood, high physical fitness and high motivation receives significant benefits from the exercise treatment. The action of exercise on migraine is in general related to neurochemical factors, psychological states and increase in cardivascular and cerebrovascular fitness. Considering its effectiveness and minimal side effects, migraine patients should often be encouraged to practice physical exercise with intensity, frequency and duration that should be carefully instituted to achieve the most beneficial outcome while preventing potential injuries and side effects. PMID:24921618

  20. Headaches and Migraines: Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Headache Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... turn Javascript on. There are several types of headache. Each has distinct symptoms and treatments. Migraine and ...

  1. Influence of trigger factors on the efficacy of almotriptan as early intervention for the treatment of acute migraine in a primary care setting: the START study.

    PubMed

    Leone, Massimo; Vila, Carlos; McGown, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    In a large observational general practice study (the Standardized Study with Almotriptan in Early Treatment of Migraine [START]), 12.5 mg almotriptan administered within 1 h of pain onset and when pain was mild significantly improved pain-related outcomes, compared with later treatment or when pain was more severe. Migraine triggers at baseline and during treatment were recorded, and it was examined whether trigger factors could affect almotriptan-induced headache improvement. More than 400 patients were enrolled, and 1174 attacks were assessed. At baseline, patients reported a mean of 2.6 types of triggers related to the start of their previous migraine attacks. During the trial, a mean of 1.5 trigger factors for each attack was recorded. The most frequent trigger during the study was stress (37% of migraine attacks), with poor sleep (34%), fatigue (32%) and menses (19%) also being widely reported. Stress and fatigue and/or poor sleep were the most frequent trigger combinations. Early treatment with almotriptan improved clinical outcomes, regardless of the trigger factors involved. Similar results were observed for nonearly administration, although this was less efficacious than early intervention. An exception in the nonearly group was that migraines triggered by poor sleep had better responses than attacks in which sleep disorder was not a factor. Almotriptan maintained its efficacy irrespective of trigger factors in migraine patients treated in everyday clinical practice and, as shown in other studies, it was most effective in reducing pain-free rates when administered early, when pain was still mild. PMID:20819011

  2. The cost of migraine and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lawrence D

    2005-06-01

    Migraine headache incurs estimated annual costs totaling as much as 17 billion dollars in the United States. Most of the direct costs are for outpatient services: medications, office or clinic visits, emergency department visits, laboratory and diagnostic services, and management of treatment side effects. Indirect costs from lost productivity in the workplace add substantially to the total. The triptan class of drugs, used for abortive treatment, account for the greatest portion of medication costs. Because these agents are expensive, optimal use is critical. Research suggests that a stratified care strategy, with initial therapy based on the patient's score on the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, is both clinically advantageous and more cost-effective than stepped-care strategies. Also, the triptans are not interchangeable, and costs as well as clinical outcomes may vary with different agents in this class. Migraine prophylaxis is aimed at preventing frequent attacks and the development of a long-term condition that often incurs heavy costs for abortive treatment, diagnostic services, and medical care. Agents approved for migraine prophylaxis include the antiepileptics divalproex and topiramate and the beta blockers propranolol and timolol. As with abortive therapy, costs vary widely among these prophylactic agents. A novel approach to migraine prophylaxis is injection of botulinum toxin. A cost-analysis model is presented to show the impact of utilizing botulinum toxin in a large managed care system. PMID:16095269

  3. Migraine-associated vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Migraine-associated vertigo has become a well-recognized disease entity diagnosed based on a clinical history of recurrent vertigo attacks unexplained by other central or peripheral otologic abnormalities, which occurs in the patient with a history of migraine headaches. There is no international agreement on what spectrum of symptoms should be covered under this diagnosis, or what terminology should be used. The headaches and vestibular symptoms of migraine-associated vertigo may not be temporally associated, which often obscures the association. Diagnostic tests usually show nonspecific abnormalities that are also seen in patients with migraine who do not experience vestibular symptoms. Management generally follows the recommended treatment of migraine headaches, and includes dietary and lifestyle modifications and medical treatment with beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and tricyclic amines. Small case series show that acetazolamide and lamotrigine appear to be more effective for the vertigo attacks than headaches. Vestibular rehabilitation has also been shown to be helpful in several studies. In this review, the epidemiologic and clinical features of the disorder, as well as the current state of knowledge on pathophysiology, diagnostic testing, and treatment are described. PMID:20352586

  4. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Repetitive Transnasal Sphenopalatine Ganglion Blockade With Tx360® as Acute Treatment for Chronic Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Roger; Saper, Joel; Dexter, Kent; Manley, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if repetitive sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) blocks with 0.5% bupivacaine delivered through the Tx360® are superior in reducing pain associated with chronic migraine (CM) compared with saline. Background The SPG is a small concentrated structure of neuronal tissue that resides within the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) in close proximity to the sphenopalatine foramen and is innervated by the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. From an anatomical and physiological perspective, SPG blockade may be an effective acute and preventative treatment for CM. Method This was a double-blind, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study using a novel intervention for acute treatment in CM. Up to 41 subjects could be enrolled at 2 headache specialty clinics in the US. Eligible subjects were between 18 and 80 years of age and had a history of CM defined by the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders appendix definition. They were allowed a stable dose of migraine preventive medications that was maintained throughout the study. Following a 28-day baseline period, subjects were randomized by computer-generated lists of 2:1 to receive 0.5% bupivacaine or saline, respectively. The primary end-point was to compare numeric rating scale scores at pretreatment baseline vs 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours postprocedure for all 12 treatments. SPG blockade was accomplished with the Tx360®, which allows a small flexible soft plastic tube that is advanced below the middle turbinate just past the pterygopalatine fossa into the intranasal space. A 0.3 cc of anesthetic or saline was injected into the mucosa covering the SPG. The procedure is performed similarly in each nostril. The active phase of the study consisted of a series of 12 SPG blocks with 0.3 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine or saline provided 2 times per week for 6 weeks. Subjects were re-evaluated at 1 and 6 months postfinal procedure. Results The final dataset

  5. AVP-825 Breath-Powered Intranasal Delivery System Containing 22 mg Sumatriptan Powder vs 100 mg Oral Sumatriptan in the Acute Treatment of Migraines (The COMPASS Study): A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial Across Multiple Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Stewart J; Cady, Roger K; Silberstein, Stephen; Messina, John; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Shin, Paul; Siffert, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of AVP-825, an investigational bi-directional breath-powered intranasal delivery system containing low-dose (22 mg) sumatriptan powder, vs 100 mg oral sumatriptan for acute treatment of migraine in a double-dummy, randomized comparative efficacy clinical trial allowing treatment across multiple migraine attacks. Background In phases 2 and 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials, AVP-825 provided early and sustained relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults, with a low incidence of triptan-related adverse effects. Methods This was a randomized, active-comparator, double-dummy, cross-over, multi-attack study (COMPASS; NCT01667679) with two ≤12-week double-blind periods. Subjects experiencing 2-8 migraines/month in the past year were randomized 1:1 using computer-generated sequences to AVP-825 plus oral placebo tablet or an identical placebo delivery system plus 100 mg oral sumatriptan tablet for the first period; patients switched treatment for the second period in this controlled comparative design. Subjects treated ≤5 qualifying migraines per period within 1 hour of onset, even if pain was mild. The primary end-point was the mean value of the summed pain intensity differences through 30 minutes post-dose (SPID-30) using Headache Severity scores. Secondary outcomes included pain relief, pain freedom, pain reduction, consistency of response across multiple migraines, migraine-associated symptoms, and atypical sensations. Safety was also assessed. Results A total of 275 adults were randomized, 174 (63.3%) completed the study (ie, completed the second treatment period), and 185 (67.3%) treated at least one migraine in both periods (1531 migraines assessed). There was significantly greater reduction in migraine pain intensity with AVP-825 vs oral sumatriptan in the first 30 minutes post-dose (least squares mean SPID-30 = 10.80 vs 7.41, adjusted mean

  6. Frovatriptan versus almotriptan for acute treatment of menstrual migraine: analysis of a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, multicenter, Italian, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Marco; Giamberardino, Maria Adelaide; Lisotto, Carlo; Martelletti, Paolo; Moscato, Davide; Panascia, Biagio; Savi, Lidia; Pini, Luigi Alberto; Sances, Grazia; Santoro, Patrizia; Zanchin, Giorgio; Omboni, Stefano; Ferrari, Michel D; Fierro, Brigida; Brighina, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan and almotriptan in women with menstrually related migraine (IHS Classification of Headache disorders) enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Patients received frovatriptan 2.5 mg or almotriptan 12.5 mg in a randomized sequence: after treating 3 episodes of migraine in no more than 3 months with the first treatment, the patient was switched to the other treatment. 67 of the 96 female patients of the intention-to-treat population of the main study had regular menstrual cycles and were thus included in this subgroup analysis. 77 migraine attacks classified as related to menses were treated with frovatriptan and 78 with almotriptan. Rate of pain relief at 2 and 4 h was 36 and 53 % for frovatriptan and 41 and 50 % for almotriptan (p = NS between treatments). Rate of pain free at 2 and 4 h was 19 and 47 % with frovatriptan and 29 and 54 % for almotriptan (p = NS). At 24 h, 62 % of frovatriptan-treated and 67 % of almotriptan-treated patients had pain relief, while 60 versus 67 % were pain free (p = NS). Recurrence at 24 h was significantly (p < 0.05) lower with frovatriptan (8 vs. 21 % almotriptan). This was the case also at 48 h (9 vs. 24 %, p < 0.05). Frovatriptan was as effective as almotriptan in the immediate treatment of menstrually related migraine attacks. However, it showed a more favorable sustained effect, as shown by a lower rate of migraine recurrence. PMID:22592864

  7. Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Migraine Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Migraine? The pain of a migraine headache is often ...

  8. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Breath Powered Nasal Delivery of Sumatriptan Powder (AVP-825) in the Treatment of Acute Migraine (The TARGET Study)

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Roger K; McAllister, Peter J; Spierings, Egilius LH; Messina, John; Carothers, Jennifer; Djupesland, Per G; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AVP-825, a drug–device combination of low-dose sumatriptan powder (22 mg loaded dose) delivered intranasally through a targeted Breath Powered device vs an identical device containing lactose powder (placebo device) in the treatment of migraine headache. Background Early treatment of migraine headaches is associated with improved outcome, but medication absorption after oral delivery may be delayed in migraineurs because of reduced gastric motility. Sumatriptan powder administered with an innovative, closed-palate, Bi-Directional, Breath Powered intranasal delivery mechanism is efficiently absorbed across the nasal mucosa and produces fast absorption into the circulation. Results from a previously conducted placebo-controlled study of AVP-825 showed a high degree of headache relief with an early onset of action (eg, 74% AVP-825 vs 38% placebo device at 1 hour, P < .01). Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in adults with a history of migraine with or without aura, participants were randomized via computer-generated lists to AVP-825 or placebo device to treat a single migraine headache of moderate or severe intensity. The primary endpoint was headache relief (defined as reduction of headache pain intensity from severe or moderate migraine headache to mild or none) at 2 hours post-dose. Results Two hundred and thirty patients (116 AVP-825 and 114 placebo device) were randomized, of whom 223 (112 and 111, respectively) experienced a qualifying migraine headache (their next migraine headache that reached moderate or severe intensity). A significantly greater proportion of AVP-825 patients reported headache relief at 2 hours post-dose compared with those using the placebo device (68% vs 45%, P = .002, odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval [1.45, 4.42]). Between-group differences in headache relief were evident as early as 15 minutes, reached statistical significance at 30

  9. Vestibular migraine: diagnosis challenges and need for targeted treatment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Felipe; Villa, Thaís Rodrigues

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 1% of the general population suffers from vestibular migraine. Despite the recently published diagnostic criteria, it is still underdiagnosed condition. The exact neural mechanisms of vestibular migraine are still unclear, but the variability of symptoms and clinical findings both during and between attacks suggests an important interaction between trigeminal and vestibular systems. Vestibular migraine often begins several years after typical migraine and has a variable clinical presentation. In vestibular migraine patients, the neurological and neurotological examination is mostly normal and the diagnosis will be based in the patient clinical history. Treatment trials that specialize on vestibular migraine are scarce and therapeutic recommendations are based on migraine guidelines. Controlled studies on the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions in the treatment of vestibular migraine should be performed. PMID:27191239

  10. Migraine attack treatment : a tailor-made suit, not one size fits all.

    PubMed

    Belvis, Robert; Mas, Natalia; Aceituno, Azahara

    2014-04-01

    About 15% of people in the world suffer migraine attacks. Migraine can induce a great impact in the quality of life, and the costs of medical care and loss of productivity can be also high. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the best treatment in mild-to-moderate migraine attacks and triptans are the first line option in the acute treatment of moderate-to-severe migraine attacks. At present, there are seven marketed triptans: sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan and frovatriptan. Obviously, every drug presents different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties and, moreover, some triptans have several formulations. The prescription of one of these seven triptans for a specified patient is based in the drug profile: efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Other data to take account in the final prescription are clinical characteristics of the migraine attack (speed of onset, intensity of pain, lasting of the attack) and patient characteristics as working habits, life style or medical history. It is therefore mandatory to perform an individualization of the treatment of migraine attack. In recent years, several new patents of drugs have been registered in the treatment of migraine attack, although most of these are already known drugs that only provide new routes of administration. We present an update on the treatment of the migraine attack. PMID:24605940

  11. Early responses in randomized clinical trials of triptans in acute migraine treatment. Are they clinically relevant? A comment.

    PubMed

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2010-07-01

    One can question the clinical relevance of early headache responses after oral and intranasal triptans. Thus, for pain-free the early responses were significant but in absolute values they were only a few percentages: the therapeutic gains (TGs) were 1.8% (95% CI = 0.3-3%) for oral almotriptan 12.5 after 30 minutes and 1.0% (95% CI = 0-2%) after intranasal zolmitriptan 5 mg after 15 minutes. These results are compared with subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg which has TGs of 11% (95% CI = 7-15%) to 14% (95% CI = 11-17%) for pain-free after 30 minutes. Subcutaneous sumatriptan has a 2 times higher response rate than intranasal zolmitriptan and is 5 times more effective than oral almotriptan at these early time points. It is concluded that if a very early and clinically relevant effect is desired then the migraine patient should use the subcutaneous administration form of sumatriptan. PMID:19178578

  12. Efficacy of frovatriptan versus other triptans in the acute treatment of menstrual migraine: pooled analysis of three double-blind, randomized, crossover, multicenter studies.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Tullo, Vincenzo; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara; Sances, Grazia; Zava, Dario; Ferrari, Michel D; Bussone, Gennaro

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan (F) versus rizatriptan (R), zolmitriptan (Z) and almotriptan (A), in women with menstrually related migraine (IHS criteria) through a pooled analysis of three individual studies. Subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura were randomized to F 2.5 mg or R 10 mg (study 1), F or Z 2.5 mg (study 2), and F or A 12.5 mg (study 3). The studies had an identical multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. After treating three episodes of migraine in no more than 3 months with the first treatment, patients had to switch to the next treatment for other 3 months. 346 subjects formed intention-to-treat population of the main study; 280 of them were of a female gender, 256 had regular menses and 187 were included in the menstrual migraine subgroup analysis. Rate of pain free at 2, 4 and 24 h was 23, 52 and 67 % with F and 30, 61 and 66 % with comparators (P = NS). Pain relief episodes at 2, 4 and 24 h were 37, 60 and 66 % for F and 43, 55 and 61 % for comparators (P = NS). Rate of recurrence was significantly (P < 0.05) lower under F either at 24 h (11 vs. 24 % comparators) or at 48 h (15 vs. 26 % comparators). Number of menstrual migraine attacks associated with drug-related adverse events was equally low (P = NS) between F (5 %) and comparators (4 %). PMID:22644174

  13. Pharmacological treatment of migraine during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Siri; Nordeng, Hedvig; Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Spigset, Olav

    2015-04-01

    Migraine affects up to 25% of women of reproductive age. In the majority of these women, migraine improves progressively during pregnancy, but symptoms generally recur shortly after delivery. As suboptimally treated migraine in pregnancy could have negative consequences for both mother and fetus, the primary aim of clinicians should be to provide optimal treatment according to stage of pregnancy, while minimising possible risks related to drug therapy. Nonpharmacological approaches are always first-line treatment, and should also be used to complement any required drug treatment. Paracetamol is the preferred drug for acute treatment throughout pregnancy. If paracetamol is not sufficiently effective, sporadic use of sumatriptan can be considered. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen can also be used under certain circumstances, though their intake in the first and third trimesters is associated with specific risks and contraindications. Preventive treatment should only be considered in the most severe cases. In women contemplating pregnancy, counselling is essential to promote a safe and healthy pregnancy and postpartum period for the mother and child, and should involve a dialogue addressing maternal concerns and expectations about drug treatment. This Review summarizes current evidence of the safety of the most common antimigraine medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and provides treatment recommendations for use in clinical practice. PMID:25776823

  14. Management considerations in the treatment of migraine in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matarese, Christine A; Mack, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is common in adolescents. It can significantly reduce quality of life, may contribute to significant school absences, and disrupt social activities. This article will address the clinical presentation, natural history, types, evaluation, diagnosis and prognosis of migraine. Common adolescent lifestyle factors such as stress, irregular mealtimes, and sleep deprivation may exacerbate migraines. Management options are discussed including lifestyle modifications, acute and preventative therapies. Features of chronic daily headache including comorbid conditions, management, and outcome are also addressed. PMID:24600258

  15. [Migraine therapy].

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Limmroth, V

    2005-10-01

    With more than 8 million sufferers in Germany alone, migraine is one of the most frequent medical disorders. Recent discoveries in the pathophysiology and genetics of headaches, as well as specific developments in pharmacology, have paved the way for a significant improvement in both acute migraine treatment and migraine prevention. Within the group of 5-HT(1B/D)-agonists (triptans), seven substances with 23 dosages and formulations have been approved in Germany that allow the customized treatment of migraine attacks. In addition, several new drugs such as valproic acid or topiramate are now available as drugs of first choice for migraine prevention, as well as the well established beta blockers, thus enabling the physician to tailor the preventative treatment according to the individual needs of the patient. PMID:15995849

  16. Sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system: a review of its use in patients with acute migraine.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2013-09-01

    The sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system (ZECUITY®) [hereafter referred to as sumatriptan TDS] is the first transdermal treatment for migraine to be approved by the US FDA. This article reviews the available pharmacologic properties of sumatriptan TDS and its clinical efficacy and tolerability for the acute treatment of adult patients with migraine with or without aura. Sumatriptan, a selective 5-hydroxy-tryptamine receptor subtype 1 (5-HT₁) agonist, is presumed to exert its therapeutic effect on migraine patients by binding to the 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors on intracranial blood vessels and sensory nerves of the trigeminal system, resulting in cranial vessel constriction and the inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides and plasma extravasation. In a well designed, phase III clinical trial, sumatriptan TDS was shown to be more effective than placebo at treating a single migraine attack, with significantly more sumatriptan TDS than placebo recipients being headache pain free and nausea free at 2 hours. These data were supported by a long-term, repeat-use study over 12 months. Additionally, sumatriptan TDS was generally well tolerated in clinical trials; the most common adverse events were application-site reactions. The sumatriptan TDS formulation avoids the gastrointestinal tract, and has a controlled, sustained delivery, allowing for patients with migraine-associated nausea and vomiting to receive treatment without the risk of inconsistent absorption or avoidance of tablet use (associated with oral delivery of the drug in these patients). Moreover, it may offer a useful alternative to the nasal spray or subcutaneous sumatriptan formulations. However, definitive conclusions on the comparative efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan TDS versus other sumatriptan formulations or other migraine drugs are not as yet possible, and data from comparative trials would be of great interest. Sumatriptan TDS is a useful addition to the treatment

  17. A Neurologist’s Guide to Acute Migraine Therapy in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is a common reason for visits to the emergency room. Attacks that lead patients to come to the emergency room are often more severe, refractory to home rescue medication, and have been going on for longer. All of these features make these attacks more challenging to treat. The purpose of this article is to review available evidence pertinent to the treatment of acute migraine in adults in the emergency department setting in order to provide neurologists with a rational approach to management. Drug classes and agents reviewed include opioids, dopamine receptor antagonists, triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and sodium valproate. PMID:23936605

  18. Migraine: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J

    2003-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of disabling primary headache and affects approximately 12% of studied Caucasian populations. Non-pharmacological management of migraine largely consists of lifestyle advice to help sufferers avoid situations in which attacks will be triggered. Preventive treatments for migraine should usually be considered on the basis of attack frequency, particularly its trend to change with time, and tract-ability to acute care. Acute care treatments for migraine can be divided into non-specific treatments (general analgesics, such as aspirin or non-steroidal anti--inflammatory drugs) and treatments relatively specific to migraine (ergotamine and the triptans). The triptans--sumatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, almotriptan, eletriptan and frovatriptan--are potent serotonin, 5-HT1B/1D, receptor agonists which represent a major advance in the treatment of acute migraine. Chronic daily headache in association with analgesic overuse is probably the major avoidable cause of headache disability in the developed world. PMID:14511196

  19. Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... vomit. Migraine is three times more common in women than in men. Some people can tell when ... or sleep Exposure to light Hormonal changes (in women) Doctors used to believe migraines were linked to ...

  20. A Randomized Trial of Ketorolac vs Sumatripan vs Placebo Nasal Spray (KSPN) for Acute Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aruna S.; Gelaye, Bizu; Kurth, Tobias; Dash, Paul D.; Nitchie, Haley; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of ketorolac nasal spray (NS) vs placebo and sumatriptan NS for the acute treatment of migraine. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-comparator, crossover study. Adult migraineurs were randomized to ketorolac NS 31.5 mg, sumatriptan NS 20 mg, or placebo to treat three moderate to severe migraine attacks and switched treatments with each attack. Patients seeking headache care at a headache center or in response to community advertisement were recruited. Adult participants with episodic migraine who experienced ≥2 migraine attacks per month were eligible for the Ketorolac vs Sumatriptan vs Placebo Nasal Spray migraine study. Participants were randomized to treatment arms by a research pharmacist, in a 1:1:1 ratio using computer-generated lists. The primary outcome was 2-hour pain relief. Secondary outcomes included 2-hour pain freedom and absence of migraine associated symptoms, and 24-hour sustained pain relief and pain freedom. Results Of the 72 randomized participants, 54 (75%) treated at least one attack and 49 (68%) completed all three treatments, for a total of 152 treated migraine attacks. Both ketorolac NS (72.5%, P < .001) and sumatriptan NS (69.4%, P=.001) were more effective than placebo (38.3%) for 2-hour pain relief and 2-hour pain freedom (ketorolac: 43.1%, P=.004; sumatriptan: 36.7%, P=.046; placebo: 18.4%). Ketorolac NS, but not sumatriptan NS, was more effective than placebo in 2-hour absence of nausea. Both ketorolac NS and sumatriptan NS were more effective than placebo for 24-hour sustained pain relief (ketorolac: 49%, P < .001; sumatriptan: 31%, P=.01, placebo: 20%). Only ketorolac NS was superior to placebo for 24-hour (ketorolac: 35.3%, P=.003; sumatriptan: 22.4%, P=.18, placebo: 12.2%) sustained pain freedom. Nasal burning and dysgeusia were the most common adverse effects for active treatments. Conclusions This study supports that ketorolac NS is superior to placebo and that it

  1. Treatment of Chronic Migraine with Focus on Botulinum Neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Sara M.; Gottschalk, Christopher H.; Jabbari, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common neurological disorder, and contributes to disability and large healthcare costs in the United States and the world. The treatment of migraine until recently has focused on medications, both abortive and prophylactic, but treatment of chronic migraine has been revolutionized with the introduction of botulinum toxin injection therapy. In this review, we explore the current understanding of migraine pathophysiology, and the evolution of the use of botulinum toxin therapy including proposed pathophysiological mechanisms through animal data. We also discuss the similarities and differences between three injection techniques. PMID:26184313

  2. Prophylactic Drug Treatment of Migraine in Children and Adolescents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Tajti, János; Szok, Délia; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László

    2016-01-01

    Migraine as a highly disabling pain condition influences the daily activities of those affected, including children and adolescents. The pathomechanism of migraine is not fully understood, and the different types of prophylactic antimigraine drugs that are applied are not specific for migraine. There is a need for preventive treatment in the event of frequent migraine attacks, an impairment of the quality of life, severe accompanying or aura symptoms, and the failure of acute drug treatment. The following pharmacological classes are recommended: antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, and calcium ion channel antagonists, besides onabotulinum toxin A and nutraceuticals (butterbur). The most urgent goal as concerns pharmaceutical innovation is the development of pathomechanism-based antimigraine drugs and personalized therapy tailored to the children and adolescents. PMID:26695061

  3. A review of the use of frovatriptan in the treatment of menstrually related migraine

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Menstrual migraine (MM) is a highly prevalent condition associated with considerable disability. Migraine attacks occur exclusively around the menstrual period in approximately 10% of women with migraine, that is, pure menstrual migraine, while at least 50% of them also experience migraine at other times of the month, that is, menstrually related migraine (MRM). The therapeutic approach to patients with MRM is based on treatment of the attack, or prophylactic strategies. Triptans are recommended as first-line treatments for moderate to severe migraine attacks, including MM. Frovatriptan is one of the newest triptans. Its high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and long half-life contribute to its distinctive clinical effect, characterized by a more sustained and prolonged effect than other triptans. Indeed, frovatriptan proved to be effective in treating the acute attack, but was particularly effective in the short-term preventive therapy of MM. In addition, frovatriptan is one of the safest triptans, with the lowest risk of treatment-emergent adverse events. Following extensive evidence from randomized pharmacological trials, frovatriptan has now gained a grade A recommendation from the guidelines for short-term prophylaxis of MM. Recent post-hoc analyses of direct comparative trials also suggest that frovatriptan might have an important role in the acute treatment of MRM. In these studies, frovatriptan showed pain relief and pain-free rates similar to those of zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and almotriptan, but with significantly lower recurrence rates. More well-designed, randomized, prospective studies, specifically enrolling women with MM, will be needed in the near future to confirm the efficacy of frovatriptan in this migraine subtype. PMID:23483096

  4. A review of the use of frovatriptan in the treatment of menstrually related migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Benedetto, Chiara

    2013-03-01

    Menstrual migraine (MM) is a highly prevalent condition associated with considerable disability. Migraine attacks occur exclusively around the menstrual period in approximately 10% of women with migraine, that is, pure menstrual migraine, while at least 50% of them also experience migraine at other times of the month, that is, menstrually related migraine (MRM). The therapeutic approach to patients with MRM is based on treatment of the attack, or prophylactic strategies. Triptans are recommended as first-line treatments for moderate to severe migraine attacks, including MM. Frovatriptan is one of the newest triptans. Its high affinity for 5-HT1B/1D receptors and long half-life contribute to its distinctive clinical effect, characterized by a more sustained and prolonged effect than other triptans. Indeed, frovatriptan proved to be effective in treating the acute attack, but was particularly effective in the short-term preventive therapy of MM. In addition, frovatriptan is one of the safest triptans, with the lowest risk of treatment-emergent adverse events. Following extensive evidence from randomized pharmacological trials, frovatriptan has now gained a grade A recommendation from the guidelines for short-term prophylaxis of MM. Recent post-hoc analyses of direct comparative trials also suggest that frovatriptan might have an important role in the acute treatment of MRM. In these studies, frovatriptan showed pain relief and pain-free rates similar to those of zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and almotriptan, but with significantly lower recurrence rates. More well-designed, randomized, prospective studies, specifically enrolling women with MM, will be needed in the near future to confirm the efficacy of frovatriptan in this migraine subtype. PMID:23483096

  5. Commonly Used Acute Migraine Treatments

    MedlinePlus

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  6. A review of the clinical efficacy and tolerability of almotriptan in acute migraine.

    PubMed

    Dodick, David W

    2003-07-01

    Almotriptan is a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT)(1B/1D)-receptor agonist approved for the acute treatment of migraine. In 3500 acute migraine patients enrolled in short-term trials and 1500 patients in long-term open-label trials, almotriptan 12.5 mg was effective and well-tolerated. Almotriptan maintains a consistency of response across three attacks and patients continue to respond to almotriptan for up to 1 year. Results from two comparative studies and a meta-analysis of 53 randomised, placebo-controlled studies of oral triptans in > 24,000 patients, confirm that almotriptan 12.5 mg demonstrates comparable efficacy with sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events with almotriptan is comparable to that of placebo and significantly lower than that with sumatriptan. Drug-drug interaction studies indicate that almotriptan may be coadministered with other commonly prescribed drugs without dose modification. Almotriptan can be recommended as first-line treatment for acute migraine. PMID:12831340

  7. Recommendations for the treatment of migraine attacks - a Brazilian consensus.

    PubMed

    Bordini, Carlos Alberto; Roesler, Célia; Carvalho, Deusvenir de Souza; Macedo, Djacir Dantas P; Piovesan, Élcio; Melhado, Eliana Meire; Dach, Fabiola; Kowacs, Fernando; Silva Júnior, Hilton Mariano da; Souza, Jano Alves de; Maciel, Jayme Antunes; Carvalho, João José de Freitas de; Speciali, José Geraldo; Barea, Liselotte Menke; Queiroz, Luiz Paulo; Ciciarelli, Marcelo Cedrinho; Valença, Marcelo Moraes; Lima, Márcia Maria Ferreira; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-03-01

    In this article, a group of experts in headache management of the Brazilian Headache Society developed through a consensus strategic measurements to treat a migraine attack in both the child and the adult. Particular emphasis was laid on the treatment of migraine in women, including at pregnancy, lactation and perimenstrual period. PMID:27050859

  8. Current perspectives on effective migraine treatments: are small clinical differences important for patients?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Michel D

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of 5-HT(1B/1D) agonists, i.e. triptans, the first drugs specifically developed for the treatment of acute migraine, has revolutionized the treatment of migraine attacks. Triptans have met the needs of many migraine patients, however given the lack of direct comparative trials including all triptans, a meta-analysis of results with all available triptans needed to be conducted. Similar clinical trial design, patient population characteristics and main endpoints certainly facilitated the performance of this meta-analysis. Results from 53 randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials on acute triptan therapy in 24,089 patients were compared with respect to the main efficacy and tolerability variables. At recommended doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, eletriptan 80 mg and rizatriptan 10 mg provided the highest likelihood of consistent success. PMID:15071619

  9. Current and emerging second-generation triptans in acute migraine therapy: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Deleu, D; Hanssens, Y

    2000-07-01

    Sterile neurogenic inflammation within cephalic tissue, involving vasodilation and plasma protein extravasation, has been proposed as a pathophysiological mechanism in acute migraine. The action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) agonists--so-called triptans--on receptors located in meningeal arteries (5-HT1B) and trigeminovascular fiber endings (5-HT1D) has an inhibitory effect on this neurogenic inflammation. Recently, a series of second-generation 5-HT1B/1D agonists (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have been developed and are reviewed in this article. Their in vitro pharmacological properties, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, drug interactions, and adverse effects are evaluated and compared to the golden standard in the treatment of acute migraine, sumatriptan. PMID:10883409

  10. Opioid Treatment of Migraine: Risk Factors and Behavioral Issues.

    PubMed

    Stone, Melissa T; Weed, Valerie; Kulich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Migraine can impact every aspect of a person's functioning. Psychological comorbidities, cognitive constructs, and behavioral responses to pain greatly impact the perception of migraine pain, treatment efficacy and outcome, and overall quality of life and functioning. Current considerations for migraine treatment emphasize the utility of the biopsychosocial model in understanding and treating migraine, noting both the importance of addressing psychological factors such as cognitive beliefs as well as psychiatric comorbidities. The guidelines for migraine treatment implicate opioid therapy as a second or third tier treatment. Guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of opioid medications among patients with chronic pain emphasize the importance of screening prior to prescribing opioid medications. Chronic opioid therapy has been shown to further levels of disability, decrease quality of life, and correlate to psychiatric comorbidities, concerns that are already present in migraine patients. While opioid treatment provides an alternative for persons with contraindications for alternative migraine treatments, it is critical that opioids be used sparingly and exclusively in conjunction with comprehensive assessment and integration of psychological treatment. PMID:27474093

  11. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186

  12. Intranasal medications for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Alan M; Bigal, Marcelo E; Tepper, Stewart J; Sheftell, Fred D

    2004-01-01

    Intranasal medications for the treatment of headache have recently received increased attention. This paper reviews intranasal formulations of a variety of available medications (dihydroergotamine mesylate [dihydroergotamine mesilate], sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, butorphanol, capsaicin and lidocaine [lignocaine]) and one experimental medication (civamide, a cis-isomer of capsaicin) for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Although the efficacy of intranasal agents varies with the product used, intranasal delivery may be both convenient and more effective than other modes of drug delivery for a variety of reasons: (i) intranasal administration bypasses small bowel gastrointestinal tract absorption, which is often significantly delayed during the acute phase of a migraine attack; (ii) nauseated patients may prefer non-oral formulations as they decrease the chance of vomiting and are more rapidly effective; (iii) intranasal administration causes no pain or injection site reaction and is easier and more convenient to administer than injection or suppository and so may be used earlier in a migraine attack, resulting in better efficacy; (iv) intranasal medication produces the same number or fewer adverse events than injections; and (v) intranasal formulations offer a more rapid onset of action than oral medications, for some of the above reasons and, as such, may be more useful in patients with cluster headache, although this needs to be verified. However, it is important to emphasise that a preference study showed that most patients prefer oral tablets to an intranasal formulation. Also, some nasal preparations have significant adverse effects or are not well absorbed and therefore do not work consistently; others are more challenging to administer as a result of their delivery apparatus. Nevertheless, it is our opinion that nasal preparations increase therapeutic options and may result in faster response times and better efficacy than oral formulations and

  13. Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine.

    PubMed

    Maghbooli, Mehdi; Golipour, Farhad; Moghimi Esfandabadi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehran

    2014-03-01

    Frequency and torment caused by migraines direct patients toward a variety of remedies. Few studies to date have proposed ginger derivates for migraine relief. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ginger in the ablation of common migraine attack in comparison to sumatriptan therapy. In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who had acute migraine without aura were randomly allocated to receive either ginger powder or sumatriptan. Time of headache onset, its severity, time interval from headache beginning to taking drug and patient self-estimation about response for five subsequent migraine attacks were recorded by patients. Patients(,) satisfaction from treatment efficacy and their willingness to continue it was also evaluated after 1 month following intervention. Two hours after using either drug, mean headaches severity decreased significantly. Efficacy of ginger powder and sumatriptan was similar. Clinical adverse effects of ginger powder were less than sumatriptan. Patients' satisfaction and willingness to continue did not differ. The effectiveness of ginger powder in the treatment of common migraine attacks is statistically comparable to sumatriptan. Ginger also poses a better side effect profile than sumatriptan. PMID:23657930

  14. Efficacy, speed of action and tolerability of almotriptan in the acute treatment of migraine: pooled individual patient data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dahlöf, C G; Pascual, J; Dodick, D W; Dowson, A J

    2006-04-01

    A meta-analysis of pooled individual patient data from four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials comparing several doses of almotriptan (n = 1,908) with placebo (n = 386) was used to investigate the efficacy, speed of onset and tolerability of almotriptan in the acute treatment of migraine. As early as 30 min after dosing, almotriptan 12.5 mg was significantly more effective than placebo for pain relief (14.9% vs. 8.2%; P < 0.05) and pain free (2.5% vs. 0.7%; P < 0.05). At 2 h, pain-relief rates were 56.0%, 63.7% and 66.0% for almotriptan 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg, respectively, compared with 35% for placebo; 2-h pain-free rates were 26.7%, 36.4% and 43.4% compared with 13.9% for placebo. All almotriptan dosages were significantly more effective than placebo in eliminating migraine-associated symptoms (P < 0.05) and in achieving sustained pain relief up to 24 h (P < 0.05). The incidence of adverse events after almotriptan 6.25 mg and 12.5 mg was not significantly different from that of placebo. This meta-analysis confirms the findings of individual clinical trials, while demonstrating for the first time, significant pain-free efficacy at 30 min compared with placebo. PMID:16556240

  15. [Current pharmacotherapy in migraine].

    PubMed

    Csépány, Éva; Magyar, Máté; Gyüre, Tamás; Bozsik, György; Ertsey, Csaba

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathomechanism of migraine is still unknown, currently there are no biomarkers for migraine diagnosis, and current animal models reflect only one aspect of migraine, therefore future migraine studies are necessary. The current treatment of migraine (both acute and preventive) is suboptimal. There are no specific preventive drugs for migraine, and current preventatives may become inefficient during long-term use. Triptans are useful abortive drugs, but not effective in some of the patients; severe cardio-or cerebrovascular side effects may occur. Triptans and ergot alkaloids (and also non-specific abortive agents) can cause medication overuse headache. A number of newly synthesized experimental drugs seem to be effective and promising for migraine therapy, but at present our experience with these is limited, therefore further studies are essential. PMID:26727720

  16. Migraines

    MedlinePlus

    ... except small amounts for flavoring Papaya Passion fruit Pea pods Pickled, preserved or marinated foods, such as ... foods Raisins Red plums Sauerkraut Seasoned salt Snow peas Soy sauce Diagnosis & Tests How is migraine diagnosed? ...

  17. Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... be triggered by many things. But the exact chain of events remains unclear. Most medical experts believe ... anxiety Migraines can also be triggered by certain foods. Most common are: Chocolate Dairy foods, especially certain ...

  18. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  19. Sumatriptan (subcutaneous route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Subcutaneous administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using subcutaneous sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Thirty-five studies (9365 participants) compared subcutaneous sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 6 mg dose. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 6 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 2.9, 2.3, 2.2, and 2.1 for pain-free at one and two hours, and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively, and 6.1 for sustained pain-free at 24 hours. Results for the 4 mg and 8 mg doses were similar to the 6 mg dose, with 6 mg significantly better than 4 mg only for pain-free at one hour, and 8 mg significantly better than 6 mg only for headache relief at one hour. There was no evidence of increased migraine relief if a second dose of sumatriptan 6

  20. A review of frovatriptan for the treatment of menstrual migraine

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, E Anne

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of menstrual migraine (MM) and of frovatriptan and to assess clinical trial data regarding the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan for the acute and short-term prophylaxis of MM. Randomized controlled trials comparing frovatriptan with placebo or a triptan comparator for the acute or prophylactic treatment of MM were selected for review. MM affects up to 60% of women with migraine. Compared with attacks at other times of the cycle, menstrual attacks are longer, more severe, less responsive to treatment, more likely to relapse, and more disabling than attacks at other times of the cycle. No drugs are licensed for acute treatment of MM; triptans are recommended for treatment of moderate to severe attacks for menstrual and nonmenstrual attacks. Perimenstrual prophylaxis is indicated for patients with predictable MM that does not respond to symptomatic treatment alone. Treatment is unlicensed, but options include triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hormone manipulation. Frovatriptan is distinctive from other triptans due to its long elimination half-life of 26 hours, which confers a longer duration of action. Post hoc analyses from randomized trials of MM show similar pain relief and pain-free rates for frovatriptan compared with other triptans (2 hours pain-free: relative risk [RR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91–1.76) but significantly lower relapse rates (24 hours sustained pain-free: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18–0.62). Data from randomized controlled trials show a significant reduction in risk of MM in women using frovatriptan 2.5 mg once daily (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.31–1.86) or twice daily (RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.68–2.34) for perimenstrual prophylaxis compared with placebo. The twice daily dosing was more effective than once daily (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11–1.46). These findings support the use of frovatriptan as a first-line acute treatment for MM and for perimenstrual prophylaxis. PMID:24904224

  1. Evolution of migraine-associated symptoms in menstrually related migraine following symptomatic treatment with almotriptan.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Acuto, Giancarlo; Benedetto, Chiara; D'Andrea, Giovanni; Grazzi, Licia; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Moschiano, Franca; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Valguarnera, Fabio; Bussone, Gennaro

    2010-06-01

    In addition to headache, migraine is characterized by a series of symptoms that negatively affects the quality of life of patients. Generally, these are represented by nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia and osmophobia, with a cumulative percentage of the onset in about 90% of the patients. From this point of view, menstrually related migraine--a particularly difficult-to-treat form of primary headache--is no different from other forms of migraine. Symptomatic treatment should therefore be evaluated not only in terms of headache relief, but also by considering its effect on these migraine-associated symptoms (MAS). Starting from the data collected in a recently completed multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with almotriptan in menstrually related migraine, an analysis of the effect of this drug on the evolution of MAS was performed. Data suggest that almotriptan shows excellent efficacy on MAS in comparison to the placebo, with a significant reduction in the percentages of suffering patients over a 2-h period of time. PMID:20464599

  2. Migraine: treatments, comorbidities, and quality of life, in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Christopher D; Bhowmick, Amrita; Wachholtz, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to characterize the experience of stress, treatment patterns, and medical and disability profile in the migraineur population to better understand how the experience of migraines impacts the social and psychological functioning of this group. A 30-minute self-report survey was presented via a migraine-specific website with data collection occurring between May 15 and June 15, 2012. Recruitment for the study was done through online advertisements. In total, 2,907 individuals began the survey and 2,735 met the inclusion criteria for the study. The sample was predominantly female (92.8%). Migraine-associated stress was correlated with length of time since first onset of symptoms (P<0.01) and number of symptoms per month (P<0.01). Disorders related to stress, such as depression (P<0.01) and anxiety (P<0.01), were also positively correlated with the measured stress resulting from migraines. Migraine-associated stress must be understood as a multidimensional experience with broader impacts of stress on an individual correlating much more highly with negative mental and physical health profiles. Stress resulting from frequent migraine headaches may contribute to the development of medical and psychological comorbidities and may be a part of a cyclical relationship wherein stress is both a cause and effect of the social and medical impairments brought about by migraine. PMID:26316804

  3. Newly Approved Agents for the Treatment and Prevention of Pediatric Migraine.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of pediatric migraine remains an unmet medical need. There continues to be a paucity of pediatric randomized controlled trials for the treatment of migraine, both in the acute and preventive settings. Pediatric studies are often complicated by high placebo-response rates and much of our current practice is based on adult trials. This lack of significant pediatric studies results in a wide variation in migraine management both amongst clinicians and between institutions, and evidence-based treatments are not always administered. In this article, we aim to briefly review newly approved abortive and preventive agents for migraine in the pediatric age group. Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, aspirin, and acetaminophen are reasonable first-line options for abortive therapy. In addition, studies have shown triptans, or migraine-specific agents, to be safe and effective in children and adolescents and several formulations have been approved for the pediatric population, including rizatriptan, almotriptan, zolmitriptan nasal spray, and naproxen sodium/sumatriptan in combination. PMID:27503180

  4. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray: A Review in Acute Migraine in Pediatric Patients 12 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Kate

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal formulation of zolmitriptan, a selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonist, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute migraine in pediatric patients 12 years of age or older. This article summarizes the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan (Zomig(®)) nasal spray (NS) in acute migraine in this patient group. Zolmitriptan NS 5 mg was more effective in relieving headache pain than placebo in two double-blind studies in pediatric patients 12-17 years of age with acute migraine. Furthermore, zolmitriptan NS 2.5 and 5 mg effectively relieved photophobia and phonophobia, and was associated with a faster return to normal daily activities than placebo. Zolmitriptan NS is rapidly absorbed from the nasal mucosa and is associated with a fast onset of action, with one study showing a significant difference versus placebo with regard to headache response 15 min after administration. In both trials, zolmitriptan NS was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. In conclusion, zolmitriptan NS provides rapid, effective and generally well tolerated treatment of acute migraine in pediatric patients 12 years of age or older and may be of particular benefit for those with nausea or not easily able to swallow tablets. PMID:26747634

  5. Meeting patient expectations in migraine treatment: what are the key endpoints?

    PubMed

    Antonaci, Fabio; Sances, Grazia; Guaschino, Elena; De Cillis, Ilaria; Bono, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2008-08-01

    Clinical outcomes of migraine treatment are generally based on two major endpoints: acute pain resolution and effects on quality of life (QOL). Resolution of acute pain can be evaluated in a number of ways, each increasingly challenging to achieve; pain relief, pain freedom at 2 h, sustained pain-freedom, and SPF plus no adverse events (SNAE, the most challenging). QOL questionnaires help assess the burden of migraine and identify optimal treatments. Pain resolution and improved QOL form the basis of the ultimate target-meeting patient expectations, to achieve patient satisfaction. To achieve this, it is crucial to choose appropriate endpoints that reflect realistic treatment goals for individual patients. Moreover, SNAE can help discriminate between triptans, with almotriptan having the highest SNAE score. Kaplan-Meier plots are also relevant when evaluating migraine treatments. The use of symptomatic medication may lead to the paradoxical development of medication-overuse headache. In general practice, patients should use simple tools for pain measurement (e.g. headache diary) and a QOL questionnaire. A composite endpoint of pain resolution and QOL restoration would constitute a step forward in migraine management. PMID:18607535

  6. Use of Common Migraine Treatments in Breast-Feeding Women: A Summary of Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Susan; Marmura, Michael J.; Calhoun, Anne; Lucas, Sylvia; Silberstein, Stephen; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast-feeding has important health and emotional benefits for both mother and infant, and should be encouraged. While there are some data to suggest migraine may improve during breast-feeding, more than half of women experience migraine recurrence with 1 month of delivery. Thus, a thorough knowledge base of the safety and recommended use of common acute and preventive migraine drugs during breast-feeding is vital to clinicians treating migraine sufferers. Choice of treatment should take into account the balance of benefit and risk of medication. For some of the medications commonly used during breast-feeding, there is not good evidence about benefits. Methods A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication “The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) – a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online. Results Many commonly used migraine medications may be compatible with breast-feeding based on expert recommendations. Ibuprofen, diclofenac, and eletriptan are among acute medications with low levels in breast milk, but studies of triptans are limited. Toxicity is a concern with aspirin due to an association with Reye's syndrome; sedation or apnea is a concern with opioids. Finally, preventive medications not recommended include zonisamide, atenolol, and tizanidine. Conclusions Several excellent resources are available for clinicians making treatment decisions in breast-feeding women. Clinicians

  7. Aspirin with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kirthi, Varo; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine headaches. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 10 March 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using aspirin to treat a discrete migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Thirteen studies (4222 participants) compared aspirin 900 mg or 1000 mg, alone or in combination with metoclopramide 10 mg, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 50 mg or 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes, all active treatments were superior to placebo, with NNTs of 8.1, 4.9 and 6.6 for 2-hour pain-free, 2-hour headache relief, and 24-hour headache relief with aspirin alone versus placebo, and 8.8, 3.3 and 6.2 with aspirin plus metoclopramide versus placebo. Sumatriptan 50 mg did not differ from aspirin alone for 2-hour pain-free and headache relief, while sumatriptan 100 mg was better than the combination of aspirin plus metoclopramide for 2-hour pain-free, but not headache relief; there were no data for 24-hour headache relief. Associated symptoms of nausea, vomiting

  8. Frovatriptan versus other triptans in the acute treatment of migraine: pooled analysis of three double-blind, randomized, cross-over, multicenter, Italian studies.

    PubMed

    Cortelli, Pietro; Allais, Gianni; Tullo, Vincenzo; Benedetto, Chiara; Zava, Dario; Omboni, Stefano; Bussone, Gennaro

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study is to systematically review the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan (F) versus rizatriptan (R), zolmitriptan (Z) and almotriptan (A), through a pooled analysis of three individual studies. 414 subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura (IHS criteria) were randomized to F 2.5 mg or R 10 mg (study 1), F 2.5 mg or Z 2.5 mg (study 2), and F 2.5 mg or A 12.5 mg (study 3). The studies had an identical multicenter, randomized, double blind, cross-over design, with each of the two treatment periods lasting not more than 3 months. The number of pain free (PF) and pain relief (PR) episodes at 2 h, and the number of sustained pain free (SPF) and recurrent episodes within the 48 h were the efficacy endpoints. 346 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Rate of PF episodes at 2 h was 30% with F and 34% with comparators (p = NS). PR episodes at 2 h were 55% for F and 59% for comparators (p = NS). SPF episodes at 48 h were also similar between the two groups (22% F vs. 21% comparators). Rate of recurrence was significantly (p < 0.001) lower under F (27 vs. 40% comparators). Drug-related adverse events were significantly (p < 0.05) less under F, particularly cardiovascular symptoms. Our systematic analysis of individual studies suggests that F has a similar immediate efficacy, but a more sustained effect and a better tolerability than R, Z and A. PMID:21533722

  9. Management of migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara W

    2006-01-01

    With 17% to 18% of women suffering from migraine headaches, clinicians will often be asked by their patients to prescribe medication. Migraine is an episodic chronic disease that is best managed with an overall treatment plan, rather than treated as an acute illness that is managed with sporadic medications. Realistic goals for the long-term management of migraine are based on patient education and an ongoing discussion between patient and provider. This article reviews the clinical presentation of migraine and recommendations for both acute and preventive treatment, including complementary therapies. "Red flags" that could be signs of more serious neurologic illness are presented. The management of migraine in pregnancy is also reviewed. PMID:16647669

  10. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young. PMID:26266080

  11. Treatment of Childhood Migraine Using Autogenic Feedback Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbe, Elise L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared autogenic feedback training with a waiting-list control group as a treatment for children (N=28) with migraine headaches. Children in the treatment condition were significantly improved at the end of treatment and at one-month and six-month follow-up. No improvement was found for the children in the control condition. (BH)

  12. [Role of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Fehér, Gergely; Pusch, Gabriella

    2015-02-01

    The treatment of migraine depends on the frequency, severity and concomitant diseases. There are several specific drugs developed for migraine prevention in addition to the additive antimigraine effects of some other non-specific drugs. The aim of this literature-based review is to summarize the possible antimigraine properties of different antihypertensive agents (beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, etc.) focusing on the possible side effects (avoidance of beta blockers in the absence of heart disease, possible antiparkinson effect of calcium channel blockers, additive effect of drugs modifying the renin-angiotensin system activity, etc.). Current evidence supports the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (mainly lisinopril) and angiotensin receptor blockers (mainly candesartan) for long-term migraine prevention and blood pressure control. Long-term beta-blocker treatment should be avoided in the absence of ischemic heart disease due to possible unfavourable cardiovascular effects. PMID:25618859

  13. Primary Headache Disorders: Focus on Migraine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Migraine is the most common disabling headache disorder. Most patients with disabling tension-type headache are likely to have migraine and accordingly respond to treatments efficacious in migraine. Individuals are genetically predisposed to experiencing recurrent migraine. Evidence supports migraine to be a primarily neural and not vascular mediated disorder. 1–2% of the population have chronic daily headache associated with acute-relief medication overuse; the majority are migraineurs. The presence of acute-relief medication overuse renders preventative medication less adequately efficacious. PMID:26525886

  14. Diclofenac with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Rabbie, Roy; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Diclofenac is an established analgesic, and new formulations using the potassium or epolamine salts, which can be dissolved in water, have been developed for rapid absorption, which may be beneficial in acute migraine. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce the nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists for studies through 27 September 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using self administered diclofenac to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Five studies (1356 participants) compared oral diclofenac with placebo, and one also compared it with sumatriptan; none combined diclofenac with a self administered antiemetic. Four studies treated attacks with single doses of medication, and two allowed an optional second dose for inadequate response. Only two studies, with three active treatment arms, provided data for pooled analysis of primary outcomes. For single doses of diclofenac

  15. Vitamin Supplementation as Possible Prophylactic Treatment against Migraine with Aura and Menstrual Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine. PMID:25815319

  16. Pharmacological approaches to migraine.

    PubMed

    Diener, H Ch

    2003-01-01

    Migraine is a paroxysmal disorder with attacks of headache, nausea, vomiting, photo- and phonophobia and malaise. This review summarises new treatment options both for the therapy of the acute attack as well as for migraine prophylaxis. Analgesics like aspirin or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in treating migraine attacks. Few controlled trials were performed for the use of ergotamine or dihydroergotamine. These trials indicate inferior efficacy compared to serotonin (5-HT)1B/D-agonists (further on called "triptans"). The triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan) are highly effective. They improve headache as well as nausea, photo- and phonophobia. The different triptans have minor differences in efficacy, headache recurrence and adverse effects. The knowledge of their different pharmacological profile allows a more specific treatment of the individual migraine characteristics. Migraine prophylaxis is recommended, when more than 3 attacks occur per month, if attacks do not respond to acute treatment or if side effects of acute treatment are severe. Substances with proven efficacy include the beta-blockers metoprolol and propranolol, the calcium channel blocker flunarizine, several 5-HT antagonists and amitriptyline. Recently antiepileptic drugs (valproic acid, gabapentin, topiramate) were evaluated for the prophylaxis of migraine. The use of botulinum-toxin is under investigation. PMID:12830928

  17. Evaluation of efficacy, tolerability, and treatment satisfaction with almotriptan in 3 consecutive migraine attacks. The migraine--satisfaction with treatment: reality with Almogran study.

    PubMed

    Massiou, Hélène; Pradalier, Andre; Donnet, Anne; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Allaf, Bashar

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the open-label, multicenter Migraine--Satisfaction with Treatment: Reality with Almogran study was to assess efficacy, tolerability, and satisfaction with almotriptan 12.5 mg among migraineurs who were not achieving adequate results with their current acute therapy. Data from 434 patients (342 evaluable), were obtained for 929 attacks by 154 neurologists in France. Using a questionnaire developed by the National Agency for Accreditation and Evaluation in Health (ANAES), almotriptan was associated with an increased proportion of patients experiencing significant relief at 2 h (69.3 vs. 26.6%), tolerating the medication well (91.2 vs. 76.0%), able to resume activities (70.5 vs. 24.9%), and taking only 1 dose (59.4 vs. 28.1%) compared with previous therapies. At 2 h, headache pain had disappeared in 33.4% of attacks and was mild in 26.9%. Recurrence rate was 28.4% and rescue analgesics were used in 20.9% of attacks. The rate of adverse event-related discontinuations was 2.6%. The proportion of patients who were very satisfied/satisfied overall with almotriptan treatment was 69%. Almotriptan 12.5 mg was effective, well-tolerated and associated with a high rate of treatment satisfaction in patients whose previous acute migraine therapy was inadequate according to the ANAES recommendations. PMID:16772716

  18. Neuromodulation in migraine: state of the art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magis, Delphine

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disease. The drugs prescribed for migraine prophylaxis can have intolerable side effects or can be ineffective. Neuromodulation techniques are increasingly used in neurology. Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation is effective in episodic migraine prevention, whereas vagus nerve stimulation provides interesting results in acute migraine therapy. Transcranial stimulation techniques gave variable, and sometimes contradictory, results. The visual cortex is the target of choice in migraine: studies in migraine prevention and aura acute treatment are encouraging. These noninvasive therapies appear safe with a low rate of side effects. Available studies of invasive occipital nerve stimulation in chronic migraine gave modest results; but invasive occipital nerve stimulation offers a new hope to highly disabled patients who failed to respond to any other treatment. In the future, neuromodulation will probably take an increasing place in migraine treatment, as add-on therapy or alternative to medications, especially because of its attractive safety profile. PMID:25633885

  19. Calcium channel antagonists and the treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D A

    1986-01-01

    issue that will require attention as these drugs achieve more widespread use in migraine. Existing evidence suggests that flunarizine, verapamil, nifedipine, and nimodipine are effective prophylactic agents in both common and classic migraine. Nifedipine and nimodipine also appear to be valuable for the treatment of cluster headache. Two case reports describing favorable responses to flunarizine in childhood hemiplegic migraine are the only available data concerning the utility of these drugs in "complicated" migraine syndromes. The role of Ca2+ channel antagonists in treating "muscle contraction" or "tension" headache has not been addressed in any detail.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2425960

  20. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of paracetamol (acetaminophen), alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 4 October 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered paracetamol to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Ten studies (2769 participants, 4062 attacks) compared paracetamol 1000 mg, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes paracetamol was superior to placebo, with NNTs of 12, 5.2 and 5.0 for 2-hour pain-free and 1- and 2-hour headache relief, respectively, when medication was taken for moderate to severe pain. Nausea, photophobia and phonophobia were reduced more with paracetamol than with placebo at 2 hours (NNTs of 7 to 11); more individuals were free of any functional disability at 2 hours with paracetamol (NNT 10); and fewer participants needed rescue medication over 6 hours (NNT 6). Paracetamol 1000 mg plus metoclopramide 10 mg was not significantly different from oral sumatriptan

  1. Ibuprofen with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rabbie, Roy; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers do not seek professional help, relying instead on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce symptoms commonly associated with migraine headaches. Objectives To determine efficacy and tolerability of ibuprofen, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 22 April 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered ibuprofen to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and number needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Nine studies (4373 participants, 5223 attacks) compared ibuprofen with placebo or other active comparators; none combined ibuprofen with a self-administered antiemetic. All studies treated attacks with single doses of medication. For ibuprofen 400 mg versus placebo, NNTs for 2-hour pain-free (26% versus 12% with placebo), 2-hour headache relief (57% versus 25%) and 24-hour sustained headache relief (45% versus 19%) were 7.2, 3.2 and 4.0, respectively. For ibuprofen 200 mg versus placebo, NNTs for 2-hour pain-free (20% versus 10%) and 2-hour headache relief (52% versus 37%) were 9.7 and 6.3, respectively. The higher dose was significantly better for 2-hour headache relief than the lower dose. Soluble formulations of ibuprofen 400 mg were better than standard tablets for 1-hour, but not 2-hour headache relief

  2. Treatment of chronic migraine with intramuscular pericranial injections of onabotulinumtoxin a.

    PubMed

    Belvis, Robert; Mas, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is the most frequent and disabling complication of migraine. To date, only two drugs have been specifically analysed for the treatment of chronic migraine, topiramate and onabotulinumtoxin A, and in the evidence-based medicine categories, they have achieved level of evidence I and as such, a grade of recommendation A according to current guidelines. Following the PREEMPT paradigm, pericranial intramuscular onabotulinumtoxin A injections show a good efficacy and safety in chronic migraine patients, both in phase III randomized clinical trials and in a pooled data analyses. Onabotulinumtoxin A injections reduce the number of days of headache and migraine, they reduce the consumption of triptans and disability, and improve the quality of life of migraine patients. For these reasons, onabotulinumtoxin type A is an option as valid as topiramate for the treatment of chronic migraine. PMID:25643127

  3. [Headache and migraine].

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Slomke, M A; Limmroth, V

    2007-09-01

    Headaches are one of the most common disorders and symptoms in daily medical practice. There has been dramatic progress of knowledge in the fields of epidemiology, pathophysiology, acute treatment, and preventive therapy over the past 100 years. Triptans have been the breakthrough in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Beta blockers, calcium antagonists, and neuromodulators are available for preventive migraine therapy. Treatment for chronic tension headache is still unsatisfying. Cluster headache is part of the group of trigemino-autonomic headaches. Headache from medication overuse plays an increasingly important role. New medical care structures such as integrated headache care provide better support for patients with chronic headache disorders. PMID:17687534

  4. Recent advances in migraine therapy.

    PubMed

    Antonaci, Fabio; Ghiotto, Natascia; Wu, Shizheng; Pucci, Ennio; Costa, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common and highly disabling neurological disorder associated with a high socioeconomic burden. Effective migraine management depends on adequate patient education: to avoid unrealistic expectations, the condition must be carefully explained to the patient soon as it is diagnosed. The range of available acute treatments has increased over time. At present, abortive migraine therapy can be classed as specific (ergot derivatives and triptans) or non-specific (analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Even though acute symptomatic therapy can be optimised, migraine continues to be a chronic and potentially progressive condition. In addition to the drugs officially approved for migraine prevention by international governmental regulatory agencies, numerous different agents are commonly used for this indication, showing various levels of evidence of efficacy and tolerability. Guidelines published in recent years, based on evidence-based medicine data on migraine prophylaxis, are a useful source of guidance, especially for primary care physicians and neurologists without specific expertise in headache medicine. Although the field of pharmacological migraine prevention has seen few advances in recent years, potential novel approaches are now being developed. This review looks at emerging pharmacological strategies for acute and preventive migraine treatment that are nearing or have already entered the clinical trial phase. Specifically, it discusses preclinical and clinical data on compounds acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor, the serotonin 5-HT1F receptor, nitric oxide synthase, and acid-sensing ion channel blockers. PMID:27330903

  5. Migraine: current therapeutic targets and future avenues.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, D K; Veeranjaneyulu, A; Bodhankar, S L

    2006-04-01

    Migraine is characterized by attacks of intense pulsatile and throbbing headache, typically unilateral in nature with or without aura. Migraine affects a substantial fraction (10-20 %) of the world population (more women than men). With regard to the pathophysiology of migraine, several theories have been proposed; the major three are vascular (due to cerebral vasodilatation), neurological (abnormal neurological firing) and neurogenic dural inflammation (release of inflammatory neuropeptides). The drugs used to treat migraine can be divided into two groups: agents that abolish the acute migraine headache and agents aimed at prevention. The acutely acting antimigraine agents (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists) stimulated research interest in the field of migraine. Currently prophylactic treatments for migraine include calcium channel blockers, 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists, beta-adrenoceptor blockers and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonists. Unfortunately, many of these treatments are non-specific and not always effective. Despite progress, the complex etiology of migraine requires further research, the condition often remains undiagnosed and available therapies are underused. In this review, the evidence that linked the different theories of migraine with its pathophysiology is considered. Furthermore, the present therapeutic targets and future approaches for the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine are critically evaluated. PMID:16611154

  6. Sumatriptan (oral route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using oral sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Sixty-one studies (37,250 participants) compared oral sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 50 mg and 100 mg doses. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 50 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 6.1, 7.5, and 4.0 for pain-free at two hours and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively. NNTs for sustained pain-free and sustained headache relief during the 24 hours postdose were 9.5 and 6.0, respectively. For sumatriptan 100 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 4.7, 6.8, 3.5, 6.5, and 5.2, respectively, for the same outcomes. Results for the 25 mg dose were similar to the 50 mg dose, while sumatriptan 100 mg was significantly better than 50 mg for pain-free and headache relief at two hours, and for sustained pain-free during 24 hours. Treating early, during

  7. Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... that medicines, making lifestyle changes, and home treatment methods can prevent or reduce the pain. Return to ... plan may include some or all of these methods. Medicine. There are two ways to approach the ...

  8. Eletriptan in the management of acute migraine: an update on the evidence for efficacy, safety, and consistent response.

    PubMed

    Capi, Matilde; Curto, Martina; Lionetto, Luana; de Andrés, Fernando; Gentile, Giovanna; Negro, Andrea; Martelletti, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Migraine is a multifactorial, neurological and disabling disorder, also characterized by several autonomic symptoms. Triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are the first-line treatment option for moderate-to-severe headache attacks. In this paper, we review the recent data on eletriptan clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability, and potential clinically relevant interactions with other drugs. Among triptans, eletriptan shows a consistent and significant clinical efficacy and a good tolerability profile in the treatment of migraine, especially for patients with cardiovascular risk factors without coronary artery disease. It shows the most favorable clinical response, together with sumatriptan injections, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan. Additionally, eletriptan shows the most complex pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile compared with the other triptans. It is metabolized primarily by the CYP3A4 hepatic enzyme and therefore the concomitant administration of CYP3A4-potent inhibitors should be carefully evaluated. A relatively low risk of serotonin syndrome is given by the co-administration with serotoninergic drugs. No clinically relevant interaction has been found with drugs used for migraine prophylactic treatment or other acute drugs, with the exception of ergot derivatives that should not be co-administered with eletriptan. PMID:27582896

  9. Eletriptan in the management of acute migraine: an update on the evidence for efficacy, safety, and consistent response

    PubMed Central

    Capi, Matilde; Curto, Martina; Lionetto, Luana; de Andrés, Fernando; Gentile, Giovanna; Negro, Andrea; Martelletti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a multifactorial, neurological and disabling disorder, also characterized by several autonomic symptoms. Triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are the first-line treatment option for moderate-to-severe headache attacks. In this paper, we review the recent data on eletriptan clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability, and potential clinically relevant interactions with other drugs. Among triptans, eletriptan shows a consistent and significant clinical efficacy and a good tolerability profile in the treatment of migraine, especially for patients with cardiovascular risk factors without coronary artery disease. It shows the most favorable clinical response, together with sumatriptan injections, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan. Additionally, eletriptan shows the most complex pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile compared with the other triptans. It is metabolized primarily by the CYP3A4 hepatic enzyme and therefore the concomitant administration of CYP3A4-potent inhibitors should be carefully evaluated. A relatively low risk of serotonin syndrome is given by the co-administration with serotoninergic drugs. No clinically relevant interaction has been found with drugs used for migraine prophylactic treatment or other acute drugs, with the exception of ergot derivatives that should not be co-administered with eletriptan. PMID:27582896

  10. CGRP receptor antagonists and antibodies against CGRP and its receptor in migraine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonistic molecules have shown promising results in clinical trials for acute treatment of migraine attacks. Drugs from the gepant class of CGRP receptor antagonists are effective and do not cause vasoconstriction, one of the major limitations in the use of triptans. However their use had to be discontinued because of risk of liver toxicity after continuous exposure. As an alternative approach to block CGRP transmission, fully humanized monoclonal antibodies towards CGRP and the CGRP receptor have been developed for treatment of chronic migraine (attacks >15 days/month). Initial results from phase I and II clinical trials have revealed promising results with minimal side effects and significant relief from chronic migraine as compared with placebo. The effectiveness of these various molecules raises the question of where is the target site(s) for antimigraine action. The gepants are small molecules that can partially pass the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and therefore, might have effects in the CNS. However, antibodies are large molecules and have limited possibility to pass the BBB, thus effectively excluding them from having a major site of action within the CNS. It is suggested that the antimigraine site should reside in areas not limited by the BBB such as intra- and extracranial vessels, dural mast cells and the trigeminal system. In order to clarify this topic and surrounding questions, it is important to understand the localization of CGRP and the CGRP receptor components in these possible sites of migraine-related regions and their relation to the BBB. PMID:25731075

  11. Migraine in the era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lv-Ming; Dong, Zhao; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder in the neurologic clinics whose mechanisms have been explored for several years. The aura has been considered to be attributed to cortical spreading depression (CSD) and dysfunction of the trigeminovascular system is the key factor that has been considered in the pathogenesis of migraine pain. Moreover, three genes (CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A) have come from studies performed in individuals with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a monogenic form of migraine with aura. Therapies targeting on the neuropeptids and genes may be helpful in the precision medicine of migraineurs. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have demonstrated efficacy in the acute specific treatment of migraine attacks. Therefore, ongoing and future efforts to find new vulnerabilities of migraine, unravel the complexity of drug therapy, and perform biomarker-driven clinical trials are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with migraine. PMID:27127758

  12. Migraine in the era of precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lv-Ming; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder in the neurologic clinics whose mechanisms have been explored for several years. The aura has been considered to be attributed to cortical spreading depression (CSD) and dysfunction of the trigeminovascular system is the key factor that has been considered in the pathogenesis of migraine pain. Moreover, three genes (CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A) have come from studies performed in individuals with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a monogenic form of migraine with aura. Therapies targeting on the neuropeptids and genes may be helpful in the precision medicine of migraineurs. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have demonstrated efficacy in the acute specific treatment of migraine attacks. Therefore, ongoing and future efforts to find new vulnerabilities of migraine, unravel the complexity of drug therapy, and perform biomarker-driven clinical trials are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with migraine. PMID:27127758

  13. Chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  14. Effect of Intravenous Sodium Valproate vs Dexamethasone on Acute Migraine Headache: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Shahir; Poorolajal, Jalal; Hosseinzadeh, Akram; Fazlian, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the impact of sodium valproate and dexamethasone on migraine headache, the efficacy of the two drugs has not been properly investigated and compared. This trial compared the effect of the two drugs on acute migraine headache. Methods This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 18 to 65 years with acute migraine headache who referred to the emergency departments of Beasat and Farshchian Hospitals in Hamadan, Iran, from April 2012 to June 2014. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single-dose of either 400 mg sodium valproate or 16 mg dexamethasone plus 50 ml saline normal solution within 15 min intravenously. The severity of headache in the two groups was evaluated at baseline, 0.5 and 2 hours later using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) on a scale of 0 to 10. Results Of 104 patients enrolled, 72 patients remained for analysis. The effect of both sodium valproate and dexamethasone on acute migraine headache was statistically significant at 0.5 and 2 hours post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (P=0.001). The severity of headache based on VAS reduced form 8.20 (7.72, 8.68) before treatment to 5.31 (4.74, 5.89) and 3.66 (2.99, 4.33) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively, in patients receiving sodium valproate and from 8.46 (8.05, 8.86) before treatment to 5.46 (4.81, 6.11) and 3.59 (2.84, 4.35) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively, in patients receiving dexamethasone. Both drugs were highly effective in improvement of acute headache in patients without aura. However, sodium valproate significantly improved the acute headache in patients with aura but dexamethasone did not. The severity of headache based on VAS reduced form 8.50 (7.40, 9.60) before treatment to 4.67 (2.40, 6.93) and 3.50 (1.78, 5.22) at 0.5 and 2 hours after treatment, respectively, in patients with aura receiving sodium valproate and from 8.80 (7.76, 9.84) before treatment to 7.20 (4.98, 9.42) and 6.20 (2.43, 9.97) at 0

  15. Profiles of 5-HT 1B/1D agonists in acute migraine with special reference to second generation agents.

    PubMed

    Deleu, D; Hanssens, Y

    1999-06-01

    The efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT 1B/1D) agonists is related to their inhibitory effects on neurogenic inflammation, mediated through serotoninergic control mechanisms. Recently, a series of oral second generation 5-HT 1B/1D agonists (eletriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan) have been developed and are reviewed in this paper. Their in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, drug interactions, and adverse effects are evaluated and compared to the gold standard in the treatment of acute migraine, sumatriptan. PMID:10427351

  16. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established. PMID:25616589

  17. Diagnosis and management of migraines and migraine variants.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Tomia Palmer

    2015-06-01

    Migraine headache is a neurologic disorder that occurs in 18% of women and 6% of men. Adults and children with mild to moderate migraine headaches seeking acute therapy should be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of the efficacy, cost, and decreased side effects. Some children and adults require preventive therapy (those with headaches lasting >12 h, those patients with >4 headaches in 1 month, those with headaches that affect their ability to function). Studies have shown that early treatment with large doses of medication work well for the treatment of moderate to severe migraine headache. PMID:25979584

  18. Genetic diagnosis and acetazolamide treatment of familial hemiplegic migraine.

    PubMed

    Omata, Taku; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Wada, Takahito; Arai, Hidee; Tanabe, Yuzo

    2011-04-01

    A female patient presented with horizontal gaze nystagmus, mild cerebellar ataxia, recurrent headache and hemiplegia since childhood with cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging. Genetic analysis revealed a CACNA1A gene mutation, leading to a diagnosis of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM1). FHM is very rare, but should be considered as a differential diagnosis for childhood cerebellar symptoms and/or cerebellar atrophy. To avoid missing FHM1, a detailed clinical history including headache or hemiplegia is essential. Oral acetazolamide during the aura phase, comprising mild headache and abnormal leg sensation, relieved these symptoms in this patient, suggesting that acetazolamide could represent a first line of treatment. PMID:20542393

  19. Migraine: current concepts and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, D K; Veeranjaneyulu, A; Bodhankar, S L

    2005-09-01

    Migraine is a recurrent incapacitating neurovascular disorder characterized by attacks of debilitating pain associated with photophobia, phonophobia, nausea and vomiting. Migraine affects a substantial fraction of world population and is a major cause of disability in the work place. Though the pathophysiology of migraine is still unclear three major theories proposed with regard to the mechanisms of migraine are vascular (due to cerebral vasodilatation), neurological (abnormal neurological firing which causes the spreading depression and migraine) and neurogenic dural inflammation (release of inflammatory neuropeptides). The modern understanding of the pathogenesis of migraine is based on the concept that it is a neurovascular disorder. The drugs used in the treatment of migraine either abolish the acute migraine headache or aim its prevention. The last decade has witnessed the advent of Sumatriptan and the 'triptan' class of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists which have well established efficacy in treating migraine. Currently prophylactic treatments for migraine include calcium channel blockers, 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, beta adrenoceptor blockers and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonists. Unfortunately, many of these treatments are non specific and not always effective. Despite such progress, in view of the complexity of the etiology of migraine, it still remains undiagnosed and available therapies are underused. In this article, the diverse pieces of evidence that have linked the different theories of migraine with its pathophysiology are reviewed. Furthermore, the present therapeutic targets and futuristic approaches for the acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine, with a special emphasis to calcitonin gene-related peptide, are critically evaluated. PMID:16099727

  20. Early Diagnosis and Management of Acute Vertigo from Vestibular Migraine and Ménière's Disease.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, Barry; Kaski, Diego; Lopez-Escamez, Jose Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Vestibular migraine is the most common cause of acute episodic vestibular symptoms after benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In contrast, Ménière's disease is an uncommon disorder. For both conditions, early and accurate diagnosis (or its exclusion) enables the correct management of patients with acute episodic vestibular symptoms. Long-term management of migraine requires changes in lifestyle to avoid triggers of migraine and/or prophylactic drugs if attacks become too frequent. The long-term management of Ménière's disease also involves lifestyle changes (low salt diet), medications (betahistine, steroids), and ablative therapy applied to the diseased ear (eg, intratympanic gentamicin). PMID:26231275

  1. TRIPSTAR: prioritizing oral triptan treatment attributes in migraine management.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J; Dodick, D W; Ferrari, M D; McCrory, D C; Williams, P

    2004-09-01

    Migraine can be associated with severe pain and is often very disabling. Optimal treatment should provide rapid and sustained, complete pain relief, be well tolerated and restore normal function. The seven commercially available triptans show differences in performance on individual treatment attributes. The TRIPSTAR multiattribute decision model compares the profiles of the oral triptans, using efficacy and tolerability data weighted for importance, to identify if measurable differences are clinically relevant. Application of the TRIPSTAR model was demonstrated at the Migraine Trust International Symposium 2002, where delegates collectively prioritized treatment attributes according to the needs of a specific patient case history. The TRIPSTAR model identified the preferred triptans for this patient. These three triptans, almotriptan 12.5 mg, eletriptan 80 mg and rizatriptan 10 mg, standout in a triptan meta-analysis, three TRIPSTAR surveys and in a demonstration of the TRIPSTAR model at a symposium in the USA. Taken together the findings suggest that some differences amongst triptans may be relevant in clinical practice. PMID:15285768

  2. Does Pramipexole Treatment Improve Headache in Patients with Concomitant Migraine and Restless Legs Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Suzuki, Shiho; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Numao, Ayaka; Watanabe, Yuka; Takashima, Ryotaro; Hirata, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a strong link between migraines and restless legs syndrome (RLS). It is possible that these disorders share a dopaminergic dysfunction in the hypothalamic A11 nucleus that contributes to this association. However, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the effect of dopaminergic treatment on migraine symptoms in patients with concomitant migraines and RLS. Methods We present an illustrative patient with concomitant RLS and migraine who showed improvement in her headache frequency and RLS symptoms following immediate-release pramipexole (P-IR) treatment and provide review results from the medical records of patients who experienced both migraines and RLS in our previous cross-sectional study. Results Ten patients (nine patients from the previously completed single-center study) received P-IR treatment were included in the study. RLS symptoms improved markedly in all of the subjects. Five out of the 10 patients (50%) reported improvement in migraine headaches. Of these five patients, four (80%) had reported morning headaches before P-IR treatment. Discussion Our results indicate that the identification of RLS in migraine patients is clinically significant and that dopaminergic treatment may improve both migraines, particularly morning headache (80% improvement in this study), and RLS symptoms. However, further clinical studies are warranted to verify our results. PMID:24116342

  3. Two Mechanisms Involved in Trigeminal CGRP Release: Implications for Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Paul L.; Masterson, Caleb G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to better understand the cellular mechanisms involved in proton stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) secretion from cultured trigeminal neurons by investigating the effects of two anti-migraine therapies, onabotulinumtoxin A and rizatriptan. Background Stimulated CGRP release from peripheral and central terminating processes of trigeminal ganglia neurons is implicated in migraine pathology by promoting inflammation and nociception. Based on models of migraine pathology, several inflammatory molecules including protons are thought to facilitate sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptive neurons and stimulate CGRP secretion. Despite the reported efficacy of triptans and onabotulinumtoxinA to treat acute and chronic migraine, respectively, a substantial number of migraneurs do not get adequate relief with these therapies. A possible explanation is that triptans and onabutulinumtoxinA are not able to block proton mediated CGRP secretion. Methods CGRP secretion from cultured primary trigeminal ganglia neurons was quantitated by radioimmunoassay while intracellular calcium and sodium levels were measured in neurons via live cell imaging using Fura2-AM and SBFI-AM, respectively. The expression of ASIC3 was determined by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, the involvement of ASICs in mediating proton stimulation of CGRP was investigated using the potent and selective ASIC3 inhibitor APETx2. Results While KCl caused a significant increase in CGRP secretion that was significantly repressed by treatment with EGTA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and rizatriptan, the stimulatory effect of protons (pH 5.5) was not suppressed by EGTA, onabotulinumtoxinA, or rizatriptan. In addition, while KCl caused a transient increase in intracellular calcium levels that was blocked by EGTA, no appreciable change in calcium levels was observed with proton treatment. However, protons did significantly increase the

  4. The Role of Home Practice in the Thermal Biofeedback Treatment of Migraine Headache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Janel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined role of home practice of hand warming in thermal biofeedback treatment of migraine headache. Seventeen female migraine sufferers were assigned to thermal biofeedback with or without regular home practice. Subjects on home practice group experienced decreases in headache activity and medication intake that were both statistically and…

  5. Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, Mario; Barrilà, Caterina; Leva, Serena; De Piazza, Claudio; Omboni, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Background Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study. Methods Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females) suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine) to 10 (severe migraine) and use of rescue medication. Results The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8–5.9]) than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P< 0.05 versus frovatriptan) or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P< 0.01 versus frovatriptan). The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3]) versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P< 0.001) and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P< 0.001) and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P< 0.05) lower on frovatriptan (12.5%) than on naproxen sodium (31.3%) or no therapy (56.3%). Conclusion This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine. PMID:23355779

  6. Management of migraine in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kabbouche, Marielle A; Gilman, Deborah K

    2008-01-01

    Headaches in children and adolescents are still under-diagnosed. 75% of children are affected by primary headache by the age of 15 with 28% fitting the ICHD2 criteria of migraine. Migraine is considered a chronic disorder that can severely impact a child’s daily activities, including schooling and socializing. Early recognition and aggressive therapy, with acute and prophylactic treatments, as well as intensive biobehavioral interventions, are essential to control the migraine attacks and reverse the progression into intractable disabling headache. PMID:18830400

  7. Early (≤ 1-h) vs. late (>1-h) administration of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen combination vs. frovatriptan monotherapy in the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura: a post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomized, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Bussone, Gennaro; Tullo, Vincenzo; Cortelli, Pietro; Valguarnera, Fabio; Barbanti, Piero; Sette, Giuliano; Frediani, Fabio; D'Arrigo, Giacomo; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Comi, Giancarlo; Curone, Marcella; Colombo, Bruno; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    The early use of triptan in combination with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug after headache onset may improve the efficacy of acute migraine treatment. In this retrospective analysis of a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, we assessed the efficacy of early or late intake of frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex 25 and FroDex 37.5) vs. frovatriptan 2.5 mg alone (Frova) in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. In this double-blind, randomized parallel group study 314 subjects with acute migraine with or without aura were randomly assigned to Frova, FroDex 25, or FroDex 37.5. Pain free (PF) at 2-h (primary endpoint), PF at 4-h and pain relief (PR) at 2 and 4-h, speed of onset at 60, 90, 120 and 240-min, and sustained pain free (SPF) at 24-h were compared across study groups according to early (≤1-h; n = 220) or late (>1-h; n = 59) intake. PF rates at 2 and 4-h were significantly larger with FroDex 37.5 vs. Frova (early intake, n = 71 FroDex 37.5 and n = 75 Frova: 49 vs. 32 % and 68 vs. 52 %, p < 0.05; late intake, n = 20 Frodex 37.5, and n = 18 Frova: 55 vs. 17 %, p < 0.05 and 85 vs. 28 %, p < 0.01). Also with FroDex 25, in the early intake group (n = 74) PF episodes were significantly higher than Frova. PR at 2 and 4-h was significantly better under FroDex 37.5 than Frova (95 % vs. 50 %, p < 0.001, 100 % vs. 72 %, p < 0.05) in the late intake group (n = 21). SPF episodes at 24-h after early dosing were 25 % (Frova), 45 % (FroDex 25) and 41 % (FroDex 37.5, p < 0.05 combinations vs. monotherapy), whereas they were not significantly different with late intake. All treatments were equally well tolerated. FroDex was similarly effective regardless of intake timing from headache onset. PMID:26017535

  8. Preventive treatment in migraine and the new US guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Estemalik, E; Tepper, S

    2013-01-01

    Migraine headaches are among the most common headache disorders seen in various practices. The prevalence of migraine headaches is 18% in women and 6% in men. While millions of Americans suffer from migraine headaches, roughly 3%–13% of identified migraine patients are on preventive therapy, while an estimated 38% actually need a preventive agent. The challenge among physicians is not only when to start a daily preventive agent but which preventive agent to choose. Circumstances warranting prevention have been described in the past, and in 2012, a new set of guidelines with an evidence review on preventive medications was published. A second set of guidelines provided evidence on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbs, minerals, and vitamins for prevention of episodic migraine. This article describes the updated US guidelines for the prevention of migraines and also outlines the major studies from which these guidelines were derived. PMID:23717045

  9. Individual triptan selection in migraine attack therapy.

    PubMed

    Belvís, Robert; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    About 6% of men and 18% of women suffer migraine attacks. Migraine can induce a great impact in the quality of life of the patient and the costs of medical care and lost productivity can be also high. There are two therapeutic approaches in the treatment of migraine: preventive therapy and acute treatment of migraine attack. Immediate treatment with selective serotonin [5-HT1B/1T] receptor agonists (so-called triptans) is the first-line option in the acute treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. The introduction in early nineties of triptans was a revolution in migraine therapy and evidences about their efficacy are at present irrefutable. At the moment, there are seven marketed molecules: sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan and frovatriptan. Obviously, every molecule has different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic properties and, moreover, some triptans have several formulations: tablets, dissolvable tablets, nasal and injections. The prescription of one of these seven triptans for a specified patient is based in the drug profile: efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Despite there are a lot of published studies using triptans, no clinical trial has analyzed all the molecules at the same time. Other data to take account in the final prescription are clinical characteristics of the migraine attack and patient characteristics: labour aspects, style of life and the patient medical history. We present a state-of-the-art of the triptan selection in treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. PMID:19149716

  10. Migraine management: How do the adult and paediatric migraines differ?

    PubMed Central

    Sonal Sekhar, M.; Sasidharan, Shalini; Joseph, Siby; Kumar, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Migraine is one of the common causes of severe and recurring headache. It may be difficult to manage in primary care settings, where it is under diagnosed and medically treated. Migraine can occur in children as well as in adults and it is three times more common in women than in men. Migraine in children is different from adults in various ways. Migraine management depends on the various factors like duration and severity of pain, associated symptoms, degree of disability, and initial response to treatment. The therapy of children and adolescents with migraines includes treatment modalities for acute attacks, prophylactic medications when the attacks are frequent, and biobehavioural modes of treatment to aid long-term management of the disorder. The long lasting outcome of childhood headaches and progression into adult headaches remains largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that adult migraine may represent a progressive disorder. In children, the progressive nature is uncertain and further investigations into longitudinal outcome and phenotypic changes in childhood headaches have yet to be recognized. Even though paediatric and adult migraines seem to be slightly different from one another, but not enough to categorize either as sole. PMID:23960771

  11. TEV-48125 for the preventive treatment of chronic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Dodick, David W.; Krymchantowski, Abouch V.; VanderPluym, Juliana H.; Tepper, Stewart J.; Aycardi, Ernesto; Loupe, Pippa S.; Ma, Yuju; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the onset of efficacy of TEV-48125, a monoclonal antibody against calcitonin gene-related peptide, recently shown to be effective for the preventive treatment of chronic migraine (CM) and high-frequency episodic migraine. Methods: A randomized placebo-controlled study tested once-monthly injections of TEV-48125 675/225 mg or 900 mg vs placebo. Headache information was captured daily using an electronic headache diary. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in the number of headache hours in month 3. Herein, we assess the efficacy of each dose at earlier time points. Results: The sample consisted of 261 patients. For headache hours, the 675/225-mg dose separated from placebo on day 7 and the 900-mg dose separated from placebo after 3 days of therapy (p = 0.048 and p = 0.033, respectively). For both the 675/225-mg and 900-mg doses, the improvement was sustained through the second (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001) and third (p = 0.025 and p < 0.001) weeks of therapy and throughout the study (month 3, p = 0.0386 and p = 0.0057). For change in weekly headache days of at least moderate intensity, both doses were superior to placebo at week 2 (p = 0.031 and p = 0.005). Conclusions: TEV-48125 demonstrated a significant improvement within 1 week of therapy initiation in patients with CM. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with CM, TEV-48125 significantly decreases the number of headache hours within 3 to 7 days of injection. PMID:27281531

  12. [An overview of prophylactic therapy for migraine].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    The launch of triptans has significantly changed the treatment of migraine, leading to great improvement in the quality of life (QOL) of migraine patients. In routine clinical settings, few patients present with migraine attacks that clearly deviate from the typical frequency and severity of migraine, and migraine that is difficult to control with acute-phase treatment alone is frequently encountered. Under these circumstances, the importance of prophylactic therapy, including lifestyle guidance and drug treatment, has attracted attention. However, in Japan, only a small number of prophylactics are currently indicated for migraine, and the available options are insufficient. In this study, I have outlined the prophylactic strategies for migraine, including lifestyle guidance, on the basis of literature published in Europe and North America. In addition, I have presented my clinical experiences and research reports to introduce cases of migraine for which prophylactic therapy was indicated, to hypothesize the mechanisms of the prophylatic activity of specific drugs (e.g., anti-convulsants, anti-depressants, beta-blockers, AII antagonists, Ca channel blockers, leukotriene receptor antagonists, statins, anti-herpes zoster virus drugs) for their prophylactic effect on migraine, and to determine drug regimens. PMID:19882936

  13. Almotriptan is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for migraine pain: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dowson, A J; Massiou, H; Laínez, J M; Cabarrocas, X

    2002-07-01

    Almotriptan is a novel and specific serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonist for the acute treatment of migraine. This randomized, single-dose, double-blind, multicentre, study assessed the efficacy and safety of oral almotriptan (12.5 mg and 25 mg) in patients with migraine, and compared it with the standard treatment (sumatriptan 100 mg) and placebo. A total of 668 patients treated one migraine attack of moderate or severe intensity with study medication. The primary efficacy assessment was migraine pain relief, improvement from severe or moderate pain to mild or no pain, at 2 h after treatment. Response rates, stratified for variation in baseline pain levels, for both almotriptan doses were equivalent to sumatriptan and significantly better than placebo. Other efficacy assessments confirmed the equivalence of the almotriptan groups with the sumatriptan group. Almotriptan 12.5 mg was as well tolerated as placebo (P=0.493) and significantly better tolerated than sumatriptan (P<0.001), in terms of the overall incidence of adverse events. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between almotriptan 25 mg and sumatriptan 100 mg (P=0.376). The results from this large clinical study indicate that the new, specific 5-HT1B/1D agonist, almotriptan, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for migraine pain. PMID:12133045

  14. Managing migraine by patient profile: role of frovatriptan

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Roger K; Farmer, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For the last quarter of a century, triptans have been available for acute treatment of migraine but with little guidance on which of the different triptan products to use for which patient or which attack of migraine. In this article, we propose a structured approach to analysis of individual migraine attacks and patient characteristics as a means of defining and optimizing acute intervention. Assessment of patient and attack profiles includes the “5-Ps”: pattern, phenotype, patient, pharmacology, and precipitants. Attending to these five components of information can assist in developing an individualized behavioral, pharmacological, and nonpharmacological comprehensive treatment plan for most migraine patients. This clinical approach is then focused on frovatriptan because of its unique molecular signature and potential novel clinical applications. Frovatriptan like all triptans is indicated for acute treatment of migraine but its role has been explored in management of several unique migraine phenotypes. Frovatriptan has the longest half-life of any triptan and consequently is often promoted for acute treatment of migraine of longer duration. It has also been studied as a short-term preventive treatment in women with menstrual-related migraine. Given that 60% of female migraineurs suffer from menstrual-related migraine, this population is the obvious group for continued study. Small studies have also explored frovatriptan’s use in treating migraine predicted by premonitory symptoms as a preventive for the headache phase of migraine. By identifying patient and attack profiles, clinicians may effectively determine the viability of frovatriptan as an effective pharmacological intervention for migraine. PMID:27103792

  15. Rizatriptan in migraine.

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of migraine is high, affecting a significant proportion of the adult population during their most productive years of life and promoting impairment of their normal daily activities. Although guidelines for the acute treatment of migraine are available, outcome parameters are sometimes still below the expectations of both patients and physicians. Triptans represented an advance in clinical practice and have become the most well-studied class of medication for migraine. These agents present class I evidence for efficacy. However, they differ with regard to several of their clinical parameters, including onset of relief and consistency of response. Rizatriptan is a selective agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptophan(1B/1D )receptors, with proven superiority over placebo, ergotamine and selected oral triptans, demonstrating a good profile of safety and tolerability. PMID:16162083

  16. Treatment of Pediatric Migraine in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a relatively common reason for pediatric emergency room visits. Given the paucity of randomized trials involving pediatric migraineurs in the emergency department setting compared to adults, recommendations for managing these children are largely extrapolated from adult migraine emergency room studies and trials involving outpatient home pediatric migraine therapy. This paper reviews what is known about pediatric migraineurs who present to the emergency room and how they are currently managed, then goes on to summarize the best evidence currently available to guide clinical decision making. PMID:22964436

  17. Calcium-channel blockers in the treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Gelmers, H J

    1985-01-25

    According to classic theory, a migraine attack is initiated by cerebrovascular spasm followed by extracranial vasodilatation. Results of recent studies support this theory and suggest that cerebral blood flow during the initial phase of migraine symptoms is, in fact, decreased and this decrease probably leads to ischemia and hypoxia. Cellular hypoxia, in turn, can cause an increase in the flow of calcium from the extracellular fluid to the intracellular space, resulting in calcium overload and cellular dysfunction. Because calcium-channel blockers selectively inhibit the intracellular influx of calcium ions, investigators have begun evaluating the efficacy of these agents for migraine prophylaxis. Nimodipine, a calcium-channel blocker that exhibits selective effects on cerebral vessels, seems to offer protection against the cerebral ischemia and hypoxia presumed to be operative during migraine attacks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, nimodipine decreased the frequency and duration of migraine attacks by at least half in 69% of patients treated with this agent. Comparable reductions in migraine frequency and duration were attained in 58, 51, 41 and 52% of patients treated with methysergide maleate, pizotifen, clonidine hydrochloride and propranolol, respectively. The piperazine derivative flunarizine also has calcium-channel blocking properties. This agent prevents vasospasm in cerebral arteries and protects against cerebral hypoxia. Results of double-blind studies of migraine prophylaxis with flunarizine demonstrate the beneficial effects of this agent, particularly in younger patients. Flunarizine proved to be superior to pizotifen in decreasing the severity of migraine attacks and comparable to pizotifen in decreasing their frequency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3881906

  18. Proposal of a model for multidisciplinary treatment program of chronic migraine with medication overuse: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Grazzi, L; Prunesti, A; Bussone, G

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic migraine associated with medication overuse is challenging in clinical practice; different strategies of treatment have been recently developed, multidisciplinary treatment approaches have been developed in academic headache centers. Education and support of patients are necessary to improve patients' adherence to pharmacological treatments as well as to non-pharmacological therapies. This study reports a clinical experience conducted at our Headache center with a group of female patients, suffering from chronic migraine complicated by medication overuse, treated by a multidisciplinary approach and followed for a period of 1 year after withdrawal. Results confirm the efficacy of a multifaceted treatment to manage this problematic category of patients. PMID:26017536

  19. Prophylactic treatment of migraine with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril): randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Harald; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Helde, Grethe; Sand, Trond; Bovim, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in the prophylaxis of migraine. Design Double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Setting Neurological outpatient clinic. Participants Sixty patients aged 19-59 years with migraine with two to six episodes a month. Interventions Treatment period of 12 weeks with one 10 mg lisinopril tablet once daily for one week then two 10 mg lisinopril tablets once daily for 11 weeks, followed by a two week wash out period. Second treatment period of one placebo tablet once daily for one week and then two placebo tablets for 11 weeks. Thirty participants followed this schedule, and 30 received placebo followed by lisinopril. Main outcome measures Primary end points: number of hours with headache, number of days with headache, number of days with migraine. Secondary end points: headache severity index, use of drugs for symptomatic relief, quality of life and number of days taken as sick leave, acceptability of treatment. Results In the 47 participants with complete data, hours with headache, days with headache, days with migraine, and headache severity index were significantly reduced by 20% (95% confidence interval 5% to 36%), 17% (5% to 30%), 21% (9% to 34%), and 20% (3% to 37%), respectively, with lisinopril compared with placebo. Days with migraine were reduced by at least 50% in 14 participants for active treatment versus placebo and 17 patients for active treatment versus run-in period. Days with migraine were fewer by at least 50% in 14 participants for active treatment versus placebo. Intention to treat analysis of data from 55 patients supported the differences in favour of lisinopril for the primary end points. Conclusion The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, has a clinically important prophylactic effect in migraine. PMID:11141144

  20. Migraine in older patients: a case report and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Rankin, L M; Bruhl, M

    2000-07-01

    Older patients can suffer from various forms of migraine. These patients should be educated regarding triggers and considered for prophylactic and acute treatments for frequent episodes. Practitioners should keep in mind the unique challenges of treating migraine in older persons and first search for other serious yet treatable causes for headache in these patients. PMID:10909408

  1. Migraine preventive therapy: selection of appropriate patients and general principles of management.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Domenico; Lanteri-Minet, Michel

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this review is to communicate the rationale and the possible benefits of migraine preventive treatments to clinicians and patients, and to address the many problematic issues created by missed diagnosis or misdiagnoses and inadequate migraine management. Successful implementation of migraine preventive treatment requires appropriate patient selection based on several factors, including the frequency of migraine attacks (> or =2-3 attacks/month), the level of disability incurred and the frequency of acute medication usage. Unfortunately, several epidemiologic surveys indicate that preventive therapies are significantly underutilized, which supports the need for greater dialog concerning migraine prevention between consumers and physicians. Effective migraine preventive therapy should reduce the frequency, duration, and severity of migraine, and also improve function, reduce disability, and possibly reduce the risk of worsening the headache syndrome, through acute medication overuse. PMID:16893343

  2. Functional mitochondrial analysis in acute brain sections from adult rats reveals mitochondrial dysfunction in a rat model of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Nathan T.; Moffat, Cynthia; Seifert, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many neurological disorders that only develop or are much more severe in adults, yet no methodology exists that allows for medium-throughput functional mitochondrial analysis of brain sections from adult animals. We developed a technique for quantifying mitochondrial respiration in acutely isolated adult rat brain sections with the Seahorse XF Analyzer. Evaluating a range of conditions made quantifying mitochondrial function from acutely derived adult brain sections from the cortex, cerebellum, and trigeminal nucleus caudalis possible. Optimization of this technique demonstrated that the ideal section size was 1 mm wide. We found that sectioning brains at physiological temperatures was necessary for consistent metabolic analysis of trigeminal nucleus caudalis sections. Oxygen consumption in these sections was highly coupled to ATP synthesis, had robust spare respiratory capacities, and had limited nonmitochondrial respiration, all indicative of healthy tissue. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by identifying a decreased spare respiratory capacity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of a rat model of chronic migraine, a neurological disorder that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This technique allows for 24 acutely isolated sections from multiple brain regions of a single adult rat to be analyzed simultaneously with four sequential drug treatments, greatly advancing the ability to study mitochondrial physiology in adult neurological disorders. PMID:25252946

  3. Antiepileptic Drug Therapy in Migraine Headache.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Steve D.

    2002-09-01

    Severe migraine affects more than 28 million Americans. It is associated with episodic as well as long-term disability and suffering, yet it is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Acute treatments have advanced considerably, ignited by sumatriptan and the subsequent triptans; unfortunately migraine prevention has lagged far behind. There are no great migraine preventives! No migraine preventive agent studied in good randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials proved to be 50% better than placebo. Migraine trials typically focus on episodic migraine, a milder, gentler type of migraine that is selected for low frequency, lack of daily headaches, no preventive need, and previous failure to no more than a few preventive agents. These features are not typical of the usual migraine patient seen in most neurologic practices, thus the results of clinical trials may not carryover to real world situations. Treatment of frequent, chronic, or pervasive migraine is inadequate, and never has been studied in randomized controlled trials. Traditional migraine preventives, eg, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and tricyclic antidepressants, are often ineffective in difficult or complicated populations. The antiepileptic drugs represent a category of pharmaceutics that target the neuronal instability and central hyperexcitability of migraine, and, through these actions, may be more effective than traditional preventives. Episodic migraine attacks are associated with peripheral and central sensitization; however, if attacks are frequent, severe, or long lasting, this sensitization may increase the risk of developing daily headaches. If antiepileptic drugs have an effect on central sensitization, perhaps mediated via glutamate inhibition or gamma-aminobutyric acid potentiation, it is appropriate to use these agents early in migraine treatment, particularly in the highly comorbid patient, possibly in conjunction with agents that antagonize the 5HT2 receptor. This report

  4. Ictal adipokines are associated with pain severity and treatment response in episodic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Nu Cindy; Gelaye, Bizu; Tietjen, Gretchen E.; Dash, Paul D.; Gower, Barbara A.; White, Linda W.; Ward, Thomas N.; Scher, Ann I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate ictal adipokine levels in episodic migraineurs and their association with pain severity and treatment response. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating peripheral blood specimens from episodic migraineurs at acute pain onset and 30 to 120 minutes after treatment with sumatriptan/naproxen sodium vs placebo. Total adiponectin (T-ADP), ADP multimers (high molecular weight [HMW], middle molecular weight, and low molecular weight [LMW]), leptin, and resistin levels were evaluated by immunoassays. Results: Thirty-four participants (17 responders, 17 nonresponders) were included. In all participants, pretreatment pain severity increased with every quartile increase in both the HMW:T-ADP ratio (coefficient of variation [CV] 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08, 0.93; p = 0.019) and resistin levels (CV 0.58; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.96; p = 0.002), but was not associated with quartile changes in leptin levels. In responders, T-ADP (CV −0.98; 95% CI: −1.88, −0.08; p = 0.031) and resistin (CV −0.95; 95% CI: −1.83, −0.07; p = 0.034) levels decreased 120 minutes after treatment as compared with pretreatment. In addition, in responders, the HMW:T-ADP ratio (CV −0.04; 95% CI: −0.07, −0.01; p = 0.041) decreased and the LMW:T-ADP ratio (CV 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.07; p = 0.043) increased at 120 minutes after treatment. In nonresponders, the LMW:T-ADP ratio (CV −0.04; 95% CI: −0.07, −0.01; p = 0.018) decreased 120 minutes after treatment. Leptin was not associated with treatment response. Conclusions: Both pretreatment migraine pain severity and treatment response are associated with changes in adipokine levels. Adipokines represent potential novel migraine biomarkers and drug targets. PMID:25746563

  5. Prophylactic pharmacotherapy for migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Thomas M; Ramadan, Nabih M

    2006-04-01

    Migraine therapeutics are pharmacological, including acute and preventive, nonpharmacological and/or both. Preventive pharmacological strategies serendipitously were discovered to be effective and include drugs from various pharmacological classes (e.g., beta-adrenergic blocker, anticonvulsant, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin receptor antagonist). Converging level I evidence and clinical experience support the use of the antidepressant amitriptyline, the anticonvulsants divalproex and topiramate, and the beta-adrenergic blockers propranolol, timolol, and metoprolol in migraine prevention. Other options for migraine prophylaxis exist, but the level of evidence in support of their use is not as robust. All of these drugs have varying degrees of adverse effects, some of which can limit their use. Balancing potential efficacy with risk of adverse effects, addressing patients' expectations and desires, complying with management recommendations, adequate follow up, and accurate assessment of treatment goals are key to migraine prevention. Finally, future migraine-preventive drugs likely will target migraine mechanisms more specifically, which undoubtedly will enhance the therapeutic index. PMID:16628529

  6. Migraine attacks in the pharmacy: a gender subanalysis on treatment preferences.

    PubMed

    Brusa, P; Allais, G; Rolando, S; Baratta, F; Giaccone, M; Bussone, G; Allais, R; Benedetto, C

    2015-05-01

    In 2014 our group published the results of a survey conducted in Piedmont, Italy, on the patterns of use and dispensing of drugs in patients requesting assistance from pharmacists for relief of a migraine attack. Epidemiological studies on migraine have consistently shown that migraine is far more common among women than men. This gender difference is also reflected in the higher percentage of women visiting a pharmacy to obtain treatment or advice for headache attacks. In this study, we further explored gender differences in healthcare-seeking behavior and use of migraine medications. The aim of the study was to determine whether women made better selective use of migraine medications and whether visiting a headache center for consultation and treatment reflected awareness of how best to manage their condition. Among the drugs usually taken for relieving head pain, there was no statistically significant difference between men and women in the routine use of NSAIDs (55.6 vs. 51.6 %) or ergot derivatives (8.7 vs. 9.3 %). Statistically significant differences emerged between men and women (27.9 vs. 35.4 %) in the use of triptans (p = 0.003; OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.12-1.78) and in the use of combined medications (8.5 vs. 12.2 %) (p = 0.029; OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.04-2.14) but not in the use of simple OTC non-NSAIDs. Less men than women sought professional medical care for managing migraine (65.7 vs. 72.4 %) (p = 0.003; OR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.57-0.89); more women than men sought treatment at a headache center (21.7 vs. 17.4 %) (p = 0.044; OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.07-1.72). PMID:26017521

  7. CGRP Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Paul L.; Vause, Carrie V.

    2011-01-01

    Based on preclinical and clinical studies, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is proposed to play a central role in the underlying pathology of migraine. CGRP and its receptor are widely expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system by multiple cell types involved in the regulation of inflammatory and nociceptive responses. Peripheral release of CGRP from trigeminal nerve fibers within the dura and from the cell body of trigeminal ganglion neurons is likely to contribute to peripheral sensitization of trigeminal nociceptors. Similarly, the release of CGRP within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis can facilitate activation of nociceptive second order neurons and glial cells. Thus, CGRP is involved in the development and maintenance of persistent pain, central sensitization, and allodynia, events characteristic of migraine pathology. In contrast, CGRP release within the brain is likely to function in an anti-nociceptive capacity. This review will focus on the development and clinical data on CGRP receptor antagonists as well as discussing their potential roles in migraine therapy via modulation of multiple cell types within the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:20433208

  8. The migraine postdrome

    PubMed Central

    Giffin, Nicola J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Olesen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report migraine postdrome symptoms in patients who report nonheadache symptoms as part of their attacks. Methods: A prospective daily electronic diary study was conducted over 3 months in 120 patients with migraine. Nonheadache symptoms before, during, and after headache were collected on a daily basis. Visual analogue scales were used to capture the overall level of functioning and the severity of the headache. The postdrome was defined as the time from resolution of troublesome headache to return to normal. Results: Of 120 evaluable patients, 97 (81%) reported at least one nonheadache symptom in the postdrome. Postdrome symptoms, in order of frequency, included feeling tired/weary and having difficulty concentrating and stiff neck. Many patients also reported a mild residual head discomfort. In most attacks (93%), there was return to normal within 24 hours after spontaneous pain resolved. There was no relationship between medication taken for the headache and the duration of the postdrome. The severity of the migraine was not associated with the duration of the postdrome. Overall state of health scores remained low during the postdrome. Conclusion: Nonheadache symptoms in the postdrome were common and may contribute to the distress and disability in the patients studied. Postdrome symptoms merit larger observational studies and careful recording in clinical trials of acute and preventive migraine treatments. PMID:27335112

  9. The science of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Rami; Jakubowski, Moshe; Rauch, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    approach in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. PMID:22348935

  10. Spectrum of complicated migraine in children: A common profile in aid to clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Surya N; Gupta, Vikash S; Fields, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    Complicated migraine encompasses several individual clinical syndromes of migraine. Such a syndrome in children frequently presents with various neurological symptoms in the Emergency Department. An acute presentation in the absence of headache presents a diagnostic challenge. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may have medicolegal implication. To date, there are no reports of a common clinical profile proposed in making a clinical diagnosis for the complicated migraine. In this clinical review, we propose and describe: (1) A common clinical profile in aid to clinical diagnosis for spectrum of complicated migraine; (2) How it can be used in differentiating complicated migraine from migraine without aura, migraine with aura, and seizure; (3) We discuss the status of complicated migraine in the International Headache Society classification 2013; and (4) In addition, a common treatment strategy for the spectrum of migraine has been described. To diagnose complicated migraine clinically, it is imperative to adhere with the proposed profile. This will optimize the use of investigation and will also avoid a legal implication of delay in their management. The proposed common clinical profile is incongruent with the International Headache Society 2013. Future classification should minimize the dissociation from clinically encountered syndromes and coin a single word to address collectively this subtype of migraine with an acute presentation of a common clinical profile. PMID:25664241

  11. Triptan Education and Improving Knowledge for Optimal Migraine Treatment; An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    EP, Baron; S, Markowitz; A, Lettich; E, Hastriter; B, Lovell; K, Kalidas; DW, Dodick; TJ, Schwedt

    2014-01-01

    Background It is generally felt that patient education and patient knowledge regarding triptan use for acute migraine management is important for successful and safe treatment. It is unclear how knowledgeable triptan users are regarding their triptan, how much education occurs when triptans are prescribed, and the impact patient education has on actual patient knowledge regarding triptan use. Objective The primary objective was to compare triptan users’ self-perceived knowledge and actual knowledge about the triptans in patients who report having received triptan education vs. patients who report not having received triptan education. Methods This was a multi-center prospective observational study of 207 migraine patients who were using triptans for abortive therapy and who were being evaluated as new patients at academic headache specialty clinics in the United States. Patients completed standardized questionnaires regarding their self-perceived knowledge about the triptans, their actual knowledge regarding the triptans, and the perceived education about the triptan that they had received at the time of prescription. Results Although greater than 80% of subjects reported receiving education about when to take the triptan and the number of doses they could take for a headache, only 71.5% reported receiving education about triptan side effects, 64% for the number of triptan doses they could take each week/month, 64% for taking other medications with the triptan, and 49% for medical contraindications to triptan use. Compared to subjects who did not recall receiving education about when to take their triptan, subjects who recalled such education had a statistically significant greater actual knowledge for taking the triptan immediately after a headache begins (91% vs. 77%, p=.049; CI: .00-.33), treating when pain is mild (75% vs. 50%, p=.009; CI: .04-.45), understanding that they do not need to fail treatment with over-the-counter medications before taking a triptan

  12. Randomized controlled trial: targeted neck cooling in the treatment of the migraine patient.

    PubMed

    Sprouse-Blum, Adam S; Gabriel, Alexandra K; Brown, Jon P; Yee, Melvin Hc

    2013-07-01

    Cold therapy has long been the number one self-care treatment employed for migraine without aura and the second most common for migraine with aura, yet its mechanism remains elusive. In this study, a mechanism by which this time-tested therapy works is proposed (by cooling the blood passing through intracranial vessels) in an attempt to further elucidate its beneficial effects. The study is designed as a randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial utilizing an adjustable wrap containing two freezable ice packs targeting the carotid arteries at the neck, where they come close to the skin surface. Fifty-five participants successfully completed the study. Pain at onset, as recorded on a visual analog scale, was similar between the two treatment arms. Maximum pain reduction was observed at the 30 minute time point with a 31.8% ± 15.2% decrease in pain in the treatment arm compared to a 31.5% ± 20.0% increase in pain at the same time interval in the control arm. These findings confirm the application of a frozen neck wrap at onset of migraine headache targeting the carotid arteries at the neck significantly reduced recorded pain in participants with migraine headaches (P<.001). PMID:23901394

  13. Altered periaqueductal gray resting state functional connectivity in migraine and the modulation effect of treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Mailan; Lan, Lei; Zeng, Fang; Makris, Nikos; Liang, Yilin; Guo, Taipin; Wu, Feng; Gao, Yujie; Dong, Mingkai; Yang, Jie; Li, Ying; Gong, Qiyong; Liang, Fanrong; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) compare resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key region in the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS) between migraine without aura (MwoA) patients and healthy controls (HC), and 2) investigate how an effective treatment can influence the PAG rs-fc in MwoA patients. One hundred MwoA patients and forty-six matched HC were recruited. Patients were randomized to verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and waiting list groups. Resting state fMRI data were collected and seed based functional connectivity analysis was applied. Compared with HC, MwoA patients showed reduced rs-fc between the PAG and rostral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (rACC/mPFC), key regions in the DPMS and other pain related brain regions. The reduced rs-fc between the PAG and rACC/mPFC was associated with increased migraine headache intensity at the baseline. After treatments, rs-fc between the PAG and the rACC in MwoA patients significantly increased. The changes of rs-fc among the PAG, rACC and ventral striatum were significantly associated with headache intensity improvement. Impairment of the DPMS is involved in the neural pathophysiology of migraines. Impaired DPMS in migraine patients can be normalized after effective treatment. PMID:26839078

  14. Angiotensin II receptor blockers: a new possible treatment for chronic migraine?

    PubMed

    Disco, Caterina; Maggioni, Ferdinando; Zanchin, Giorgio

    2015-08-01

    The objective is to suggest a possible role of different angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of chronic migraine, especially in hypertensive subjects. Chronic migraine is a highly disabling disorder affecting between 1.4 and 2.2 % of the general population. Despite many pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments proposed, the results are rather discouraging. Therefore, we believe that should be highlighted all the possible therapies that may lead to an improvement of the symptomatology. Particularly, data available on efficacy of ARBs in preventing chronic migraine are poor. Methods include case reports, literature review and discussion. We report three cases recently treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers that showed a significant improvement, never previously presented with more conventional treatments, including beta blockers. In all three cases, we obtained the reversibility from a chronic migraine to an episodic. Taking a cue from this observation, we consider desirable large controlled, randomized trials to assess the effectiveness of ARBs both in CM hypertensive patients and in patients who do not require anti-hypertensive therapy; furthermore are desirable comparative studies between the various ARB inhibitors to assay any intermolecular differences in efficacy. PMID:25917398

  15. Altered periaqueductal gray resting state functional connectivity in migraine and the modulation effect of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Mailan; Lan, Lei; Zeng, Fang; Makris, Nikos; Liang, Yilin; Guo, Taipin; Wu, Feng; Gao, Yujie; Dong, Mingkai; Yang, Jie; Li, Ying; Gong, Qiyong; Liang, Fanrong; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) compare resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key region in the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS) between migraine without aura (MwoA) patients and healthy controls (HC), and 2) investigate how an effective treatment can influence the PAG rs-fc in MwoA patients. One hundred MwoA patients and forty-six matched HC were recruited. Patients were randomized to verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and waiting list groups. Resting state fMRI data were collected and seed based functional connectivity analysis was applied. Compared with HC, MwoA patients showed reduced rs-fc between the PAG and rostral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (rACC/mPFC), key regions in the DPMS and other pain related brain regions. The reduced rs-fc between the PAG and rACC/mPFC was associated with increased migraine headache intensity at the baseline. After treatments, rs-fc between the PAG and the rACC in MwoA patients significantly increased. The changes of rs-fc among the PAG, rACC and ventral striatum were significantly associated with headache intensity improvement. Impairment of the DPMS is involved in the neural pathophysiology of migraines. Impaired DPMS in migraine patients can be normalized after effective treatment. PMID:26839078

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial: Targeted Neck Cooling in the Treatment of the Migraine Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Alexandra K; Brown, Jon P; Yee, Melvin HC

    2013-01-01

    Cold therapy has long been the number one self-care treatment employed for migraine without aura and the second most common for migraine with aura, yet its mechanism remains elusive. In this study, a mechanism by which this time-tested therapy works is proposed (by cooling the blood passing through intracranial vessels) in an attempt to further elucidate its beneficial effects. The study is designed as a randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial utilizing an adjustable wrap containing two freezable ice packs targeting the carotid arteries at the neck, where they come close to the skin surface. Fifty-five participants successfully completed the study. Pain at onset, as recorded on a visual analog scale, was similar between the two treatment arms. Maximum pain reduction was observed at the 30 minute time point with a 31.8% ± 15.2% decrease in pain in the treatment arm compared to a 31.5% ± 20.0% increase in pain at the same time interval in the control arm. These findings confirm the application of a frozen neck wrap at onset of migraine headache targeting the carotid arteries at the neck significantly reduced recorded pain in participants with migraine headaches (P<.001). PMID:23901394

  17. Crossover, double-blind clinical trial comparing almotriptan and ergotamine plus caffeine for acute migraine therapy.

    PubMed

    Láinez, M J A; Galván, J; Heras, J; Vila, C

    2007-03-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, adult patients treated two migraine attacks: one with almotriptan 12.5 mg and the other with ergotamine 2 mg plus caffeine 200 mg. Treatment with almotriptan was associated with a significantly greater proportion of patients achieving 2-h pain free (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P < 0.05) and 2-h pain relief (57.7% vs. 44.5%; P < 0.01) compared with ergotamine plus caffeine therapy; significant differences were not seen at 1 h. Rates for sustained pain free and sustained pain free plus no adverse events (AEs) also were significantly greater after almotriptan treatment than after the use of ergotamine plus caffeine (P < 0.05). Almotriptan was associated with a significantly lower rate of photophobia at 90 min (P < 0.05), phonophobia at 60, 90, and 120 min (P < 0.05 to <0.01), and nausea and vomiting at 90 and 120 min (P < 0.01) compared with ergotamine plus caffeine. A significantly greater proportion of patients were more satisfied with almotriptan than with ergotamine plus caffeine (P < 0.05). Sixteen patients reported adverse events during almotriptan treatment and 27 patients reported AEs during the ergotamine plus caffeine therapy. Most AEs were mild-to-moderate and did not result in treatment-related discontinuations. In conclusion, almotriptan was associated with significantly greater efficacy for treating migraine compared with ergotamine plus caffeine, was generally well tolerated and was associated with greater rate of treatment satisfaction. PMID:17355546

  18. Caffeine and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Google+ Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook Follow us on YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Caffeine and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache ...

  19. A comparison of outcome of medical and surgical treatment of migraine headache: In 1 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Mahmood; Abdali, Hossein; Ardakani, Mehdi Rasti; Talebianfar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of the medical treatment versus the surgical treatment approach to decompression of trigger point nerves in patients with migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to the medical treatment group (n = 25) or the surgical treatment group (n = 25) after examination by the team neurologist to ensure a diagnosis of migraine headache. All patients received botulinum toxin type A to confirm the trigger sites. The surgical treatment group underwent surgical deactivation of the trigger site(s). The medical treatment group underwent prophylactic pharmacologic interventions by the neurologist. Pretreatment and 12-month posttreatment migraine headache frequency, duration, and intensity were analyzed and compared to determine the success of the treatments. Results: Nineteen of the 25 patients (76%) in the surgical treatment group and 10 of the 25 patients (40%) in the medical treatment group experienced a successful outcome (at least a 50% decrease in migraine frequency, duration, or intensity) after 1 year from surgery. Surgical treatment had a significantly higher success rate than medical treatment (P < 0.001). Nine patients (36%) in the surgical treatment group and one patient (4%) in the medical treatment group experienced cessation of migraine headaches. The elimination rate was significantly higher in the surgical treatment group than in the medical treatment group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on the 1-year follow-up data, there is strong evidence that surgical manipulation of one or more migraine trigger sites can successfully eliminate or reduce the frequency, duration, and intensity of migraine headaches in a lasting manner. PMID:27563631

  20. [Intravenous lysine clonixinate for the treatment of migraine: an open pilot study].

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, A V; Barbosa, J

    1999-09-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Despite its efficacy to treat migraine and other pain, there are a few commercial NSAIDs available for intravenous (i.v.) administration. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has been proven effective in various algic syndromes such as renal colic, nerve compression, muscular pain and odontalgias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the i.v. LC in the treatment of severe attacks of migraine. We studied prospectively 19 patients, 17 women and 2 men, ages from 18 to 57 years, with the diagnosis of migraine according to the International Headache Society criteria. The patients were oriented to proceed to the clinic once the headache has started, and were placed under an i.v. infusion of LC and saline in a superficial vein of the forearm, once the intensity reached severe. Evaluating the headache intensity after 30, 60 and 90 minutes, as well as the presence of side effects, we observed that all of the 19 patients were headache free after 90 minutes. Some patients presented mild adverse effects and the vital signs were not significantly affected. We then concluded that the i.v. infusion of the NSAID LC (2-3-chloro-o-toluidin)piridin-3-lysine carboxilate), a derived from the nicotinic acid with a chemical structure that resembles the flufenamic acid, was efficient abolishing a severe migraine attack after 90 minutes in 19 patients. Controlled studies with a double-blind and randomized design, and treating a greater number of patients and attacks are necessary to confirm these initial observations. PMID:10667284

  1. Antidepressants in long-term migraine prevention.

    PubMed

    Koch, Horst J; Jürgens, Tim P

    2009-01-01

    Migraine and depression coincide in some 20-30% of patients. Although antidepressants (namely tricyclics) are not considered as first-line prophylactic compounds in patients with migraine alone, several clinical trials support a remarkable benefit in the treatment of migraine and related headache disorders. However, treatment with one antidepressant alone often does not suffice to treat both disorders effectively. Therefore, combinations of classical antidepressants with both newer antidepressants and established prophylactic drugs (e.g. beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists [beta-blockers], topiramate and sodium valproate) are required. In addition, acute attack medication (such as triptans, ergotamines or analgesics) is regularly combined with the preventive medication, thus requiring elaborate knowledge about the complex network of potential interactions and contraindications. Fear of potentially serious interactions can frequently lead to insufficient treatment of both underlying disorders, with an enormous impact on the patient's life. Pathophysiologically, multiple neurotransmitters have been attributed an important role in the aetiology of migraine (mainly serotonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide) and depression (among others, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline [norepinephrine]). Most drugs used to treat both disorders influence at least one of these transmitter systems, such as classical tricyclics. This review discusses the efficacy of antidepressants in migraine prevention. In addition, recommended combinations in patients with concomitant depression and migraine are presented with regard to their proposed pharmacological mechanism of action and their potential interactions. PMID:19192933

  2. The efficacy of wet-cupping in the treatment of tension and migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Schwebel, David C; Rezaei, Mansour

    2008-01-01

    Wet-cupping is an ancient medical technique still used in several contemporary societies, but little empirical study has been devoted to test its efficacy to treat tension and migraine headache. Using a pre-post research design, 70 patients with chronic tension or migraine headache were treated with wet-cupping. Three primary outcome measures were considered at the baseline and 3 months following treatment: headache severity, days of headache per month, and use of medication. Results suggest that, compared to the baseline, mean headache severity decreased by 66% following wet-cupping treatment. Treated patients also experienced the equivalent of 12.6 fewer days of headache per month. We conclude that wet-cupping leads to clinical relevant benefits for primary care patients with headache. Possible mechanisms of wet-cupping's efficacy, as well as directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18306448

  3. Almotriptan: an effective and well-tolerated treatment for migraine pain.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2003-01-01

    The clinical data of almotriptan, the new selective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist developed for the symptomatic treatment of migraine, are reviewed here. The pharmacokinetic performance of almotriptan is compared with that of other currently available triptans. The dose exhibiting the best efficacy/tolerability ratio of almotriptan is 12.5 mg. Efficacy of this almotriptan dose is comparable to that of the "gold" standard triptan, but with a lower recurrence rate. Gender or the presence of food in the stomach does not influence almotriptan's pharmacokinetic profile, and no relevant interactions of almotriptan with other medications have been reported. The tolerability of almotriptan is similar to that of placebo. Almotriptan's high efficacy together with its excellent tolerability and safety profile confirm this new 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist as a drug of choice for the symptomatic treatment of migraine attacks. PMID:15071618

  4. Functional Assessment and Treatment of Migraine Reports and School Absences in an Adolescent with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvans, Rebecca K.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychological interventions for migraines typically include biofeedback training, stress-management training, or relaxation training and are implemented without consideration of environmental variables that might maintain migraines or complaints of migraines. An adolescent with daily reports of migraines that negatively impacted school attendance…

  5. Sedative Dosing of Propofol for Treatment of Migraine Headache in the Emergency Department: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, Jarrod; Roper, Grant; Hays, Daniel; Guisto, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Migraine headaches requiring an emergency department visit due to failed outpatient rescue therapy present a significant challenge in terms of length of stay (LOS) and financial costs. Propofol therapy may be effective at pain reduction and reduce that length of stay given its pharmacokinetic properties as a short acting intravenous sedative anesthetic and pharmacodynamics on GABA mediated chloride flux. Methods: Case series of 4 patients presenting to an urban academic medical center with migraine headache failing outpatient therapy. Each patient was given a sedation dose (1 mg/kg) of propofol under standard procedural sedation precautions. Results: Each of the 4 patients experienced dramatic reductions or complete resolution of headache severity. LOS for 3 of the 4 patients was 50% less than the average LOS for patients with similar chief complaints to our emergency department. 1 patient required further treatment with standard therapy but had a significant reduction in pain and a shorter LOS. There were no episodes of hypotension, hypoxia, or apnea during the sedations. Conclusion: In this small case series, sedation dose propofol appears to be effective and safe for the treatment of refractory migraines, and may result in a reduced LOS. PMID:24381692

  6. Acute Heart Failure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip D; Bellou, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  7. Effects of symptomatic treatments on cutaneous hyperalgesia and laser evoked potentials during migraine attack.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Losito, L; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Fruscolo, O; Sardaro, M; Sciruicchio, V; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    Previously an amplitude enhancement of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) was detected during migraine attack: we further examined pain threshold to CO2 laser stimuli and LEPs during attacks, evaluating the effect of almotriptan, lysine-acetylsalicylate and placebo treatment on cutaneous hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli delivered by CO2 laser and on LEP components. Eighteen patients suffering from migraine without aura were analysed. They were divided into three groups of six patients each, randomly assigned to lysine acetyl-salicylate, almotriptan or placebo treatments. The supraorbital zones and the dorsum of the hand were stimulated on both the symptomatic and not symptomatic side in all patients. The LEPs were recorded by 25 scalp electrodes. During attacks, the P2 wave was significantly enhanced; the amplitude of the P2 component obtained by the stimulation of the supraorbital zone during the attack on the side of the headache was significantly correlated with the intensity of pain and the frequency of headache. Both almotriptan and lysine acetyl-salicylate significantly reduced the P2 amplitude but they showed no effects on hyperalgesia to laser stimulation; headache relief following therapy was correlated with the reduction of the P2 amplitude. The cortical elaboration of laser-induced experimental pain seemed increased during migraine attack, and the severity of headache was mainly related to the increase of the later LEPs components expressing the attentive and emotive compounds of suffering. Reversion of this process appeared to be primarily responsible for the efficacy of drugs in treating migraine, though both almotriptan and lysine-acetil salicilate seemed to have no effect in reducing sensitization at second and third order nociceptive neurons. PMID:15839851

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide targeted immunotherapy for migraine: progress and challenges in treating headache.

    PubMed

    Peroutka, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    A role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathophysiology of migraine has been established over the past 25 years. There have now been at least five different small-molecule CGRP antagonists that have demonstrated statistical proof of efficacy in the acute treatment of migraine. At present, multiple clinical trials are underway that are assessing the ability of long-acting antibodies against CGRP to prevent frequent migraine attacks. This review summarizes the existing data concerning the role of CGRP in migraine and attempts to highlight some possible outcomes from the ongoing anti-CGRP antibody trials. PMID:24452707

  9. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  10. Migraine in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Allais, G; Chiarle, G; Bergandi, F; Benedetto, C

    2015-05-01

    Hormonal changes during the reproductive cycle are thought to account for the variation in migraine occurrence and intensity. Although the majority of women and the specialists treating them do not consider migraine as a component of the climacteric syndrome, many women, in fact, do experience migraine during perimenopause. If a woman already suffers from migraine, the attacks often worsen during menopausal transition. Initial onset of the condition during this period is relatively rare. Women with the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) prior to entering menopause are more likely to experience, during late menopausal transition, an increased prevalence of migraine attacks. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be initiated during the late premenopausal phase and the first years of postmenopause to relieve climacteric symptoms. The effect of HRT on migraine, either as a secondary effect of the therapy or as a preventive measure against perimenopausal migraine, has been variously investigated. HRT preparations should be administered continuously, without intervals, to prevent sudden estrogen deprivation and the migraine attacks that will ensue. Wide varieties of formulations, both systemic and topical, are available. Treatment with transdermal patches and estradiol-based gels is preferable to oral formulations as they maintain constant blood hormone levels. Natural menopause is associated with a lower incidence of migraine as compared with surgical menopause; data on the role of hysterectomy alone or associated with ovariectomy in changing the occurrence of migraine are till now unclear. PMID:26017518

  11. Using patient-centered endpoints to determine the cost-effectiveness of triptans for acute migraine therapy.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Leslie; Von Seggern, Randal L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use the patient-centered efficacy measurements of sustained pain free and sustained pain free with no adverse events to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of 6 oral triptans in the treatment of acute migraine. Adverse event and sustained pain-free rates were obtained from a comprehensive meta-analysis of 53 clinical trials of oral triptans. Efficacy and tolerability were assumed to be independent. Average wholesale prices were in US dollars as of May 10, 2004. The meta-analysis of oral triptans reported that almotriptan 12.5 mg (Axert) exhibited the highest sustained pain-free rate (25.9%), with the lowest rate associated with eletriptan 20 mg (Relpax) (10.6%). In addition, almotriptan 12.5 mg possessed the lowest overall absolute adverse event rate (14.2%), with the highest adverse event rate exhibited by eletriptan 80 mg (53.9%). To attain 100 sustained pain-free patients, almotriptan 12.5 mg and rizatriptan 10 mg (Maxalt) proved to be the most cost-effective triptans, costing $7120 and $7427, respectively; the least cost-effective were naratriptan 2.5 mg (Amerge) ($13,736) and eletriptan 20 mg ($16,104). To attain 100 sustained pain-free with no adverse events patients, almotriptan 12.5 mg was the most cost-effective triptan ($8298) and the least cost-effective were eletriptan 20 mg ($25,521) and eletriptan 80 mg ($29,614). At average wholesale prices as of May 10, 2004, almotriptan 12.5 mg achieved the highest level of cost-effectiveness using either sustained pain free or sustained pain free with no adverse events as endpoints. PMID:16988536

  12. [Beta blockers in migraine prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Beta blockers (beta-adrenoceptor blockers) are known to be used for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. The improvement of migraine in the patients who recieved propranolol for angina pectoris revealed the effectiveness of propranolol in migraine prophylaxis. Many clinical trials have confirmed that propranolol is effective in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Other beta-blocking drugs, namely nadolol, metoprolol, atenolol, timolol and bisoprolol, have also been demonstrated to be effective in the prophylaxis of migraine. In contrast, several beta blockers with intrinsic sympathetic activity (ISA), such as alprenolol, oxprenolol, pindolol and acebutolol, have not been demonstrated to be effective in migraine prophylaxis. In this review, we have descrived the pharmacologic background and pharmacokinetics of the beta blockers that demonstrated a prophylactic effect for migraine will be described. We have also reviewed the results of clinical trials of beta-blocking drugs for migraine. PMID:19882938

  13. Migraine and its psychiatric comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Minen, Mia Tova; Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley; Powers, Scott; Schwedt, Todd J; Lipton, Richard; Silbersweig, David

    2016-07-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the link between migraine and several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We present data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification. We discuss the evidence, theories and methods, such as brain functional imaging, to explain the pathophysiological links between migraine and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide an overview of the treatment considerations for treating migraine with psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, a review of the literature demonstrates the wide variety of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine. However, more research is needed to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and the comorbid psychiatric conditions and to determine the most effective treatment for migraine with psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:26733600

  14. Migraine Headache Treatment & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a variety of drugs for these treatment methods. Headache drug use should be monitored by a physician, ... new treatments or perhaps ways to block debilitating headache pain. Studies by other investigators are adding insight ...

  15. Association of MDR1, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms with prophylactic migraine treatment response.

    PubMed

    Atasayar, Gulfer; Eryilmaz, Isil Ezgi; Karli, Necdet; Egeli, Unal; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Cecener, Gulsah; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Tunca, Berrin; Yildirim, Oznur; Ak, Secil; Tezcan, Gulcin; Can, Fatma Ezgi

    2016-07-15

    Prophylactic therapy response varies in migraine patients. The present study investigated the relationship between the resistance to the drugs commonly used in prophylactic therapy and the possible polymorphic variants of proteins involved in the metabolism of these drugs. Migraine patients with the MDR1 3435TT genotype exhibited a better treatment response to topiramate than migraine patients with the CC and CT genotypes (p=0.020). The MDR1 C3435T polymorphism was also found to be a higher risk factor for topiramate treatment failure in a comparison of the number of days with migraine (β2=1.152, p=0.015). However, there was no significant relationship between the treatment response to topiramate and either the CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 polymorphism, and there were no significant correlations between the treatment responses to amitriptyline, propranolol, and valproic acid and the MDR1, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the polymorphic variants on prophylactic therapy response in migraine patients. PMID:27288795

  16. Considerations for management of migraine symptoms in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder that affects one in seven US citizens annually. The burden of migraine is substantial, both in economic terms and for individual patients and their close family members. Initial medical consultations for migraine are usually with a primary care physician (PCP), and it is predominantly managed in a primary care setting; therefore, PCPs need a thorough understanding of migraine and the treatment options. This review provides an overview of the prevalence, symptoms, burden, and diagnosis of migraine with a focus on adults. Important aspects of migraine management, such as medication overuse and chronic migraine, are highlighted and insight is provided into factors for consideration when prescribing acute/abortive treatment for migraine to ensure that individual patients receive optimal pharmaceutical management. The effects of associated symptoms, e.g. nausea/vomiting, on treatment efficacy are pertinent in migraine; however, many therapy options, including alternative delivery systems, are available, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment for an individual patient. PMID:27078039

  17. Migraine in Children: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Tabassum, S; Rahman, S M; Akhter, S; Rahman, M M; Bayes, F; Roy, S

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent headache is common in children. Among them migraine is the most common disabling cause of primary headache. It causes serious disability in child's life and family. It causes negative impact on their quality of life. Clinical characteristic of migraine in children differ from adult. It may be shorter in duration and bifrontal or bitemporal in location in contrast to adult which is longer in duration and usually unilateral. It is less common before 3 years of age. Males are more affected before puberty. But after puberty females are predominantly affected. Intensity of pain is moderate to severe. There are some triggering factors. Positive family history usually present. Disability can be assessed by PedMIDAS scale in children and adolescents which is modified version of MIDAS scale for adult. Diagnosis of migraine usually clinical but evaluation should be done to exclude severe underlying secondary cause. Management consists of pharmacological and non pharmacological approach. Parental education, life style modification is the mainstay of management. Acute treatment consists of Acetaminophen, NSAIDs and Triptans. Among Triptans, Sumatriptan nasal spray is only found effective for children. Preventive therapy aims to decrease frequency and severity of headache. Flunarizine, Propranolol, Amitryptylline, Levetiracetam, Valproate, Topiramate are found effective in pediatric age group. Pediatrician should evaluate the child to exclude secondary cause of headache when indicated. They should have also proper knowledge and skills to manage a child having migraine to improve their quality of life and academic achievement. PMID:27612914

  18. Current migraine management – patient acceptability and future approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fumal, Arnaud; Schoenen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective, or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education, for more efficient therapies and for greater support from national health systems. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient’s previous history and present expectations, and the co-morbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. PMID:19337450

  19. Triptans in the treatment of migraine: drug selection by means of the SOJA method.

    PubMed

    Janknegt, Robert

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, drug selection of triptans for the treatment of migraine is performed by means of the SOJA method, which prospectively defines and scores selection criteria. All drugs available in the Netherlands were included in the analysis. The following selection criteria were used (relative weight between brackets): approved indications (40), number of formulations (50), variability of bioavailability (40), drug interactions (85), clinical efficacy (415), side effects (190), acquisition cost (75) and documentation (105). Almotriptan, rizatriptan and sumatriptan show the highest scores, and are the most suitable triptans for formulary inclusion. PMID:17931075

  20. Migraine in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aubé, M

    1999-01-01

    Migraine does not increase the risk for complications of pregnancy for the mother or for the fetus: the incidences of toxemia, miscarriages, abnormal labour, congenital anomalies, and stillbirths are comparable to those of the general population. Several retrospective studies have shown a tendency for migraine to improve with pregnancy. Between 60 and 70% of women either go into remission or improve significantly, mainly during the second and third trimesters. Women with migraine onset at menarche and those with perimenstrual migraine are more likely to go into remission during pregnancy. The migraine type does not seem to be a significant prognostic factor for improvement. However, in the small number of women (4-8%) whose migraines worsen with pregnancy, migraine with aura appears to be overrepresented. In a small number of cases (1.3-16.5%), migraine appears to start with pregnancy, often in the first trimester; these headaches involve a higher proportion of migraine with aura. Management of migraine during pregnancy should first focus on avoiding potential triggers. Consideration should also be given to nonpharmacologic therapies. If pharmacologic treatment becomes necessary, acetaminophen and codeine can be used safely as abortive agents; ASA and NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen) can be used as a second choice, but not for long periods of time, and they should be avoided during the last trimester. For treatment of severe attacks of migraine, chlorpromazine, dimenhydrinate, and diphenhydramine can be used; metoclopramide should be restricted to the third trimester. According to the United States FDA risk categories, meperidine and morphine show no evidence of risk in humans but should not be used at the end of the third trimester. In some refractory cases, dexamethasone or prednisone can be considered. Should prophylactic treatment become indicated, the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (e.g., propranolol) can be used. PMID:10487510

  1. Comparison of butorphanol nasal spray and fiorinal with codeine in the treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J; Gawel, M J; Winner, P; Diamond, S; Reich, L; Davidson, W J; Sussman, N M

    1998-01-01

    Butorphanol tartrate is a synthetic mixed agonist-antagonist opioid analgesic. Its transnasal dosage form, which may be self-administered when the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate, was previously shown to provide rapid relief of migraine pain. In this double-blind, parallel-group, outpatient study, we compared butorphanol nasal spray 1 mg followed in 1 hour by an optional second 1-mg dose with the orally administered analgesic, Fiorinal with Codeine (one capsule containing butalbital 50 mg, caffeine 40 mg, aspirin 325 mg, and codeine phosphate 30 mg). Patients (N=321) were assigned by randomization to one of two treatment groups (butorphanol or Fiorinal with Codeine) and instructed to self-administer medication when migraine pain reached an intensity of moderate or severe and to record study-related events in a diary for 24 hours posttreatment. Efficacy analyses were performed on data from 275 patients who took study medication and returned a patient diary; 136 in the butorphanol group and 139 in the Fiorinal with Codeine group. During the first 2 hours after treatment, butorphanol was more effective than Fiorinal with Codeine in treating migraine pain as measured by pain intensity difference scores, percentage of responders (pain decreased to mild or none), percentage of pain-free patients, and degree of pain relief, with a more rapid time to onset of 15 minutes. A similar percentage of patients in the two groups used rescue medication during the first 4 hours, after which more butorphanol-treated than Fiorinal with Codeine-treated patients used rescue medication. Butorphanol patients had more side effects, less improvement in digestive symptoms, and less improvement in functional ability than Fiorinal with Codeine patients. PMID:15613167

  2. Altered cognition-related brain activity and interactions with acute pain in migraine.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Vani A; Khan, Shariq A; Keaser, Michael L; Hubbard, Catherine S; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of migraine on neural cognitive networks. However, cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a comorbidity of chronic pain. Pain appears to affect cognitive ability and the function of cognitive networks over time, and decrements in cognitive function can exacerbate affective and sensory components of pain. We investigated differences in cognitive processing and pain-cognition interactions between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched healthy controls using an fMRI block-design with two levels of task difficulty and concurrent heat (painful and not painful) stimuli. Across groups, cognitive networks were recruited in response to a difficult cognitive task, and a pain-task interaction was found in the right (contralateral to pain stimulus) posterior insula (pINS), such that activity was modulated by decreasing the thermal pain stimulus or by engaging the difficult cognitive task. Migraine patients had less task-related deactivation within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) compared to controls. These regions have been reported to have decreased cortical thickness and cognitive-related deactivation within other pain populations, and are also associated with pain regulation, suggesting that the current findings may reflect altered cognitive function and top-down regulation of pain. During pain conditions, patients had decreased task-related activity, but more widespread task-related reductions in pain-related activity, compared to controls, suggesting cognitive resources may be diverted from task-related to pain-reduction-related processes in migraine. Overall, these findings suggest that migraine is associated with altered cognitive-related neural activity, which may reflect altered pain regulatory processes as well as broader functional restructuring. PMID:25610798

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Amit; Marmura, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogenesis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise. PMID:23181051

  4. Taking the headache out of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Dodick, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Migraine is a disease that contributes to major disability. Perhaps because migraine attacks are not immediately life-threatening per se and individuals return to a “normal” state between attacks, it is not taken seriously. However, migraine is associated with a number of comorbidities, including psychiatric disease, stroke, and other chronic pain disorders. Current acute treatments for episodic migraine are relatively effective, but preventive treatments for episodic and chronic migraine are far less so. Recent functional imaging studies have shown that the disease affects brain function and structure (either as a result of its genetic predisposition or as a result of repeated attacks). The current evidence in the pain field is that changes observed in brain function and structure may be reversible, adding credence to the notion that treating the disease aggressively and early may be beneficial to patients. Here we suggest a change in our approach to a disease that is currently not treated with the urgency that it deserves given its global prevalence, disease burden, and effects on brain function. PMID:26335578

  5. Thin-film optical notch filter spectacle coatings for the treatment of migraine and photophobia.

    PubMed

    Hoggan, Ryan N; Subhash, Amith; Blair, Steve; Digre, Kathleen B; Baggaley, Susan K; Gordon, Jamison; Brennan, K C; Warner, Judith E A; Crum, Alison V; Katz, Bradley J

    2016-06-01

    Previous evidence suggests optical treatments hold promise for treating migraine and photophobia. We designed an optical notch filter, centered at 480nm to reduce direct stimulation of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. We used thin-film technology to integrate the filter into spectacle lenses. Our objective was to determine if an optical notch filter, designed to attenuate activity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, could reduce headache impact in chronic migraine subjects. For this randomized, double-masked study, our primary endpoint was the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6; GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK). We developed two filters: the therapeutic filter blocked visible light at 480nm; a 620nm filter was designed as a sham. Participants were asked to wear lenses with one of the filters for 2weeks; after 2weeks when no lenses were worn, they wore lenses with the other filter for 2weeks. Of 48 subjects, 37 completed the study. Wearing either the 480 or 620nm lenses resulted in clinically and statistically significant HIT-6 reductions. However, there was no significant difference when comparing overall effect of the 480 and 620nm lenses. Although the 620nm filter was designed as a sham intervention, research published following the trial indicated that melanopsin, the photopigment in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, is bi-stable. This molecular property may explain the unexpected efficacy of the 620nm filter. These preliminary findings indicate that lenses outfitted with a thin-film optical notch filter may be useful in treating chronic migraine. PMID:26935748

  6. Pharmacological synergy: the next frontier on therapeutic advancement for migraine.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Andrew; Gennings, Chris; Cady, Roger

    2012-04-01

    The burden of migraine significantly impacts the individual sufferer, their families, the workplace, and society. The World Health Organization has identified migraine as an urgent public health priority and has initiated a global initiative to reduce the burden of migraine. Underlying the World Health Organization initiative is the need to discover means of optimizing migraine treatments and make them accessible to the broader portion of the world population. Development of acute migraine medications over the past several decades has largely centered on engineering highly specific receptor molecules that alter migraine pathophysiological mechanisms to abort or reverse the acute attack of migraine. The first product of this line of discovery was sumatriptan and heralded as a landmark therapeutic breakthrough. Sumatriptan is a 5-HT-1B/D receptor agonist considered to activate receptors involved in the pathophysiology specific to migraine. Large-scale regulatory/clinical studies demonstrated statistical superiority for sumatriptan over placebo in reduction or elimination of headache, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia. Since the introduction of sumatriptan, 6 other triptan products have been released in the United States as acute treatments for migraine, all having the same mechanism of action and similar efficacy. Despite their utility as migraine abortive medications, the triptans do not successfully treat all attacks of migraine or necessarily treat all migraine associated symptoms. In fact, in less than 25% of attacks do subjects obtain and maintain a migraine-free response to treatment for at least beyond 24 hours. A wide range of non-triptan medications also have demonstrated efficacy in acute migraine. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, phenothiazines, and valproic acid to name a few. Given the distinctly different mechanisms of actions of these various medications, it is likely that several unique pathophysiological

  7. Sumatriptan: economic evidence for its use in the treatment of migraine, the Canadian comparative economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Caro, G; Getsios, D; Caro, J J; Raggio, G; Burrows, M; Black, L

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate economic and health effects of sumatriptan relative to customary therapy in Canada. The relationship between treatment and functionality was established based on analysis of existing data from a multinational study. A Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 1 year for each of customary therapy and six sumatriptan formulations. Costs are expressed in 1998 Canadian dollars. Sumatriptan is expected to reduce the time spent with migraine symptoms and resulting time lost. Under customary therapy, the annual cost of lost time is estimated at pound908 ($1973). With sumatriptan, these costs ranged from pound406 ($882) with subcutaneous sumatriptan to pound577 ($1254) with nasal sumatriptan 10 mg, saving pound331-502 ($719-1091) in the annual cost of time lost. All these benefits are expected to be obtained at an additional drug cost ranging from pound869 ($1889) for subcutaneous sumatriptan to pound278 ($605) for sumatriptan suppository. The cost of sumatriptan treatment is significantly offset by a substantial reduction of costs associated with time lost due to migraine symptoms. PMID:11298658

  8. Discovery of BMS-846372, a Potent and Orally Active Human CGRP Receptor Antagonist for the Treatment of Migraine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Conway, Charles M; Denton, Rex; Keavy, Deborah; Gulianello, Michael; Huang, Yanling; Kostich, Walter; Lentz, Kimberley A; Mercer, Stephen E; Schartman, Richard; Signor, Laura; Browning, Marc; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2012-04-12

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have been clinically shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine, but identification of potent and orally bioavailable compounds has been challenging. Herein, we describe the conceptualization, synthesis, and preclinical characterization of a potent, orally active CGRP receptor antagonist 5 (BMS-846372). Compound 5 has good oral bioavailability in rat, dog, and cynomolgus monkeys and overall attractive preclinical properties including strong (>50% inhibition) exposure-dependent in vivo efficacy in a marmoset migraine model. PMID:24900474

  9. Discovery of BMS-846372, a Potent and Orally Active Human CGRP Receptor Antagonist for the Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have been clinically shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine, but identification of potent and orally bioavailable compounds has been challenging. Herein, we describe the conceptualization, synthesis, and preclinical characterization of a potent, orally active CGRP receptor antagonist 5 (BMS-846372). Compound 5 has good oral bioavailability in rat, dog, and cynomolgus monkeys and overall attractive preclinical properties including strong (>50% inhibition) exposure-dependent in vivo efficacy in a marmoset migraine model. PMID:24900474

  10. Prospective analysis of the use of OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX) in the treatment of chronic migraine; real-life data in 254 patients from Hull, UK

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine affects 2% of the population. It results in substantial disability and reduced quality of life. Medications used for prophylaxis in episodic migraine may also work in chronic migraine. The efficacy and safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX) in adults with chronic migraine was confirmed in the PREEMPT programme. However, there are few real-life data of its use. Method 254 adults with chronic migraine were injected with OnabotulinumtoxinA BOTOX as per PREEMPT Protocol between July 2010 and May 2013, their headache data were collected using the Hull headache diary and analysed to look for headache, migraine days decrements, crystal clear days increment in the month post treatment, we looked at the 50% responder rate as well. Results Our prospective analysis shows that OnabotulinumtoxinA, significantly, reduced the number of headache and migraine days, and increased the number of headache free days. OnabotulinumtoxinA Botox also improved patients’ quality of life. We believe that these results represent the largest post-marketing cohort of patients treated with OnabotulinumtoxinA in the real-life clinical setting. Conclusion OnabotulinumtoxinA is a valuable addition to current treatment options in patients with chronic migraine. Our results support findings of PREEMPT study in a large cohort of patients, we believe, is representative of the patients seen in an average tertiary headache centre. While it can be used as a first line prophylaxis its cost may restrict its use to more refractory patients who failed three oral preventive treatments. PMID:25178393

  11. The effect of migraine prophylaxis on migraine-related resource use and productivity.

    PubMed

    Láinez, Miguel J A

    2009-09-01

    In the US, it is estimated that up to 10% of men and 25% of women, particularly those aged 25-55 years, experience debilitating migraines, such that the condition presents an enormous economic burden for patients, health systems, employers and society. Migraine headache is a particularly prevalent condition associated with major reductions in patients' quality of life. From a payer perspective, the implementation of relevant programmes of migraine prophylaxis is highly desirable. Consistent evidence exists, from several randomized, controlled studies, of the efficacy of amitriptyline, divalproex sodium, propranolol, timolol and topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. Considering resource utilization, various studies suggest that migraine prophylaxis with antiepileptics, antidepressants, beta-blockers or calcium channel antagonists markedly reduces triptan use and visits to physician offices and emergency departments (EDs), without compromising quality of care or treatment outcomes. Over recent years, the effects of topiramate in reducing resource utilization in patients with migraine have been relatively widely studied. In US claims database analyses involving >4000 patients with migraine, topiramate significantly reduced triptan use by up to 20% in the 12-month period after starting treatment. Reductions were also noted in the numbers of ED visits, diagnostic procedures, hospital admissions and migraine-related hospitalization days. These long-term benefits of topiramate manifested without any increase in overall headache-related costs. Furthermore, in detailed modelling analyses based on UK and US data, topiramate-induced savings in acute medical services were estimated to offset about one-quarter of the monthly per patient cost of the topiramate regimen, which was shown to be a dominant cost-effective intervention relative to no preventive therapy: cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as pound 5728 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) [2005 costings] and $US10

  12. Pilot study of MK-462 in migraine.

    PubMed

    Cutler, N R; Claghorn, J; Sramek, J J; Block, G; Panebianco, D; Cheng, H; Olah, T V; Reines, S A

    1996-04-01

    MK-462 is a potent, selective 5HT1D receptor agonist which may be useful in treating acute migraine. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled inpatient study to assess the preliminary efficacy and safety of oral doses of MK-462 20 mg (n = 8) and 40 mg (n = 36) vs placebo (n = 21), administered to 65 male and post-menopausal female migraine patients aged 22-51 with moderate or severe migraine headache. Headache severity and functional disability were measured at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h post-dose. The 20 mg dose was well tolerated and 4/8 patients obtained relief in headache severity at the 2 h time point. The 40 mg dose was well tolerated and was significantly (p < 0.05) superior to placebo at the 1.5 and 2 h time points (with 27/36 or 75% obtaining relief at 2 h compared to 7/21 or 33% for placebo). Adverse events occurred in 50% of patients on 20 mg MK-462, 72% of those on 40 mg MK-462, and in 52% of placebo-treated subjects. The most common adverse events associated with MK-462 were drowsiness (20 mg 12%; 40 mg 44%; placebo 24%), dry mouth (40 mg 36%; placebo 19%), and lightheadedness/dizziness (40 mg 17%; placebo 10%). Based on these preliminary results, MK-462 appears worthy of continued study for the treatment of acute migraine. PMID:8665577

  13. Ion channels and migraine

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jin; Dussor, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorders. Despite its prevalence, the basic physiology of the molecules and mechanisms that contribute to migraine headache is still poorly understood, making the discovery of more effective treatments extremely difficult. The consistent presence of head-specific pain during migraine suggests an important role for activation of the peripheral nociceptors localized to the head. Accordingly, this review will cover the current understanding of the biological mechanisms leading to episodic activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular pain pathway, focusing on recent advances regarding activation and modulation of ion channels. PMID:24697223

  14. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Birk

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet. PMID:22649454

  15. Autogenic Training and Hand Temperature Biofeedback in the Treatment of Migraine: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, B.; And Others

    The possibility of alleviating migraine headaches by autogenic relaxation training, with or without hand temperature biofeedback, was assessed. The study examined five independent groups in a bi-directional control group design. Volunteer migraine sufferers served as subjects, each participating for 12 weeks. The first four weeks of the study were…

  16. Pathways to the best fit of triptans for migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M G

    2008-09-01

    Variability in drug response is a major barrier to the successful treatment of migraine, and most treatments are only optimal in a subset of patients. Although triptans provide the best therapeutic option for the treatment of acute migraine, it has not previously been possible to predict how well patients will respond to a specific triptan or whether they will experience unpleasant adverse events. Hence, it has been difficult for physicians to match individual patients with the most suitable agent to treat their migraine pain. Intrapatient variability has been associated with polymorphisms in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug targets. Pharmacogenetics provides the possibility of tailoring the therapeutic approach to individual patients, in order to maximize treatment efficacy while minimizing the potential for unwanted side-effects. This review demonstrates how almotriptan may overcome genetically determined responses by utilizing diverse metabolic pathways to provide therapeutic benefit to many migraineurs. PMID:18715329

  17. Migraine in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    David, Paru S; Kling, Juliana M; Starling, Amaal J

    2014-04-01

    Migraine headache is a significant health problem affecting women more than men. In women, the hormonal fluctuations seen during pregnancy and lactation can affect migraine frequency and magnitude. Understanding the evaluation of headache in pregnancy is important, especially given the increased risk of secondary headache conditions. Pregnancy and lactation can complicate treatment options for women with migraine because of the risk of certain medications to the fetus. This review includes details of the workup and then provides treatment options for migraine during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24604057

  18. δ-Opioid receptor agonists inhibit migraine-related hyperalgesia, aversive state and cortical spreading depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Amynah A; Smith, Monique L; Zyuzin, Jekaterina; Charles, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Migraine is an extraordinarily common brain disorder for which treatment options continue to be limited. Agonists that activate the δ-opioid receptor may be promising for the treatment of migraine as they are highly effective for the treatment of chronic rather than acute pain, do not induce hyperalgesia, have low abuse potential and have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of δ-opioid receptor agonists for migraine by characterizing their effects in mouse migraine models. Experimental Approach Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed in mice treated with acute and chronic doses of nitroglycerin (NTG), a known human migraine trigger. Conditioned place aversion to NTG was also measured as a model of migraine-associated negative affect. In addition, we assessed evoked cortical spreading depression (CSD), an established model of migraine aura, in a thinned skull preparation. Key Results NTG evoked acute and chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice, as well as conditioned place aversion. Three different δ-opioid receptor agonists, SNC80, ARM390 and JNJ20788560, significantly reduced NTG-evoked hyperalgesia. SNC80 also abolished NTG-induced conditioned place aversion, suggesting that δ-opioid receptor activation may also alleviate the negative emotional state associated with migraine. We also found that SNC80 significantly attenuated CSD, a model that is considered predictive of migraine preventive therapies. Conclusions and Implications These data show that δ-opioid receptor agonists modulate multiple basic mechanisms associated with migraine, indicating that δ-opioid receptors are a promising therapeutic target for this disorder. PMID:24467301

  19. The use of triptans for pediatric migraines.

    PubMed

    Eiland, Lea S; Hunt, Melissa O

    2010-12-01

    Migraine headaches frequently occur in the pediatric population, with a prevalence of 3% in children 2-7 years of age, 4-11% in children 7-11 years of age, and 8-23% in children 11 years of age and older. Migraine without aura is more than twice as common as migraine with aura in children. Headaches are the third leading cause of emergency room referrals and rank in the top five health problems of children. The 2004 American Academy of Neurology's treatment parameter for migraine in children and adolescents recommended that nasal sumatriptan be considered for acute treatment; however, data were lacking to make a decision regarding the available oral triptans at that time. The more recently released European guidelines discuss three different triptans for use in children but no specific triptan was recommended. Currently, six of the seven available triptans have been studied for efficacy and safety in the pediatric population; however, only a few well controlled clinical studies have been conducted. Sumatriptan has the most available data on outcomes in general, with nasal sumatriptan showing the most positive results. Nasal sumatriptan is approved in children older than 12 years of age in Europe. Oral sumatriptan does not show any clinical benefit versus placebo in children. Rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have conflicting efficacy and safety data, with most studies favoring the use of oral rizatriptan and nasal zolmitriptan. Almotriptan is the first triptan to obtain a US FDA indication in adolescents with migraines lasting 4 or more hours. This approval was based upon two studies, one large clinical trial and one very small, open-label, pilot study. At this time, there are insufficient data to recommend naratriptan and eletriptan for first- or second-line use in pediatric patients with migraines. There are currently no efficacy data for frovatriptan in pediatric patients, which limits its use in this population. Adverse effects of triptans and pharmacokinetic data

  20. Is SOD2 Ala16Val polymorphism associated with migraine with aura phenotype?

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Barbanti, Piero; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Egeo, Gabriella; Aurilia, Cinzia; Fofi, Luisa; Ialongo, Cristiano; Valente, Maria Giovanna; Ferroni, Patrizia; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2015-01-20

    Several studies suggest a role of oxidative stress in the physiopathology of migraine, particularly in the form with aura. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between migraine and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) genes in a cohort of 490 consecutive unrelated Caucasian migraineurs (migraine with aura [MwA], n=107; migraine without aura [MwoA], n=246; chronic migraine [CM], n=137) and 246 healthy controls recruited at our Headache and Pain Unit and stored in the Interinstitutional Multidisciplinary BioBank (BioBIM). Migraine phenotype was carefully detailed using face-to-face interviews. We examined polymorphisms of SOD1 gene (A/C substitution-rs2234694) and SOD2 gene (C/T transition-rs4880-Ala16Val). The rs4880 TT (Val/Val) genotype was associated (p=0.042) with the presence of unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms (UAs) in MwA patients. We also found a mild correlation between SOD2 rs4880 genotype and the type of acute migraine treatment (p=0.048) in MwA patients. Our findings suggest that SOD2 is a disease-modifier gene influencing oxidative mechanisms in MwA. These observations lead to the hypothesis that SOD2 polymorphism may cause a defective control of the oxidative phenomena linked to cortical spreading depression, the neurophysiological hallmark of migraine aura, causing an overstimulation of trigeminal neurons and UAs triggering. PMID:25295643

  1. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  3. Drug Interaction and Serotonin Toxicity with Opioid Use: Another Reason to Avoid Opioids in Headache and Migraine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Hossein; Kouti, Leila

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of headache, specifically migraine attacks, has always been a challenging subject, especially for neurologist and pain specialists. Triptans are generally underutilized, despite being the gold standard abortive medication for migraine attacks. On the other hand, opioid analgesics are overused as a treatment for headache. One reason for this could be physician unfamiliarity with drug interactions between opioids and other medications, especially the possibility of serotonin toxicity. The general awareness of potential serotonin toxicity with using opioid analgesics is low. In this review, we will conduct a theoretic and evidence-based review of the potential for developing serotonin syndrome in patients who are using opioids analgesics, especially in combination with antidepressants, a common co-prescribed combination. We also review the current diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome and identify possible shortcomings of those criteria. Our aim is to increase the awareness of health care providers about potential drug interaction of opioid analgesics with other classes of medication. We place particular emphasis on tramadol since this drug is one of the most commonly used opioid analgesics for headache. The potential for developing serotonin syndrome is relatively high in the patients who are using opioid for pain control. The use of opioids in migraine headache is already discouraged due to the high risk of medication overuse headache and also an increase in headache-related disability (Katsarava et al. Neurology 62:788-790, 2004; Bigal and Lipton. Neurology 71:1821-8, 2008; Casucci and Cevoli. Neurol Sci. 34 Suppl 1:S125-8, 2013). This is another reason that physicians and health care providers should avoid using this class of medication for pain, specifically headache and migraine treatment. PMID:27457368

  4. Spotlight on eletriptan in migraine.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L; Keating, Gillian M

    2006-01-01

    Eletriptan (Relpax) is an orally administered, lipophilic, highly selective serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist ('triptan') that is effective in the acute treatment of moderate to severe migraine attacks in adults. It has a rapid onset of action and demonstrates superiority over placebo as early as 30 minutes after the administration of a single 40 or 80 mg oral dose. The efficacy of eletriptan 20 mg was similar to that of sumatriptan 100 mg, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg displayed greater efficacy than sumatriptan 50 or 100 mg for most endpoints. Eletriptan 40 mg was generally superior to naratriptan 2.5 mg and equivalent to almotriptan 12.5 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 mg, while eletriptan 80 mg was superior to zolmitriptan 2.5 mg for most efficacy parameters. Eletriptan 40 and 80 mg were consistently superior to ergotamine/caffeine. Eletriptan is generally well tolerated, reduces time lost from normal activities, improves patients' health-related quality of life and appears to be at least as, if not more, cost effective than sumatriptan. Eletriptan is therefore a useful addition to the triptan family and a first-line treatment option in the acute management of migraine attacks. PMID:17044732

  5. A case of successful surgical treatment of migraine headaches in a patient with sporadic pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Na, Sang-Jun; Cho, Hyun Min; Park, Joon Seok

    2009-04-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are thin-walled aneurysms caused by abnormal communication between the pulmonary arteries and veins. Migraine headaches are sometimes the presenting clinical manifestation of PAVMs. Although embolotherapy, using detachable balloons or stainless steel coils, is generally accepted as the best choice for the treatment of multiple PAVMs, the mode of intervention for solitary PAVMs remains a subject of debate. We present a 43-yr-old woman with a 10-yr history of chronic migraines and dyspnea on exertion. She was discovered to have a large solitary centrally located PAVM, placing her at high risk of complications if she were to undergo percutaneous transcatheter embolization. She underwent successful surgical resection of her right middle lobe without complications, resulting in subsequent symptomatic improvement. PMID:19399280

  6. Pharmacological characterization of a novel gastrodin derivative as a potential anti-migraine agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping-Han; Zhao, Li-Xue; Wan, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Xiao-Na; Long, Fang-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Chu; Du, Jun-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent neurovascular disorder in the brain. An optimal therapy for migraine has not yet been developed. Gastrodin (Gas), the main effective constitute from Gastrodiae Rhizoma (Tianma in Chinese), has been indicated for migraine treatment and prophylaxis more than 30 years, with demonstrated safety. However, Gas is a phenolic glycoside, with relatively low concentrations and weak efficacy in the central nervous system. To develop more effective anti-migraine agents, we synthesized a novel Gas derivative (Gas-D). In the present study, comparative pharmacodynamic evaluations of Gas and Gas-D were performed in a model of nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine in rats and the hot-plate test in mice. Following behavioral testing in this migraine model, external jugular vein blood and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) were collected to analyze plasma nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations and c-Fos expression in the TNC. The acute oral toxicity of Gas and Gas-D was also examined. We found that Gas-D had potent anti-migraine effects, likely attributable to inhibition of both trigeminal nerve activation at central sites and the peripheral release of CGRP following NO scavenging. Additionally, Gas-D exerted significant anti-nociceptive effect in response to thermal pain compared with Gas. Furthermore, a single dose of 2.048 g/kg Gas or Gas-D presented no acute oral toxicity in mice. Altogether, the potent anti-migraine and anti-hyperalgesic effects of Gas-D suggest that it might be a potentially novel drug candidate for migraine treatment or prophylaxis. PMID:26704993

  7. Acute treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kowey, P R; Marinchak, R A; Rials, S J; Filart, R A

    1998-03-12

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a common clinical entity, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, but it also accounts for a large percentage of healthcare dollar expenditures. Efforts to treat this arrhythmia in the past have focused on subacute antithrombotic therapy and eventually use of antiarrhythmic drugs for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, there has been a growing interest in the concept of acute electrical and pharmacologic conversion. This treatment strategy has a number of benefits, including immediate alleviation of patient symptoms, avoidance of antithrombotic therapy, and prevention of electrophysiologic remodeling, which is thought to contribute to the perpetuation of the arrhythmia. There is also increasing evidence that this is a cost-effective strategy in that it may obviate admission to the hospital and the cost of long-term therapy. This article represents a summary of the treatments that may be used acutely to control the ventricular response to AFib, prevent thromboembolic events, and provide for acute conversion either pharmacologically or electrically. It includes information on modalities that are currently available and those that are under active development. We anticipate that an active, acute treatment approach to AFib and atrial flutter will become the therapeutic norm in the next few years, especially as the benefits of these interventions are demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:9525568

  8. Per cent of patients with chronic migraine who responded per onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle: PREEMPT

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Diener, Hans-Christoph; DeGryse, Ronald E; Lipton, Richard B; Turkel, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The approved use of onabotulinumtoxinA for prophylaxis of headaches in patients with chronic migraine (CM) involves treatment every 12 weeks. It is currently unknown whether patients who fail to respond to the first onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle will respond to subsequent treatment cycles. To help inform decisions about treating non-responders, we examined the probability of treatment cycle 1 non-responders responding in cycle 2, and cycle 1 and 2 non-responders responding in cycle 3. Methods Pooled PREEMPT data (two studies: a 24-week, 2-cycle, double-blind, randomised (1:1), placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase, followed by a 32-week, 3-cycle, open-label phase) evaluated onabotulinumtoxinA (155–195 U) for prophylaxis of headaches in persons with CM (≥15 days/month with headache ≥4 h/day). End points of interest included the proportion of study patients who first achieved a ≥50% reduction in headache days, moderate/severe headache days, total cumulative hours of headache on headache days, or a ≥5-point improvement in Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6. For treatment cycle 1, all eligible participants were included. For subsequent cycles, responders in a previous cycle were no longer considered first responders. Results Among onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients (n=688) 49.3% had a ≥50% reduction in headache-day frequency during treatment cycle 1, with 11.3% and 10.3% of patients first responding during cycles 2 and 3, respectively. 54.2%, 11.6% and 7.4% of patients first responded with a ≥50% reduction in cumulative hours of headache, and 56.3%, 14.5% and 7.7% of patients first responded with a ≥5-point improvement in total HIT-6 during treatment cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusions A meaningful proportion of patients with CM treated with onabotulinumtoxinA who did not respond to the first treatment cycle responded in the second and third cycles of treatment. Trial registration number NCT00156910, NCT00168428. PMID

  9. Lifestyle Factors and Migraine in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Russo, Antonio; Bruno, Antonio; Trojsi, Francesca; Tessitore, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2016-02-01

    Migraine is one of the most common pain symptoms in children. Indeed, a high percentage of adult migraine patients report to have suffered from recurrent headache during the childhood. In particular, children could experience the so-called childhood periodic syndromes (such as cyclic vomiting, abdominal migraine, and benign paroxysmal vertigo) that have been usually considered precursors of migraine or they could develop overt migraine headaches. However, typical cohort of migraine symptoms could be absent and children could not achieve all clinical features necessary for a migraine attack diagnosis according to classification criteria. Nevertheless, migraine is characterized also in childhood by a significant negative impact on the quality of life and a high risk of developing chronic and persistent headache in adulthood. Several studies have emphasized the role of different risk factors for migraine in children. Among these, obesity and overweight, particular food or the regular consumption of alcohol or caffeine, dysfunctional family situation, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school, and insufficient leisure time seem to be strictly related to migraine onset or progression. Consequently, both identification and avoidance of triggers seem to be mandatory in children with migraine and could represent an alternative approach to the treatment of migraine abstaining from pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26757711

  10. Managing Migraine During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Turner, Dana P; Lee, Michelle; Bishop, Laura; Strauss, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    While over half of women with migraine report improvement during pregnancy, having a history of migraine may increase the chance of negative health outcomes. The state of pregnancy increases the risk of several dangerous secondary headache disorders, especially those associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and providers need to know the red flags to diagnose and treat emergently. Non-pharmacological migraine treatments can be instituted in advance of pregnancy as many are considered the safest options during pregnancy, but understanding the safety of medications and dietary supplements ensures appropriate care for the refractory migraine patient. New controversy exists over the safety of several historically routine and safe migraine treatment options in pregnancy, such as magnesium, acetaminophen, ondansetron, and butalbital. While it is not clear if breastfeeding decreases the postpartum recurrence of migraine, understanding safe treatment options during lactation can allow women to continue breastfeeding while achieving migraine relief. PMID:27002079

  11. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  12. [Managing the attacks, preventing headache. Migraine therapy in 2002].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A; Heinze-Kuhn, K

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of every migraine treatment concept is the management of the acute attack with effective medication. Here, the triptans have been progressively replacing the ergot alkaloids with their unsatisfactory relationship between effect and side effects. Prophylactic medication is indicated when, despite every non-pharmaceutic measure, migraine attacks occur on seven or more days in a month. The beta receptor blockers metoprolol and propranolol have so far been considered the substances of first choice, but in practice there is now a trend towards substances with a lower potential for side effects. The article provides an up-to-date overview of the efficacy and tolerability of the various migraine prophylactics. PMID:12070849

  13. [Various aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical picture and treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Veĭn, A M; Vlasov, N A; Golubeva, V V

    1987-01-01

    In a series of 108 patients with migraine the authors studied the characteristics of the emotional-personality sphere and autonomic nervous system, as well as the status of the brain nonspecific systems. The findings of nocturnal electropolygraphy were also used in the study. The efficacy of drugs with antiserotonin action versus multiple modality therapy was compared. The observed disorders in the psychic, autonomic and endocrine systems are interpreted as a consequence of dysfunction of the central integrative cerebral apparatuses. The most effective approaches toward the multiple modality therapy of migraine patients have been developed. PMID:3630504

  14. Decompression–Avulsion of the Auriculotemporal Nerve for Treatment of Migraines and Chronic Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Sanniec, Kyle; Borsting, Emily; Amirlak, Bardia

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Surgical decompression of peripheral branches of the trigeminal and occipital nerves has been shown to alleviate migraine symptoms. Site II surgery involves decompression of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve by the technique developed by Guyuron. Failure of site II surgery may occur secondary to an inability to recognize a second temporal trigger: site V, the auriculotemporal nerve. A direct approach for site V has been used with no clear description in the literature. Herein, we describe a safe and efficient method for auriculotemporal nerve decompression during the Guyuron endoscopic approach. Close attention to all temporal sites is necessary to avoid potential failure of migraine decompression surgery. PMID:27200240

  15. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    PubMed

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. PMID:24112926

  16. [Clinical use of triptans in the management of migraine].

    PubMed

    Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of the triptans (selective serotonin agonists 5HT(1B/1D), with 7 compounds (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan) soon available (5 in France: sumatriptan, naratriptan, eletriptan, zolmitriptan and almotriptan), was a considerable step forward in the acute treatment of migraine. Although randomized clinical studies have demonstrated their significant efficacy, triptans have still to be accepted into the clinical practice of some prescribing practitioners. Rather than attempting to highlight clinically insignificant differences between the triptans, efforts need to be focused on the optimal use of these drugs in clinical practice. This review therefore aims at answering questions related to the efficacy of triptans, recurrence of attacks after use, safety and tolerability, drug interactions and the cost of triptans in clinical use. Triptans are effective and well-tolerated drugs in the acute treatment of migraine attacks, and are the most cost-effective migraine therapy in patients with severe symptoms. Triptans should therefore be considered as first-line therapy in a stratified strategy, ensuring 'right treatment first time' for patients with severe migraine. Moreover, although very few studies have been conducted to date, clinical experience shows that a non-responder to one triptan may well benefit from another triptan, or even the same compound via a different route of administration. PMID:16841523

  17. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Migraine 101 Quiz Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... the facts when it comes to headaches and migraines? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. True/ ...

  18. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  19. Pathophysiological basis of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Francesca; Cupini, Letizia Maria; Corbelli, Ilenia; Calabresi, Paolo; Sarchielli, Paola

    2009-10-01

    Several cellular and molecular mechanisms have been implicated in migraine pathophysiology including abnormal neuronal excitability and vascular events. Drugs from different pharmacological classes are used for migraine prophylaxis. These agents may normalize neuronal excitability by modulating distinct ionic channels and various neurotransmitter systems. They can also block cortical spreading depression, prevent peripheral and/or central pain sensitization, and normalize brainstem function. Most of the drugs recently used in migraine prophylaxis have been identified by serendipidy and they have been originally approved for other indications. Subsequently, their use has been extended to migraine prevention, according to their putative mechanisms of action. More recently, trials on adequate samples of migraine patients have been conducted for several drugs. In the present review, we will present and discuss the pathophysiological bases for the use of antidepressants, beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers and antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention. Currently, the major classes of conventional migraine preventive drugs include the antidepressant amitriptyline, the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, and the antiepileptic drugs topiramate and valproic acid. Promising results have recently been obtained for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Some limited clinical findings have also been reported for atypical antipsychotic agents, nutritional supplements and also botulinum toxin. Targets of migraine preventive treatment are to reduce frequency and intensity of attacks and to decrease disability related to chronic headache. PMID:19654035

  20. [Prophylactic medicines for migraine].

    PubMed

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Tronvik, Erling; Hagen, Knut

    2012-05-15

    Migraine patients with frequent and disabling attacks should be given the opportunity to test prophylactic medicines, and general practitioners should know the indications and the main principles of treatment. When testing a preventative drug, it is important that the patient has realistic expectations, keeps a headache diary, increases the doses gradually, and takes an adequate dose for at least two months before the effect is assessed. Drugs licensed in Norway with adequate scientific documentation for use as migraine prophylactics include some antihypertensives (beta-blockers, candesartan and lisinopril), antiepileptics (topiramate, valproate and gabapentin), an antidepressant (amitriptyline), and botulinum toxin for chronic migraine. In the choice of medicine, one should consider scientific evidence, side effects and contraindications, effect on comorbid conditions, simplicity of use, and price. Patients who are severely affected should try at least three different drugs in succession. PMID:22614308

  1. Dietary and Lifestyle Changes in the Treatment of a 23-Year-Old Female Patient With Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brett R.; Seaman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient with atypical migraine headache. Clinical Features A 23-year-old woman experienced migraines for 3 months. She had no previous history of migraines and was unresponsive to pharmaceutical and musculoskeletal therapies. The migraine headaches could not be classified according to the common categories associated with migraines. She had a change in diet due to severe gastroesophageal reflux causing her to reduce or avoid consuming foods. She also had a history of smoking and alcohol consumption. Intervention and Outcome Dietary and lifestyle changes were recommended in conjunction with the administration of a multivitamin, magnesium oxide, and Ulmus rubra. Her migraine headaches improved with the resolution of her gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Conclusion This patient with atypical migraines and a history of poor dietary and lifestyle choices improved using nutritional changes and supplementing with a multivitamin and magnesium oxide. PMID:26778934

  2. [Prophylactic drug management of migraine].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A

    2003-10-01

    Migraine prophylaxis with drugs is still an essential part of migraine therapy. This is especially true for those patients with frequent migraines who are in danger of developing drug-induced headaches. Migraine prophylaxis should be taken in consideration in patients who suffer from 7 or more migraine days per month in spite of all non-pharmacological efforts. When choosing a prophylactic drug not only efficacy but tolerability and safety for long-term intake should be considered. Prophylactic drugs used to be classified as drugs of first, second and third choice. According to this step care model treatment was started with a drug of first choice and only in case of lack of efficacy or adverse events a drug of lower choice was selected. Today, in contrast to the traditional step care a stratified care is favored. Treatment is individualized based on an assessment of the patients' medical needs, on comorbidity, the migraine phenotype and most importantly the individual situation of the patient in life. The paper gives an overview of the efficacy and tolerability of drugs used in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:14655662

  3. [Prophylactic drug management of migraine].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A

    2002-06-01

    Migraine prophylaxis with drugs is still an essential part of migraine therapy. This is especially true for those patients with frequent migraines who are in danger of developing drug-induced headaches. Migraine prophylaxis should be taken in consideration in patients who suffer from 7 or more migraine days per months in spite of all non-pharmacological efforts. When choosing a prophylactic drug not only efficacy but tolerability and safety for long-term intake should be considered. Prophylactic drugs used to be classified as drugs of first, second and third choice. According to this step care model treatment was started with a drug of first choice and only in case of lack of efficacy or adverse events a drug of lower choice was selected. Today, in contrast to the traditional step care a stratified care is favored. Treatment is individualized based on an assessment of the patients' medical needs, on comorbidity, the migraine phenotype and most important the individual situation of the patient in life. The paper gives an overview of the efficacy and tolerability of drugs used in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:12077682

  4. [Surgical treatment of acute mediastinitis].

    PubMed

    Krüger, M; Decker, S; Schneider, J P; Haverich, A; Schega, O

    2016-06-01

    Despite modern intensive care management, acute mediastinitis is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality (up to approximately 40 %). Effective antibiotic therapy, intensive care management, elimination of the causative sources of infection and drainage of the affected mediastinal compartments are the cornerstones of therapy in a multidisciplinary treatment concept. Early diagnosis, prompt and uncompromising initial therapy and planned computed tomography (CT) control after the first stages of therapy in order to decide on the necessity for surgical re-interventions are essential for achieving optimal results. Knowledge of the specific anatomical characteristics is crucial for the understanding of this disease and its treatment; therefore, the current knowledge on fascial layers and interstitial spaces from the neck to the mediastinum is described and discussed. A possible foudroyant spread of the infection, especially within the posterior mediastinum, has to be anticipated. The approach to the mediastinum depends on the mediastinal compartments affected, on the causative disease and on the patient's clinical situation. The surgical approach should be adapted to the particular clinical situation of the individual patient and to the surgical experience of the surgeon. When in doubt, the more invasive approach to the mediastinum, such as bilateral thoracotomy, is recommended. An ascending mediastinitis due to pancreatitis is a very rare condition; however, as chest pains are often the main clinical sign surgeons should be aware of this differential diagnosis. An intraoperative brown-black serous fluid in the mediastinal tissue is virtually pathognomonic. The treatment results of esophageal perforation as the most frequent cause of mediastinitis have been improved by integration of various interventional procedures. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or immunoglobulin treatment can play an auxiliary role in selected patients with acute mediastinitis. PMID

  5. Survey of Migraine Sufferers with Dogs to Evaluate for Canine Migraine-Alerting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Amrita

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Anecdotal reports suggest that changes in dog behavior might be used to predict impending migraine episodes. This survey was designed to investigate how companion dogs react to migraines that occur in their owners. Design Online survey was available from January 4–31, 2012. Settings/location Survey was conducted through SurveyMonkey, with links to the survey posted at Migraine.com and promoted through social media. Subjects Adults ≥18 years old who experience migraine episodes and live with a dog were eligible to participate. Interventions and outcome measures Participants completed an 18-question online survey that asked about participant demographics, migraines, and their dog's behavior before or during migraine episodes. Results The survey was completed by 1029 adult migraineurs (94.9% women), with migraines typically occurring ≤8 days per month in 63.4% of participants. A recognized change in the dog's behavior prior to or during the initial phase of migraine was endorsed by 552 participants (53.7%), most commonly unusual attentiveness to the owner (39.9%). Among the 466 participants providing details about their dog's behavior with their migraines, 57.3% were able to identify dog alerting behavior before symptoms of a migraine attack would typically begin, with changes usually noticed within 2 hours before the onset of initial migraine symptoms. The dog's behavior was considered to be often or usually linked with the development of a migraine for 59.2% of migraineurs, and 35.8% of migraineurs endorsed beginning migraine treatments after the dog's behavior was recognized and before migraine symptoms had started. Participant demographics, migraine frequency, and breed of dog in the home were similar between the 470 participants with no alerting behavior endorsed and the 466 participants providing detailed alerting information. Conclusions About one in four migraineurs living with a companion dog endorsed recognizing a change in their

  6. The therapeutic armamentarium in migraine is quite elderly.

    PubMed

    Martelletti, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Global Burden of Disease 2010 study considers migraine as one of the most important noncommunicable diseases in the world, classifying it third in terms of global prevalence (14.70%): it sums up the 54.19% of all the years of life lived with disabilities caused by the rest of all neurological disorders. This Editorial provides an historical excursus of old and new-entry molecules in migraine therapeutic area. Drugs for acute treatment such as triptans date back to the early 1990s with the appearance of sumatriptan and the following six triptans in the years immediately after (zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan, eletriptan, almotriptan, frovatriptan). Prophylaxis drugs, dedicated to patients with medium/high frequency of crises, show as last entries topiramate and botulinum toxin type A. The use of this preventative group, with its intrinsic limits, is mandatory to reduce the risk of migraine chronification, a highly harmful clinical phenomenon that produces as its natural consequence the medication overuse headache. The development of new acute and preventative compounds, such as 5HT (serotonin) 1F receptor (5-HT1F) agonist lasmiditan, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) peptide receptor antagonists, anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (LY2951742, ALD403, LBR101) and anti-CGRP-r monoclonal antibody (AMG334), is warranted and might be soon completed in order to offer new opportunities to migraine patients. PMID:25435318

  7. [Suppressing effect of the serotonin 5HT1B/D receptor agonist rizatriptan on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration in migraine attacks].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Adam; Jagustyn, Piotr; Trafny, Elzbieta Anna; Widerkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the neuropeptides most abundant in the nervous tissue. Recent studies indicate that local cranial release of CGRP from the trigeminal nerve perivascular endings within arachnoidea plays an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine attacks and cluster headaches. Elevated CGRP levels in cranial venous blood (in the jugular vein) during an acute spontaneous migraine attack have been reported in rather few studies so far. Sumatriptan--a selective serotonin 5HT1B/D receptor agonist, highly effective in terminating migraine attacks, decreases the elevated CGRP level back to normal. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of rizatriptan (a drug from a new generation of triptans) on CGRP release in migraine attacks. In 45 patients suffering from migraine attacks with and without aura, plasma CGRP levels were assessed during an attack twice: before treatment and two hours after rizatriptan administration. In the group under study the plasma CGRP level before treatment was significantly higher than that measured two hours after rizatriptan administration. The decrease in CGRP levels was associated with subsidence of the migraine attack. There was no difference between migraine patients with and without aura. These results suggest that triptans as serotonin 5HT1B/D receptor agonists decrease CGRP plasma concentration in migraine attacks. PMID:15174248

  8. Early triptan intervention in migraine: an overview.

    PubMed

    Moschiano, F; D'Amico, D; Allais, G; Rigamonti, A; Melzi, P; Schieroni, F; Bussone, G

    2005-05-01

    Although triptans are highly effective for the acute treatment of migraine, sustained pain-free rates--considered the optimal end-point--are in the range of 18%-27% for all triptans in clinical trials. A recently proposed strategy for treating migraine attacks is that triptans should be given early, when the pain is mild, rather than moderate or severe. Studies with different triptans have shown that early intervention can result in higher pain-free rates, together with reductions in rescue medication use and recurrence rates. However these studies suffer from methodological pitfalls: most were retrospective analyses of trials not designed to evaluate the benefit of early intervention; the definition of "early" differed from study to study; and placebo effects were not correctly evaluated. Furthermore, the disadvantages of this strategy in clinical practice, particularly the risk of medication overuse, have not been evaluated. We propose that only patients with particularly severe migraines and in whom attacks are always characterised by rapid progression of pain and other symptoms, should be advised to take a triptan as early as possible. PMID:15926006

  9. Botox Can Be Used for Chronic Migraine, Experts Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158368.html Botox Can Be Used for Chronic Migraine, Experts Say American Academy of Neurology issues new ... is a safe and effective treatment for chronic migraine and three other neurological disorders, an updated guideline ...

  10. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Migraine].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Mild migraine attack can be treated with acetaminophen or NSAIDs either alone or combined with metoclopramide. In severe and devastating attacks triptans should be taken immediately, and not afterwards, when first line NSAIDs have proven ineffektive. No significant differences between triptans can be shown in clinical practice, when recommended doses are used. Opioid analgesics should not be used in the treatment of migraine. The recommended drugs for migraine attacks in children are acetaminophen or ibuprophen. Also intranasal sumatriptan can be used. The first line drugs for prophylactic treatment of migraine are non-ISA betablockers or candesartan and amitriptyline. PMID:26638667

  11. Migraines: What a Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Migraines: What a Pain! KidsHealth > For Kids > Migraines: What ... coming and how to avoid them. What's a Migraine? Almost everyone gets headaches . You might have one ...

  12. [Drugs for migraine prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is a prevalent and disabling neurologic disorder. The aims of migraine management are lifting the burden of migraine and improvement of quality of life (QOL) of the sufferers. Chronification of episodic migraine would introduce refractory chronic migraine or medication overuse headache. The prevention of chronification of migraine is one of the major roles of prophylactic medication. There are some classes of prophylactic drugs against migraine headache. The calcium blocker (lomeridine, verapamil), anti-epileptic drugs (valproate), beta-blockers (propranorol), and anti-depressant (amytriptyline) have high quality evidence in migraine prophylaxis. Migraine has varied cormorbid disorders, such as hypertension, cardiac diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and allergic disorders. Upon choosing preventive drug, neurologists should consider the comorbid disorders. Recent studies revealed possible association of migraine and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in migraine with aura and in young women. Not only headache expert but every neurologist should have broad knowledge concerning migraine management. PMID:23196487

  13. Caffeine and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabling headaches . Home > Caffeine and Migraine Print Email Caffeine and Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Caffeine and Migraine Robert E. Shapiro, MD, PhD and ...

  14. Botulinum toxin: A lift for chronic migraines.

    PubMed

    Sanassi, Lorraine A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic migraines are a common condition among patients seen in primary care and management often is a challenge. Despite existing therapies to help manage this condition, many patients continue to experience undue stress and diminished quality of life secondary to pain. This article briefly reviews treatments for migraine and introduces the role of onabotulinumtoxin A (Botox A) in improving the management of chronic migraines. PMID:27228039

  15. [Improvement of treatment results of acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Sovtsov, S A; Prilepina, E V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigation of treatment results of acute cholecystitis according to suggested forms of cholecystitis by international experts in the research (Tokyo-2007). It was analyzed the immediate treatment results of 1399 patients with acute cholecystitis for the last 4 years in the Chelyabinsk Regional Hospital No3. 912 patients had acute cholecystitis I degree (easy cholecystitis), 270 patients--II (moderate) degree and 217 patients--III degree (severe cholecystitis). It was operated 1281 patients. Operating activity was 91.5%. Postoperative mortality in whole patients group was 0.78%. The authors suggested the main principles such as early, differentiated by the volume operative interventions according to graduations of investigation "Tokyo-2007". Controlled trial of treatment results of patients randomized on three degrees of acute cholecystitis observed appropriateness of allocation of these groups. It is necessary for differentiated treatment and improvement of treatment results of patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:26031820

  16. Migraine prophylaxis: who, why, and how.

    PubMed

    Loj, Jadwiga; Solomon, Glen D

    2006-09-01

    If a patient has frequent, severely debilitating migraine headaches, prophylactic treatment may help. Beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and anticonvulsants have the best evidence of efficacy; calcium channel blockers and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also popular because they are well tolerated and inexpensive. We review migraine treatment with emphasis on prophylaxis. PMID:16970133

  17. Antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention.

    PubMed

    Mathew, N T

    2001-01-01

    Migraineurs may continue to experience attacks, despite daily use of one or more agents from a wide range of drugs, including beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, serotonin antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and antiepileptic agents. Divalproex sodium is the only antiepileptic drug approved for migraine prevention. Gabapentin, topiramate, and other antiepileptic agents are being evaluated for migraine prevention and treatment. Prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex, gabapentin, and topiramate for migraine prevention generally were composed of a prospective baseline period, a dose titration period, and a fixed-dose treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was a reduction in the 28-day frequency of migraine headache. Patients receiving divalproex for 12 weeks at doses up to 1500 mg/day achieved significant decreases in the migraine frequency (P<.05), corresponding to reductions of 30% to 40% compared with baseline. Nearly half of the divalproex-treated patients had a 50% or more reduction from baseline in headache frequencies (P< or =.05). Asthenia, vomiting, somnolence, tremor, and alopecia were common adverse events associated with divalproex. Significant reductions in migraine frequency were also observed with gabapentin (1800 to 2400 mg/day) when compared with placebo (P<.01), and nearly half of all patients treated at the highest dose experienced a reduction in headache rate of 50% or more. Somnolence was the most commonly reported adverse event among the gabapentin-treated patients. Two single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluated topiramate for migraine prevention. A lower 28-day migraine frequency was seen during 18 weeks of administration at a maximum daily dose of 200 mg (P =.09). In a second study, a significantly lower mean 28-day migraine frequency was observed during 16 weeks of treatment with topiramate (P =.0015). Mean reduction in migraine

  18. Newer formulations of the triptans: advances in migraine management.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Jonathan Paul; Gawel, Marek

    2003-01-01

    as 15 minutes post administration. The ability to administer treatment early in a migraine attack and have a rapid onset of action is particularly important in acute migraine treatment in order to prevent the development of central sensitisation. While many patients and physicians choose conventional oral tablets because of familiarity and ease of administration, the newer formulations, oral disintegrating tablets and intranasal sprays, should be given consideration as first-line agents in selected patients. PMID:14524731

  19. [Thrombolytic treatment of acute stroke].

    PubMed

    Amiri, H; Hacke, W; Bösel, J

    2011-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is a medical emergency and must be treated as quickly as possible according to the "time-is-brain" concept. At present, intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within the first 4.5 h from stroke onset is the only effective treatment but is currently still only approved within the first 3 h from onset of symptoms (0.9 mg/kg body weight, maximum dose 90 mg, 10% of the cumulative dose as bolus, remaining 90% subsequently infused within 60 min). The therapeutic effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based thrombolytic therapy beyond the 4.5 h time window remains to be proven. Proximal occlusions of the middle cerebral artery can be treated successfully within the first 6 h from stroke onset by catheter-based intra-arterial administration of plasminogen activator leading to a significant improvement of outcome. Acute basilar artery occlusion should be treated in specialized centres using intra-arterial application of urokinase, rt-PA or mechanical recanalization but intravenous thrombolysis beyond the 3 h window is an acceptable alternative. PMID:21922224

  20. A Practical Approach to Migraine Management

    PubMed Central

    Edmeads, John

    1983-01-01

    Migraine is a benign constitutional disorder of neurovascular function characterized by recurrent headaches and autonomic and/or CNS symptoms. The diagnosis is made entirely on clinical grounds, and should not be difficult. The sequence of treatment is removal of migraine trigger factors, analgesic compounds, ergotamine, and migraine prophylactic agents. Providing that their specific contraindications are observed, and their side-effects mitigated by commonsense measures, these agents are safe and effective. A correct combination should result in improvement for most patients with migraine. Imagesp125-a PMID:21286588

  1. Is SOD2 Ala16Val Polymorphism Associated with Migraine with Aura Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Barbanti, Piero; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Egeo, Gabriella; Aurilia, Cinzia; Fofi, Luisa; Ialongo, Cristiano; Valente, Maria Giovanna; Ferroni, Patrizia; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several studies suggest a role of oxidative stress in the physiopathology of migraine, particularly in the form with aura. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between migraine and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) genes in a cohort of 490 consecutive unrelated Caucasian migraineurs (migraine with aura [MwA], n=107; migraine without aura [MwoA], n=246; chronic migraine [CM], n=137) and 246 healthy controls recruited at our Headache and Pain Unit and stored in the Interinstitutional Multidisciplinary BioBank (BioBIM). Migraine phenotype was carefully detailed using face-to-face interviews. We examined polymorphisms of SOD1 gene (A/C substitution—rs2234694) and SOD2 gene (C/T transition—rs4880—Ala16Val). The rs4880 TT (Val/Val) genotype was associated (p=0.042) with the presence of unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms (UAs) in MwA patients. We also found a mild correlation between SOD2 rs4880 genotype and the type of acute migraine treatment (p=0.048) in MwA patients. Our findings suggest that SOD2 is a disease-modifier gene influencing oxidative mechanisms in MwA. These observations lead to the hypothesis that SOD2 polymorphism may cause a defective control of the oxidative phenomena linked to cortical spreading depression, the neurophysiological hallmark of migraine aura, causing an overstimulation of trigeminal neurons and UAs triggering. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 275–279. PMID:25295643

  2. Sumatriptan/Naproxen Sodium: A Review in Migraine.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yahiya Y

    2016-01-01

    Sumatriptan/naproxen sodium (Treximet®) is a fixed-dose combination of a serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist (sumatriptan) and an NSAID (naproxen sodium), approved in the USA for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adolescents and adults. In a randomized, phase 3 trial in adolescents, significantly more sumatriptan/naproxen sodium than placebo recipients were pain-free at 2 h. Similarly, in a pair of randomized phase 3 trials in adults, significantly more sumatriptan/naproxen sodium than placebo recipients had relief from migraine symptoms at 2 h, and the combination was more effective than individual components in terms of sustained (2-24 h) pain-free response rate. Sumatriptan/naproxen sodium was generally well tolerated, with ≤11 % of adolescents and ≤22 % of adults reporting treatment-related adverse events in the key clinical trials. The most common adverse reactions were nasopharyngitis, hot flushes and muscle tightness in adolescents, and dizziness, pain or pressure sensations, nausea, somnolence, dry mouth, dyspepsia and paraesthesia in adults. Based on current data, sumatriptan/naproxen sodium is a useful option for the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents and adults. The fixed-dose combination may reduce pill burden and improve adherence in some patients. PMID:26628293

  3. Comparison of the effects of dietary factors in the management and prophylaxis of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Zencirci, Beyazit

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is defined as a disorder characterized by intermittent headache episodes, accompanied with nausea, photophobia and/or phonophobia. Pharmacological therapy is in accordance with the severity of pain and may include acute, prophylactic and most commonly both approaches. The aim of the acute therapy is stopping or alleviating the attack or progression of the pain and, in case of a migraine attack that has started, lessening the pain. Preventive therapy aims to reduce attack frequency and severity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors in the management and prophylaxis of migraine in cases diagnosed as having migraine disorder according to the 2003-IHS criteria. Fifty consecutive Turkish patients (13 men, 37 women) with diagnosis of migraine were randomly divided into two groups for treatment protocols with the written approval of the ethics committee. The cases in the first group (K) were treated with metoprolol, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), and naproxen sodium just at the aura or at the beginning of the attacks. The cases in the second group (D) were also supplied with a comprehensive dietary list arranged by our algology clinic in addition to the same medication protocol. There were no demographic differences between the cases (P > 0.05). VAS scores were lower in group D than group K (P < 0.01), and also the migraine attack frequencies and monthly amounts of analgesic consumed amounts were also statistically significantly less. It was concluded that beta-blocker and riboflavin therapy supplemented with a convenient diet with appropriate alternatives in patients with migraine disorder was associated with statistically significant decreases in headache frequency, intensity, duration and medication intake. PMID:21197315

  4. Serotonin and CGRP in migraine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Milan; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2012-04-01

    Migraine is defined as recurrent attack of headache that are commonly unilateral and accompanied by gastrointestinal and visual disorders. Migraine is more prevalent in females than males with a ratio of 3:1. It is primarily a complex neurovascular disorder involving local vasodilation of intracranial, extracerebral blood vessels and simultaneous stimulation of surrounding trigeminal sensory nervous pain pathway that results in headache. The activation of 'trigeminovascular system' causes release of various vasodilators, especially calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that induces pain response. At the same time, decreased levels of neurotransmitter, serotonin have been observed in migraineurs. Serotonin receptors have been found on the trigeminal nerve and cranial vessels and their agonists especially triptans prove effective in migraine treatment. It has been found that triptans act on trigeminovascular system and bring the elevated serum levels of key molecules like calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) to normal. Currently CGRP receptor antagonists, olcegepant and telcagepant are under consideration for antimigraine therapeutics. It has been observed that varying levels of ovarian hormones especially estrogen influence serotonin neurotransmission system and CGRP levels making women more predisposed to migraine attacks. This review provides comprehensive information about the role of serotonin and CGRP in migraine, specifically the menstrual migraine. PMID:25205974

  5. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... begins with a visual disturbance called an aura (spots, dots or even zig zag lines). * True/False: All migraines involve only one side of the head. True/False: There is a cure for migraine headaches. Dietary triggers for migraines include: Chocolate Cheese Food additives such as MSG Alcohol A, B, ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  7. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  8. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  10. Early vs. non-early intervention in acute migraine-'Act when Mild (AwM)'. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan.

    PubMed

    Goadsby, P J; Zanchin, G; Geraud, G; de Klippel, N; Diaz-Insa, S; Gobel, H; Cunha, L; Ivanoff, N; Falques, M; Fortea, J

    2008-04-01

    The study was designed to compare the response to almotriptan in migraine patients who take medication early in the course of the attack with that when medication is taken after pain has become moderate or severe. A randomized, four-arm, multicentre, multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of almotriptan (12.5 mg) comparing treatment administration when pain intensity was mild and within 1 h of headache onset vs. pain that had become moderate or severe was conducted. Of 491 migraineurs enrolled, 403 were evaluable [intention-to-treat population (ITT)]. Their mean age was 38 years, 84% were female and they had a mean of 3.7 attacks/month. Of these patients, 10% did not take medication according to their randomly allocated basal pain intensity (mild or moderate/severe) and were subsequently reassigned to that group for this analysis-'Act when Mild (AwM)' group. In the almotriptan arms, 53% of mild basal pain and 38% of moderate/severe basal pain patients were pain free at 2 h (P = 0.03; primary end-point). Corresponding proportions in the placebo groups were 25% and 17% (statistically significant vs. respective almotriptan arms). Secondary end-points (ITT) were also significantly in favour of early intervention with almotriptan, both between and across treatment groups, such as sustained pain free: 45.6% vs. 30.5% (P = 0.02). Adverse events were reported in < 5% of treated patients in all groups (NS), with no serious events. Treatment with almotriptan while migraine pain is still mild provides statistically significant and clinically relevant enhancements in efficacy compared with treatment when pain has reached higher severity levels. PMID:18294251

  11. Open Treatment of Acute Scapholunate Instability.

    PubMed

    Swanstrom, Morgan M; Lee, Steve K

    2015-08-01

    Acute treatment of scapholunate instability is important to prevent future complications of dorsal intercalated segment instability and scapholunate advanced collapse. An understanding of the fundamental normal and abnormal mechanics of this problem is vital. Diagnosis in the acute phase is based on clinical and radiographic findings and treatment focuses on primary scapholunate interosseous ligament repair with a reinforcing dorsal capsulodesis. Suture anchor repair with a modified "double-dorsal" capsulodesis is described. Current data show that open repair is a viable option in the acute setting with most patients demonstrating good to excellent functional, clinical, and radiographic results. PMID:26205704

  12. Hypoxia facilitates neurogenic dural plasma protein extravasation in mice: a novel animal model for migraine pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hunfeld, Anika; Segelcke, Daniel; Bäcker, Ingo; Mecheri, Badreddine; Hemmer, Kathrin; Dlugosch, Elisabeth; Andriske, Michael; Paris, Frank; Zhu, Xinran; Lübbert, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Migraine animal models generally mimic the onset of attacks and acute treatment processes. A guinea pig model used the application of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) to trigger immediate dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) mediated by 5-HT2B receptors. This model has predictive value for antimigraine drugs but cannot explain the delayed onset of efficacy of 5-HT2B receptor antagonists when clinically used for migraine prophylaxis. We found that mCPP failed to induce dural PPE in mice. Considering the role 5-HT2B receptors play in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vessel muscularization, we were encouraged to keep mice under hypoxic conditions and tested whether this treatment will render them susceptible to mCPP-induced dural PPE. Following four-week of hypoxia, PPE, associated with increased transendothelial transport, was induced by mCPP. The effect was blocked by sumatriptan. Chronic application of 5-HT2B receptor or nitric oxide synthase blockers during hypoxia prevented the development of susceptibility. Here we present a migraine model that distinguishes between a migraine-like state (hypoxic mice) and normal, normoxic mice and mimics processes that are related to chronic activation of 5-HT2B receptors under hypoxia. It seems striking, that chronic endogenous activation of 5-HT2B receptors is crucial for the sensitization since 5-HT2B receptor antagonists have strong, albeit delayed migraine prophylactic efficacy. PMID:26644235

  13. Insights Into the Mechanism of OnabotulinumtoxinA in Chronic Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Paul L.; Cady, Roger

    2012-01-01

    OnabotulinumtoxinA has recently been approved by regulatory agencies in the UK and United States for treatment of chronic migraine based on data generated from the PREEMPT studies. As such, onabotulinumtoxinA is the only prophylactic therapy specifically approved for chronic migraine. Most headache clinicians would agree that acute episodic migraine and chronic migraine differ in their pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and response to pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological therapies. Of the 7 botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, botulinum neurotoxin type A (onabotulinumtoxinA) has been the most thoroughly investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. Based on preclinical studies, onabotulinumtoxinA is known to inhibit the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from both motor and sensory neurons by preventing vesicle fusion to the cell membrane. In addition to the well-documented myorelaxant effects of this neurotoxin, onabotulinumtoxinA can exert a direct analgesic effect that likely involves inhibition of primary and secondary nociceptive neurons. The inhibitory effects of onabotulinumtoxinA are also likely to involve suppressing the activity of myogenic trigger points and decreasing the persistent nociceptive barrage that promotes and maintains central sensitization. This article describes possible mechanisms to explain how onabotulinumtoxinA functions as a therapy for chronic migraine and considers why treatment with the neurotoxin is not effective in some chronic migraineurs. PMID:22082429

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and potential cortical and trigeminothalamic mechanisms in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Anna P.; Holland, Philip R.; Akerman, Simon; Summ, Oliver; Fredrick, Joe

    2016-01-01

    A single pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to be effective for the acute treatment of migraine with and without aura. Here we aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation, using a transcortical approach, in preclinical migraine models. We tested the susceptibility of cortical spreading depression, the experimental correlate of migraine aura, and further evaluated the response of spontaneous and evoked trigeminovascular activity of second order trigemontothalamic and third order thalamocortical neurons in rats. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly inhibited both mechanical and chemically-induced cortical spreading depression when administered immediately post-induction in rats, but not when administered preinduction, and when controlled by a sham stimulation. Additionally transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly inhibited the spontaneous and evoked firing rate of third order thalamocortical projection neurons, but not second order neurons in the trigeminocervical complex, suggesting a potential modulatory effect that may underlie its utility in migraine. In gyrencephalic cat cortices, when administered post-cortical spreading depression, transcranial magnetic stimulation blocked the propagation of cortical spreading depression in two of eight animals. These results are the first to demonstrate that cortical spreading depression can be blocked in vivo using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and further highlight a novel thalamocortical modulatory capacity that may explain the efficacy of magnetic stimulation in the treatment of migraine with and without aura. PMID:27246325

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and potential cortical and trigeminothalamic mechanisms in migraine.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Anna P; Holland, Philip R; Akerman, Simon; Summ, Oliver; Fredrick, Joe; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    A single pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to be effective for the acute treatment of migraine with and without aura. Here we aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation, using a transcortical approach, in preclinical migraine models. We tested the susceptibility of cortical spreading depression, the experimental correlate of migraine aura, and further evaluated the response of spontaneous and evoked trigeminovascular activity of second order trigemontothalamic and third order thalamocortical neurons in rats. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly inhibited both mechanical and chemically-induced cortical spreading depression when administered immediately post-induction in rats, but not when administered preinduction, and when controlled by a sham stimulation. Additionally transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly inhibited the spontaneous and evoked firing rate of third order thalamocortical projection neurons, but not second order neurons in the trigeminocervical complex, suggesting a potential modulatory effect that may underlie its utility in migraine. In gyrencephalic cat cortices, when administered post-cortical spreading depression, transcranial magnetic stimulation blocked the propagation of cortical spreading depression in two of eight animals. These results are the first to demonstrate that cortical spreading depression can be blocked in vivo using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and further highlight a novel thalamocortical modulatory capacity that may explain the efficacy of magnetic stimulation in the treatment of migraine with and without aura. PMID:27246325

  16. Acupuncture Treatment for Acute Ankle Injury in the Emergency Department: A Preliminary Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tantivesruangdet, Nopmanee

    2016-02-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient medical treatment that is increasingly attracting the interest of the public. It is a complementary therapy that is widely used for management of pain, especially chronic discomfort caused by migraine, low-back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee(¹⁻³). The evidence base for the effectiveness of acupuncture and its clinical applications is controversial, and although its efficacy and safety in the management of acute pain have been demonstrated, the quality of this modality is still questionable. The present study reports a case of acute ankle injury, which was treated with acupuncture. A 33-year-old man presented with acute twisted ankle injury. He had pain with swelling around the ankle, and he was experiencing difficulty in walking. His clinical diagnosis was acute ankle sprain with severe pain. Several drug treatments are used for pain control, but in this case, we used acupuncture. After treatment, his pain diminished significantly with a decrease in VAS pain level from 8 to 4 in 20 minutes. At follow-up after one month, we found no skin infection in this case. PMID:27266242

  17. [The physiopathology of migraine].

    PubMed

    Allain, H; Schück, S; Mauduit, N; Saïag, B; Pinel, J F; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    2000-09-01

    Although the neurobiological causative factors are now beginning to be understood, to a large extent the complex mechanisms involved in migraine remain an enigma, with the appearance of a transient unilateral cephalic pain, possibly preceded by a protean aura and associated with several other symptoms. The factors involved include three clinical signs or symptoms, i.e., pain, the aura (focalized neurological and neurosensory signs), and accompanying symptoms (e.g., sensory, psychological, or digestive); and three anatomical sites, i.e., the brain, the meningeal or intracranial vessel and a peripheral cranial nerve, the trigeminus (V). Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) has led to a consideration of the genetic origin of ionic channel-dependent pathologies (channelopathies), while certain other arguments which are for the most part indirect favor the hypothesis of abnormalities, again possibly of genetic origin, in the central neurotransmitters (including serotonin), which are involved in the transmission of pain messages and in vasomotor control. However, the main point is that each of the sites involved has its specific pharmacopoeia, which can contribute towards the treatment of migraine. PMID:11072639

  18. Migraine with isolated facial pain: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Obermann, M; Mueller, D; Yoon, M-S; Pageler, L; Diener, Hc; Katsarava, Z

    2007-11-01

    We present a series of seven migraine patients with typical features of a migraine attack without aura, but atypical pain localization in the face in one or both of the lower two distributions of the trigeminal nerve (V2 and V3). All of them responded well to triptans. Three patients responded to preventive treatment for migraine with beta-blockers (n = 2) or valproic acid (n = 1). These cases underline the heterogenic clinical presentation of migraine, which is sometimes difficult to diagnose even for headache specialists, and broaden the pathophysiological understanding of trigeminal nociceptive processing in migraine in the light of neuronal plasticity. PMID:17850354

  19. Treatment of acute lower limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Lukasiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-05-01

    Acute lower limb ischaemia poses a major threat to limb survival. For many years surgical thromboembolectomy was the mainstay of treatment. Recent years have brought an endovascular revolution in the management of acute lower limb ischaemia. A wide range of endovascular procedures can nowadays be employed, providing results at least as good as the traditional surgical approach. This paper is an overview of currently utilised endovascular options as well as recent modifications of standard surgical techniques. PMID:27129066

  20. BGC20-1531, a novel, potent and selective prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonist: a putative new treatment for migraine headache

    PubMed Central

    Maubach, KA; Davis, RJ; Clark, DE; Fenton, G; Lockey, PM; Clark, KL; Oxford, AW; Hagan, RM; Routledge, C; Coleman, RA

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of migraine since EP4 receptors have been shown to be involved in prostaglandin (PG)E2-induced cerebral vascular dilatation, which may be an important contributor to migraine pain. This study reports the pharmacological characterization of BGC20-1531, a novel EP4 receptor antagonist. Experimental approach: BGC20-1531 was characterized in radioligand binding and in vitro functional assays employing recombinant and native EP4 receptors. Changes in canine carotid haemodynamics were used to assess the pharmacodynamic profile of BGC20-1531 in vivo. Key results: BGC20-1531 exhibited high affinity at recombinant human EP4 receptors expressed in cell lines (pKB 7.6) and native EP4 receptors in human cerebral and meningeal artery (pKB 7.6–7.8) but showed no appreciable affinity at a wide range of other receptors (including other prostanoid receptors), channels, transporters and enzymes (pKi < 5). BGC20-1531 competitively antagonized PGE2-induced vasodilatation of human middle cerebral (pKB 7.8) and meningeal (pKB 7.6) arteries in vitro, but had no effect on responses induced by PGE2 on coronary, pulmonary or renal arteries in vitro. BGC20-1531 (1–10 mg·kg−1 i.v.) caused a dose-dependent antagonism of the PGE2-induced increase in canine carotid blood flow in vivo. Conclusions and implications: BGC20-1531 is a potent and selective antagonist at EP4 receptors in vitro and in vivo, with the potential to alleviate the symptoms of migraine that result from cerebral vasodilatation. BGC20-1531 is currently in clinical development for the treatment of migraine headache. PMID:19154437

  1. [Chronic migraine: its epidemiology and impact].

    PubMed

    Pozo-Rosich, Patricia

    2012-04-10

    Chronic migraine (that is to say, cases where migraine is suffered on 15 or more days per month) is an illness that affects approximately 0.5-2.5% of the population, depending on the statistics that are analysed and the definition of chronic migraine used. The incidence of transformation from episodic to chronic migraine is 3% per year, and 6% go from low-frequency (1-9 days/month) to high-frequency migraine (10-14 days/month). The risk factors for developing chronic migraine are genetic, frequent use of painkillers, being female, having poor hygienic-dietary habits, developing anxiety/depression, having a low socioeconomic status, suffering from obesity and being divorced or widowed. Despite the modification of the risk factors, it has still not been proved that the chances of developing chronic migraine can be lowered. Chronic migraine has an important impact on patients' quality of life, as measured on disability, quality of life and impact on daily activities scales. These patients have twice the chance of suffering from depression, anxiety and chronic pain, which means they therefore need greater health care. Many have still to be diagnosed and treated, however. In a Spanish epidemiological study, a follow-up was carried out on patients with chronic daily headache after undergoing a therapeutic intervention and up to 60% of the patients showed improvement. In other words, with increased interest and diagnosis of this illness, many patients would benefit from suitable treatments. PMID:22532240

  2. Fifty years of migraine research.

    PubMed

    Lance, J W

    1988-05-01

    The prevalence of ice-pick pains and ice-cream headache in migrainous patients and their localisation to the habitual site of migraine headache, suggest that segments of the central pain pathways remain hyperexcitable between spontaneous attacks. Excessive afferent stimulation (flashing lights, noise, strong perfumes) or hypothalamic changes resulting from emotion, stress or the operation of some internal clock may set in motion brainstem mechanisms, including spontaneous unilateral or bilateral discharge of pain pathways. Studies in the experimental animal have shown that certain monoaminergic brainstem nuclei can influence the cerebral circulation unilaterally and that they and the trigeminal system can induce a reflex dilatation of the external carotid circulation. Descending pathways from the same brainstem nuclei cause the adrenal gland to secrete noradrenaline, which in turn can release serotonin from blood platelets. Free serotonin may become adsorbed to the arterial wall, thus increasing sensitivity to pain, augmenting afferent input and adding a pulsating quality to migrainous pain. Both neural and vascular components of migraine implicate monoamines, specifically noradrenaline and serotonin, as neurotransmitters and humoral agents. The recent pharmacological classification of serotonin (5HT) receptors indicates that agonists of a subset of the 5HT1 receptor and antagonists of 5HT2 receptors are most likely to be helpful in the treatment of migraine. PMID:3056372

  3. Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zerna, Charlotte; Hegedus, Janka; Hill, Michael D

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this article is to review advances in stroke treatment in the hyperacute period. With recent evolutions of technology in the fields of imaging, thrombectomy devices, and emergency room workflow management, as well as improvement in statistical methods and study design, there have been ground breaking changes in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. We describe how stroke presents as a clinical syndrome and how imaging as the most important biomarker will help differentiate between stroke subtypes and treatment eligibility. The evolution of hyperacute treatment has led to the current standard of care: intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator and endovascular treatment for proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation. All patients with acute ischemic stroke are in need of hyperacute secondary prevention because the risk of recurrence is highest closest to the index event. The dominant themes of modern stroke care are the use of neurovascular imaging and speed of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27126651

  4. Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Heidi M.; Kraig, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro using spreading depression (SD), as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets for episodic and chronic migraine. SD is the likely cause of migraine aura and migraine pain. It is a paroxysmal loss of neuronal function triggered by initially increased neuronal activity, which slowly propagates within susceptible brain regions. Normal brain function is exquisitely sensitive to, and relies on, coincident low-level immune signaling. Thus, neural immune signaling likely affects electrical activity of SD, and therefore migraine. Pain perception studies of SD in whole animals are fraught with difficulties, but whole animals are well suited to examine systems biology aspects of migraine since SD activates trigeminal nociceptive pathways. However, whole animal studies alone cannot be used to decipher the cellular and neural circuit mechanisms of SD. Instead, in vitro preparations where environmental conditions can be controlled are necessary. Here, it is important to recognize limitations of acute slices and distinct advantages of hippocampal slice cultures. Acute brain slices cannot reveal subtle changes in immune signaling since preparing the slices alone triggers: pro-inflammatory changes that last days, epileptiform behavior due to high levels of oxygen tension needed to vitalize the slices, and irreversible cell injury at anoxic slice centers. In contrast, we examine immune signaling in mature hippocampal slice cultures since the cultures closely parallel their in vivo counterpart with mature trisynaptic function; show quiescent astrocytes, microglia, and cytokine levels; and SD is easily induced in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, the slices are long-lived and SD can be induced on consecutive days without injury, making this preparation the

  5. Long-term treatment of chronic migraine with OnabotulinumtoxinA: efficacy, quality of life and tolerability in a real-life setting.

    PubMed

    Kollewe, Katja; Escher, Claus M; Wulff, Dirk U; Fathi, Davood; Paracka, Lejla; Mohammadi, Bahram; Karst, Matthias; Dressler, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Botulinum toxin was shown to be effective in treatment of chronic migraine. We wanted to explore its efficacy and tolerability in chronic application under real-life conditions. For this, 27 consecutive patients (age 45.6 ± 10.8 years, 25 females, 2 males) received altogether 176 injection series (IS) with 189.7 ± 45.8MU onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) according to the PREEMPT scheme. During the study period altogether 6.5 ± 2.9 (min 4, max 13) IS were applied per patient (total treatment time of 73.1 ± 36.9 weeks). 96 % of the patients reported benefit. Monthly headache days were reduced from 18.9 ± 3.9 to 8.7 ± 4.5 (p < 0.001, -53.7 %), migraine days from 16.8 ± 4.9 to 7.4 ± 4.6 (p < 0.001, -55.1 %), autonomic days from 8.6 ± 7.5 to 2.7 ± 4.2 (p < 0.001, -71.9 %) and medication days from 14.2 ± 4.6 to 8.3 ± 4.2 (p < 0.001, -71.1 %). Health-related quality of life improved by 0.6-1.5 standard deviations (SD) (Short Form Health Survey), migraine-related quality of life by 1.4-2.0 SD (Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire) and by 1.9 SD (Headache Impact Test), depression by 1.1 SD (Beck Depression Inventory). Subjective global clinical improvement was 2.6 ± 0.6 (Global Clinical Improvement Scale). All improvements were stable throughout the entire study period. Adverse effects were infrequent, mild and transient. Botulinum toxin provides highly effective and safe long-term treatment of chronic migraine. PMID:27032774

  6. Cyclical migraine.

    PubMed

    Medina, J L; Diamond, S

    1981-06-01

    We have observed 27 migraineurs whose headaches occurred in groups separated by headache-free periods. Twenty-one of the patients were women. The headaches occurred on either side in most patients. The headaches were severe lasting for an average of 25.5 hours, often preceded by scintillating scotomas, and often associated with nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. The attacks occurred in cycles that lasted an average of six weeks. The cycles recurred an average of five times per year; during the cycles, severe migraine occurred several times per week. In many patients, the cycles were often accompanied by a constant, low-grade headaches and depression. Twenty-two patients were treated with lithium carbonate. Complete or partial control of the headaches was achieved in 19 patients. PMID:6786269

  7. Ergotamine-induced acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Pakfetrat, Maryam; Rasekhi, Akbar; Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Nahid; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Torabineghad, Simin; Malekmakan, Leila

    2013-09-01

    Ergotamine has been used for the treatment of migraine for many years, and its use in adults is considered to be safe and effective. In this report, we present a 22-year-old female patient, a known case of migraine, who was on ergotamine tartrate and presented with hypertension and renal failure. Renal biopsy indicated features of acute tubulo-interstitital nephritis. PMID:24029265

  8. Hypertension as a risk factor for migraine chronification.

    PubMed

    Barbanti, P; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G; Fofi, L

    2010-06-01

    Progression of episodic migraine to chronic migraine may be related to comorbid medical conditions. In this study, we focused on the role played by arterial hypertension in migraine transformation. Several studies reveal that hypertension is associated with chronic migraine and may induce migraine chronification. Hypertension probably amplifies the effects of migraine on the vascular wall further enhancing the endothelial dysfunction in cerebral vasculature. Consequently, monitoring of blood pressure is recommended in migraineurs showing an otherwise unexplained increase in attack frequency. Studies are needed to verify if prophylactic treatment with drugs improving endothelial function (e.g. calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, calcium inhibitors, ACE inhibitors and sartans) may selectively ameliorate the course of migraine in these patients. PMID:20464581

  9. Migraine Variants in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... it difficult to distinguish anorexia from nausea. The history and physical examination will not show signs of ...

  10. Topiramate for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    About 14% of adults in the UK have migraines. Drugs used in migraine prophylaxis include beta-blockers (e.g. propranolol), 5HT antagonists (e.g. pizotifen), antidepressants (e.g. amitriptyline), antiepileptics (e.g. sodium valproate) and NSAIDs. The antiepileptic topiramate (Topamax-Janssen-Cilag) is licensed for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in patients aged over 16 years. Here we discuss the place of topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:16903488

  11. EEG synchronization and migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.

  12. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF AN ACUTE MESENTERIAL ISCHEMIA].

    PubMed

    Shepehtko, E N; Garmash, D A; Kurbanov, A K; Marchenko, V O; Kozak, Yu S

    2016-04-01

    Experience of surgical treatment of 143 patients, suffering an acute mesenterial ischemia, was summarized. Isolated intestinal resection was performed in 41 patients (lethality 65.9%), intestinal resection with the mesenterial vessels thrombembolectomy--in 9 (lethality 33.3%). After performance of the combined intervention postoperative lethality was in two times lower, than after isolated intestinal resection. PMID:27434952

  13. The efficacy of triptans in childhood and adolescence migraine.

    PubMed

    Evers, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Studies on the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents are rare and difficult to design. In particular, the high placebo response in some trials makes it difficult to prove efficacy of a verum drug. All available placebo-controlled trials on the acute migraine treatment in children and adolescents with a triptan were analyzed with respect to different end points (rate of pain free and pain relief at 2 hours; rate of adverse events). We identified 6 crossover and 11 parallel group trials. Although the trials were heterogenous with respect to the triptans and the dosage, pooled data were calculated. The pooled responder rate of triptans for 2 hours pain free was 36.0 % in crossover trials (significant difference to placebo with 17.7 %) and 32.5 % in parallel group trials (significant difference to placebo with 26.3 %). Triptans also showed a significantly higher pain relief rate at 2 hours than placebo both in crossover and parallel group trials. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher after triptans than after placebo. However, triptans were well tolerated in all trials. At least 1 trial with significant efficacy was found for sumatriptan (10-20 mg nasal spray), zolmitriptan (2.5-5 mg tablet), rizatriptan (5-10 mg tablet), and almotriptan (12.5-25 mg tablet). Placebo rates for efficacy were considerably lower in crossover trials than in parallel group trials. This analysis suggests that parallel group trials on the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents with a triptan show a very low therapeutic gain because of a high placebo rate. The verum response rates, however, are very similar to those seen in adulthood trials. However, there is sufficient evidence that at least some triptans are efficacious even in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23709234

  14. Radioimmunotherapy for Treatment of Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Eugène, Thomas; Guérard, François; Gaschet, Joëlle; Bailly, Clément; Mougin, Marie; Bourgeois, Mickaël; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-03-01

    Acute leukemias are characterized by accumulation of immature cells (blasts) and reduced production of healthy hematopoietic elements. According to the lineage origin, two major leukemias can be distinguished: acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Although the survival rate for pediatric ALL is close to 90%, half of the young adults with AML or ALL and approximately 90% of older patients with AML or ALL still die of their disease, raising the need for innovative therapeutic approaches. As almost all leukemic blasts express specific surface antigens, targeted immunotherapy appears to be particularly promising. However, published results of immunotherapy alone are generally modest. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) brings additional therapeutic mechanisms using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to tumor antigens, thus adding radiobiological cytotoxicity to immunologic cytotoxicity. Because of the high radiosensitivity of tumor cells and the diffuse widespread nature of the disease, making it rapidly accessible to circulating radiolabeled mAbs, acute leukemias represent relevant indications for RIT. With the development of recombinant and humanized mAbs, innovative radionuclides, and more efficient radiolabeling and pretargeting techniques, RIT has significantly improved over the last 10 years. Different approaches of α and β RIT targeting CD22, CD33, CD45, or CD66 antigens have already been evaluated or are currently being developed in the treatment of acute leukemia. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating the potential of RIT in treatment of AML and ALL. PMID:26897718

  15. Corticosteroids in the treatment of acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alangari, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a prevalent chronic disease of the respiratory system and acute asthma exacerbations are among the most common causes of presentation to the emergency department (ED) and admission to hospital particularly in children. Bronchial airways inflammation is the most prominent pathological feature of asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), through their anti-inflammatory effects have been the mainstay of treatment of asthma for many years. Systemic and ICS are also used in the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations. Several international asthma management guidelines recommend the use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of moderate to severe acute asthma early upon presentation to the ED. On the other hand, ICS use in the management acute asthma has been studied in different contexts with encouraging results in some and negative in others. This review sheds some light on the role of systemic and ICS in the management of acute asthma and discusses the current evidence behind their different ways of application particularly in relation to new developments in the field. PMID:25276236

  16. Bowenwork for Migraine Relief: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Migraine is a complex neurological disorder characterized by episodic, neurogenic, cerebrovascular inflammation and hypersensitization of brain tissues and the central nervous system, causing severe pain and debility. Research literature points mostly to pharmaceutical prophylactic and symptomatic treatments, nonpharmaceutical, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, acupuncture, massage and bodywork studies, and none has been published on Bowenwork for migraine intervention. This prospective case report describes one migraineur’s response to Bowenwork (a soft-tissue bodywork technique) with cessation of migraine, neck pain, and analgesic consumption, and improved well-being and activity function. Methods The client received 14 Bowenwork sessions over a four-month period using the self-reporting Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile version 2 (MYMOP2) to evaluate clinically meaningful changes. Baseline MYMOP2 data were recorded prior to the first and subsequent Bowenwork sessions to track changes in migraine and neck pain occurrences, other symptoms, medication use, functional ability and sense of well-being. Specific Bowenwork procedures were applied in each session to address various symptoms. The client did not receive other migraine treatment during this study. Participant A 66-year-old Caucasian female with a history of debilitating migraine since childhood, and severe neck pain and jaw injuries resulting from two motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) sustained as an adult. She had previously sought medical, pharmaceutical and CAM treatments for migraine, neck pain, and right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) symptoms, with no satisfactory relief. Results The client progressively reported decreased migraine and neck pain until acquiring a respiratory infection with prolonged coughing spells causing symptoms to recur (session 11). Prior to session 12, she experienced an allergic reaction to ingesting an unknown food allergen

  17. Acute withdrawal: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Brust, John C M

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range in severity from mild "hangover" to fatal delirium tremens (DTs). Tremor, hallucinosis, and seizures usually occur within 48 hours of abstinence. Seizures tend to be generalized without focality, occurring singly or in a brief cluster, but status epilepticus is not unusual. DTs usually appears after 48 hours of abstinence and consists of marked inattentiveness, agitation, hallucinations, fluctuating level of alertness, marked tremulousness, and sympathetic overactivity. The mainstay of treatment for alcohol withdrawal is benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy, which can be used to control mild early symptoms, to prevent progression to DTs, or to treat DTs itself. Alternative less evidence-based pharmacotherapies include phenobarbital, anticonvulsants, baclofen, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-blockers, alpha-2-agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockers. Treatment of DTs is a medical emergency requiring heavy sedation in an intensive care unit, with close attention to autonomic instability, fever, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalance. Frequent comorbid disorders include hypoglycemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. PMID:25307572

  18. Migraine: What Imaging Reveals.

    PubMed

    Chong, Catherine D; Schwedt, Todd J; Dodick, David W

    2016-07-01

    Although migraine symptomatology is well-defined, our understanding of migraine pathophysiology is incomplete. Structural and functional brain imaging can contribute to a greater understanding of migraine pathophysiology. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate that migraine is associated with structural and functional alterations of brain regions commonly implicated in pain processing. This review summarizes recent brain structural and functional imaging findings in migraine and highlights those that are associated with characteristics such as the presence or absence of aura, associated cognitive dysfunction, sex-differences (male vs. female migraineurs), age, and disease burden. PMID:27181270

  19. What's New in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for acute myeloid leukemia What’s new in acute myeloid leukemia research and treatment? Researchers ... benefit from current treatments. Researchers are studying many new chemo drugs for use in AML, including: Sapacitabine, ...

  20. Microbiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2013-04-01

    Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  1. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  2. The impact of allodynia on the efficacy of almotriptan when given early in migraine: data from the "Act when mild" study.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Insa, S; Goadsby, P J; Zanchin, G; Fortea, J; Falqués, M; Vila, C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of allodynia on treatment outcomes in the patients with acute migraine treated in the "Act when Mild" (AwM) study. AwM, a randomized placebo-controlled trial, studied almotriptan 12.5 mg in the early treatment (within 1 hr) of acute migraine when the pain was still mild, and investigated clinical outcomes in the presence or absence of allodynia, which was prospectively recorded using patient questionnaires. Of the total population, 39% (n = 404) reported allodynia that did not alter the efficacy of almotriptan administered for early/mild pain in terms of 2-hr pain-free rates (53.9% for allodynic patients vs. 52.5% for nonallodynic patients). Similarly, sustained pain-free rates were 47.2% versus 45.5%, and migraine duration 1.40 versus 1.54 hr, respectively. However, allodynia impaired the effectiveness of almotriptan in the patients with moderate/severe pain in terms of longer migraine duration, fewer patients achieving pain-free status, and more requiring rescue medication. In conclusion, the lack of effect of allodynia on the efficacy of almotriptan given for early/mild migraine pain might help explain the improved outcomes associated with the early-treatment strategy in AwM. Moreover, the data suggest that pain intensity is the main driver of triptan response, and not the presence or absence of allodynia. PMID:21777163

  3. Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Errichi, Bruno; Di Renzo, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Ricci, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Cacchio, Marisa; Rohdewald, Peter

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of orally and topically applied Pycnogenol for the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks in a controlled, randomized study with 84 subjects. Within less than 48 h of onset of an acute attack, patients were enrolled and signs and symptoms were scored. This evaluation was repeated after seven days' treatment and again seven days following treatment cessation. The decrease in scores was significantly more pronounced in the Pycnogenol-treated groups than in the control group given placebo (p < 0.05), showing the efficacy of Pycnogenol for relieving signs and symptoms of acute external hemorrhoids. In a group of patients given topical (0.5%) Pycnogenol in addition to oral Pycnogenol the improvement in symptoms set in significantly faster and was more pronounced. The most prominent symptom, hemorrhoidal bleeding, was completely absent in all patients treated with Pycnogenol for seven days and also at the 14 days follow-up. In contrast, bleedings were still observed in the control group during the two weeks follow-up. This study indicates that Pycnogenol, both in oral and in topical form, is effective for controlling this common, disabling health problem. The application of Pycnogenol eases the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks and help avoid bleedings. PMID:20041428

  4. Prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptor antagonism in migraine.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Human models of headache may contribute to understanding of prostaglandins' role in migraine pathogenesis. The current thesis investigated the migraine triggering effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in migraine patients without aura, the efficacy of a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20-1531, in prevention of PGE2-induced headache and the ability of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to trigger headache without any vasodilatation in healthy volunteers. All studies were designed as double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over experiments, where PGE2/PGF2α or saline were infused over 20-25 min. In the study with EP4 receptor antagonist healthy volunteers were pre-treated with two different doses of BGC20-1531 or placebo followed by PGE2 infusion over 25 min. The headache data were collected during the whole study day, whereas the possible vascular changes were measured during the in-hospital phase of 1.5 h. The infusion of PGE2 caused the immediate migraine-like attacks and vasodilatation of the middle cerebral artery in migraine patients without aura. The highly specific and potent EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20-1531, was not able to attenuate PGE2-induced headache and vasodilatation of both intra- and extra-cerebral arteries. The intravenous infusion of PGF2α did not induce headache or statistically significant vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in healthy volunteers. Novel data on PGE2-provoked immediate migraine-like attacks suggest that PGE2 may be one of the important final products in the pathogenesis of migraine. The lack of efficacy of EP4 receptor antagonist suggests that a single receptor blockade is not sufficient to block PGE2 responses, hence EP2 receptor should be investigated as a potential drug target for the treatment of migraine. The absence of headache during the PGF2α infusion demonstrates that vasodilating properties are necessary for the induction of headache and migraine. PMID:23673269

  5. Migraine prophylaxis: what is new and what we need?

    PubMed

    Barbanti, P; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G; Fofi, L

    2011-05-01

    A wide array of options are now available for migraine prophylaxis. Conventional treatments include beta-blockers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, calcium antagonists and antiserotoninergic drugs. Emerging medications such as ACE inhibitors, sartans and nutritional supplements are gaining favour for migraine prophylaxis. Botulinum toxin type A is a promising therapeutic tool for chronic migraine. Tonabersat is likely to be a step forward for the treatment of migraine with aura. However, much work is needed to identify predictive clinical features of successful responsiveness and to better define the duration of prophylaxis. PMID:21533725

  6. How transparent are migraine clinical trials?

    PubMed Central

    Dufka, Faustine L.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Transparency in research requires public access to unbiased information prior to trial initiation and openly available results upon study completion. The Repository of Registered Migraine Trials is a global snapshot of registered migraine clinical trials and scorecard of results availability via the peer-reviewed literature, registry databases, and gray literature. The 295 unique clinical trials identified employed 447 investigational agents, with 30% of 154 acute migraine trials and 11% of 141 migraine prophylaxis trials testing combinations of agents. The most frequently studied categories in acute migraine trials were triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiemetics, calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists, and acetaminophen. Migraine prophylaxis trials frequently studied anticonvulsants, β-blockers, complementary/alternative therapies, antidepressants, and botulinum toxin. Overall, 237 trials were eligible for a results search. Of 163 trials completed at least 12 months earlier, 57% had peer-reviewed literature results, and registries/gray literature added another 13%. Using logistic regression analysis, studies with a sample size below the median of 141 subjects were significantly less likely to have results, but the dominant factor associated with availability of results was time since study completion. In unadjusted models, trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov and trials with industry primary sponsorship were significantly more likely to have results. Recently completed trials rarely have publicly available results; 2 years after completion, the peer-reviewed literature contains results for fewer than 60% of completed migraine trials. To avoid bias, evidence-based therapy algorithms should consider factors affecting results availability. As negative trials are less likely to be published, special caution should be exercised before recommending a therapy with a high proportion of missing trial results. PMID:25194013

  7. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of migraine in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Pryse-Phillips, W E; Dodick, D W; Edmeads, J G; Gawel, M J; Nelson, R F; Purdy, R A; Robinson, G; Stirling, D; Worthington, I

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide physicians and allied health care professionals with guidelines for the diagnosis and management of migraine in clinical practice. OPTIONS: The full range and quality of diagnostic and therapeutic methods available for the management of migraine. OUTCOMES: Improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of migraine, which will lead to a reduction in suffering, increased productivity and decreased economic burden. EVIDENCE AND VALUES: The creation of the guidelines followed a needs assessment by members of the Canadian Headache Society and included a statement of objectives; development of guidelines by multidisciplinary working groups using information from literature reviews and other resources; comparison of alternative clinical pathways and description of how published data were analysed; definition of the level of evidence for data in each case; evaluation and revision of the guidelines at a consensus conference held in Ottawa on Oct. 27-29, 1995; redrafting and insertion of tables showing key variables and data from various studies and tables of data with recommendations; and reassessment by all conference participants. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Accuracy in diagnosis is a major factor in improving therapeutic effectiveness. Improvement in the precise diagnosis of migraine, coupled with a rational plan for the treatment of acute attacks and for prophylactic therapy, is likely to lead to substantial benefits in both human and economic terms. RECOMMENDATIONS: The diagnosis of migraine can be improved by using modified criteria of the International Headache Society as well as a semistructured patient interview technique. Appropriate treatment of symptoms should take into account the severity of the migraine attack, since most patients will have attacks of differing severity and can learn to use medication appropriate for each attack. When headaches are frequent or particularly severe, prophylactic therapy should be considered. Both the avoidance

  8. The Cerebellum and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maurice; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and pathophysiological evidences connect migraine and the cerebellum. Literature on documented cerebellar abnormalities in migraine, however, is relatively sparse. Cerebellar involvement may be observed in 4 types of migraines: in the widespread migraine with aura (MWA) and migraine without aura (MWoA) forms; in particular subtypes of migraine such as basilar-type migraine (BTM); and in the genetically driven autosomal dominant familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) forms. Cerebellar dysfunction in migraineurs varies largely in severity, and may be subclinical. Purkinje cells express calcium channels that are related to the pathophysiology of both inherited forms of migraine and primary ataxias, mostly spinal cerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA-6) and episodic ataxia type 2 (EA-2). Genetically driven ion channels dysfunction leads to hyperexcitability in the brain and cerebellum, possibly facilitating spreading depression waves in both locations. This review focuses on the cerebellar involvement in migraine, the relevant ataxias and their association with this primary headache, and discusses some of the pathophysiological processes putatively underlying these diseases. PMID:17578530

  9. Human factors validation study of 3 mg sumatriptan autoinjector, for migraine patients

    PubMed Central

    Brand-Schieber, Elimor; Munjal, Sagar; Kumar, Rajesh; Andre, Anthony D; Valladao, Will; Ramirez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine pain relief is reported by more than 50% of patients who receive low dose (3 mg) of sumatriptan. Currently, there is no two-step autoinjector of low-dose sumatriptan available on the market for acute migraine treatment. To fulfill this need, a fully assembled, single-dose, subcutaneous autoinjector (sumatriptan 3 mg; product-code DFN-11) was developed. The device allows for injection with a simple two-step, push-to-inject process and provides feedback of the injection activation, progress, and completion. Objective To determine if DFN-11 autoinjector can be used correctly and safely by migraine patients. Methods and participants A human factors validation study was conducted with 45 migraine patients (30 oral-only medications users; 15 injectable sumatriptan users) who performed one unaided simulated injection. Two days prior, half the oral participants were briefly trained. All others were only given the device to inspect and written instructions to review. No injections were performed during the initial session. All participants received written instructions at the injection session. Results All participants (45/45; 100%) performed the injection without any errors. Objective measures included device removal from packaging, cap removal, expiration date check, inspection of fluid in window, identification of allowable injection site, proper device positioning, dose confirmation, and device disposal. All participants (45/45; 100%) reported no difficulty administering the injection and no concerns about using the autoinjector during a severe migraine onset. Conclusion The results showed that the DFN-11 autoinjector can be used with safe handling without patterns of confusion, failures, high-risk errors, wet injections, or patient safety risks. The DFN-11 autoinjector was validated to be used correctly and safely by migraine patients, whether they were injection experienced, unexperienced, trained, or self-trained. PMID:27313479

  10. Treatment of acute bronchiolitis with Chinese herbs.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, X T; Fang, H T; Jiang, G Q; Zhai, S Z; O'Connell, D L; Brewster, D R

    1993-01-01

    In a randomised single blind trial the Chinese herbs Shuang Huang Lian were evaluated for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute bronchiolitis and serological evidence of recent respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied in a tertiary hospital in Harbin, China. The 96 children were randomised into three treatment groups: herbs, herbs with antibiotics, and antibiotics alone. The herbs were prepared by the medical school pharmacy and administered daily by intravenous infusion for seven days. The main outcomes, assessed blindly, were symptomatic improvement in cough, fever, wheezing, chest signs, and duration of stay in hospital. The mean duration of symptoms from the start of treatment was 6.2 (confidence interval 5.6 to 6.9) days in the two groups treated with herbs compared with 8.6 (confidence interval 7.5 to 9.8) days in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The mean reductions in duration of clinical manifestations for treatment with antibiotics alone compared with herbs were: from 3.1 to 1.5 days for fever, 9.1 to 6.1 days for cough, 6.5 to 4.1 days for wheezing, and 7.2 to 4.9 days for chest crackles. No adverse effect of Shuang Huang Lian herbal treatment was detected. In conclusion, this study confirms Chinese experience with Shuang Huang Lian that it is safe and effective, and warrants further study. PMID:8503668

  11. Headache-related health resource utilisation in chronic and episodic migraine across six countries

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Joanna C; Devine, Emily B; Lipton, Richard B; Bloudek, Lisa M; Varon, Sepideh F; Blumenfeld, Andrew M; Goadsby, Peter J; Buse, Dawn C; Sullivan, Sean D

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe headache-related health resource usage in chronic and episodic migraine across six countries. Methods A web-based questionnaire eliciting data on several topics, including health resource usage, was administered to panellists with migraine from the USA, Canada, UK, Germany, France and Australia. Respondents were grouped into episodic and chronic migraine, based on reported headache phenotype and headache-day frequency. ORs were calculated, comparing usage in each country to that in the US, controlling for chronic versus episodic migraine and other factors. Results Relative to the USA, the odds of visiting a provider for headache during the preceding 3 months were significantly higher in all countries, except Germany. Respondents in France were more likely to report having a provider they typically visited for headache-related care. The odds of visiting the emergency department for headache were significantly lower in France, the UK and Germany, and hospitalisation for headache was significantly more frequent in Canada and Australia. Respondents from all countries, except Canada, were more likely to report currently using a prescription-acute treatment, and those from France were more likely to report trying more than three acute treatments. Preventive treatment use did not differ significantly. Conclusions Headache-related resource usage differed significantly between the USA and other countries. US respondents were generally less likely to report recent provider visits and use of prescription-acute treatments. They were more likely to report emergency department visits than in European countries, but less likely to report hospitalisation than in Canada and Australia. PMID:23813744

  12. The use of onabotulinum toxin A (Botox(®)) in the treatment of chronic migraine at the Parma Headache Centre: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Taga, Arens; Genovese, Antonio; Veronesi, Licia; Pasquarella, Cesira; Sansebastiano, Giuliano Ezio; Torelli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Chronic migraine is a debilitating headache, whose treatment is often complicated by the concomitant overuse of symptomatic medication and by the poor efficacy of standard prophylactic treatments. The PREEMPT studies have demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of onabotulinum toxin A (Botox(®)) in the treatment of this headache type. Data about its use in clinical practice are still scarce. Our study evaluated all subjects with chronic migraine who were treated with onabotulinum toxin A between February 2014 and November 2015 at the Parma Headache Centre. Botox was injected according to the PREEMPT paradigm every 3 months. The data about variations in the number of headache days and in symptomatic medication intake before and after the Botox injections were collected from the patients' headache diaries. The study also evaluated tolerability to treatment, disability, and depressive symptoms. Of the 52 treated subjects, 14 received Botox treatment for at least 9 months and showed a significant decrease in the median number of headache days (from 19 to 14.5, p = 0.011) and in the median number of days of symptomatic medications intake and symptomatic drugs. Overall, the treatment was well tolerated. The average MIDAS and BDI-II scores after 9 months were reduced, though not significantly. The treatment with Botox proved effective and well tolerated in our clinical practice. Further studies on larger patient samples will help shed light on the persistence of the drug's effect at long term and identify the predictive factors of response to treatment. PMID:27048312

  13. Peripheral neuromodulation in chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Perini, F; De Boni, A

    2012-05-01

    Patients with chronic migraines are often refractory to medical treatment. Therefore, they might need other strategies to modulate their pain, according to their level of disability. Neuromodulation can be achieved with several tools: meditation, biofeedback, physical therapy, drugs and electric neurostimulation (ENS). ENS can be applied to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), either invasively (cortical or deep brain) or non-invasively [cranial electrotherapy stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation]. Among chronic primary headaches, cluster headaches are most often treated either through deep brain stimulation or occipital nerve stimulation because there is a high level of disability related to this condition. ENS, employed through several modalities such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential currents and pulsed radiofrequency, has been applied to the peripheral nervous system at several sites. We briefly review the indications for the use of peripheral ENS at the site of the occipital nerves for the treatment of chronic migraine. PMID:22644166

  14. Art and Migraine: Researching the Relationship between Artmaking and Pain Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    This research project extends a previous study (Vick & Sexton-Radek, 1999) in examining the relationship between artmaking and pain among 127 migraine sufferers. A basic overview of migraine symptoms and treatment is presented along with a discussion of concepts relating to "migraine art" in order to provide a context for this project. Surveys…

  15. Art and Migraine: Researching the Relationship between Artmaking and Pain Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This research project extends a previous study (Vick & Sexton-Radek, 1999) in examining the relationship between artmaking and pain among 127 migraine sufferers. A basic overview of migraine symptoms and treatment is presented along with a discussion of concepts relating to "migraine art" in order to provide a context for this project. Surveys…

  16. Clinical benefits of early triptan therapy for migraine.

    PubMed

    Láinez, Mja

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of the triptans brought advances in achieving complete and sustained pain resolution in migraine patients, compared with non-migraine-specific treatments. However, sustained pain-free rates for triptans recorded in many clinical trials are still relatively low. This may be due to study participants being treated late into the attack, when pain is already moderate or severe. Studies with almotriptan have shown that efficacy is enhanced when treatment is given early in a migraine attack while pain is still mild, compared with later administration when pain intensity is greater. Developments in our understanding of migraine pathophysiology provide a rationale for this phenomenon, with improved efficacy seen when abortive treatment is administered before central sensitization develops. A limited window of therapeutic opportunity exists early in an attack to improve the outcome of triptan treatment. Early intervention is recommended to avoid the significant pain and disability commonly associated with moderate or severe migraine. PMID:15595991

  17. [Migraine with visual aura].

    PubMed

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. PMID:27324232

  18. Acupoint Injection of Onabotulinumtoxin A for Migraines

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Min; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Ren, Wen-Ting; Cui, Guang-Fu; Xin, Le; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines. PMID:26529014

  19. New and emerging prophylactic agents for migraine.

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, Abouch V; Bigal, Marcelo E; Moreira, Pedro F

    2002-01-01

    Frequent, severe and long-lasting migraine attacks require prophylaxis. Established drugs used for the prevention of migraine such as beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers), calcium channel antagonists, antidepressants and others have an unknown mode of action in migraine. Their prophylactic effect in migraine was discovered by chance in clinical practice when these drugs were used for other purposes. Recently, research into the mechanisms of migraine and the progressive recognition that cortical hyperexcitability and an imbalance between neuronal inhibition [mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] and excitation (mediated by excitatory amino acids) may play an important role in migraine pathophysiology have lead to the identification of potential new agents for the prevention of migraine attacks. This paper reviews the recent literature on these new agents. A search was conducted using MEDLINE from 1998 to November 2001 with the following search terms: migraine, preventive, prophylactic and treatment. Headache textbooks edited in 2000 and 2001 were also used. After analysing the available controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies as well as abstracts, divalproex sodium (valproate semisodium) can be recommended for the prevention of migraine. Lamotrigine may be useful for preventing aura associated with migraine, and topiramate seems a promising option pending trials with more patients, which are currently underway. Riboflavin (which is possibly involved in improving neuronal energy production) appears to be a promising agent, although comparisons with established prophylactic medications are needed. Gabapentin, magnesium, lisinopril and botulinum toxin A have recently been suggested to be effective; however, at present, there are insufficient rigorous and reliable controlled data on these drugs for them to be indicated for such use. Emerging options such as tiagabine, levetiracetam, zonisamide and petasites may all be useful, but controlled data are

  20. [Management of intractable migraine in adults].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, André; Baudesson, Gilles; Delage, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The management of intractable migraine is not yet standardised. The first point in the emergency department is to eliminate severe cephalalgic non-migrainous disease, then to confirm the diagnosis of migraine. The second point is to determine trigger factors responsible for the refractory migraine--principally inadequate therapy, such as too low a dosage, inadequate treatment compared with intensity, and delayed treatment. Examples of inadequate classical treatments are presented for the following four main oral therapies: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), analgesics, ergot derivatives, and triptans. When these drugs are ineffective, the following are used via injections: propacetamol, aspirin (lysine acetylsalicylate), injectable NSAIDs, and nefopam. These products differ from country-to-country. For example, morphinomimetics, phenothiazines and corticosteroids are widely prescribed in the US, while metamizole (dipyrone) is preferred in developing countries. The authors describe the different models of administration and the adverse effects of the substances. Finally, they describe the treatment of status migrainosus. Globally, triptans are underused in emergency departments. This review confirms the need for controlled trials of treatments for migraine in emergency departments in order to develop an international therapeutic consensus. PMID:14679670

  1. Genetics Home Reference: sporadic hemiplegic migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of sporadic hemiplegic migraine: Genetic Testing Registry: Migraine, sporadic hemiplegic Journal of the American Medical Association Patient Page: Migraine ...

  2. Pathophysiology of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Goadsby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose pathophysiology is now being better understood. The study of anatomy and physiology of pain producing structures in the cranium and the central nervous system modulation of the input have led to the conclusion that migraine involves alterations in the sub-cortical aminergic sensory modulatory systems that influence the brain widely. PMID:23024559

  3. Treatment and pathogenesis of acute hyperkalemia

    PubMed Central

    Mushiyakh, Yelena; Dangaria, Harsh; Qavi, Shahbaz; Ali, Noorjahan; Pannone, John; Tompkins, David

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and various treatment modalities for acute hyperkalemia and presents a systematic approach to selecting a treatment strategy. Hyperkalemia, a life-threatening condition caused by extracellular potassium shift or decreased renal potassium excretion, usually presents with non-specific symptoms. Early recognition of moderate to severe hyperkalemia is vital in preventing fatal cardiac arrhythmias and muscle paralysis. Management of hyperkalemia includes the elimination of reversible causes (diet, medications), rapidly acting therapies that shift potassium into cells and block the cardiac membrane effects of hyperkalemia, and measures to facilitate removal of potassium from the body (saline diuresis, oral binding resins, and hemodialysis). Hyperkalemia with potassium level more than 6.5 mEq/L or EKG changes is a medical emergency and should be treated accordingly. Treatment should be started with calcium gluconate to stabilize cardiomyocyte membranes, followed by insulin injection, and b-agonists administration. Hemodialysis remains the most reliable method to remove potassium from the body and should be used in cases refractory to medical treatment. Prompt detection and proper treatment are crucial in preventing lethal outcomes. PMID:23882341

  4. How transparent are migraine clinical trials? Repository of Registered Migraine Trials (RReMiT).

    PubMed

    Dufka, Faustine L; Dworkin, Robert H; Rowbotham, Michael C

    2014-10-01

    Transparency in research requires public access to unbiased information prior to trial initiation and openly available results upon study completion. The Repository of Registered Migraine Trials is a global snapshot of registered migraine clinical trials and scorecard of results availability via the peer-reviewed literature, registry databases, and gray literature. The 295 unique clinical trials identified employed 447 investigational agents, with 30% of 154 acute migraine trials and 11% of 141 migraine prophylaxis trials testing combinations of agents. The most frequently studied categories in acute migraine trials were triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiemetics, calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists, and acetaminophen. Migraine prophylaxis trials frequently studied anticonvulsants, β-blockers, complementary/alternative therapies, antidepressants, and botulinum toxin. Overall, 237 trials were eligible for a results search. Of 163 trials completed at least 12 months earlier, 57% had peer-reviewed literature results, and registries/gray literature added another 13%. Using logistic regression analysis, studies with a sample size below the median of 141 subjects were significantly less likely to have results, but the dominant factor associated with availability of results was time since study completion. In unadjusted models, trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov and trials with industry primary sponsorship were significantly more likely to have results. Recently completed trials rarely have publicly available results; 2 years after completion, the peer-reviewed literature contains results for fewer than 60% of completed migraine trials. To avoid bias, evidence-based therapy algorithms should consider factors affecting results availability. As negative trials are less likely to be published, special caution should be exercised before recommending a therapy with a high proportion of missing trial results. PMID:25194013

  5. [Unusual Migraine Manifestations].

    PubMed

    Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sandor, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder by which several systems of the central nervous system (autonomous system, affective, cognitive, sensoric and motoric system) may be affected on different levels. Around a fourth of the patients have migraine aura. The most common aura is the visual aura, followed by sensoric aura. But motoric deficits as well as deficits of higher cortical centers (disorders of thinking, orientation, coherence or concentration) may occur as well. In analogy with a headache calendar, an aura calendar can deliver important help in the diagnostic process of rare migraine manifestations and prevent underdiagnosis of unusual migraine manifestations. Complex migraine manifestations are diagnoses of exlusion, and a broad diagnostic work-up is warranted in order to exclude dangerous neurologic pathologies. There are no specific therapeutic recommendations, as there is a lack of randomized controlled studies. PMID:27269777

  6. Contact lenses, migraine, and allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Mehmet, Baykara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials and electrophysiologic studies demonstrated increased perceptual sensitivity in patients suffering from migraines. At least, one triggering factor is described in 85% of migraine patients. The aim of this report was to investigate the relationship between contact lens (CL) usage and migraine attacks in two cases. Two patients who were diagnosed with migraine reported that the frequency of migraine attacks increased after they switched to using CL with different base curves (BCs). These two patients, who began using CL with different BCs experienced discomfort and dryness of the eye. The ocular complaints were followed by migraine attacks. CL intolerance was also developed during migraine attack in one of the cases. The frequency of migraine attacks decreased and allodynia relieved significantly when flatter BCs were selected. CL related stimulus could have triggered the migraine attack. CLs should be well fitted in migraine patients with allodynia. PMID:27433037

  7. Excellent tolerability but relatively low initial clinical efficacy of telcagepant in migraine.

    PubMed

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    In 3 randomized clinical trials (n = 1585) the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist telcagepant 300 mg orally had an incidence of adverse events similar to placebo when used in the acute treatment of migraine. Telcagepant, thus, has excellent tolerability in migraine. Only a quarter (26%) (334/1307) of patients were, however, pain free after 2 hours, while 56% (729/1297) of patients had pain relief at 2 hours. Telcagepant 300 mg in one randomized clinical trial was equipotent to zolmitriptan 5 mg. Based on results from a meta-analysis, rizatriptan 10 mg (41%) and almotriptan (35%) seem superior to telcagepant (26%) for pain free at 2 hours whereas rizatriptan 10 mg (25%) showed no difference from telcagepant 300 mg (19 %) for sustained pain free (2-24 hours). The introduction of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonism in the acute treatment of migraine is a major step forward but so far mostly because of its specific mode of action and excellent tolerability. PMID:21070229

  8. OnabotulinumtoxinA for chronic migraine: efficacy, safety, and tolerability in patients who received all five treatment cycles in the PREEMPT clinical program

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, SK; Dodick, DW; Diener, H-C; DeGryse, RE; Turkel, CC; Lipton, RB; Silberstein, SD

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic migraine (CM) is a prevalent and disabling neurological disorder. Phase III REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) clinical program assessed efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) for prophylaxis of headaches in adults with CM. This secondary analysis assessed patients who received all five treatment cycles and completed the study. Materials and methods PREEMPT (two phase III studies: 24-week double-blind, placebo-controlled [DBPC], parallel-group phase, followed by 32-week open-label [OL] phase) evaluated the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA in CM (≥15 days/month with headache lasting ≥4 h a day). Patients were randomized (1:1) to onabotulinumtoxinA or placebo every 12 weeks for two cycles, followed by onabotulinumtoxinA for three cycles. Multiple headache symptom measures were evaluated. Results for the completer (five cycles) subgroup of patients are reported. Results Of 1384 total PREEMPT patients, 1005 received all five treatment cycles (513 received onabotulinumtoxinA only [onabotulinumtoxinA/onabotulinumtoxinA (O/O)] and 492 received two cycles of placebo then three cycles of onabotulinumtoxinA [placebo/onabotulinumtoxinA (P/O)]). Demographics were similar between treatment groups. At Week 56, after all patients were treated with onabotulinumtoxinA, there continued to be significant between-group differences favoring the O/O vs P/O group for the following headache symptom measures: LS mean change from baseline in frequencies of headache days (−12.0 O/O, −11.1 P/O; P = 0.035), migraine days (−11.6 O/O, −10.7 P/O; P = 0.038), and moderate/severe headache days (−11.0 O/O, −10.1 P/O; P = 0.042). For other measures (cumulative hours of headache on headache days, frequency of headache episodes, and percentage with severe Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6 score, and total HIT-6 and Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire scores), there were also large mean improvements from

  9. An unusual cause of chest pain: Acute coronary syndrome following administration of ergotamine tartrate.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Sercan; Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Kabakcı, Giray; Aytemir, Kudret

    2012-01-01

    For many years, ergotamine has been used for the acute treatment of migraine. Ergotamine may produce coronary vasospasm, which is often associated with ischemic electrocardiography changes and angina pectoris. A 62-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department because of chest pain is described. She had a history of severe migraine attacks and started to use ergotamine tartrate 0.75 mg daily the day before. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia with left anterior hemiblock and T wave inversion in the precordial leads. Cardiac biomarker levels were elevated. After discontinuation of the drug and initiation of vasodilator treatment, her chest pain resolved. Patients with migraine may have an underlying vasospastic disorder predisposing them to coronary artery spasm. Physicians should be alerted to potential cardiac vasospastic effects of low-dose ergotamine in the treatment of migraine. PMID:23204901

  10. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  11. Application of Design of Experiment for Polyox and Xanthan Gum Coated Floating Pulsatile Delivery of Sumatriptan Succinate in Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Swati C.; Pawar, Chandrakala R.

    2014-01-01

    Migraine follows circadian rhythm in which headache is more painful at the awakening time. This needs administration of dosage form at night time to release drug after lag period when pain gets worse. Sumatriptan succinate is a drug of choice for migraine. Sumatriptan succinate has bitter taste, low oral bioavailability, and shorter half-life. Present work deals with application of design of experiment for polyox and xanthan gum in development of press coated floating pulsatile tablet. Floating pulsatile concept was applied to increase gastric residence of the dosage form. Burst release was achieved through immediate release tablet using crospovidone as superdisintegrant (10%). Pulse lag time was achieved using swellable polymer polyox WSR 205 and xanthan gum. 32 experimental design was applied. Optimized formulation was evaluated for physical characteristics and in-vitro and in-vivo study. From results, it can be concluded that optimized batch F8 containing polyox WSR205 (72.72%) and xanthan gum (27.27%) of total weight of polymer has shown floating lag time of 55 ± 2 sec, drug content of 100.35 ± 0.4%, hardness of 6 ± 0.1 Kg/cm2, and 98.69 ± 2% drug release in pulse manner with lag time of 7 ± 0.1 h. Optimized batch showed prolong gastric residence which was confirmed by in-vivo X-ray study. PMID:25530963

  12. Application of design of experiment for polyox and xanthan gum coated floating pulsatile delivery of sumatriptan succinate in migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Swati C; Pawar, Chandrakala R

    2014-01-01

    Migraine follows circadian rhythm in which headache is more painful at the awakening time. This needs administration of dosage form at night time to release drug after lag period when pain gets worse. Sumatriptan succinate is a drug of choice for migraine. Sumatriptan succinate has bitter taste, low oral bioavailability, and shorter half-life. Present work deals with application of design of experiment for polyox and xanthan gum in development of press coated floating pulsatile tablet. Floating pulsatile concept was applied to increase gastric residence of the dosage form. Burst release was achieved through immediate release tablet using crospovidone as superdisintegrant (10%). Pulse lag time was achieved using swellable polymer polyox WSR 205 and xanthan gum. 3(2) experimental design was applied. Optimized formulation was evaluated for physical characteristics and in-vitro and in-vivo study. From results, it can be concluded that optimized batch F8 containing polyox WSR205 (72.72%) and xanthan gum (27.27%) of total weight of polymer has shown floating lag time of 55 ± 2 sec, drug content of 100.35 ± 0.4%, hardness of 6 ± 0.1 Kg/cm(2), and 98.69 ± 2% drug release in pulse manner with lag time of 7 ± 0.1 h. Optimized batch showed prolong gastric residence which was confirmed by in-vivo X-ray study. PMID:25530963

  13. Almotriptan, a new anti-migraine agent: a review.

    PubMed

    Gras, Jordi; Llenas, Jesús; Jansat, Josep M; Jáuregui, José; Cabarrocas, Xavier; Palacios, José M

    2002-01-01

    Almotriptan is a new anti-migraine agent with nanomolar affinity for human 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), and 5-HT(1F) receptors, weak affinity for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors and no significant affinity for more than 20 other pharmacological receptors. Almotriptan was effective in animal models predictive of anti-migraine activity in humans and had a good safety profile in animal studies. From the toxicological point of view, almotriptan has a profile similar to that of other marketed triptans. In animal studies, at levels substantially higher than required for therapeutic activity in humans, almotriptan was devoid of any oncogenic, genotoxic or teratogenic effects. Almotriptan is well absorbed orally; its absolute bioavailability in humans is 70%. Its peak plasma levels are reached at 1 to 3 h after its administration; its elimination half-life is 3 to 4 h. Almotriptan is metabolized by monoamine oxidase-mediated oxidative deamination and cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation as the major metabolic route and by flavin monooxygenase as the minor route. No dose adjustment is required for gender or age, and only in the case of severe renal impairment the dose should not exceed 12.5 mg over a 24-h period. There was no significant interaction between a single dose of almotriptan and propranolol, fluoxetine or verapamil, at multiple doses. The efficacy of almotriptan in the treatment of acute migraine was demonstrated in clinical trials on more than 3000 patients with migraine. At two h after oral administration of almotriptan, 12.5 mg, the percentages of patients showing pain relief and a pain-free score were 64 and 36%, respectively. The effects of almotriptan were significantly better than those of placebo. When almotriptan was administered in the early phase of migraine, the percentage of pain-free patients at 2 h rose to 84%. In a phase III, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, the incidence of adverse events with almotriptan was not statistically different from that

  14. Comparative efficacy trial of cupping and serkangabin versus conventional therapy of migraine headaches: A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial

    PubMed Central

    Firoozabadi, Mohammad Dehghani; Navabzadeh, Maryam; Roudsari, Mohammad Khodashenas; Zahmatkash, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Migraine headaches are the most common acute and recurrent headaches. Current treatment of a migraine headache consists of multiple medications for control and prevention of recurrent attacks. Global emergence of alternative medicine led us to examine the efficacy of cupping therapy plus serkangabin syrup in the treatment of migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, open-label, comparative efficacy trial. We randomly assigned patients with migraine into cupping therapy plus serkangabin group (30 patients) and conventional treatment group (30 patients). An investigator assessed the severity of headache, frequency of attacks in a week and duration of attacks per hour in 5 visits (at the end of 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months). Generalized estimating equations approach was used to analyze repeated measures data to compare outcomes in both groups. Results: Average age for cupping therapy group and conventional treatment group were 31.7 (±7.6) and 32.6 (±12.7) years, respectively (P = 0.45). After treatment for 2 weeks; and 1, 3 and 6 months, severity of headache (P = 0.80), frequency of migraine attacks (P = 0.63) and duration of attacks per hours (P = 0.48) were similar in conventional and cupping groups but these symptoms were decreased in each group during the study (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between cupping plus serkangabin therapy and conventional treatment in the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine. The alternative therapy may be used in cases of drug intolerance, no medication response, and in primary care. PMID:25709653

  15. Migraine headache: epidemiologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Linet, M S; Stewart, W F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that a number of factors are associated with the risk of migraine and precipitation of an attack. However, the degree to which causal associations can be inferred from reported studies is very limited and is a result of the methodological problems discussed throughout this review. The study of migraine in many ways parallels the pattern seen in early investigations of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, because a number of methodological problems had to be resolved in the study of these conditions before significant progress could be made. To achieve significant advances in the improvement of our understanding of the causes of migraine, a number of related issues must be addressed and resolved in future studies. Most noteworthy among these are Recognition of the probable heterogeneity of migraine, not merely in the manifestation of symptoms but, more importantly, in the existence of distinct etiologic subtypes. A number of findings suggest that some migraine subtypes are sensitive to certain precipitants, some appear to be a part of a more generalized constitutional disorder, and some are accompanied by a higher prevalence of migraine among family members. Efforts should be made in understanding the relationship between specific biochemical markers and traits (such as monoamine oxidase deficiency and tyramine sensitivity); precipitants related to the migraine attack; and epidemiologic characteristics such as age at onset and sex. Creation of a more precise, reliable, and practically useful definition of migraine. Without such a definition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare results between studies, to understand the relationship between risk factors and migraine subtypes, to understand properly associations identified in selected clinic populations, and, in general, to understand the epidemiology of migraine. More accurate characterization of the case group under

  16. Trigeminal nociceptive transmission in migraineurs predicts migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Stankewitz, Anne; Aderjan, David; Eippert, Falk; May, Arne

    2011-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a major role of the trigeminovascular system in the pathogenesis of migraine. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared brain responses during trigeminal pain processing in migraine patients with those of healthy control subjects. The main finding is that the activity of the spinal trigeminal nuclei in response to nociceptive stimulation showed a cycling behavior over the migraine interval. Although interictal (i.e., outside of attack) migraine patients revealed lower activations in the spinal trigeminal nuclei compared with controls, preictal (i.e., shortly before attack) patients showed activity similar to controls, which demonstrates that the trigeminal activation level increases over the pain-free migraine interval. Remarkably, the distance to the next headache attack was predictable by the height of the signal intensities in the spinal nuclei. Migraine patients scanned during the acute spontaneous migraine attack showed significantly lower signal intensities in the trigeminal nuclei compared with controls, demonstrating activity levels similar to interictal patients. Additionally we found-for the first time using fMRI-that migraineurs showed a significant increase in activation of dorsal parts of the pons, previously coined "migraine generator." Unlike the dorsal pons activation usually linked to migraine attacks, the gradient-like activity following nociceptive stimulation in the spinal trigeminal neurons likely reflects a raise in susceptibility of the brain to generate the next attack, as these areas increase their activity long before headache starts. This oscillating behavior may be a key player in the generation of migraine headache, whereas attack-specific pons activations are most likely a secondary event. PMID:21307231

  17. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, PhD and ... if you experience these symptoms. Migraine, Depression, and Anxiety Many migraine patients suffer from symptoms of depression ...

  18. Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine.

    PubMed

    Alper, K R; Lotsof, H S; Frenken, G M; Luciano, D J; Bastiaans, J

    1999-01-01

    Ibogaine is an alkaloid with putative effect in acute opioid withdrawal. Thirty-three cases of treatments for the indication of opioid detoxification performed in non-medical settings under open label conditions are summarized involving an average daily use of heroin of .64 +/- .50 grams, primarily by the intravenous route. Resolution of the signs of opioid withdrawal without further drug seeking behavior was observed within 24 hours in 25 patients and was sustained throughout the 72-hour period of posttreatment observation. Other outcomes included drug seeking behavior without withdrawal signs (4 patients), drug abstinence with attenuated withdrawal signs (2 patients), drug seeking behavior with continued withdrawal signs (1 patient), and one fatality possibly involving surreptitious heroin use. The reported effectiveness of ibogaine in this series suggests the need for systematic investigation in a conventional clinical research setting. PMID:10506904

  19. Treatment of acute bronchospasm in urban populations.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Beverly M

    2005-12-01

    Many urban patients, including minority groups and children, continue to live in poor urban settings. Poor urban environments provide a complex mix of stressors that can exacerbate asthma and increase exacerbations. Although care is available, many minority patients have English language and communication barriers, facts that impede their access to providers and care facilities. Medications for asthma are available to these patients, and strategies to minimize stressors are in place, but implementation and delivery in an urban setting can be a problem. Asthma management strategies coupled with new formulations of asthma medications, such as levalbuterol, can significantly reduce asthma symptoms during acute bronchospasm. In addition to offering the optimal treatment for asthma, broader strategies for reducing minority disparities are required if significant inroads are to be made in addressing problems faced by urban patients. PMID:19667713

  20. [Diet and migraine].

    PubMed

    Leira, R; Rodríguez, R

    1996-05-01

    Some foods in our diet can spark off migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. Some foods can bring an attack on through an allergic reaction. A certain number such as citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables and cola drinks have been cited as possible allergens associated with migraine. This mechanism has however been criticized: an improvement in symptoms by eliminating some food(s) from our diet does not necessarily mean an immunologically based allergic reaction. The high IgE incidence rate is not greater in such patients than in the population at large. Other allergic reactions unrelated to diet may also be associated with migraine attacks. On the other hand substances in food may be the cause of modifications in vascular tone and bring migraine on in those so prone. Among such substances are tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, aspartame) and caffeine. Another recognized trigger for migraine is hypoglycemia. Such foods as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, 'cured' meats, dairy products, cereals, beans, hot dogs, pizza, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate in Chinese restaurant food, aspartame as a sweetener), coffee, tea, cola drinks, alcoholic drinks such as red wine, beer or whisky distilled in copper stills, all may bring on a migraine attack. For every patient we have to assess which foodstuffs are involved in the attack (not necessarily produced by consuming the product concerned) in order to try to avoid their consumptions as a means of prophylaxis for migraine. PMID:8681169

  1. Treatment of Sporadic Acute Puerperal Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of amoxicillin and cephradine for the treatment of sporadic acute puerperal mastitis (SAPM) and to evaluate the microbiology and clinical parameters of this infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study comparing amoxicillin, 500 mg orally q 8 h for 7 days, and cephradine, 500 mg orally q 6 h for 7 days. The diagnostic criteria for SAPM included a temperature of ≥37.56℃ (≥99.6℉) and erythema and tenderness of the breast(s). Results: Twenty-seven consecutive outpatients with SAPM were evaluated for admission to the study, and 25 of these were enrolled. The mean temperature at enrollment was 38.17℃ (100.7℉), with a mean WBC count of 11,440/μl. The most frequent bacterial isolates from expressed milk were Staphylococcus aureus (7), staphylococcal species (coagulase negative) (8), and α-hemolytic streptococci (4). There were no significant differences between the 2 antibiotic regimens in cure rate, mean days to resolution of symptoms, or recurrence within 30 days. Both of the treatment failures and 1 of the 3 recurrences within 30 days were amoxicillin-treated patients whose cultures grew S. aureus. Conclusions: Oral amoxicillin and cephradine appear equally effective in the treatment of SAPM. Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from the milk of women with mastitis. PMID:18476075

  2. In-office Discussions of Migraine: Results from the American Migraine Communication Study

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Steven R.; Cady, Roger K.; Brandes, Jan Lewis; Simons, Suzanne E.; Bain, Philip A.; Nelson, Meaghan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Research indicates that successful migraine assessment and treatment depends on information obtained during patient and healthcare professional (HCP) discussions. However, no studies outline how migraine is actually discussed during clinical encounters. Objective Record naturally occurring HCP–migraineur interactions, analyzing frequency and impairment assessment, and preventive treatment discussions. Design HCPs seeing high volumes of migraineurs were recruited for a communication study. Patients likely to discuss migraine were recruited immediately before their normally scheduled appointment and, once consented, were audio- and video-recorded without a researcher present. Separate post-visit interviews were conducted with patients and HCPs. All interactions were transcribed. Participants Sixty patients (83% female; mean age 41.7) were analyzed. Patients were diagnosed with migraine 14 years and experienced 5 per month, on average. Approach Transcripts were analyzed using sociolinguistic techniques such as number and type of questions asked and post-visit alignment on migraine frequency and impairment. American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study guidelines were utilized. Results Ninety-one percent of HCP-initiated, migraine-specific questions were closed-ended/short answer; assessments focused on frequency and did not focus on attention on impairment. Open-ended questions in patient post-visit interviews yielded robust impairment-related information. Post-visit, 55% of HCP–patient pairs were misaligned regarding frequency; 51% on impairment. Of the 20 (33%) patients who were preventive medication candidates, 80% did not receive it and 50% of their visits lacked discussion of prevention. Conclusions Sociolinguistic analysis revealed that HCPs often used narrowly focused, closed-ended questions and were often unaware of how migraine affected patients’ lives as a result. It is recommended that HCPs assess impairment using open-ended questions

  3. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers). These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripheral target tissue. Neurogenic inflammatory processes have long been implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases of the nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and skin. The recent development of several innovative experimental migraine models has provided evidence suggestive of the involvement of neuropeptides (SP, neurokinin A, and CGRP) in migraine headache. Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive fibers of the trigeminal nerve resulted in a neurogenic inflammatory response with marked increase in plasma protein extravasation from dural blood vessels by the release of various sensory neuropeptides. Several clinically effective abortive antimigraine medications, such as ergots and triptans, have been shown to attenuate the release of neuropeptide and neurogenic plasma protein extravasation. These findings provide support for the validity of using animal models to investigate mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. These also further strengthen the notion of migraine being a neuroinflammatory disease. In the clinical context, there is a paucity of knowledge and awareness among physicians regarding the role of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. Improved understanding of the molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of neurogenic inflammation may provide the practitioner the context-specific feedback to identify the novel and most effective therapeutic approach to treatment

  4. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers). These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripheral target tissue. Neurogenic inflammatory processes have long been implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases of the nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and skin. The recent development of several innovative experimental migraine models has provided evidence suggestive of the involvement of neuropeptides (SP, neurokinin A, and CGRP) in migraine headache. Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive fibers of the trigeminal nerve resulted in a neurogenic inflammatory response with marked increase in plasma protein extravasation from dural blood vessels by the release of various sensory neuropeptides. Several clinically effective abortive antimigraine medications, such as ergots and triptans, have been shown to attenuate the release of neuropeptide and neurogenic plasma protein extravasation. These findings provide support for the validity of using animal models to investigate mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. These also further strengthen the notion of migraine being a neuroinflammatory disease. In the clinical context, there is a paucity of knowledge and awareness among physicians regarding the role of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. Improved understanding of the molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of neurogenic inflammation may provide the practitioner the context-specific feedback to identify the novel and most effective therapeutic approach to treatment

  5. Reduction of Current Migraine Headache Pain Following Neck Massage and Spinal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Noudeh, Younes Jahangiri; Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Baradaran, Hamid R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Migraine headache significantly impacts the health of individuals and of society. The application of simple physical nonpharmacological techniques could greatly reduce the therapeutic costs and side effects in acute onset of such headaches. Methods Ten male patients (mean age was 32.0 ± 10.59 years) with acute onset of a migraine headache according to IHS-2004 diagnostic criteria were enrolled in the study. Neck and upper thoracic spine massage and manipulation technique was performed. Headache pain intensity was assessed before and after the intervention by means of a verbal analog scale. Results Following treatment, headache pain intensity was significantly reduced compared to the pretreatment values (1.85 ± 1.11 vs. 5.80 ± 2.25, p = .005). As a percentage, this represents a mean pain reduction of 68.77% ± 18.56. No side effects were observed, and all of the patients reported satisfaction with the intervention. Conclusion Our results show that the applied cervical and upper thoracic massage and manipulation technique could reduce the headache attack pain intensity in patients with migraine headaches, though further testing, including study designs that make use of control groups, is needed. PMID:22553478

  6. Pterostilbene as treatment for severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Ding, Y; Wu, J; Ning, B T

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) has a fast onset and progression, which lead to an unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, the development of novel drugs for its treatment is critical. As a homologous derivative of resveratrol, pterostilbene exerts a variety of effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor effects. This study investigated the potential of pterostilbene for treatment of severe AP (SAP) and related mechanisms. Effects of pterostilbene were evaluated in a Wistar rat model of AP. Serum levels of amylase (AMY), creatinine (Cr), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were quantified. Furthermore, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1b were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB expression in pancreatic tissues was quantified by real-time PCR and western blotting. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using a spectrometer, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was assayed. In the AP rat model, the expression of inflammatory markers TNF-a and IL-1b, expression of NF-kB, and serum indices (AMY, Cr, and ALT) increased compared to the corresponding levels in the control group (P < 0.05). Pterostilbene reduced serum levels of TNF-a and IL-1b; decreased NF-kB gene expression, serum indices, and ROS generation; and increased SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, pterostilbene can alleviate SAP-induced tissue damage by decreasing the inflammatory response and by promoting antioxidation leading to the protection of pancreatic tissues. PMID:27525946

  7. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele; Rabinov, James; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular thrombectomy is an effective treatment for major acute ischemic stroke syndromes caused by major anterior circulation artery occlusions (commonly referred to as large vessel occlusion) and is superior to intravenous thrombolysis and medical management. Treatment should occur as quickly as is reasonably possible. All patients with moderate to severe symptoms (National Institutes of Health stroke scale >8) and a treatable occlusion should be considered. The use of neuroimaging is critical to exclude hemorrhage and large ischemic cores. Very shortly after stroke onset (<3 hours) computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography provide sufficient information to proceed; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is less reliable during this early stage. After 3 hours from onset diffusion MRI is the most reliable method to define ischemic core size and should be used in centers that can offer it rapidly. Recanalization is highly effective with a stentriever or using a direct aspiration technique, with the patient awake or under conscious sedation rather than general anesthesia, if it may be performed safely. After thrombectomy the patient should be admitted to an intensive care setting and inpatient rehabilitation undertaken as soon as feasible. Patient outcomes should be assessed at 3 months, preferably using the modified Rankin score. PMID:27430469

  8. Renin angiotensin system: A novel target for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nandha, Ruchika; Singh, Harpal

    2012-03-01

    Migraine constitutes 16% of primary headaches affecting 10-20% of general population according to International Headache Society. Till now nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), opioids and triptans are the drugs being used for acute attack of migraine. Substances with proven efficacy for prevention include β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants. All the already available drugs have certain limitations. Either they are unable to produce complete relief or 30-40% patients are no responders or drugs produce adverse effects. This necessitates the search for more efficacious and well-tolerated drugs. A new class of drugs like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists have recently been studied for their off label use in prophylaxis of migraine. Studies, done so far, have shown results in favour of their clinical use because of the ability to reduce number of days with headache, number of days with migraine, hours with migraine, headache severity index, level of disability, improved Quality of life and decrease in consumption of specific or nonspecific analgesics. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs in prophylaxis of migraine and can give physician a direction to use these drugs for chronic migraineurs. Searches of pubmed, Cochrane database, Medscape, Google and clinicaltrial.org were made using terms like ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and migraine. Relevant journal articles were chosen to provide necessary information. PMID:22529467

  9. The Migraine-Stroke Connection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Chungbin; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2016-05-01

    Migraine and stroke are common neurovascular disorders which share underlying physiological processes. Increased risks of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and subclinical ischemic lesions have been consistently found in migraineurs. Three possible associations are suggested. One is that underlying pathophysiology of migraine can lead to ischemic stroke. Second, common comorbidities between migraine and stroke can be present. Lastly, some syndromes can manifest with both migraine-like headache and cerebrovascular disease. Future studies should be targeted on bidirectional influence of migraine on different stroke mechanisms and optimal prevention of stroke in migraine patients. PMID:27283278

  10. Exposure to Bisphenol A Exacerbates Migraine-Like Behaviors in a Multibehavior Model of Rat Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Nancy E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a common and debilitating neurological disorder suffered worldwide. Women experience this condition 3 times more frequently than men, with estrogen strongly implicated to play a role. Bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent xenoestrogen, is known to have estrogenic activity and may have an effect in migraine onset, intensity, and duration through estrogen receptor signaling. It was hypothesized that BPA exposure exacerbates migraine symptoms through estrogen signaling and downstream activation of nociception related pathways. Utilizing a multibehavior model of migraine in ovariectomized female rats, changes in locomotion, light and sound sensitivity, grooming, and acoustic startle were examined. Furthermore, changes in the expression of genes related to estrogen (ERα, GPR30), and nociception (extracellular signal regulated kinase, ERK, sodium gated channel, Nav1.8, and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH) were studied following behavioral experiments. The following results were obtained: BPA treatment significantly exacerbated migraine-like behaviors in rats. Rats exposed to BPA demonstrated decreased locomotion, exacerbated light and sound aversion, altered grooming habits, and enhanced startle reflexes. Furthermore, BPA exposure increased mRNA expression of estrogen receptors, total ERK mRNA and ERK activation, as well as Nav1.8, and FAAH mRNA, indicative of altered estrogen signaling and altered nociception. These results show that BPA, an environmentally pervasive xenoestrogen, exacerbates migraine-like behavior in a rat model and alters expression of estrogen and nociception-related genes. PMID:24189132

  11. Medications for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Modi, Seema; Lowder, Dionne M

    2006-01-01

    Sufficient evidence and consensus exist to recommend propranolol, timolol, amitriptyline, divalproex, sodium valproate, and topiramate as first-line agents for migraine prevention. There is fair evidence of effectiveness with gabapentin and naproxen sodium. Botulinum toxin also has demonstrated fair effectiveness, but further studies are needed to define its role in migraine prevention. Limited evidence is available to support the use of candesartan, lisinopril, atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, fluoxetine, magnesium, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), coenzyme Q10, and hormone therapy in migraine prevention. Data and expert opinion are mixed regarding some agents, such as verapamil and feverfew; these can be considered in migraine prevention when other medications cannot be used. Evidence supports the use of timed-release dihydroergotamine mesylate, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects. PMID:16417067

  12. Pathophysiology of migraine.

    PubMed

    Pietrobon, Daniela; Moskowitz, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a collection of perplexing neurological conditions in which the brain and its associated tissues have been implicated as major players during an attack. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, compelling evidence has led to the realization that migraine represents a highly choreographed interaction between major inputs from both the peripheral and central nervous systems, with the trigeminovascular system and the cerebral cortex among the main players. Advances in in vivo and in vitro technologies have informed us about the significance to migraine of events such as cortical spreading depression and activation of the trigeminovascular system and its constituent neuropeptides, as well as about the importance of neuronal and glial ion channels and transporters that contribute to the putative cortical excitatory/inhibitory imbalance that renders migraineurs susceptible to an attack. This review focuses on emerging concepts that drive the science of migraine in both a mechanistic direction and a therapeutic direction. PMID:23190076

  13. Stress and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder and poor socio-economic circumstances are known contributors to stress and its ... much! Please support the 36 Million Migraine Campaign today! Copyright © 2011 American Headache Society®. All rights reserved. ...

  14. Age-specific association of migraine with cryptogenic TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G.; Kuker, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. Methods: We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002–2012). Results: Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–2.16, p < 0.0001; cardioembolic 2.00, 1.50–2.66, p < 0.0001; large artery 1.75, 1.20–2.53, p = 0.003; small vessel 1.32, 0.95–1.83, p = 0.096). The association of migraine with cryptogenic events was independent of age, sex, and all measured vascular risk factors (RFs) (adjusted OR 1.68, 1.33–2.13, p < 0.0001) and was strongest at older ages (<55 years, OR 1.11, 0.55–2.23; 55–64 years, 1.48, 0.83–2.63; ≥65 years, 1.81, 1.39–2.36) and in patients without vascular RFs (0 RFs OR 2.62, 1.33–5.15; 1 RF 2.01, 1.35–3.01; 2 RFs 1.80, 1.21–2.68; 3 RFs 1.21, 0.71–2.07; 4 RFs 0.92, 0.28–2.99). Results were consistent for migraine with or without aura and for analyses excluding TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. Conclusions: In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. PMID:26423431

  15. Prodromes and predictors of migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paolo; Ambrosini, Anna; Buzzi, M Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Premonitory symptoms of migraine include a wide and heterogeneous collection of cognitive, psychic and physical changes preceding and forewarning of an attack by a few hours to 2-3 days. To date, premonitory symptoms have received little attention in the literature, being treated more as a curiosity than as a primary feature of migraine. This paper provides an extensive critical review of this neglected area of migraine research in the light of the recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of migraine. Epidemiological and clinical studies that have investigated the premonitory symptoms of migraine lack scientific rigour, producing conflicting results, whilst genetic and pathophysiological investigations are still in their very early stages. There is evidence supporting the idea that premonitory symptoms could be used as a phenotypical marker to identify subgroups of migraineurs which could show correlations with specific clinical expressions of the disease, genotypes, or responses to treatments. Future studies are needed to clarify the clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic significance of premonitory symptoms. PMID:16483459

  16. Targeting TRP Channels For Novel Migraine Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is increasingly understood to be a disorder of the brain. In susceptible individuals, a variety of “triggers” may influence altered central excitability, resulting in the activation and sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive afferents surrounding blood vessels (i.e., the trigeminovascular system), leading to migraine pain. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in a subset of dural afferents, including those containing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Activation of TRP channels promotes excitation of nociceptive afferent fibers and potentially lead to pain. In addition to pain, allodynia to mechanical and cold stimuli can result from sensitization of both peripheral afferents and of central pain pathways. TRP channels respond to a variety of endogenous conditions including chemical mediators and low pH. These channels can be activated by exogenous stimuli including a wide range of chemical and environmental irritants, some of which have been demonstrated to trigger migraine in humans. Activation of TRP channels can elicit CGRP release, and blocking the effects of CGRP through receptor antagonism or antibody strategies has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of migraine. Identification of approaches that can prevent activation of TRP channels provides an additional novel strategy for discovery of migraine therapeutics. PMID:25138211

  17. Management of vestibular migraine.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, Alexandre R

    2011-05-01

    Vestibular migraine is considered to be the second most common cause of vertigo and the most common cause of spontaneous episodic vertigo. The duration of attacks varies from seconds to days, usually lasting minutes to hours, and they mostly occur independently of headaches. Long-lasting individual attacks are treated with generic antivertiginous and antiemetic drugs. Specific antimigraine drugs are unlikely to be very effective for rescue. The mainstay of the management of vestibular migraine is prophylactic medication. To date, there are no controlled trials available; the body of knowledge builds on case series and retrospective or observational studies. Most drugs are also used for the prevention of migraine headaches. The choice of medication should be guided by its side effect profile and the comorbidities of patients. Betablockers such as propanolol or metoprolol are preferred in patients with hypertension but in the absence of asthma. Anticonvulsants include topiramate when patients are obese, valproic acid and lamotrigine. Lamotrigine is preferred if vertigo is more frequent than headaches. Calcium antagonists include verapamil and flunarizine. If patients have anxiety, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptiline or nortryptiline or SSRIs and benzodiazepines such as clonazepam are recommended. Acetazolamide is effective in rare genetic disorders related to migraine-like episodic ataxia; however, its place in vestibular migraine is still to be established. Nonpharmacological measures such as diet, sleep, hygiene and avoidance of triggers are recommended as they are for migraine. Vestibular rehabilitation might be useful when there are complications such as loss of confidence in balance or visual dependence. PMID:21694818

  18. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  19. [Intubation treatment of acute laryngeal obstruction: a case report].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingguang; Liu, Shibo; Li, Huilian

    2015-11-01

    Acute laryngeal obstruction is one of the most common diseases in Department of ENT, and it can cause suffocation without prompt treatment. Methods by using Nasopharyngofiberoscope guided tracheal intubation treatment of a case of acute laryngeal obstruction patients in a timely manner. This method is well tolerated, less trauma, high success rate, in the shortest time to improve the patient's ventilation, for the next step of the treatment to win the time. PMID:26911075

  20. CADASIL: Migraine, Encephalopathy, Stroke and Their Inter-Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Hugh Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine is common in Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) but its treatment responses are not well described, and its relationship to stroke risk unknown. Encephalopathy is a less common presentation; it has been suggested it is related to migraine. We characterised migraine patterns and treatment responses in CADASIL, and examined associations between migraine and both stroke risk and encephalopathy. Methods 300 symptomatic CADASIL patients were prospectively recruited from a national referral clinic over a nineteen year period, from 1996 to 2015. Data was collected using a standardised questionnaire. Migraine was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on the data collected. Results Migraine was present in 226 (75.3%), and the presenting feature in 203 (67.7%). It was usually accompanied by aura (89.8%). Patients showed variable responses to a variety of drugs for migraine. Of 24 given triptans, 45.5% had consistent or partial responses. None had complications following triptans. Thirty-three (11.0%) patients experienced encephalopathy lasting on average 8.1 ± 3.4 days. Patients with migraine with aura had higher odds of encephalopathy (OR = 5.4; 95%CI 1.6–28.4; p = 0.002). Patients with confusional aura had higher odds of encephalopathy than those with other aura types (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.0–5.8, p = 0.04). There was also no increase in risk of encephalopathy with sex or age at onset of migraine. Migraineurs had a lower stroke risk than non-migraineurs (HR = 0.46, 95%CI 0.3–0.6, p = 2.1x10-6). Conclusions Migraine with aura is a prominent feature of CADASIL. Treatment responses are similar to those seen in the general migraine population and no complications were observed with triptans. Migraine with aura was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy suggesting

  1. [Psychosomatic approach for chronic migraine].

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Masahiro

    2011-11-01

    From psychosomatic view point, the psychological or social stresses and depressive or anxiety disorders are very important factors in the course and the maintenance for migraine patients. These factors are very complex, and often lead the migraine becoming chronic. In the psychosomatic approach, not only the physical assessment for chronic migraine but also the assessments for stress and mental states are done. As the psychosomatic therapies for chronic migraine, autogenic training, biofeedback therapy and cognitive therapy are effective. PMID:22277516

  2. Hyperplastic polyps following treatment of acute gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, J; Fujimoto, K; Iwakiri, R; Koyama, T; Sakata, H; Ohyama, T; Mizuguchi, M; Tokunaga, O

    1994-06-01

    Although hyperplastic polyps are the most common polyps of the stomach, the etiology of these polyps is not completely understood. We report a 61-year-old woman who developed gastric hyperplastic polyps following acute gastric lesions. She was admitted for endoscopic injection sclerotherapy of esophageal varices. After the end of sclerotherapy, acute gastric lesions developed. For treatment of the lesions, omeprazole was used for 8 weeks followed by famotidine for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment, she developed multiple gastric hyperplastic polyps, suggesting that acute gastric lesions and/or treatment of the gastric lesions are related to the development of hyperplastic polyps in the stomach. PMID:7919626

  3. Vestibular Migraine (a.k.a.Migraine Associated Vertigo or [MAV])

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a Top Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Vestibular Migraine (a.k.a. Migraine Associated Vertigo or ... Wackym on his You Tube Channel. Migraine and vestibular dysfunction Approximately 40% of migraine patients have some ...

  4. Triptans for the management of migraine.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Mollie M; Rapoport, Alan M

    2010-08-20

    Migraine is a chronic, recurrent, disabling condition that affects millions of people in the US and worldwide. Proper acute care treatment for migraineurs is essential for a full return of function and productivity. Triptans are serotonin (5-HT)(1B/1D) receptor agonists that are generally effective, well tolerated and safe. Seven triptans are available worldwide, although not all are available in every country, with multiple routes of administration, giving doctors and patients a wide choice. Despite the similarities of the available triptans, pharmacological heterogeneity offers slightly different efficacy profiles. All triptans are superior to placebo in clinical trials, and some, such as rizatriptan 10 mg, eletriptan 40 mg, almotriptan 12.5 mg, and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg are very similar to each other and to the prototype triptan, sumatriptan 100 mg. These five are known as the fast-acting triptans. Increased dosing can offer increased efficacy but may confer a higher risk of adverse events, which are usually mild to moderate and transient in nature. This paper critically reviews efficacy, safety and tolerability for the different formulations of sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan, eletriptan and frovatriptan. PMID:20687618

  5. [Thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarct. 1].

    PubMed

    Soares-Costa, J T; Soares-Costa, T J; Gabriel, H M

    1998-05-01

    I-Rationale of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). II-Thrombolytic drugs. III-Effects of thrombolytic therapy on mortality. IV-Studies comparing the effects of various thrombolytic agents on mortality. PMID:9951051

  6. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Treatment in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment in adults (Beyond the Basics) Author Richard ... the content. Appropriately referenced content is required of all authors and must conform to UpToDate standards of ...

  7. The role of the blood–brain barrier in the development and treatment of migraine and other pain disorders

    PubMed Central

    DosSantos, Marcos F.; Holanda-Afonso, Rosenilde C.; Lima, Rodrigo L.; DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2014-01-01

    The function of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) related to chronic pain has been explored for its classical role in regulating the transcellular and paracellular transport, thus controlling the flow of drugs that act at the central nervous system, such as opioid analgesics (e.g., morphine) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nonetheless, recent studies have raised the possibility that changes in the BBB permeability might be associated with chronic pain. For instance, changes in the relative amounts of occludin isoforms, resulting in significant increases in the BBB permeability, have been demonstrated after inflammatory hyperalgesia. Furthermore, inflammatory pain produces structural changes in the P-glycoprotein, the major efflux transporter at the BBB. One possible explanation for these findings is the action of substances typically released at the site of peripheral injuries that could lead to changes in the brain endothelial permeability, including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and interleukin-1 beta. Interestingly, inflammatory pain also results in microglial activation, which potentiates the BBB damage. In fact, astrocytes and microglia play a critical role in maintaining the BBB integrity and the activation of those cells is considered a key mechanism underlying chronic pain. Despite the recent advances in the understanding of BBB function in pain development as well as its interference in the efficacy of analgesic drugs, there remain unknowns regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. In this review, we explore the connection between the BBB as well as the blood–spinal cord barrier and blood–nerve barrier, and pain, focusing on cellular and molecular mechanisms of BBB permeabilization induced by inflammatory or neuropathic pain and migraine. PMID:25339863

  8. The role of the blood-brain barrier in the development and treatment of migraine and other pain disorders.

    PubMed

    DosSantos, Marcos F; Holanda-Afonso, Rosenilde C; Lima, Rodrigo L; DaSilva, Alexandre F; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2014-01-01

    The function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) related to chronic pain has been explored for its classical role in regulating the transcellular and paracellular transport, thus controlling the flow of drugs that act at the central nervous system, such as opioid analgesics (e.g., morphine) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nonetheless, recent studies have raised the possibility that changes in the BBB permeability might be associated with chronic pain. For instance, changes in the relative amounts of occludin isoforms, resulting in significant increases in the BBB permeability, have been demonstrated after inflammatory hyperalgesia. Furthermore, inflammatory pain produces structural changes in the P-glycoprotein, the major efflux transporter at the BBB. One possible explanation for these findings is the action of substances typically released at the site of peripheral injuries that could lead to changes in the brain endothelial permeability, including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and interleukin-1 beta. Interestingly, inflammatory pain also results in microglial activation, which potentiates the BBB damage. In fact, astrocytes and microglia play a critical role in maintaining the BBB integrity and the activation of those cells is considered a key mechanism underlying chronic pain. Despite the recent advances in the understanding of BBB function in pain development as well as its interference in the efficacy of analgesic drugs, there remain unknowns regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. In this review, we explore the connection between the BBB as well as the blood-spinal cord barrier and blood-nerve barrier, and pain, focusing on cellular and molecular mechanisms of BBB permeabilization induced by inflammatory or neuropathic pain and migraine. PMID:25339863

  9. Acute dental pain, Part II: Diagnosis and emergency treatment.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, J R

    1990-09-01

    Part II of this two-part series differentiates and explores endodontic-related emergencies with reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Indications and contra-indications for vital pulp therapy are explained, and treatment is outlined. The inflammatory process involved in irreversible pulpal disease is summarized, and the clinical signs, symptoms, and treatment of irreversible pulpitis (with and without acute periradicular involvement, with pulp necrosis, and acute periradicular abscess with and without cellulitis) are discussed. PMID:2097056

  10. [Galvanic current in the conservative treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, A V; Iftodiĭ, A G; Stoliar, V F

    1990-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on 42 adult dogs with a model of acute pancreatitis to study the degree of antibiotic storage in the pancreatic tissue in different variants of intralesional+ electrophoresis. Optimum concentration of the antibiotic was produced in transverse galvanization of the zone of the pancreas. Clinical observations over 63 patients with various forms of acute pancreatitis bear evidence that the method raises the efficacy of nonoperative treatment in the oedematous stage of the process and reduces the duration of treatment. PMID:2283730

  11. Migraine and metaphor.

    PubMed

    Haan, Joost

    2013-01-01

    The metaphors of migraine make it a challenging source of inspiration for writers of fiction. The visual aura is a hallucination, the outside world - the so-called 'reality' - is distorted. The excruciating pain can stand for horror, punishment, and fate. Photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia underline visual, acoustic, and olfactoric stimuli. The protagonist sees, hears, and smells more, but not always better. Paradoxically, this increased awareness of 'reality' results in a need to seek isolation. Often, the end of a migraine attack is like a rescue. Immediately after an attack the fear of the next one begins. As migraine is hereditary, there are also aspects of solidarity, but shame and blame are nearby. PMID:23485897

  12. The Impacts of Migraine among Outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder at a Two-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Yang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    Background No study has investigated the impacts of migraine on depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and remission at the two-year follow-up point among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the above issues. Methods Psychiatric outpatients with MDD recruited at baseline were investigated at a two-year follow-up (N = 106). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale were used. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. The patients were divided into no migraine, inactive migraine, and active migraine subgroups. Multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate the significant factors related to full remission of depression. Results Among patients without pharmacotherapy at the follow-up, patients with active migraine had significantly greater severities of anxiety and somatic symptoms as compared with patients without migraine; moreover, patients with active migraine had the lowest improvement percentage and full remission rate. There were no significant differences in depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms between patients with inactive migraine and those without migraine. Active headache at follow-up was a significant factor related to a lower full remission rate. Conclusions Active headache at follow-up was associated with a lower rate of full remission and more residual anxiety and somatic symptoms at follow-up among patients with migraine. Physicians should integrate a treatment plan for depression and migraine for the treatment of patients with MDD. PMID:26000962

  13. Animal models of monogenic migraine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Tolner, Else A; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder with a strong genetic component. Rare monogenic forms of migraine, or syndromes in which migraine frequently occurs, help scientists to unravel pathogenetic mechanisms of migraine and its comorbidities. Transgenic mouse models for rare monogenic mutations causing familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome (FASPS), have been created. Here, we review the current state of research using these mutant mice. We also discuss how currently available experimental approaches, including epigenetic studies, biomolecular analysis and optogenetic technologies, can be used for characterization of migraine genes to further unravel the functional and molecular pathways involved in migraine. PMID:27154999

  14. Prophylaxis of migraine in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    While it has been established that headaches in the pediatric age group are relatively common, the characterization of headache disorders and their treatment in this group has historically been limited. Due to the paucity of controlled studies on prophylaxis of the primary headache disorders in children, the diagnosis of migraine often rests on criteria similar to those used in adults. Data from adult studies are often extrapolated and applied to the pediatric patient. Although it appears that many prophylactic agents are safe, well tolerated and efficacious in children, currently only topiramate is FDA-approved for use in patients 12 years and over. As a result, despite often experiencing significant disability, many children who present to their physician with migraines do not receive preventive therapy. One-third of adolescents meet the criteria for warranting prophylactic therapy, yet few are offered a preventative medication. Moreover, controlled clinical trials investigating the use of both abortive and prophylactic medications in children have suffered from high placebo response rates. A diverse group of medications are used to prevent migraine attacks, including antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines and antihypertensive agents, yet there still remains a serious lack of controlled studies on the pharmacological treatment of pediatric migraine. PMID:25792525

  15. Diagnosis and management of migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth C

    2004-11-01

    Migraine headaches afflict approximately 6% of men and 18% of women in the United States, and cost billions of dollars each year in lost productivity, absenteeism, and direct medical expendi tures. Despite its prevalence and the availability of therapeutic op tions, many patients do not seek treatment, and among those who do, a significant portion are misdiagnosed. Correct diagnosis can be made by identifying the historic and physical examination finding that distinguish primary headache disorders from secondary head ache disorders, as well as the key clinical features that distinguis migraine headaches from other types. Once diagnosis is made, im proper or inadequate management of headache pain, related symp toms such as nausea, and the possible aggravating side-effects of pharmacologic therapies represent further obstacles to effective ther apy. Dissatisfaction with migraine therapy on the basis of these factors is common. Among abortive therapy options there are de livery methods available which may avoid aggravating symptom such as nausea. Recommended pharmacologic agents include non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intranasal butorphanol, ergota mine and its derivatives, and the triptans. Indications for prophylac tic in addition to abortive therapy include the occurrence o headaches that require abortive therapy more than twice a week, tha do not respond well to abortive therapy, and which are particularly severe. Research is ongoing in the pathophysiology of migraines evaluation of nonpharmacologic treatment modalities, assessment of new drug therapies, and validation of headache guidelines. PMID:15586597

  16. Functioning of Women with Migraine Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata; Czajkowska, Agrypina; Hudaś, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Migraines are one of the most commonly occurring ailments affecting the nervous system. The aim of this research paper was to evaluate the effect migraines have on the everyday functioning of women. Method. The study involved women with diagnosed migraine headaches (IHS-2004) undergoing treatment at a neurological clinic. In order to evaluate the influence of headaches on the everyday functioning of women, a MSQ v.2 questionnaire was used, whereas pain severity was assessed on a linear VAS scale. Results. Among the clinical factors, the most influential was the frequency of headaches. Headache duration was particularly significant for women below the age of 40. Pain severity cited at 8–10 pts on the VAS significantly disrupted and limited everyday functioning. On the emotional function subscale, the most influential factors were age, education, and the frequency of headaches. Conclusions. On account of headache frequency emerging as the most significant influencing factor, it is of the utmost importance to inform patients of the value of taking prophylactic measures. Central to this is the identification of factors that trigger the onset of migraines. This approach would greatly aid the individual in choosing the appropriate treatment, either pharmacological or others. PMID:25133238

  17. Resolution of chronic migraine headaches with intrathecal ziconotide: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Sachin; Al-Khoury, Lama; Chang, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Migraine headaches are a common and functionally debilitating disorder affecting approximately 17% of women and 5.6% of men. Compared to episodic migraine patients, chronic migraineurs are more likely to be occupationally disabled, miss family activities, have comorbid anxiety and/or chronic pain disorders, and utilize significantly more health care dollars. Ziconotide is a calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of chronic severe pain without issues of tolerance or dependency found with opioid therapy. Case A 59-year-old female had an intrathecal baclofen pump placed for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis. Her symptoms also included lower extremity neuropathic pain and severe migraine headaches with 22 migraine headache days per month. Prior treatments included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, and Botox injections which reduced her symptoms to four migraine days per month at best. While her spasticity had markedly improved with intrathecal baclofen, ziconotide was added to help her neuropathic pain complaints. Following initiation of low-dose ziconotide (1 µg/day), the patient noted both lower extremity pain improvement and complete resolution of migraine headaches resulting in zero migraine days per month. She has now been migraine free for 8 months. Conclusion Upon review of the available literature, there are no published cases of migraine improvement with intrathecal ziconotide. This represents the first case describing resolution of migraine symptoms with low-dose ziconotide. PMID:26392785

  18. [Acute pain in children and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Dalens, B

    1991-01-01

    Pain in paediatrics has long been underestimated. The numerous scientific studies carried out during the last decade show that its existence can no longer be doubted: in fact, pain already exists during the neonatal period, and probably throughout the last trimester of gestation as well. Pain pathways mature during the embryonic period and peripheral receptors develop between the 7th and 20th week. A-delta and C fibers, as well as spinal roots and nerves, are completely differentiated before the end of the second month. The development of specific neurotransmitters and thalamic and cortical dendritic branching occurs later on; it is well enough developed to allow perception of painful stimuli (slow or protopathic component) from the beginning of the foetal period onwards. The discriminative rapid component develops in parallel to myelinisation, and the psycho-affective component, which requires a long and complex learning process, will not be fully operative until the end of puberty. Assessing pain, already a difficult task in the adult, is all the more so in children because of lesser verbal communicative capabilities, difficulty in handling abstract concepts, lack of experience of painful stimuli to make comparisons, and ignorance of their body image. In the very young child, diagnosing pain relies on suggestive circumstances, and an altered behaviour, knowing that no one symptom in pathognomonic. As the child grows up, methods for self-assessment of pain become usable, such as coloured scales and simplified verbal scales. However, behavioural tests remain the mainstay until the prepubertal period. The treatment of acute pain requires a reasoned approach which takes into account the state of the child, that of the aetiological investigations, the likely course of the lesions, as well as the patient's analgesic requirements. Therapeutic means do not differ from those for adult patients; however, the differences of distribution of body water, the small

  19. Guidelines for the nonpharmacologic management of migraine in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Pryse-Phillips, W E; Dodick, D W; Edmeads, J G; Gawel, M J; Nelson, R F; Purdy, R A; Robinson, G; Stirling, D; Worthington, I

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide physicians and allied health care professionals with guidelines for the nonpharmacologic management of migraine in clinical practice. OPTIONS: The full range and quality of nonpharmacologic therapies available for the management of migraine. OUTCOMES: Improvement in the nonpharmacologic management of migraine. EVIDENCE AND VALUES: The creation of the guidelines followed a needs assessment by members of the Canadian Headache Society and included a statement of objectives; development of guidelines by multidisciplinary working groups using information from literature reviews and other resources; comparison of alternative clinical pathways and description of how published data were analysed; definition of the level of evidence for data in each case; evaluation and revision of the guidelines at a consensus conference held in Ottawa on Oct. 27-29, 1995; redrafting and insertion of tables showing key variables and data from various studies and tables of data with recommendations; and reassessment by all conference participants. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Augmentation of the use of nonpharmacologic therapies for the acute and prophylactic management of migraine is likely to lead to substantial benefits in both human and economic terms. RECOMMENDATIONS: Both the avoidance of migraine trigger factors and the use of nonpharmacologic therapies have a part to play in overall migraine management. VALIDATION: The guidelines are based on consensus of Canadian experts in neurology, emergency medicine, psychiatry, psychology and family medicine, and consumers. Previous guidelines did not exist. Field testing of the guidelines is in progress. PMID:9679487

  20. Fast relief from migraine attacks using fast-disintegrating sublingual zolmitriptan tablets.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Azza A; Salah, Salwa

    2012-06-01

    Zolmitriptan is a potent molecule for treatment of migraine. Its current oral therapies present drawbacks such as slow onset of action, low bioavailability and large inter-subject variability. Fast disintegrating sublingual zolmitriptan tablet (FDST) using freeze-drying technique has been developed to enhance tablet disintegration and dissolution with the intention of speeding drug absorption and onset of effect, hence mitigating the effects on the gastrointestinal dysmotility that typically accompanies the migraine attack. The FDSTs were prepared using different concentrations of gelatin as binder and mannitol or L-alanine as matrix supporting/disintegration enhancing agents. The effect of formulation variables on the physicochemical and solid-state properties, as well as the dissolution behaviour of the tablets, was studied. The formulated FDSTs disintegrated within 30 s and showed significantly faster dissolution rate of zolmitriptan compared to the zolmitriptan oral tablet. Tablet containing 2% gelatin and mannitol showed acceptable weight variation, drug content and friability values. Furthermore, it had a low in-vitro and in-vivo disintegration time (11 s) and it reached 100% of drug release within 30 s. This sublingual formulation gave faster and higher zolmitriptan plasma concentration in rabbits compared to the oral zolmetriptan market product. Zolmitriptan FDST may therefore constitute an advance in the management of acute migraine attacks. PMID:22023340

  1. Colon Cancer After Acute Diverticulitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Je Hoon; Choi, Kyu Un; Han, Myung Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulitis is the most common clinical complication of diverticular disease, affecting 10-25% of the patients with diverticula. The prevalences of diverticulitis and colon cancer tend to increase with age and are higher in industrialized countries. Consequently, diverticulitis and colon cancer have been reported to have similar epidemiological characteristics. However, the relationship between these diseases remains controversial, as is the performance of routine colonoscopy after an episode of diverticulitis to exclude colon cancer. Recently, we experienced three cases of colon cancer after treating acute diverticulitis, based on which we suggest the importance of follow-up colonoscopy after acute diverticulitis. PMID:24032118

  2. Migraine pathophysiology and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, S D

    2004-01-01

    The vascular hypothesis of migraine has now been superseded by a more integrated theory that involves both vascular and neuronal components. It has been demonstrated that the visual aura experienced by some migraineurs arises from cortical spreading depression, and that this neuronal event may also activate perivascular nerve afferents, leading to vasodilation and neurogenic inflammation of the meningeal blood vessels and, thus, throbbing pain. The involvement of the parasympathetic system supplying the meninges also causes increased vasodilation and pain. As an acute attack progresses, sensory neurones in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis become sensitized, resulting in the phenomenon of cutaneous allodynia. Triptans may act at several points during the progression of a migraine attack. However, the development of central sensitization impacts upon the effectiveness of triptan therapy. PMID:15595988

  3. Clinical pharmacokinetics of almotriptan, a serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist for the treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    McEnroe, Janet D; Fleishaker, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of almotriptan are linear over a range of oral doses up to 200mg in healthy volunteers. The compound has a half-life of approximately 3 hours. Almotriptan is well absorbed after oral administration and the mean absolute bioavailability is 69.1%. Maximal plasma concentrations are achieved between 1.5 and 4 hours after dose administration; however, within 1 hour after administration, plasma concentrations are approximately 68% of the value at 3 hours after administration. Food does not significantly affect almotriptan absorption. Almotriptan is not highly protein bound and is extensively distributed in the body. Approximately 50% of an almotriptan dose is excreted unchanged in the urine; this is the predominant single mechanism of elimination. Renal clearance is mediated, in part, through active tubular secretion, while the balance of the almotriptan dose is metabolised to inactive compounds. The predominant route of metabolism is via monoamine oxidase-A, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated oxidation (via CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) occurs to a minor extent. Almotriptan clearance is moderately reduced in elderly subjects, but the magnitude of this effect does not warrant a dose reduction. Sex has no significant effect on almotriptan pharmacokinetics. Almotriptan pharmacokinetic parameters do not differ between adolescents and adults, and absorption is not affected during a migraine attack. As expected, renal dysfunction results in reduced clearance of almotriptan. Patients with moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction should use the lowest dose of almotriptan and the total daily dose should not exceed 12.5 mg. Similar dosage recommendations are valid for patients with hepatic impairment, based on the clearance mechanisms for almotriptan. Drug-drug interaction studies were conducted between almotriptan and the following compounds: fluoxetine, moclobemide, propranolol, verapamil and ketoconazole. No significant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions

  4. Preferential occurrence of attacks during night sleep and/or upon awakening negatively affects migraine clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Sara; Lucchesi, Cinzia; Baldacci, Filippo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is well known that migraine attacks can preferentially occur during night sleep and/or upon awakening, however the possible implications of this timing on migraine clinical presentation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the possible consequences of sleep-related migraine (defined as ≥75% of migraine attacks occurring during night sleep and/or upon awakening) on the migraine clinical picture (i.e. migraine-related disability, attack severity, use of symptomatic drugs), subjective sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Two hundred consecutive migraine without aura patients were enrolled; patients with comorbid disorders or chronic medication use were excluded. 39% of the migraineurs included in the study received a diagnosis of sleep-related migraine. The mean frequency of migraine attacks (days per month) did not significantly differ between the patients with and those without sleep-related migraine, whereas migraine-related disability (p<0.0001), mean attack severity (p<0.0001), and monthly intake of symptomatic drugs (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with migraine preferentially occurring at night-time and/or upon awakening. Subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas fatigue was significantly more present in the patients with sleep-related migraine (p=0.0001). These data seem to support the hypothesis that patients with sleep-related migraine represent a subset of individuals with a more severe and disabling clinical presentation of migraine and greater impairment of daily functioning, as suggested by the higher degree of fatigue. Migraineurs with night-time attacks also showed a greater use of symptomatic drugs, possibly related to delayed use of symptomatic treatment. The identification of subtypes of patients with a higher disability risk profile could have crucial implications for individually tailored management of

  5. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnik, Yair; Plakht, Ygal; Aven, Anna; Engel, Yael; Am, Neta Bar; Ifergane, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term “delayed alcohol-induced headache” is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS)). Subjects were classified as suffering from migraine with or without aura and nonsufferers according the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition (ICHD-II). The 13 hangover symptoms were divided by the researches into migraine-like and other nonmigraine-like symptoms. Results: Hangover symptoms among 95 migraine sufferers and 597 nonsufferers were compared. Migraine sufferers consumed less alcohol compared with the nonsufferers (mean drinks/week 2.34 ± 4.11 vs. 2.92 ± 3.58, P = 0.038) and suffered from higher tendency to migraine-like symptoms after drinking (mean 2.91 ± 3.43 vs. 1.85 ± 2.35, P = 0.002) but not to other hangover symptoms (mean 5.39 ± 6.31 vs. 4.34 ± 4.56, P = 0.1). Conclusions: Migraine sufferers consume less alcohol, especially beer and liquors, and are more vulnerable to migraine-like hangover symptoms than nonsufferers. The finding that the tendency to develop migraine attacks affects the hangover symptomatology may suggest a similarity in pathophysiology, and possibly in treatment options. PMID:24966549

  6. Higher profile for migraine management spurs boom in DM offerings.

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    With more employers taking an interest in DM, the economic case has been broadened to include such factors as absenteeism and worker productivity. This trend has prompted many organizations to take a new look at managing migraines. Surveys suggest these debilitating headaches arc responsible for millions in lost productivity, and yet there are several effective treatment strategies. Further, developers believe even modest migraine DM programs can deliver an ROI. PMID:15822369

  7. Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine: a study protocol of a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). Method and analysis According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT. Participants will be randomised into one of three groups: CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of the intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is migraine frequency, while migraine duration, migraine intensity, headache index (frequency x duration x intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end points. Primary analysis will assess a change in migraine frequency from baseline to the end of the intervention and follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Owing to two group comparisons, p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end points and analyses, a p value below 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The RCT will follow the clinical trial guidelines from the International Headache Society. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services have approved the project. Procedure will be conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki. The results will be published at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01741714. PMID:26586317

  8. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Print Email Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients ACHE Newsletter Sign ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, ...

  9. MIDAS (The Migraine Disability Assessment Test)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Headache Experts Information for Patients American Headache & Migraine Association Articles Patient Handouts Kids Help Patient to ... and Support Sites Clinical Trials for Headache and Migraine Articles on the Web Publications on Migraine and ...

  10. Closing remarks: what future prospects can we expect in migraine management?

    PubMed

    Purdy, R A

    2013-05-01

    The future prospects that we can expect in migraine management are both exciting and challenging. Obviously, the future cannot be predicted fully; however, the science related to migraine pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment has increased exponentially over the past two decades and continues to direct future research and clinical care. More than any time in the recent past, it now may be more possible to define better what migraine is and how it relates to other neurological disorders and other diseases. This overview will look at future prospects for management of migraine and how they relate to the migraine diathesis, and ways that might provide a better understanding of how it might be possible to calm the excitable brain. This meeting examined potential future developments in the management of migraine patients, with emphasis on disability, quality of life, and the role of patient personality in episodic and chronic migraine with substance/analgesic overuse. This meeting precedes the main theme of the seminar, which explores the relationships between pain, emotion and headache in light of recent findings, which show that pain and emotion are closely interrelated and contribute to the pathophysiology of headache. Thus, it is important to understand about future migraine management prospects in terms of known migraine pathophysiology, as current data provide support for the concept that migraine is a brain disorder. PMID:23695039

  11. Treatment of headache.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S; Freitag, F G

    1989-01-01

    Headache is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Approximately 45 million people in the United States experience chronic headaches. The management of migraine headache involves both pharmacologic and nondrug therapy. Drug therapy for migraine involves the use of abortive and prophylactic agents. Abortive agents, such as ergotamine tartrate and ketoprofen, may be used to relieve the acute attack. Prophylactic therapy is focused on reducing the frequency and severity of the attacks. beta-Adrenergic blocking agents, such as propranolol, remain the primary agents for many migraine patients, although other drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ketoprofen, or calcium-channel blocking agents, such as verapamil, may be beneficial for many patients. For cluster headache and its variants, methysergide and corticosteroids are usually the drugs of choice. Patients with chronic cluster headache may achieve good results from long-term treatment with other therapies, including lithium carbonate, verapamil, and ketoprofen. PMID:2520442

  12. Extracorporeal photopheresis in prevention and treatment of acute GVHD.

    PubMed

    Kitko, Carrie L; Levine, John E

    2015-04-01

    Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), occurs in as many as 70% of recipients of this life saving treatment. Front line therapy for GVHD with corticosteroids will fail in up to 40% of patients, which leads to high morbidity and mortality. Traditional prevention and treatment strategies have focused on reducing alloreactivity, typically with therapy to reduce cytotoxic T-cell function. Emerging evidence exists that promotion of regularly T-cell function, through treatments such as extracorporeal photopheresis, is effective for GVHD treatment and has potential for prevention as well. This review will focus on literature reporting the success of ECP for steroid refractory acute GVHD and the potential for delivery of ECP in the early pre and post-transplant periods that shows promise as a less immunosuppressive strategy to reduce rates of acute GVHD. PMID:25748231

  13. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  14. Neurodevelopmental Sequelae of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Its Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Laura A.; Spiegler, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    This review will describe the neurocognitive outcomes associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its treatment. The literature is reviewed with the aim of addressing methodological issues, treatment factors, risks and moderators, special populations, relationship to neuroimaging findings, and directions for future research.…

  15. Treatment of acute silicoproteinosis by whole-lung lavage.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Marshall; Cappa, Anthony; Weyant, Michael; Lara, Abigail; Ellis, James; Weitzel, Nathaen S; Puskas, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Acute silicoproteinosis is a rare disease that occurs following a heavy inhalational exposure to silica dusts. Clinically, it resembles pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP); silica exposure is thought to be a cause of secondary PAP. We describe a patient with biopsy-confirmed acute silicoproteinosis whose course was complicated by acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Without clinical improvement despite antibiotic and steroid treatment, the patient was scheduled for whole-lung lavage under general anesthesia. Anesthetic challenges included double-lumen tube placement and single-lung ventilation in a hypoxic patient, facilitating lung lavage, and protecting the contralateral lung from catastrophic spillage. PMID:23632425

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of the visual cortex: a proof-of-concept study based on interictal electrophysiological abnormalities in migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventive pharmacotherapy for migraine is not satisfactory because of the low efficacy/tolerability ratio of many available drugs. Novel and more efficient preventive strategies are therefore warranted. Abnormal excitability of cortical areas appears to play a pivotal role in migraine pathophysiology. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive and safe technique that is able to durably modulate the activity of the underlying cerebral cortex, and is being tested in various medical indications. The results of small open studies using tDCS in migraine prophylaxis are conflicting, possibly because the optimal stimulation settings and the brain targets were not well chosen. We have previously shown that the cerebral cortex, especially the visual cortex, is hyperresponsive in migraine patients between attacks and provided evidence from evoked potential studies that this is due to a decreased cortical preactivation level. If one accepts this concept, anodal tDCS over the visual cortex may have therapeutic potentials in migraine prevention, as it is able to increase neuronal firing. Objective To study the effects of anodal tDCS on visual cortex activity in healthy volunteers (HV) and episodic migraine without aura patients (MoA), and its potentials for migraine prevention. Methods We recorded pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP) before and after a 15-min session of anodal tDCS over the visual cortex in 11 HV and 13 MoA interictally. Then 10 MoA patients reporting at least 4 attacks/month subsequently participated in a therapeutic study, and received 2 similar sessions of tDCS per week for 8 weeks as migraine preventive therapy. Results In HV as well as in MoA, anodal tDCS transiently increased habituation of the VEP N1P1 component. VEP amplitudes were not modified by tDCS. Preventive treatment with anodal tDCS turned out to be beneficial in MoA: migraine attack frequency, migraine days, attack duration and acute medication

  17. Low brain magnesium in migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadan, N.M.; Halvorson, H.; Vande-Linde, A.; Levine, S.R.; Helpern, J.A.; Welch, K.M.

    1989-10-01

    Brain magnesium was measured in migraine patients and control subjects using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. pMg and pH were calculated from the chemical shifts between Pi, PCr and ATP signals. Magnesium levels were low during a migraine attack without changes in pH. We hypothesize that low brain magnesium is an important factor in the mechanism of the migraine attack.

  18. Faropenem medoxomil: a treatment option in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hadley, James A; Tillotson, Glenn S; Tosiello, Robert; Echols, Roger M

    2006-12-01

    Faropenem medoxomil is the first oral penem in a new class of beta-lactam antibiotics. Faropenem medoxomil has excellent in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and other key pathogens implicated in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Clinical studies have demonstrated that, in the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults, 7 days of treatment with faropenem medoxomil is as clinically and bacteriologically effective as 10 days of treatment with cefuroxime axetil. One study showed faropenem medoxomil to be superior to cefuroxime axetil. Overall, the safety profile of faropenem medoxomil is similar to that of most comparators. Specifically, the minimal impact of faropenem medoxomil on the gastrointestinal flora leads to less diarrhea and other adverse events than coamoxicillin-clavulanate. Faropenem medoxomil has almost no drug-drug interactions and little requirement for dosage adjustments in the typical acute rhinosinusitis population. PMID:17181408

  19. Migraine and sleep: new connections.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Andrew H; Goadsby, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    "Attack" is often a word associated with migraine, and for good reason. If you suffer from migraine headaches or know someone who does, you are well aware of its crippling nature. This story focuses on new research that has uncovered an important link between migraine and sleep patterns. A better understanding of the relationships among the body's circadian rhythms, the brain's hypothalamus, and a mutated gene holds enormous promise of improved care for the more than 36 million Americans who experience migraine (three times more common in women) and the number of people suffering from familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASP). PMID:24765233

  20. Intravenous migraine therapy in children with posttraumatic headache in the ED☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven; Kurowski, Brad; Byczkowski, Terri; Timm, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 3.8 million children sustain traumatic brain injuries annually. Treatment of posttraumatic headache (PTH) in the emergency department (ED) is variable, and benefits are unclear. Objective The objective of the study is to determine if intravenous migraine therapy reduces pain scores in children with PTH and factors associated with improved response. Methods This was a retrospective study of children, 8 to 21 years old, presenting to a tertiary pediatric ED with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and PTH from November 2009 to June 2013. Inclusion criteria were mTBI (defined by diagnosis codes) within 14 days of ED visit, headache, and administration of one or more intravenous medications: ketorolac, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, and ondansetron. Primary outcome was treatment success defined by greater than or equal to 50% pain score reduction during ED visit. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine predictors of treatment success: age, sex, migraine or mTBI history, time since injury, ED head computed tomographic (CT) imaging, and pretreatment with oral analgesics. Results A total of 254 patients were included. Mean age was 13.8 years, 51% were female, 80% were white, mean time since injury was 2 days, and 114 patients had negative head CTs. Eighty-six percent of patients had treatment success with 52% experiencing complete resolution of headache. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who had a head CT were less likely to respond (80% vs 91%; P = .008). Conclusions Intravenous migraine therapy reduces PTH pain scores for children presenting within 14 days after mTBI. Further prospective work is needed to determine long-term benefits of acute PTH treatment in the ED. PMID:25676851

  1. Comparison of two main treatment modalities for acute ankle sprain

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Durusu, Murat; Aliyev, Bahtiyar; Akpancar, Serkan; Ersen, Omer; Yasar, S.Mehmet; Ardic, Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acute ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in emergency departments. Immobilization is widely accepted as the basic treatment modality for acute ankle sprains; however, immobilization method remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare two treatment modalities: splint and elastic bandage for the management of acute ankle sprains. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the emergency department. Fifty-one consecutive patients who were admitted to the emergency department owing to the complaint of ankle sprain and who were treated with an elastic bandage or a splint were included in the study. After bone injury was ruled out, treatment choice was left to the on-shift physicians’ discretion. The extent of edema was evaluated before and after the treatment by using a small, graduated container filled with warm water. Volume differences were calculated by immersing both lower extremities in a container filled to a constant level. Pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale. Results: There were 25 patients in the elastic bandage group and 26 patients in the splint group. VAS scores of these groups before and after the treatment were similar. Although edema size before and after the treatment were similar between the groups, edema size reduction was significantly more in the elastic bandage group [p=0,025]. Conclusions: This study showed that treatment of acute ankle sprains with an elastic bandage was more effective than splint in reducing edema. Therefore, an elastic bandage could be preferred over a splint for the treatment of acute ankle sprains. PMID:26870123

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appleton, Paul T; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data. PMID:26460664

  3. [Treatment of the acute diverticulitis: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Dréanic, Johann; Sion, Elena; Dhooge, Marion; Dousset, Bertrand; Camus, Marine; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2015-11-01

    Acute diverticulitis is a common disease with increasing incidence. In most of cases, diagnosis is made at an uncomplicated stage offering a curative attempt under medical treatment and use of antibiotics. There is a risk of diverticulitis recurrence. Uncomplicated diverticulitis is opposed to complicated forms (perforation, abscess or fistula). Recent insights in the pathophysiology of diverticulitis, the natural history, and treatments have permitted to identify new treatment strategies. For example, the use of antibiotics tends to decrease; surgery is now less invasive, percutaneous drainage is preferred, peritoneal lavage is encouraged. Treatments of the diverticulitis are constantly evolving. In this review, we remind the pathophysiology and natural history, and summarize new recommendations for the medical and surgical treatment of acute diverticulitis. PMID:26358668

  4. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  5. Common Genetic Influences Underlie Comorbidity of Migraine and Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Nyholt, Dale R.; Gillespie, Nathan G.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Treloar, Susan A.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the co-occurrence of migraine and endometriosis within the largest known collection of families containing multiple women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and in an independent sample of 815 monozygotic and 457 dizygotic female twin pairs. Within the endometriosis families, a significantly increased risk of migrainous headache was observed in women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.21, P = 0.009). Bivariate heritability analyses indicated no evidence for common environmental factors influencing either migraine or endometriosis but significant genetic components for both traits, with heritability estimates of 69 and 49%, respectively. Importantly, a significant additive genetic correlation (rG = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.06–0.47) and bivariate heritability (h2 = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.08–0.27) was observed between migraine and endometriosis. Controlling for the personality trait neuroticism made little impact on this association. These results confirm the previously reported comorbidity between migraine and endometriosis and indicate common genetic influences completely explain their co-occurrence within individuals. Given pharmacological treatments for endometriosis typically target hormonal pathways and a number of findings provide support for a relationship between hormonal variations and migraine, hormone-related genes and pathways are highly plausible candidates for both migraine and endometriosis. Therefore, taking into account the status of both migraine and endometriosis may provide a novel opportunity to identify the genes underlying them. Finally, we propose that the analysis of such genetically correlated comorbid traits can increase power to detect genetic risk loci through the use of more specific, homogenous and heritable phenotypes. PMID:18636479

  6. Resilience in migraine brains: decrease of coherence after photic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça-de-Souza, Mayara; Monteiro, Ubirakitan M.; Bezerra, Amana S.; Silva-de-Oliveira, Ana P.; Ventura-da-Silva, Belvânia R.; Barbosa, Marcelo S.; de Souza, Josiane A.; Criado, Elisângela C.; Ferrarezi, Maria C. M.; Alencar, Giselly de A.; Lins, Otávio G.; Coriolano, Maria das G. W. S.; Costa, Belmira L. S. A.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: During migraine attacks, patients generally have photophobia and phonophobia and seek for environments with less sensorial stimulation. Present work aimed to quantify cortical partial directed coherence (PDC) of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from migraine patients and controls in occipital, parietal, and frontal areas with or without photic stimulation. Our hypothesis is that migraine patients with visual aura might have neuronal networks with higher coherence than controls even in interictal periods due to a predisposition in sensory cortical processing. Methods: Eleven adult women with migraine with visual aura (at least 48 h without previous attacks) and seven healthy adult woman were submitted to EEG recording in basal state and during photic stimulation. Results: When compared to healthy volunteers, migraine patients show different coherence profiles. Migraine patients had greater coherence than controls during the basal period (without photic stimulation), showing predisposition for sensory processing in many frequency ranges. After photic stimulation, patients showed a decrease in cortical coherence while controls had an increase. Conclusions: When compared to healty subjects, migraineurs show increased cortical coherence before photic stimulation, but a decrease when stimulation starts. This may be the expression of a resilience mechanism that allows migraineurs the interictal period. The PDC analysis permits to address a patient coherence profile, or “coherence map,” that can be utilized for management of the headache disorder or following up treatments. PMID:22837743

  7. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  8. Epidemiology and Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Rego, E.M.; Jácomo, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct epidemiological characteristics have been described in Acute Promielocytic Leukemia (APL). Populations from Latin America have a higher incidence of APL and in some geographic areas a distinct distribution of the PML-RARA isoforms is present. Here, we review the main differences in APL epidemilogy in Latin America as well as treatment outcomes. PMID:22110899

  9. Treatment strategies for acute metabolic disorders in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sarar

    2011-01-01

    Acute metabolic emergencies in neonates represent a challenge to the medical and nursing staff. If not treated optimally, these disorders are associated with poor outcome. Early diagnosis, supportive therapy and specific measures addressing the derranged metabolic process are the gold standards for favorable results. This review highlights treatment strategies for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) presenting in the neonatal period.

  10. Treatment of acute bronchospasm in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Berger, William E

    2005-12-01

    Both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often underdiagnosed and undertreated among the elderly. Patient compliance with treatments plans and medication schedules are often less than ideal. This paper presents results from clinical studies examining levalbuterol and racemic albuterol use among elderly patients who have asthma or COPD. PMID:19667714

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Thrombosis of Cerebral Veins and Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Sergey Borisovich; Bocharov, Aleksei Vasilievich; Mikeladze, Ketevan; Gasparian, Sergey Surenovich; Serova, Natalia Konstantinovna; Shakhnovich, Alexander Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acute thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses (ATCVS) is a multifactorial disease with grave consequences. Because of its rare occurrence there are no proven treatment guidelines. Sixteen patients with ATCVS were treated. The final diagnosis was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. Sinus catheterization was performed via transfemoral venous access. Treatment included mechanical manipulation of thrombi and thrombolytic therapy. A regression of clinical symptoms with a concomitant decrease of intracranial hypertension was achieved in all patients. Long-term results were studied in eight patients: none presented clinical signs of intracranial hypertension. Endovascular transvenous recanalization is an effective treatment for acute thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses. Along with the local thrombolysis, significant potential in the treatment of this complex pathology lies in the transvenous endovascular techniques of mechanical thrombus extraction, especially in patients with intracranial hemorrhage for whom the use of thrombolytic agents is restricted. PMID:25196622

  12. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  13. [Is the management of migraine and tension headache in Croatia satisfactory?].

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Vlasta Vuković

    2013-12-01

    According to the epidemiological study conducted in Croatia, 15% of the population suffer from migraine, 20.6% from tension-type headache and 2.4% from chronic headache. Although migraine is a frequent primary headache and poses a major problem to both the affected individuals and the society, it is considered that migraine is underdiagnosed. The study revealed half of patients with headache and even 36.3% of respondents with migraine to have never visited a doctor. Migraine and tension-type headache are not satisfactorily treated; in the study, one-quarter of the respondents were fully satisfied with the treatment of their headaches, approximately half were partially satisfied, one-fifth were mostly unsatisfied, and 10% were completely unsatisfied. It should be noted that specific therapy for migraine attacks, i.e. triptans, are available on the market and can be administered for moderate and severe headache attacks. Triptans are prescribed rarely, not only in Croatia but also in the world, although studies have shown that the use of triptans increases productivity at work and improves the quality of life in migraineurs. Prophylaxis may significantly improve the quality of life; the Croatian epidemiological study showed only 14% of respondents with migraine to have ever used prophylactic therapy. Considering that migraine is an 'expensive disorder', appropriate treatment of patients with migraine will decrease the costs that include visits to general practitioners, emergency departments and cost of hospitalization. Even indirect costs will decrease as well, including the costs caused by absenteeism from work and costs caused by reduced efficiency at work. It is necessary to educate the population about migraine and therapeutic options. Lack of time, unrecognized patients and insufficient knowledge about current treatment of migraine and other primary headaches are probably the reasons why patients do not receive appropriate therapy. Continuous campaigns, which

  14. Migraine prophylactic medication usage patterns in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rahimtoola, H; Buurma, H; Tijssen, C C; Leufkens, H G; Egberts, A C G

    2003-05-01

    This study aims to investigate usage patterns of specific migraine prophylactic medications in ergotamine and triptan patients commencing this treatment for the first time during 1 January 1992 until 31 December 1998. Usage patterns of specific migraine prophylactic drugs were evaluated for each patient by accessing data from a large prescription database and were characterized as continued, switch or stop use during the patient observation period. Several patient and medication-related factors were explored in order to identify a possible relationship with the specific usage pattern defined. Approximately 75% of the study population (n = 729) had terminated (stop or switch) prophylactic treatment after 1 year. Age < 40 years (relative risk (RR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.2) and the concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-5.5) or specific abortive migraine drugs resulted in a faster onset of treatment modification (switch). Overall, migraine prophylactic treatment is used for a relatively short period, probably attributable to the common limitations associated with migraine prophylaxis, such as poor compliance and/or limited therapeutic efficacy. Patterns of use can be influenced by a variety of factors, including age, type of prescriber and certain co-medication. Patient interview studies are required to clarify these issues further. PMID:12716348

  15. [Effectiveness of tolfenamic acid in the prevention of migraine].

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Antanas; Pauza, Valius

    2002-01-01

    The migraine prophylactic effect of tolfenamic acid 300 mg versus pizotifen 1.5 was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. 192 patients were included with a frequency of 4-8 moderate to severe migraine attacks monthly, with or without aura, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for migraine as defined by the International Headache Society. A four-week baseline period without medication was followed by 12 weeks of treatment with tolfenamic acid 300 mg or pizotifen 1.5 mg. In both periods patients were allowed to take escape medication (paracetamol and codeine) if the treatment was inefficient. All the patients had a headache diary before and during treatment. The primary criterion of efficacy was reduction in attack frequency per 4 weeks. Also reduction in intensity or duration of migraine attacks in hours at the end of 12 weeks treatment compared to the baseline period was measured. Both groups exhibited significant reduction in attack frequency (p < 0.001). Tolfenamic acid significantly reduced severity compared to the run-in period (p = 0.009). Patients treated with pizotifen needed more escape medication when compared to the run-in period (p < 0.01). Tolerance, especially weight gain, was a major drawback with pizotifen. Because of its high efficacy, excellent tolerability and low cost, tolfenamic acid is an interesting option for migraine prophylaxis. PMID:12474702

  16. Acute treatment of anaphylaxis in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 3-year-old was rushed to my office after eating a friend’s chocolate bar that contained nuts. He immediately developed urticaria on his face and swelling of his lips, and he had a persistent cough. What is the best treatment for a child with anaphylaxis? Should this family receive a prescription for an epinephrine autoinjector device? Answer Intramuscular epinephrine injection is a safe and effective treatment of anaphylaxis in children. Children with systemic allergic reactions should carry epinephrine autoinjectors at all times, and should certainly have one with them at school. In order for epinephrine autoinjectors to be effective, children and their families need to be educated on how to properly use the devices, as well as keep in mind the product’s expiration date. PMID:23851537

  17. Analysis of the duration of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Néto, Raimundo Pereira; Almeida, Kelson James; Bernardino, Silvya Neri

    2014-02-15

    To determine the minimum duration of migraine prophylaxis, after patients become pain-free. Migraine patients diagnosed according to criteria of International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 were treated prophylactically. After becoming pain-free, they were divided into two equal groups: in group 1, prophylaxis was maintained for another 12 months and in group 2, for 24 months. Each group was followed for more three years after prophylaxis period. Of the 50 patients, 39 (78%) were female and 11 (22%) were male. The age ranged from 18 to 50 years. Before treatment, the attack frequency for groups 1 and 2 was, respectively, 16.3 ± 12.8 and 16.4 ± 11.8 days per month (p = 0.769). Patients in groups 1 and 2 have become pain-free, respectively, with 21.4 ± 11.2 and 16.8 ± 9.9 months (p = 0.161). During three years without treatment, groups 1 and 2 maintained an annual frequency of respectively 3.2 and 0.5 headache days. Of the patients in group 2, 76.0% (19/25) remained pain-free during follow-up, versus 44.0% (11/25) of group 1, with a significant difference (p=0.001). The best results were obtained when migraine prophylaxis was maintained for 24 months after patients became pain-free. PMID:24308946

  18. Acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in girl with Bloom syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Madeleine; Jenney, Meriel; Lazarou, Laz; White, Rhian; Birdsall, Sanda; Staab, Timo; Schindler, Detlev; Meyer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an inherited genomic instability disorder caused by disruption of the BLM helicase and confers an extreme cancer predisposition. Here we report on a girl with BS who developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at age nine, and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) aged 12. She was compound heterozygous for the novel BLM frameshift deletion c.1624delG and the previously described c.3415C>T nonsense mutation. Two haematological malignancies in a child with BS imply a fundamental role for BLM for normal haematopoiesis, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress. PMID:24932421

  19. Acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in girl with Bloom syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Madeleine; Jenney, Meriel; Lazarou, Laz; White, Rhian; Birdsall, Sanda; Staab, Timo; Schindler, Detlev; Meyer, Stefan

    2013-09-18

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an inherited genomic instability disorder caused by disruption of the BLM helicase and confers an extreme cancer predisposition. Here we report on a girl with BS who developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at age nine, and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) aged 12. She was compound heterozygous for the novel BLM frameshift deletion c.1624delG and the previously described c.3415C>T nonsense mutation. Two haematological malignancies in a child with BS imply a fundamental role for BLM for normal haematopoiesis, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress. PMID:24932421

  20. Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment of Acute Epidural Hematoma: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Although minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute epidural hematoma attracts increasing attention, no generalized indications for the surgery have been adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery in acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes. Methods. Minimally invasive puncture and aspiration surgery were performed in 59 cases of acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes (13–145 mL); postoperative follow-up was 3 months. Clinical data, including surgical trauma, surgery time, complications, and outcome of hematoma drainage, recovery, and Barthel index scores, were assessed, as well as treatment outcome. Results. Surgical trauma was minimal and surgery time was short (10–20 minutes); no anesthesia accidents or surgical complications occurred. Two patients died. Drainage was completed within 7 days in the remaining 57 cases. Barthel index scores of ADL were ≤40 (n = 1), 41–60 (n = 1), and >60 (n = 55); scores of 100 were obtained in 48 cases, with no dysfunctions. Conclusion. Satisfactory results can be achieved with minimally invasive surgery in treating acute epidural hematoma with hematoma volumes ranging from 13 to 145 mL. For patients with hematoma volume >50 mL and even cerebral herniation, flexible application of minimally invasive surgery would help improve treatment efficacy. PMID:27144170

  1. Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia for Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prebet, Thomas; Gore, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a remarkable disease in which leukemogenesis is driven by the PML-RARα oncogene and for which targeted treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)–based therapy allows substantial chance of cure. APL is seen in a small subset of older patients, with age representing one of the most important prognostic factors for outcome of treatment. Unlike other acute leukemias, the inferior outcomes for APL in older patients relates less to changes in disease biology and more to increased toxicity of ATRA and chemotherapy combination regimens used to induce hematologic and molecular responses. Risk-adapted strategies that use less-toxic agents, such as arsenic trioxide, allow treatment of older patients, with greater efficiency and better chances of cure. PMID:21393443

  2. Intra-Arterial Treatment Methods in Acute Stroke Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Babikian, Viken L.; Romero, Rafael; Pikula, Aleksandra; Kase, Carlos S.; Jovin, Tudor G.; Norbash, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Acute revascularization is associated with improved outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. It is unclear which method of intra-arterial intervention, if any, is ideal. Promising approaches in acute stroke treatment are likely a combination of intravenous and endovascular revascularization efforts, combining early treatment initiation with direct clot manipulation and/or PTA/stenting. In this review, we will discuss available thrombolytic therapies and endovascular recanalization techniques, beginning with chemical thrombolytic agents, followed by mechanical devices, and a review of ongoing trials. Further randomized studies comparing medical therapy, intravenous and endovascular treatments are essential, and their implementation will require the wide support and enthusiasm from the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and neurosurgical stroke communities. PMID:21516256

  3. Duel-acting subcutaneous microemulsion formulation for improved migraine treatment with zolmitriptan and diclofenac: formulation and in vitro-in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Dubey, R; Martini, Luigi G; Christie, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Subcutaneous triptan provides immediate analgesia in migraine and cluster headache but is limited by high pain recurrence due to rapid drug elimination. A dual-acting subcutaneous formulation providing immediate release of a triptan and slow but sustained release of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may provide a longer duration of relief. A microemulsion-based technology has various advantages over other technically complex dosage forms. Oil-in-water microemulsions of zolmitriptan and diclofenac acid using Labrafac Lipophile, Tween 80, Capryol 90 and water were prepared. One formulation was characterised in vitro and found to have uniformly dispersed nanosized globules. The formulation provided differential release of zolmitriptan and diclofenac acid both in vitro as well as in vivo that may be potentially beneficial to migraine patients. PMID:24363199

  4. Acute low back pain: diagnostics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Becker, F C

    2001-03-01

    How many times have you heard from a patient or groaned yourself "Oh, my aching back?" Innocuous movements such as reaching, stooping, or leaning are halted mid-performance as you sense "something" give, catch, snap, grab, or slide in your lower back. Such subjective complaints may also include sensations of discomfort described as stabbing, sharp, dull, hot/burning, tingling, or numbing. In practice, you will be required to assess these subjective symptoms, effectively document objective data, formulate a diagnosis, and plan appropriate treatment for your patients. Careful attention to history, associated symptoms, and following a systematic approach to back pain can make the rule-in/out differentials less taxing on both the practitioner and the patient. PMID:11329554

  5. The prevention of migraine: a critical review with special emphasis on beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Limmroth, V; Michel, M C

    2001-09-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent neurological disorders affecting up to 15% of the general population. Many patients require not only management of individual migraine episodes but also prophylactic treatment. beta-adrenoceptor blockers, flunarizine and valproic acid have been established as first-line agents for the prophylaxis of migraine attacks. Among the beta-adrenoceptor blockers propranolol and metoprolol are best documented and hence deserve preferential use. On the other hand, it appears that other beta-adrenoceptor blockers, perhaps with the exception of those with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, can be equally effective. Uncertainties regarding the relative merits of various treatment modalities are largely caused by lack of adherence to specific requirements for clinical trials on migraine prophylaxis. Therefore, this article reviews internationally recommended conditions for reliable studies on migraine prophylaxis and appraises individual agents in the light of these criteria. PMID:11560555

  6. Paradoxical topiramate-induced hyperphagia successfully treated with phentermine in a woman with migraine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacinta L; Rolan, Paul E

    2015-08-01

    We report a 49-year-old female migraineur who experienced paradoxical hyperphagia and concurrent intrusive food thoughts leading to rapid weight gain and a substantial increase in waist circumference. A significant reduction in migraine frequency was also observed during topiramate treatment, a widely used migraine prophylactic agent which is generally associated with weight loss. Withdrawal of topiramate saw appetite return to baseline levels, however, migraine frequency was again increased. Topiramate was reinitiated in combination with phentermine, a drug indicated for weight management, without reoccurrence of adverse effects. Migraine control was maintained and progressive weight loss ensued. Combination treatment with phentermine may be a useful strategy should other patients experience this adverse reaction while gaining therapeutic anti-migraine benefit from topiramate. PMID:25911503

  7. The prevention of migraine: a critical review with special emphasis on β-adrenoceptor blockers

    PubMed Central

    Limmroth, Volker; Michel, Martin C

    2001-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent neurological disorders affecting up to 15% of the general population. Many patients require not only management of individual migraine episodes but also prophylactic treatment. β-adrenoceptor blockers, flunarizine and valproic acid have been established as first-line agents for the prophylaxis of migraine attacks. Among the β-adrenoceptor blockers propranolol and metoprolol are best documented and hence deserve preferential use. On the other hand, it appears that other β-adrenoceptor blockers, perhaps with the exception of those with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, can be equally effective. Uncertainties regarding the relative merits of various treatment modalities are largely caused by lack of adherence to specific requirements for clinical trials on migraine prophylaxis. Therefore, this article reviews internationally recommended conditions for reliable studies on migraine prophylaxis and appraises individual agents in the light of these criteria. PMID:11560555

  8. [Tulozin in combined treatment of patients with acute urinary retention].

    PubMed

    Avdoshin, V P; Andriukhin, M I; Mikhaĭlikov, T G; Ol'shanskaia, E V; Khunov, A Z

    2009-01-01

    There is much evidence that tulozin promotes recovery of spontaneous urination, Qmax and is effective in combined treatment of patients with acute retention of urine caused by prostatic adenoma. Tulozin produces positive changes in the lower urinary tract symptoms. Rare occurrence of side effects enables long-term treatment and achievement of good therapeutic response. Tulozin is recommended for patients of younger age, with minimal comorbid pathology, hypotonic with orthostatic reactions, history of side effects in the treatment of other alpha-adrenoblockers, in comorbid hypertention, hypercholesterolemia, retrograde ejaculation, low potention, overactive bladder, prostatitis, after prostatic TUR, transvesical adenomectomy. PMID:19824378

  9. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis. Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite ‘normal’ (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury. In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration. In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. PMID:25355373

  10. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis.Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite 'normal' (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury.In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration.In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. PMID:25355373

  11. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-07-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the duration of diarrhea and has an efficacy similar to that of ciprofloxacin. Moreover, according to two randomized placebo-controlled trials, prophylactic treatment with rifaximin reduced the risk of developing travelers' diarrhea by more than 50% compared with the placebo group. For the treatment of acute diarrhea unrelated to travel, a short course of rifaximin significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea, and its overall efficacy was comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivoantimicrobial activities of rifaximin, however, and the clinical implication of the rapid appearance of bacterial resistance, must be further elucidated. In conclusion, this gut-selective antibiotic seems to be a promising option for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea secondary to noninvasive E. coli and also appears to be effective in chemoprophylaxis for travelers' diarrhea. PMID:21765867

  12. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the duration of diarrhea and has an efficacy similar to that of ciprofloxacin. Moreover, according to two randomized placebo-controlled trials, prophylactic treatment with rifaximin reduced the risk of developing travelers’ diarrhea by more than 50% compared with the placebo group. For the treatment of acute diarrhea unrelated to travel, a short course of rifaximin significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea, and its overall efficacy was comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivoantimicrobial activities of rifaximin, however, and the clinical implication of the rapid appearance of bacterial resistance, must be further elucidated. In conclusion, this gut-selective antibiotic seems to be a promising option for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea secondary to noninvasive E. coli and also appears to be effective in chemoprophylaxis for travelers’ diarrhea. PMID:21765867

  13. Current trends in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Nabih M

    2007-04-01

    A variety of drugs from diverse pharmacological classes are in use for migraine prevention. Traditionally, they have been discovered by serendipity. Examples include beta-adrenergic blockers, anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin receptor antagonists. The mechanisms of action of migraine preventive drugs are multiple but it is postulated that they converge on two targets: (1) inhibition of cortical excitation; (2) restoring nociceptive dysmodulation. The antiepileptic drugs (e.g., topiramate, valproate, gabapentin), calcium channel blockers such as verapamil, and inhibitors of cortical spreading depression are some examples of drugs that reduce neuronal hyperexcitability. On the other hand, modulators of the serotonergic and adrenergic systems and cholinergic enhancing drugs may restore descending nociceptive inhibition and play a role in migraine prevention. To date, Level 1 evidence and clinical experience favor the use of the antidepressant amitriptyline, the anticonvulsants divalproex and topiramate, and the beta-adrenergic blockers propranolol, timolol and metoprolol as first line migraine preventive drugs. The evidence for others (e.g., verapamil) is not as strong. Migraine preventive drugs have varying degrees of adverse effects, some of which could be limiting, and their efficacy should balanced with their risks of adverse effects, patients' expectations and desires, and compliance. It is hoped that future migraine preventive drugs target migraine mechanisms more specifically, which could well enhance the therapeutic index. PMID:17425710

  14. From migraine genes to mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tolner, Else A; Houben, Thijs; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2015-04-01

    Migraine is a common multifactorial episodic brain disorder with strong genetic basis. Monogenic subtypes include rare familial hemiplegic migraine, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome (FASPS), and retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy. Functional studies of disease-causing mutations in cellular and/or transgenic models revealed enhanced (glutamatergic) neurotransmission and abnormal vascular function as key migraine mechanisms. Common forms of migraine (both with and without an aura), instead, are thought to have a polygenic makeup. Genome-wide association studies have already identified over a dozen genes involved in neuronal and vascular mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of molecular genetic research in migraine, also with respect to functional and pathway analyses. We will also discuss how novel experimental approaches for the identification and functional characterization of migraine genes, such as next-generation sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cell, and optogenetic technologies will further our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in migraine pathogenesis. PMID:25789438

  15. 'Visual snow' - a disorder distinct from persistent migraine aura.

    PubMed

    Schankin, Christoph J; Maniyar, Farooq H; Digre, Kathleen B; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    were common comorbidities over time. Eight patients had first degree relatives with visual snow. Clinical investigations were not contributory. Only a few treatment trials have been successful in individual patients. Our data suggest that 'visual snow' is a unique visual disturbance clinically distinct from migraine aura that can be disabling for patients. Migraine is a common concomitant although standard migraine treatments are often unhelpful. 'Visual snow' should be considered a distinct disorder and systematic studies of its clinical features, biology and treatment responses need to be commenced to begin to understand what has been an almost completely ignored problem. PMID:24645145

  16. Headaches and Migraines: Understanding Headaches, From Mild to Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... not all headaches are the same. From mild tension headaches to crippling migraines, there are steps you ... The most common type of headache is a tension headache. These usually are due to tight muscles ...

  17. Headaches and Migraines: Understanding Headaches, From Mild to Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... through them was to lie down in a dark room and just suffer through it." "For us, ... and Migraine pages on MedlinePlus (medlineplus.gov) The Web site for the National Institute for Neurological Disorders: ...

  18. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tannir, N M; Kantarjian, H

    2001-03-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis. It is a universal side effect of dose-intensive regimens employed in the treatment of adult ALL. In patients with ALL who achieve remission, thrombocytopenia frequently indicates relapse. We report three adult patients successfully treated for ALL who developed thrombocytopenia and were found to have immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP). Possible pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the association of ALL and ITP are discussed. PMID:11342378

  19. Acute pancreatitis as a complication of childhood cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Milica; Jazbec, Janez; Lindgren, Fredrik; Bulajić, Milutin; Löhr, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is now well recognized as a possible complication of childhood cancer treatment, interrupting the chemotherapy regimen, and requiring prolonged hospitalization, possibly with intensive care and surgical intervention, thereby compromising the effect of chemotherapy and the remission of the underlying malignant disease. This review summarizes the current literature and presents the various etiological factors for AP during chemotherapy as well as modern trends in the diagnosis and therapy of AP in children. PMID:26872431

  20. Can weight loss improve migraine headaches in obese women? Rationale and design of the WHAM randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Thomas, J. Graham; Lipton, Richard B.; Papandonatos, George D.; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Daniello, Richard; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity. Obesity increases the risk of frequent migraines and is associated with migraine prevalence among reproductive-aged women. These findings are substantiated by several plausible mechanisms and emerging evidence of migraine improvements after surgical and non-surgical weight loss. However, no previous study has examined the effect of weight loss on migraine within a treatment-controlled framework. The WHAM trial is a RCT to test the efficacy of behavioral weight loss as a treatment for migraine. Study design Overweight/obese women (n=140; BMI=25.0–49.9 kg/m2) who meet international diagnostic criteria for migraine and record ≥3 migraines and 4–20 migraine days using a smartphone-based headache diary during a 4-week baseline period, will be randomly assigned to 4 months of either group-based behavioral weight loss (intervention) or migraine education (control). Intervention participants will be taught strategies to increase physical activity and consume fewer calories in order to lose weight. Control participants will receive general education on migraine symptoms/triggers and various treatment approaches. Both groups will use smartphones to record their headaches for 4 weeks at baseline, after the 16-week treatment period, and at the end of a 16-week follow-up period. Changes in weight and other potential physiological (inflammation), psychological (depression), and behavioral (diet and physical activity) mediators of the intervention effect will also be assessed. Conclusion The WHAM trial will evaluate the efficacy of a standardized behavioral weight loss intervention for reducing migraine frequency, and the extent to which weight loss and other potential mediators account for intervention effects. PMID:23524340

  1. Acute and long-term treatment of mania.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of mania starts with a correct diagnosis and elementary measures to prevent risks for the patient, relatives, and others. Sometimes, compulsory admission and treatment may be required for a few days. Patients with psychotic or mixed mania may be more difficult to treat. At the present time, there is solid evidence supporting the use of lithium, the anticonvulsants valproate and carbamazepine, and the antipsychotics chlorpromazine, haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in acute mania, and some evidence supporting the use of clozapine or electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-refractory cases. However, in clinical practice, combination therapy is the rule rather than the exception. The treatment of acute mania deserves a long-term view, and the evidence base for some treatments may be stronger than for others. When taking decisions about treatment, tolerability should also be a major concern, as differences in safety and tolerability may exceed differences in efficacy for most compounds. Psychoeducation of patients and caregivers is a powerful tool that should be used in combination with medication for optimal long-term outcome. Functional recovery should be the ultimate goal. PMID:18689287

  2. Acute Infection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan Carlos; Maculé-Beneyto, Francisco; Suso-Vergara, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Infection is one of the most serious complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The current incidence of prosthetic knee infection is 1-3%, depending on the series. For treatment and control to be more cost effective, multidisciplinary groups made up of professionals from different specialities who can work together to eradicate these kinds of infections need to be assembled. About the microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were among the most frequent microorganisms involved (74%). Anamnesis and clinical examination are of primary importance in order to determine whether the problem may point to a possible acute septic complication. The first diagnosis may then be supported by increased CRP and ESR levels. The surgical treatment for a chronic prosthetic knee infection has been perfectly defined and standardized, and consists in a two-stage implant revision process. In contrast, the treatment for acute prosthetic knee infection is currently under debate. Considering the different surgical techniques that already exist, surgical debridement with conservation of the prosthesis and polythene revision appears to be an attractive option for both surgeon and patient, as it is less aggressive than the two-stage revision process and has lower initial costs. The different results obtained from this technique, along with prognosis factors and conclusions to keep in mind when it is indicated for an acute prosthetic infection, whether post-operative or haematogenous, will be analysed by the authors. PMID:23919094

  3. Acute diverticulitis. Comparison of treatment in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J D; Shield, C F; Chang, F C; Farha, G J

    1984-12-01

    The clinical course and required treatment of diverticulitis were reviewed in 76 nonimmunocompromised patients and 10 immunocompromised patients. The immunocompromised patients presented with either minimal or no symptoms and findings. Therefore, to make the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis in this group, a high index of suspicion must be maintained. The required treatment varied considerably between the two groups. In 45 nonimmunocompromised patients (76 percent), medical therapy was successful. Medical treatment failed in the other 14 patients (24 percent). However, the compromised group had no patients in whom medical therapy was successful (100 percent failure rate). Thirty-one of the nonimmunocompromised patients (41 percent) required an operation, whereas 100 percent of the immunocompromised patients with acute diverticulitis required an operation. By relating postoperative complications, we were unable to determine the initial operative procedure of choice in the nonimmunocompromised group; however, in the immunocompromised group, colostomy and resection had fewer surgical complications than colostomy and drainage. The immunocompromised patient with acute diverticulitis requires operation. We believe the operation of choice is colostomy and resection of the involved segment. PMID:6507744

  4. Roads Less Traveled: Sexual Dimorphism and Mast Cell Contributions to Migraine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Loewendorf, Andrea I.; Matynia, Anna; Saribekyan, Hakob; Gross, Noah; Csete, Marie; Harrington, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common, little understood, and debilitating disease. It is much more prominent in women than in men (~2/3 are women) but the reasons for female preponderance are not clear. Migraineurs frequently experience severe comorbidities, such as allergies, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and others; many of the comorbidities are more common in females. Current treatments for migraine are not gender specific, and rarely are migraine and its comorbidities considered and treated by the same specialist. Thus, migraine treatments represent a huge unmet medical need, which will only be addressed with greater understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. We discuss the current knowledge about sex differences in migraine and its comorbidities, and focus on the potential role of mast cells (MCs) in both. Sex-based differences in pain recognition and drug responses, fluid balance, and the blood–brain barrier are recognized but their impact on migraine is not well studied. Furthermore, MCs are well recognized for their prominent role in allergies but much less is known about their contributions to pain pathways in general and migraine specifically. MC-neuron bidirectional communication uniquely positions these cells as potential initiators and/or perpetuators of pain. MCs can secrete nociceptor sensitizing and activating agents, such as serotonin, prostaglandins, histamine, and proteolytic enzymes that can also activate the pain-mediating transient receptor potential vanilloid channels. MCs express receptors for both estrogen and progesterone that induce degranulation upon binding. Furthermore, environmental estrogens, such as Bisphenol A, activate MCs in preclinical models but their impact on pain pathways or migraine is understudied. We hope that this discussion will encourage scientists and physicians alike to bridge the knowledge gaps linking sex, MCs, and migraine to develop better, more comprehensive treatments for migraine patients. PMID:27148260

  5. Optimal management of severe nausea and vomiting in migraine: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Láinez, Miguel JA; García-Casado, Ana; Gascón, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a common and potentially disabling disorder for patients, with wide-reaching implications for health care services, society, and the economy. Nausea and vomiting during migraine attacks are common symptoms that affect at least 60% of patients suffering from migraines. These symptoms are often more disabling than the headache itself, causing a great burden on the patient’s life. Nausea and vomiting may delay the use of oral abortive medication or interfere with oral drug absorption. Therefore, they can hinder significantly the management and treatment of migraine (which is usually given orally). The main treatment of pain-associated symptoms of migraine (such as nausea and vomiting) is to stop the migraine attack itself as soon as possible, with the effective drugs at the effective doses, seeking if necessary alternative routes of administration. In some cases, intravenous antiemetic drugs are able to relieve a migraine attack and associated symptoms like nausea and vomiting. We performed an exhaustive PubMed search of the English literature to find studies about management of migraine and its associated symptoms. Search terms were migraine, nausea, and vomiting. We did not limit our search to a specific time period. We focused on clinical efficacy and tolerance of the various drugs and procedures based on data from human studies. We included the best available studies for each discussed drug or procedure. These ranged from randomized controlled trials for some treatments to small case series for others. Recently updated books and manuals on neurology and headache were also consulted. We herein review the efficacy of the different approaches in order to manage nausea and vomiting for migraine patents. PMID:24143125

  6. Roads Less Traveled: Sexual Dimorphism and Mast Cell Contributions to Migraine Pathology.

    PubMed

    Loewendorf, Andrea I; Matynia, Anna; Saribekyan, Hakob; Gross, Noah; Csete, Marie; Harrington, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common, little understood, and debilitating disease. It is much more prominent in women than in men (~2/3 are women) but the reasons for female preponderance are not clear. Migraineurs frequently experience severe comorbidities, such as allergies, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and others; many of the comorbidities are more common in females. Current treatments for migraine are not gender specific, and rarely are migraine and its comorbidities considered and treated by the same specialist. Thus, migraine treatments represent a huge unmet medical need, which will only be addressed with greater understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. We discuss the current knowledge about sex differences in migraine and its comorbidities, and focus on the potential role of mast cells (MCs) in both. Sex-based differences in pain recognition and drug responses, fluid balance, and the blood-brain barrier are recognized but their impact on migraine is not well studied. Furthermore, MCs are well recognized for their prominent role in allergies but much less is known about their contributions to pain pathways in general and migraine specifically. MC-neuron bidirectional communication uniquely positions these cells as potential initiators and/or perpetuators of pain. MCs can secrete nociceptor sensitizing and activating agents, such as serotonin, prostaglandins, histamine, and proteolytic enzymes that can also activate the pain-mediating transient receptor potential vanilloid channels. MCs express receptors for both estrogen and progesterone that induce degranulation upon binding. Furthermore, environmental estrogens, such as Bisphenol A, activate MCs in preclinical models but their impact on pain pathways or migraine is understudied. We hope that this discussion will encourage scientists and physicians alike to bridge the knowledge gaps linking sex, MCs, and migraine to develop better, more comprehensive treatments for migraine patients. PMID:27148260

  7. Primary headache in children and adolescents: update on pharmacotherapy of migraine and tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Bonfert, Michaela; Straube, Andreas; Schroeder, Andreas Sebastian; Reilich, Peter; Ebinger, Friedrich; Heinen, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Primary headache disorders are frequently encountered in the pediatric population. The therapeutic approach consists of a multimodal program, including lifestyle modification, psychotherapeutic intervention, pharmacotherapy, and complementary measures. This systematic review focuses on the pharmacotherapy of pediatric migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). In addition to the general treatment principles, the results of 33 clinical reports published on the topic since 2008 are outlined in detail. Furthermore, a tabular summary of previously investigated agents not studied since 2008 is given, as is an overview of promising pharmacologic approaches so far only evaluated in adults. A variety of pharmacologic options is available, but high-quality evidence is limited to single agents. At this time, approval is restricted to four triptans and flupirtine for the symptomatic treatment of pediatric acute migraine and TTH, respectively. No agent has been approved for the prevention of pediatric primary headaches. This review does not grade the drugs hierarchically because the complex profiles of many agents differ only slightly or even overlap. However, a detailed expert opinion is provided. On the basis of the outlined facts, the team of physician, patient, and parents has to decide on the most appropriate regimen for the individual situation in the sense of personalized medicine. PMID:23303551

  8. Migraine Headache in Affectively Ill Latino Adults of Mexican American Origin Is Associated With Bipolarity

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, Franco; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; Fasmer, Ole B.; Akiskal, Kareen K.; Akiskal, Hagop S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of migraine headache among depressed Latino adults of Mexican American origin meeting the criteria for bipolar disorder (BPD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) relative to patients in a psychiatric comparison group. Method: In a mental health clinic for the indigent, consecutively and systematically evaluated acutely depressed Latino adults received structured diagnostic psychiatric interviews based on modules extracted from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. All were asked as part of routine assessment whether they had headaches “in the last week.” Patients with unilateral, pounding, pulsating headache were classified as having migraine headache. The prevalence of migraine headache among the patients with BPD and MDD was contrasted with that of patients in a psychiatric comparison group composed of patients with disorders other than schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Logistic regression was used to test for associations and control for confounding effects. The data were collected between August 2001 and November 2004. Results: Eighty-seven patients had BPD and 123 had MDD. Bipolar patients were 2.9 times more likely to have migraine headaches than patients with MDD (P < .0001). There was a trend for patients with MDD to have a higher prevalence of migraine than patients in the psychiatric comparison group. Conclusions: Bipolar patients had a high prevalence of migraine headache relative to patients with MDD. This study suggests that migraine is linked to bipolarity. PMID:20098521

  9. Safe intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke despite treatment with rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Bornkamm, Katharina; Harloff, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Data regarding intravenous thrombolysis in stroke patients receiving new oral anticoagulant drugs (nOAC) is sparse. In the near future, however, an increasing number of patients with atrial fibrillation will suffer recurrent stroke despite treatment with nOAC. This will cause a significant therapeutic dilemma as thrombolysis is contraindicated under such circumstances. We describe an 81-year-old patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke who was successfully treated with intravenous thrombolysis despite ongoing treatment with rivaroxaban. Our case report indicates that thrombolysis under nOAC may be safe under certain conditions and emphasizes the importance of establishing and performing specific anticoagulation tests for nOAC. PMID:24938385

  10. Filgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farese, A M; MacVittie, T J

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved Neupogen(®) (filgrastim) for the treatment of patients with radiation-induced myelosuppression following a radiological/nuclear incident. It is the first medical countermeasure currently approved by the FDA for this indication under the criteria of the FDA "animal rule". This article summarizes the consequences of high-dose radiation exposure, a description of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS), the use of hematopoietic growth factors in radiation accident victims and current available treatments for H-ARS with an emphasis on the use of Neupogen in this scenario. PMID:26488033

  11. Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: Acute, Preventive, and Symptomatic

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Remi A.; Mealy, Maureen A.; Levy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that primarily attacks the optic nerves and spinal cord leading to blindness and paralysis. The spectrum of the disease has expanded based on the specificity of the autoimmune response to the aquaporin-4 water channel on astrocytes. With wider recognition of NMOSD, a standard of care for treatment of this condition has condition based on a growing series of retrospective and prospective studies. This review covers the present state of the field in the treatment of acute relapses, preventive approaches, and therapies for symptoms of NMOSD. PMID:26705758

  12. Beyond Beauty: Onobotulinumtoxin A (BOTOX®) and the Management of Migraine Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Devra; Amirlak, Bardia

    2012-01-01

    Based on the conducted anatomic studies at our institutions as well as clinical experience with migraine surgery, we have refined our onobotulinumtoxin A (BOTOX®) injection techniques. Pain management physicians are in unique position to be able to not only treat migraine patient, but also to be able to collaborate with neurologists and peripheral nerve surgeons in identifying the migraine trigger sites prior to surgical deactivation. The constellation of migraine symptoms that aid in identifying the migraine trigger sites, the potential pathophysiology of each trigger site, the effective methods of botulinumtoxin and nerve block injection for diagnostic and treatment purposes, as well as the pitfalls and potential complications, will be addressed and discussed in this paper. PMID:24223326

  13. New developments in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Krymchantowski, Abouch V; Rapoport, Alan M

    2003-04-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that afflicts > or = 12% of the adult US population. Severe, frequent and disabling attacks require effective prophylaxis. Traditional preventive drugs such as beta-blockers, antidepressants and calcium antagonists, despite their documented efficacy, fail to offer relief for a significant proportion of migraine sufferers. Multiple threads of research over the last 15 years have led to the concept that migraine is generated from a hyperexcitable brain. This opens new perspectives in terms of preventive options, especially regarding the anticonvulsants agents. Additionally, different groups of substances, some of which nominated as non-orthodox agents, have been recently subjected to clinical trials and found to be effective. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the new options for migraine prevention. PMID:12667107

  14. Therapeutic strategies in migraine patients with mood and anxiety disorders: clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Finocchi, Cinzia; Villani, Veronica; Casucci, Gerardo

    2010-06-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are comorbid with migraine. The coexistence of a psychiatric disorder alters the quality of life, the total disability, the course of migraine and the final prognosis; it increases the probability of central sensitization, other chronic pain conditions and the evolution to chronic migraine. All patients presenting with frequent episodic and chronic migraine should be screened for depression and anxiety. When these conditions are present, drugs for migraine prevention that may worsen the psychiatric comorbid disorder have to be avoided. When it is possible, both conditions should be treated with a single agent. Amitriptiline can be used both in mood disorders and migraine prevention. Flunarizine and beta-blockers may help if anxiety is present. Pregabalin has demonstrated efficacy in anxiety disorders and fibromyalgia. Divalproex sodium, topiramate and lamotrigine that have demonstrated efficacy in mood stabilization are also indicated in migraine without aura (divalproex sodium and topiramate) and with aura (lamotrigine). When a specific treatment for the comorbid psychiatric disorder is needed, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the drugs of choice both in depression and anxiety, and the cognitive behavioural therapy has good evidence of efficacy in anxiety disorders. Vagal nerve stimulation may be an option in patients with refractory chronic migraine and depression. PMID:20464594

  15. The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2003-01-01

    Diet can play an important role in the precipitation of headaches in children and adolescents with migraine. The diet factor in pediatric migraine is frequently neglected in favor of preventive drug therapy. The list of foods, beverages, and additives that trigger migraine includes cheese, chocolate, citrus fruits, hot dogs, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, fatty foods, ice cream, caffeine withdrawal, and alcoholic drinks, especially red wine and beer. Underage drinking is a significant potential cause of recurrent headache in today's adolescent patients. Tyramine, phenylethylamine, histamine, nitrites, and sulfites are involved in the mechanism of food intolerance headache. Immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy is an infrequent cause. Dietary triggers affect phases of the migraine process by influencing release of serotonin and norepinephrine, causing vasoconstriction or vasodilatation, or by direct stimulation of trigeminal ganglia, brainstem, and cortical neuronal pathways. Treatment begins with a headache and diet diary and the selective avoidance of foods presumed to trigger attacks. A universal migraine diet with simultaneous elimination of all potential food triggers is generally not advised in practice. A well-balanced diet is encouraged, with avoidance of fasting or skipped meals. Long-term prophylactic drug therapy is appropriate only after exclusion of headache-precipitating trigger factors, including dietary factors. PMID:12657413

  16. [Mnemonic complaints and chronic migraine].

    PubMed

    Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viloria-Alebesque, A; Morandeira-Rivas, C; Lopez Del Val, L J; Bellosta-Diago, E; Velazquez-Benito, A

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Patients with chronic migraine often report lower cognitive performance, which affects their quality of life. AIMS. To analyse whether the mnemonic capacity of patients with chronic migraine is altered or not. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with chronic migraine evaluated consecutively in our unit, and paired by age (18-60 years) and gender with a control group consisting of cognitively healthy volunteers. The following cognitive instruments were administered: Folstein Minimental State Examination (MMSE), Memory Alteration Test (M@T), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and working memory. RESULTS. A total of 30 patients with chronic migraine were included (mean age: 49.33 ± 10.05 years) paired with a control group of 30 healthy volunteers (mean age: 44.83 ± 10.91 years). The mean elapsed time since onset of the patients with chronic migraine was 4.47 ± 2.74 years. On performing a comparative analysis between the two groups, significant differences were found with overall lower scores in the group of patients with chronic migraine in the MoCA (24.16 versus 29), M@T (43.76 versus 48.8) and working memory tests (17.5 versus 24.26). Performance in the MMSE was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with chronic migraine can have lower cognitive performance regardless of distracting elements, such as pharmacological factors or psychiatric comorbidity, since chronic migraine can be understood as yet another element within the spectrum of chronic pain. PMID:23884868

  17. OnabotulinumtoxinA improves quality of life and reduces impact of chronic migraine over one year of treatment: Pooled results from the PREEMPT randomized clinical trial program

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Noah L; Ailani, Jessica; DeGryse, Ronald E; Gillard, Patrick J; Varon, Sepideh F

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine (CM) is associated with high impact and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods Patients with CM from PREEMPT (Phase 3 REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy) were randomized (1:1) to receive onabotulinumtoxinA or placebo for two 12-week cycles in the double-blind (DB) phase, followed by three 12-week cycles of open-label (OL) onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotulinumtoxinA/onabotulinumtoxinA (O/O) and placebo/onabotulinumtoxinA (P/O) groups, respectively). HRQoL endpoints were assessed over 56 weeks using the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ). HIT-6 score reductions ≥2.3 and ≥5 denoted between-group minimally important difference and within-patient clinically meaningful response, respectively. Results A total of 1236 participants (O/O, n = 607; P/O, n = 629) participated in both phases. The DB phase showed significantly reduced HIT-6 and MSQ for onabotulinumtoxinA versus placebo (all p < 0.001). The OL phase showed significantly reduced HIT-6 for O/O versus P/O at weeks 28, 36, and 48, but not 56. All three MSQ domains showed improved HRQoL relative to baseline, but only the role restrictive domain showed a significant difference between O/O and P/O at week 56. Conclusions Benefits of onabotulinumtoxinA on HRQoL versus baseline persisted throughout the OL phase. Statistical superiority in favor of O/O was demonstrated for HIT-6 through 48 weeks and for MSQ (role restrictive) at 56 weeks. PMID:27288354

  18. Vasodilator treatment for acute and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, K; Parmley, W W

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the use of vasodilator drugs in the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure has been reviewed. It is apparent that vasodilator treatment can be used effectively in some patients with heart failure with a beneficial haemodynamics response, and that vasodilator agents are likely to find an important place in the management of such patients. Vasodilator treatment may be associated with complications and must be used with care. Though several nonparenteral vasodilator agents have been investigated, no ideal drug is yet available for the treatment of chronic heart failure. Nevertheless, it is probable that suitable drugs will emerge and find an important place in the management of such patients. Images PMID:884021

  19. Treatment of Orbital Complications Following Acute Rhinosinusitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuzhu; Shi, Guanggang; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The orbital complications account for about 80% of all complications secondary to acute rhinosinusitis. If the treatment is not correct and in time, orbital complications could progress rapidly, leading to optic neuritis, cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis or life-threatening intracranial complications. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of conservative therapy for the patients with orbital cellulitis and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) performed on patients with subperiosteal abscess (SPA) secondary to acute rhinosinusitis in children. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: The retrospective study included 31 pediatric patients with orbital complications secondary to acute rhinosinusitis. In all cases, intensive treatment was initiated with a combination of oral or intravenous antibiotics, glucocorticoid and gelomyrtol forte after admission. ESS was performed if an improvement in the condition of patients did not occur after 48 hours. However, the patients with orbital SPA, motility disorders of eyeball or decreased vision received ESS immediately within 24 hours. Results: Sixteen patients were cured by conservative therapy and 15 patients by ESS. All of the signs and symptoms disappeared after conservative therapy or ESS. There were no recurrences within the follow-up period of 1 to 8 years. Conclusion: Conservative therapy is an effective method for patients with inflammatory edema and most cases of orbital cellulitis in children. SPA can be cured by ESS. PMID:27606135

  20. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901